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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Vol. 4

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA Cagun and Putumayo Basins

Editor, Fabio Cediel

CAGUN AND PUTUMAYO BASINS

Vol. 4
Gustavo Montenegro
AGENCIA NACIONAL DE HIDROCARBUROS

COLOMBIA

GEOLOGY AND HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL


CAGUN AND PUTUMAYO BASINS
Copyright

UNIVERSITY EAFIT
Departament of Geology
Chairman
Geovany Bedoya Sanmiguel, MSc.
Project Manager
www.eafit.edu.co
Carrera 49 No. 7 sur 50, Avenida Las Vegas
Tel: (57-4) 2619330
Medelln - Colombia
Printed by Impresos El Da
Medelln - Colombia
December 2011

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA


Editor , Fabio Cediel

Geology and Hydrocarbon Potential

CAGUN AND PUTUMAYO BASINS


Gustavo Montenegro

President of the Republic of Colombia


JUAN MANUEL SANTOS CALDERN

Minister of Mines and Energy

MAURICIO CRDENAS SANTAMARIA

AGENCIA NACIONAL DE HIDROCARBUROS

General Director ANH

ORLANDO CABRALES SEGOVIA

Technical Sub-director

CAROLYNNA ARCE HERNNDEZ

Chief Geologist

CLEMENCIA GMEZ GONZLEZ

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA


Geology and Hydrocarbon Potential

CAGUN AND PUTUMAYO BASINS

ACPB, Amag Cauca - Patia


ATB, Atrato
CATB, Catatumbo
CAYB, Cayos
CRB, Cesar - Ranchera
ECB, Eastern Cordillera
GUB, Guajira
LIAB, Llanos
LMB, Lower - Magdalena
MMB, Middle Magdalena
SIB - SJAB, Sin San Jacinto
SJUB, San Juan
TUB, Tumaco
UMB, Upper Magadalena
URB, Urab
VAB, Vaups - Amazonas

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

CPB, Cagun - Putumayo

PETROLEUM GELOGY OF COLOMBIA


Basin by Basin Geology and Hydrocarbon Potential
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Editor, 1Fabio Cediel, Co-Editor, 2Germn Y. Ojeda, Co-Editor, 3Fabio Colmenares


VOL.

TITTLE - BASIN

AUTHOR
Cediel, F., H. Leal-Meja,5-6R.P. Shaw, 6J.C. Melgarejo,
7
P.A. Restrepo-Pace

PAGES

FIGURES

158

68

Sierra, G.M., 1M.I. Marn

51

40

Cediel, F., 8I. Restrepo Correa

51

92

Montenegro, G.

66

70

Pedraza, P.E., 3Y. Ramrez

49

86

Mesa, A.M.

70

86

Sarmiento, L.F.

83

87

Aguilera, R.

142

85

Sarmiento, L.F.

76

136

Arminio, J.F., 12F. Yoris, 12L. Porras, 12E. Garca, 12M.


Diluca

91

150

Sarmiento, L.F.

67

85

Aguilera, R.

80

87

Marn, M.I.,1 G.M.Sierra

32

46

Roncancio, J.H., 3M. Martnez

45

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Kroonenberg, S., 13C.V. Reeves

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4-6

Regional Geology of Colombia

Amag - Cauca - Pata, ACP

Atrato - San Jun Urab, AT-SJU-UR

Cagun - Putumayo, CP

Catatumbo, CAT

Cesar - Ranchera, CR

Eastern Cordillera, EC

Guajira - Cayos, GU-CAY

Eastern Llanos, LLA

10

Lower Magdalena, LM

11

Middle Magdalena, MM

12

Sin - San Jacinto, SI-SJA

13

Tumaco, TU

14

Upper Magdalena, UM

15

Vaups - Amazonas, VA

13

16

Chapter Petroleum Systems (in each


basin)

1
1

9
3

3
10

11
10
12

10

11
1

Mora, C., 14P. Parra, 14D. Sanabria, 14W. Guzmn

14

1 Department of Geology, University EAFIT, Medelln

8 ECOPETROL, Bogot

2 LAEFM Colombia, Ltda., Subsuelo 3D, Bogot

9 Lithoil Ltd., Bogot

3 Geosearch Ltd., Bogot

10 Consultant, Bogot

4 Greenfields Exploration, AngloGold Ashanti Colombia S.A.,

11 RaGeologia E.U.

University of Barcelona

12 Pacific Rubiales Energy, Bogot

5 Exploration Geologist, Medelln

13 Delft University of Technology

6 - MINRESOUR, Faculty of Geology, University of Barcelona

14 Gems Ltda.

7 - Mubadala Oil & Gas Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur

Pag.
13

CONTENTS

17
18
18

1 LOCALIZATION

2
EXPLORATION HISTORY AND PREVIOUS STUDIES
2.1 Putumayo Basin
2.2 The Caguan Basin

21
28
28
39
40
47
47

3
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.1.4
3.1.5

REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND


Tectonic and stratigraphic background
Pre-Aptian Megasequence
Cretaceous Megasequence, Putumayo basin.
Cenozoic Megasequence, Putumayo Basin
Cretaceous Megasequence, Caguan basin
Cenozoic Mega sequence, Caguan basin

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56
56
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57
57
57
57

4
4.1
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4

ANALYSIS OF THE SOURCE ROCK QUALITY


Source rock quality
Sanstones from the Caballos Formation
Sandstones from Villeta Formation
Limestones from Villeta Formation
Source rock quality, Caguan basin
Paleozoic sandstones
Caballos Formation sandstones
Macarena Group Sandstones
Mirador Formation Sandstones

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66
66
66
80

5
5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.2

EXPLORATION POTENTIAL
The Putumayo Basin
Caballos Formation Sandstones
Villeta Formation sandstones
The Caguan basin

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95
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96
96
97

6
6.1
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.1.3
6.1.4
6.1.5
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.2.4
6.2.5
6.2.6

PETROLEUM SYSTEMS
Cagun Sub-basin Petroleum System
Elements and Processes
Event Chart
Source Rock Properties
Petroleum Systems Modeling
Petroleum System Definition
Putumayo Sub-basin Petroleum System
Elements and Processes
Event Chart
Source Rock Properties
Crude Oil Properties
Petroleum Systems Modeling
Petroleum System Definition

REFERENCES
ANNEXES

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure 1.

Figure 2.
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Figure 5.
Figure 6.
Figure 7.

Figure 8.
Figure 9.

Figure 10.

Figure 11.

Figure 12.

Figure 13.
Figure 14.
Figure 15.
Figure 16.

Figure 17.
Figure 18.

Figure 19.

Figure 20.
Figure 21.
Figure 22.
Figure 23.
Figure 24.


Figure 25.

Figure 26.


Figure 27.


Figure 28.

Putumayo Maran and Oriente Geological Province. Putumayo and Caguan Basins constitute the northern boundary of this province.
Modified from Higley 2000.
Stratigraphic columns of Caguas and Putumayo Basins. Taken from ANH 2005.
Type Logs for Wells of Caguas and Putumayo Basins. Taken from ICP 1998 and Colombian Seismic Atlas, 1998.
Interpretation Map at top of Paleozoic, from Bouguer Anomalies Maps. Taken from ANH 2009.
Comparative Chrono-stratigraphic Chart for Oriente, Putumayo, Caguan and Llanos Basin. Modified from ICP 1998 and ANH 2009.
Distribution of Paleocene Units in Caguan Basin. Taken from ICP 1998.
Basement Structural Configuration. The seismic image shows the blocks in Horst and grabens configurations,
which are common in the evolution of both, Putumayo and Caguan Basin.
Bouguer anomalies maps in the Putumayo and Caguan Basins. Taken from ANH 2009.
Structural Maps of Southern Area of Caguan and Putumayo Basins, from Bouguer anomalies Interpretation.
Depocenters are highlighted in blue and in red colors are highlighted the anticline structures. Taken from ANH 2009
Jura - Triassic Units in the Oriente Basin. The Santiago Formation location is highlights in blue in Oriente Basin.
This formation has not been identified in the Putumayo Basin. Taken from Baby et al, 2004.
Jura - Triassic Seismic Configuration in Caguan Basin. The 7U-70 line, is located at the Basin foothills and show the reflector minted against
what is considered as basement. Taken from ICP 1998.
Seismic Configuration of Jura - Triassic Packages in Caguan Basin. In this image could be identify the difference between
the Paleozoic sediments and the wedges of Jurassic Triassic sediment.
Triassic - Jurassic Mega - sequences in the Putumayo Basin. Taken from ECP-GEOTEC-ROBERTSON 1998.
Triassic - Jurassic Mega - sequences in the Foothills of Caguan Basin. Taken from ECP-GEOTEC-ROBERTSON 1998.
Details of the arrangement of the sequences of the Jurassic Triassic. Line Y - 1 - 73, in the western margin of the basin. Taken from ICP 1998.
Angular Unconformities of the Pre Cretaceous Sediment. The upper seismic image corresponds to the composite line PSJ - 96-1810,
87 8, 01, 87 - 8 - EXT.E. The lower image correspond to the seismic of Yuralpa field in Oriente Basin.
These unconformities show tectonism at the end of this sequence. Taken from Colombian Atlas seismic, Geotec, 1998 and Baby et al 2004.
Distribution of Cretaceous Sequences in Southern Colombia and Northern Ecuador. Taken from Mora, Mantilla and De Freitas 2009.
Schematic diagram of the Tectonic Features for Back Arck configuration, developed during Cretaceous in Putumayo and Caguan basin.
Taken from Repsol YPF, 2005.
Stratigraphic Cycles Comparison identified in the Oriente, Putumayo and Lower Magdalena Valley Basin.
Modified from Mora, Mantilla and De Freitas 2009.
Schematic Diagram for the Structural Configuration in the Putumayo Basin. Modified from Rossero et.al. 2006.
Model for the Cenozoic deposition process associated with tectonic events and sediment load. Taken from Londoo and Lorenzo 2010.
Distribution of Cretaceous sequences in the Caguan Basin. Taken from ICP 1998.
Scheme of Tectonic - Stratigraphic Evolution of Caguan Basin. Taken from ICP 1998.
Surface Geology Map in the Caguan Basin. In the upper left corner shows the location of this mapping, south of the city of Florence in Caquet.
The orange bands represent the distribution of Neme formation, (Upper Cretaceous), arranged on the Garzon Complex rocks (purple color).
Modified from ANH, 2009.
Structural Map in Time at Top of Mirador Formation in Caguan Basin.
The distributions of the sediments are influenced by the position of Florence Paleo-high.
Porosity distribution Taken From Core Data in ACAE 10 and ACAE 11 - 11, wells in Caballos Formation.
The figure shows the histogram and statistics of porosity intervals in cores from wells in the Field ACAE. Data taken from Ruiz,
H (1994) and displayed in the Interactive Petrophysics software.
Permeability Distribution Taken From Cores in ACAE - 10 and ACAE 11 wells, Caballos Formation.
The figure shows the histogram and statistics of permeability in the intervals cores from wells in the Field ACAE. Data taken from Ruiz,
H (1994) and displayed in the Interactive Petrophysics software.
Density - Neutron Graphics, ACAE Field, Caballos Formation.
The figure shows that the main sandstones of the Caballos formation (less than 60 UAPI GR) have a total porosity between 12 and 20%.
Data taken from Ruiz, H (1994) and displayed in the Interactive Petrophysics software.

Figure 29.

Figure 30.

Figure 31.
Figure 32.
Figure 33.
Figure 34.
Figure 35.
Figure 36.
Figure 37.
Figure 38.
Figure 39.
Figure 40.
Figure 41.
Figure 42.
Figure 43.
Figure 44.
Figure 45.
Figure 46.
Figure 47.
Figure 48.
Figure 49.
Figure 50.
Figure 51.
Figure 52.
Figure 53.
Figure 54.
Figure 55.

Figure 56.
Figure 57.
Figure 58.
Figure 59.
Figure 60.
Figure 61.
Figure 62.
Figure 63.
Figure 64.
Figure 65.
Figura 66.
Figure 67.
Figure 68.
Figure 69.
Figure 70.

Lithology Graphic, Villeta Formation. The figure shows the distribution of major lithologies that make up the Formation as well as the total
porosity of the various sand intervals identified as reservoir rock in the basin. Data provided by ANH and displayed in Interactive Petrophysics software.
Porosity Resistivity - Porosity Neutron Graphics in Villeta Formation. The figure shows the prevalence of fracture porosity
(porosity resistivity greater than neutron porosity) at intervals of calcareous affinity (log density increased to 2.6 RhoB gm / cc).
Well data provided by the ANH and displayed in Interactive Petrophysics software.
Reserves by fields in Putumayo and Caguan Basin. The table lists the reserves reported in each field until 2002.
Events Chart for Putumayo Basin. The red line represents the history of burial.
Net Sand Distribution Map for Caballos Formation.
Resistivity Distribution Map for Caballos Formation.
Porosity Distribution Map for Caballos Formation.
Net Sand Distribution Map for T Sandstones in Putumayo Basin.
Resistivity Distribution Map in T Sandstone Unit, Villeta Formation.
Porosity Distribution Map in T Sandstone Unit, Villeta Formation.
Net Sand Distribution Map for U Sandstone in Putumayo Basin.
Resistivity Distribution Map in U Sandstone Unit, Villeta Formation.
Porosity Distribution Map in U Sandstone Unit, Villeta Formation.
Modern Environment Analogous for interpreted environments in T and U Units for Villeta Formation.
Line Y - 9N, Caguan Basin. The Paleozoic sediments are deformed during the Eocene, as a result of Garzn Massif orogenic pulse.
Event Chart for the Hypothetical Petroleum Systems in Caguan Basin.
Location of seeps and geochemical data of the Cagun Sub-basin
Event chart of the hypothetical petroleum systems at the Sub-basin.
Modified Van Krevelen Chart. Values indicate type III and IV kerogen.
The Maximum Temperature (Tmax) vs. Hydrogen Index (HI) chart, illustrates that most samples range between immature to the start of the generation window.
TOC vs. Generation Potential (S1 + S2) chart. Some values indicate good potential for hydrocarbon generation.
Summary chart of source rock properties. The Macarena group contains intervals favorable as source rock.
Location profile of the pseudo-well on the Y-1973-08 seismic line.
The maximum burial curve occurred during the Pleistocene.
% Ro profile over time. The assessed sequence was not mature enough to reach the oil generation window.
No expulsion processes are present within the area.
Petroleum system map, showing the depocenter at the top of the basement (on top of which the generation kitchen would be located,
on the northernmost part of the Sub-basin), reported seeps and the hypothetical influence area of the system.
Location of wells, fields, seeps and geochemical data of the Putumayo Sub-basin.
Event chart of the hypothetical petroleum systems of the Putumayo Sub-basin. The red line indicates the burial curve.
Modified Van Krevelen chart. The organic matter quality is very good to excellent, prone to generate liquid hydrocarbons.
Tmax vs Hydrogen Index (HI)chart. Much of the tested sequence has reached levels of maturity within the oil generation window.
TOC vs generator Potential (S1 + S2) chart, the Cretaceous sequence shows very good to excellent values.
Summary chart of source rock properties. The Villeta Formation features the best characteristics as source rock.
API gravity Vs % sulfur chart, crude oils are mostly normal.
Ternary SARA fraction chart. Lighter fractions predominate on most crude oils,.
Pristane/Phytane Vs Gammacerano Index chart, grouping the 4 identified crude oil families at the Sub-basin.
Saturated C13 Vs Aromatic C13.
Pseudo-well profile location located on seismic line PWD-1990-1245.
Maximum burial curve occurred during the late Miocene.
% Ro over time profile. The evaluated sequence reached the oil and dry gas generation window.
Subsidence and expulsion curves history chart. The expulsion process for the Villeta and Caballos formations was reached during the Miocene.
Map of petroleum systems, showing the depocenter at the top of the basement, as well as reported seeps and the hypothetical area of influence of the system.

TABLE LIST
Table 1. summarizes the main crude oil characteristics.

ANNEXES
Annex 1: oil and gas fields
Annex 2: Oil and gas production

1. LOCALIZATION

1 - LOCALIZATION

Elements which define a sedimentary basin are related to tectonic


characteristics acting during its origin, sediment type and source, and the
environment in which sedimentation occurred. In this sense, it is important
to stress that geological characteristics identified in the Caguan and
Putumayo areas are different enough that they deserve to be considered
as two different basins.
The Putumayo basin is a portion of a large geologic province formed by the
Maraon Basin in Peru, Oriente Basin in Ecuador and Putumayo Basin in Colombia
(Higley, 2009), the latter being the northernmost of the province. (Fig 1)
The Putumayo basin has a triangular shape and its limits are formed
by the Oriental Cordillera on the east, the Garzon massif on the northwest,
the Florencia arc on the east. On the south lies the Oriente basin, without
any identified geological limit between both.
The Caguan Basin lies immediately north of the Putumayo basin and
its limits are defined by the Garzon Massif on the north, the Macarena sierra
on the north and north-east, the Florencia high on the south. Eastward
its extention may be limited by a high, identified in the magnetometric
map as the Yari alto (ICP, 1998) or by its sediments pinching against the
Guayana shield crystalline rocks.

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

Figure 1. Putumayo Maran and Oriente Geological Province.. Putumayo and Caguan Basins constitute the northern boundary of this province. Modified from Higley 2000.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

15

2. EXPLORATION HISTORY
AND PREVIOUS STUDIES

CHAPTER 2 - EXPLORATION HISTORY AND PREVIOUS STUDIES

2.1 Putumayo Basin

municipality and described all the geological units present in this area.

First exploration activities were carried out by the Anglo Saxon Petroleum
company (V. Oppenheim) in 1937. Later the Texas Petroleum Company, from
1941 and 1949, performed another exploration campaign which resulted in
the drilling of 4 wells with results considered as poor. Only in 1963 Texaco was
successful in drilling well Orito-1 in an anticline and discovering the oil field
which bears its name, with an initial production of 1411 BPPD of API 37 oil.

Cordoba et al. (1997) evaluated the Putumayo Basin and proposed


oil bearing units in an Ecopetrol internal report.

Since this discovery, Texaco has developed an intense drilling activity


in surrounding areas, with 62 exploratory wells until 1972, some of which
resulted in the discovery of minor fields, like Loro, Sucumbios, Churuyaco,
Sucio, Caribe, Caiman, San Miguel, Temblon y Hormiga.
When the operation of association contract started, the Cayman
Corporation began exploration in 1973 in the stable platform area, drilling
13 wells and obtaining commercial production in stratigraphic type traps in
the Nancy, Bourdine and Maxine fields.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Aguilera (2001) proposed a 1D geochemical model obtained through


Petromod software in order to define the origin and the migration of
hydrocarbons in this basin.
Posada et al. (2001) established that the compositional differences
between crude oils from Pepino and Caballos Formations were caused by
their origin in different sources and different degrees in thermal maturity.
INGEOMINAS (2003) published reconnaissance maps of sheets 411
(La Cruz), 412 (San Juan de Villalobos), 430 (Mocoa), 431 (Piamonte), 448
(Monopamba), 449 (Orito) and 465 (Churuyaco) in the departments of
Caqueta, Cauca, Huila, Nario and Putumauo, at 1:100 000 scale with memoirs.

Grosse (1935) and Royo & Gomez (1942) studied the Precambrian outcrops
of the area. Alvarez (1981), Alvarez and Linares (1985) and Priem et al. (1989)
carried out radiometric dating which enabled the knowledge of tectonic-thermal
events as Parguaza, Nickeriano and Carniano, between 1600 and 945 My.

2.2 The Caguan Basin

Caceres and Teatin (1985) presented a detailed geological report of the


area, describing stratigraphic and structural aspects, traps and reservoirs and
including data on the exploration programs carried on in the area by Ecopetrol.

18

Mora et al. (1998) published a formal definition of the stratigraphic


nomenclature for the northern part of the Putumayo basin.

Since the 1930s decade, when exploration activities started in


the Putumayo Basin, necessity and interest exist for a better geological
knowledge and for the definition of its oil bearing potential. This was
carried out by several authors through detailed geological studies:

Radelli (1962) studied the petrography of the rocks of the GuadalupeFlorencia area and Kroonenberg (1980 and 1982a) described calcosilicate
rocks and granulites from the Algeciras-Acevedo area.

Urueta and Du Toit (1997) presented a study on hydrocarbon


prospection in the Putumayo basin piedmont.

Wiel (1990) and Dietrix and Gomez (1991) improved the cartography
of the northwestern part of the basin.
Rodriguez (1995) described microtextures present in the Garzon
Massif rocks and the El Retiro anatexic granite.
Tegelaar et al. (1995) carried out a geological and geochemical
reconnaissance of the Garzon Massif.
Velandia and Rodriguez studied the surroundings of the Garzon

The Caguan Basin exploration started in the 1940 decade when the Shell
Petroleum Company of Colombia, attracted by the presence of oil seepages, started
an ambitious field campaign along the cordillera Oriental piedmont and the Macarena
sierra. Results were presented as internal reports. Most of the results of the activities
are still unknown and only some maps are now in Ecopetrol Document Center in
Bogota. Several companies were involved in the exploration activity, as Shell, Texaco,
Petrocol (later Petroleos Colombo-Brasileros) and Occidental, among others.
During the first exploration activities, information was obtained by
surface geology, gravimetry, magnetometry and some 2D seismic lines. As a
result of this exploration, about 30 wells were drilled, mainly during the 1970
decade. From these wells Payara-1, Piraa-1, Uribe-1 and Losada-1 showed
hydrocarbon samples which were not considered commercial at that time.
A large part of this basin has been declared as a natural reservation by
the national government, as for instance the natural park of the Macarena
sierra and the natural park of the Chiribiquete ridge. For this reason it has
not been possible to obtain information from this part of the basin.
Until now about 59 wells have been drilled (ANH, 2011), and 500
MBbs have been reported as recoverable in structures which reach depths

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

This discovery has triggered the interest of companies such as Canacol,


Hupecol, Monterrico and Emerald itself, which have intensified the acquisition
of seismic information and are at present developing an aggressive drilling plan.
As for the Putumayo Basin, several studies have been produced
which attempt to define geological characteristics and possible oil bearing
systems. Some of them are as follows:
SHELL (1945). Geologa de superficie, columnas estratigrficas, cortes
estructurales y estratigrficos y mapa geolgico en el sector Rio Manzoa (Sur
de Beln de los Andaquies), Escarpe de los Altares (San Vicente del Cagun)
SHELL (1948). Columnas estratigrficas en los ros del rea, mapa de
afloramientos, Oil sepes, en el rea de la Macarena y Uribe
SHELL (1946-1956). Geologa de superficie, columnas estratigrficas,
oil sepes en cercana a los Ros Guayabero y Losada.

Paba F, Van der Hamen T (1959). Servicio Geolgico Nacional, Mapa geolgico,
estratigrafa, datacin, geologa econmica en el sector sur de la Macarena.
TEXACO., (1974). Levantamiento geolgico de superficie y columnas
estratigrficas de los ros Cagun, Duda y Piedemonte de Florencia.
Bridger, C., (1982). Geologa de superficie, columnas estratigrficas,
con nfasis en el Paleozoico inferior hacia el sector de la cuchilla El Tablazo
(ro Duda). U. Nacional de Colombia.
Lamilla y Moreno (1986). Estratigrafa y sedimentologa del Cretceo
superior, columnas estratigrficas, mapa geolgico en el sector Cuchilla El
Tablazo (NW Serrana de la Macarena).
Olaya, I., Reyes, A.; Chajid E., (1999). Anlisis de la Cuenca YariCagun. Ecopetrol- Instituto Colombiano del Petrleo Colombia, Ingepet.
From the information collected during the exploration history of the basin
using field campaigns, seismic studies and remote sensing, the authors
carry out an estimation of oil bearing systems of the basin.

19
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

down to 6000 feet. Latest reported success in the basin is Capella-1 well
drilling, carried out by the Emerald company in 2008 which produced
10.5API oil, with reserves estimated initially in 2259 MBbs (Canacol-ANH).

3. REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL
BACKGROUND

CHAPTER 3 - REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND

With an area of approximately 110 000 km2, the Caguan and


Putumayo basins are part of the sub-Andean sedimentary basin system
which stretches from Colombia to Argentina. Registered geological
processes evidence poly-historial basins, which include from passive
margins to foreland basins, dominated by transtensive tectonics at the
beginning and having suffered several reactivation transpressive processes
during their development.
Stratigraphic columns defined for each one of the basins (fig. 2)
and type wells (fig. 3) evidence the lithological differences which confom
each basin, with conspicuous Cretaceous units with platform environment
characteristics for the Putumayo Basin. Meanwhile the Caguan basin shows
siliciclastic sequences from continental and transitional environments.
The Garzon Massif and the Florencia paleohigh are two structural
elements present along the entire development of this basin (fig.4); the
localization of the latter is mainly evidenced by interpretation of the
Bouguer anomaly map, as no surface evidence exists.
Chronostratigraphic table of the basins (fig.5) signals the position
of the Florencia palohigh and the stratigraphic relation on both flanks.
According to ICP (1998), this paleohigh constituted the southernmost limit
of the Caguan Basin even since Paleozoic, as deducted from the distribution
map of this unit (fig. 6), prepared from well and seismic information.

22
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

Figure 2. Stratigraphic columns of Caguas


and Putumayo Basins. Taken from ANH 2005.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

23

CHAPTER 3 - REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND

24
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 3. Type Logs for Wells of Caguas and Putumayo Basins. Taken from ICP 1998 and Colombian Seismic Atlas, 1998.

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

Figure 4. Interpretation Map at top of Paleozoic, from Bouguer Anomalies Maps. Taken from ANH 2009.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

25

CHAPTER 3 - REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND

26
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 5. Comparative Chrono-stratigraphic Chart for Oriente, Putumayo, Caguan and Llanos Basin. Modified from ICP 1998 and ANH 2009.

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

Figure 6. Distribution of Paleocene Units in Caguan Basin. Taken from ICP 1998.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

27

CHAPTER 3 - REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND

3.1 Tectonic and stratigraphic background


Putumayo and Caguan basins present different stages of tectonic
development, from crust thermal thinning during its initial stages to
subsidence mechanisms due to compressive tectonics. These activities are
necessarily reflected in the stratigraphic record, and tree megasequences
are differenciated: Pre-Aptian, Cretaceous and Cenozoic.
3.1.1 Pre-Aptian Megasequence
The Pre-Aptian megasequence has recently deserved much attention,
because the possibilities exist to find there an oil bearing system not defined
until now, but which has been suggested in the neightbouring Oriente (Baby
et al., 2004; Higley, 2001) and Maraon (Wine et al., 2002) basins.
This sequence is composed of sediments underlain by igneous and
metamorphic rocks; they fill a Pre-Cambrian block system of the graben and
horst type, which exists both in the Putumayo an the Oriente (Ecuador) basins.
Faults are north south and form production trends (Fig 7). In these
basins the oldest rocks are identified in outcrops in the Garzon Massif, with
Proterozoic ages (Rodriguez et al., 2003).
Five cycles are grouped in this sequence, separated by large
unconformity; cycles are described as follows:
Lower Cambrian cycle
Developed in a passive tectonic environment on a continental border
corresponding to the Guyana craton, this cycle is conformed by rocks from
Ariari Formation, of which sediments are signals in outcrops of Caguan
Basin. There, 500 m thick limestone packages are described, with local
presence of stromatolites and dolomites deposited in front of reef to reef
lagoon environments (ICP, 1997).
Ordovician-Siluriam cycle

28
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

South of Uribe-1 well, in Payara-1 well, sediments from these units


are found; there they define neritic marine environments with presence of
sandy strata and calcareous and muddy intervals.
The Macarena ridge sector, rocks dated as Tremadocian are reported
(Rushton, 1072) consisting of lutites alternating with limestones. It is
possible that sediments of this period correspond to those described for
the Pumbiza Formation in the Oriente basin in Ecuador, which show some
degree of metamorfism (Goldschmid, 1941).
At the end of this cycle, during Devonian, a first deformation period
is reported; it composes a folded belt with the development of a foreland
basin associated with the Hercynian orogeny (Hermoza et al., 2009).
Carbonian-Permian cycle
During this cycle occurred the development of an extensive continental
rift system (Hermoza et al., 2009) which originated the north-sou
thhorstsandgrabenssystem.ThistectonicactivitywentonduringTriassicandMiddle
Jurassic and has been evidenced both in the Putumayo and in the Upper Magdalena basins.
In the Putumayo Basin, the Mitu Group, bears possibly relation with
Macuma Formation (Fig. 5) defined in the Oriente basin; this formation
consists of thick bioclastic limestone packages with lutite and occasionally
glauconitic intercalations.
The structural configuration generated during this cycle still retains
its main features, which are evident in the Bouger anomaly maps, ANH
2009, Figure 8. In thess maps, depocenters appear to occur north and
south of the Florencia High. Furthermore, these maps allow to interpret the
basement, as shown in Figure 9, which depicts the arrangement of Horst
and Graben blocks, and the marginal zones west of the basins affected by
late orogenic tectonic processes.
Triassic-Lower Jurassic cycle

Guape Formation. This formation is identified in the Cajuan basin


outcrops where 1250 m thick packages are signaled near the Guape
river canyon; They consist of schists, diabases and quartzites, and lay
concordantly on the Ariari Formation.

This cycle represents a very important unit in the entire geological


province (Maraon-Oriente-Putumayo-Caguan) because the presence of
sediments rich in organic matter covered by volcano-sedimentary rock
sequences indicate a good potential to generate hydrocarbons.

Duda Formation. It was described as calcareous sandstones and mudstones of


turbiditic origin, with thicknesses form 200 to 300m, signaled in the Calime hills (ICP, 1997).

The Santiago formation is described in the Oriente basin; it was


named by Gold schmidt in 1941 from outcrop in the Cutucu Cordillera. It
is correlated with Sache Formation in the north of the Oriente Basin (Fig.
10), while in Colombia rocks of this age are mentioned in the south-center
zone of Putumayo, without any more details (ANH, 2009).

Guejar Group. It consists of white quartzic sandstones intercalated with grey


lutite packages and some proportion of calcareous rocks and locally marbles.

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

However, Seismic information shows thick sequence packages of this


age filling the graben (Fig. 11 and 12).
Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous
Disposition and variation of the sediments described for the rocks of
this age take place under the continuation of a distensive tectonic regime
(Etayo, 1983, 1987; Pindell, 1985; Cooper, 1995; Fig 13 and 14).
Jurassic rocks are reported in the neighbouring Upper Magdalena
Valley and Oriental Cordillera, consisting of red beds and vulcanites (Luisa,
Saldaa and, Giron Formations) with some marine inclusions (Payand
Formations for the Oriente Basin).
The Saldaa Formation, defined by Grosse in 1930, is described in
the Putumayo sector as a greenish and porphyritic groups/of rocks (Royo
y Gomez, 1942). Later on, Cucalon and Camacho (1966) introduced the
name of Motema to extend the description of the arkosic sanstones
intercalated with red clays and vulcanites, which stretch from the upper
Middle Magdalena basin to northern Ecuador.

The intrusive activity signaled in the Caguan Basin for this age has its
equivalent in the Putumayo Basin (Mocoa monzogranite) and in the upper
Magdalena (Payande stocks) and is part of a magmatic arc which stretches
from northern Peru to northern Colombia (Romeuf et al., 1995), which is
associated to the tectonic activity from Middle Jurassic, with the presence
of batholiths dated 1712.1 My.
In Caguan, thick packages of the same unit are present (Fig. 15) in direct
contact with Tertiary units, demonstrating differential subsidence levels with
respect to the Putumayo basin, where later thick Cretaceous sequence areas
are much better preserved (Goetec, 1972; Lamilla, 1985; ICP, 1998).
Seismic information from the Putumayo and Oriente basins shows
angular uncorformities at the top of this cycle (Fig. 16), a fact that is
interpreted as a change in the dynamic trend, shifting from rifting period to
the first pulses of Andean subduction (Jaramillo & Escobar, 1980; Bayona
et al., 1994) As a result of these changes, a large part of the sequences may
have been exposed and eroded before the deposition of the Cretaceous
sequence.
A description of the Cretaceous and lated Cenozoic sequences is
given in a separated way for the Putumayo and Caguan basins, due to the
previously mentioned differences.

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

In the Caguan Basin, Ingeominas (2002) identifies rocks which


correspond to Lower Jurassic in the northwestern part of the Caqueta
department, but consisting mainly of conglomerates, vitreous and
crystalline tuffs, sandstone and reddish mudstone layer with the presence
of some granitic and monzono granitic intrusives. This lithology is described
as basement in Acae, Loro and Hormiga wells, and it is interpreted as
formed in a fluvial depositional environment with a large volcanic supply.

CHAPTER 3 - REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND

30
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 7. Basement Structural Configuration. The seismic image shows the blocks in Horst and grabens configurations, which are common in the evolution of both,
Putumayo and Caguan Basin.

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

Figure 8. Bouguer
anomalies maps in
the Putumayo and
Caguan Basins.
Taken from ANH 2009.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

31

CHAPTER 3 - REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND

32
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 9. Structural Maps of Southern Area of Caguan and Putumayo Basins, from Bouguer anomalies Interpretation.
Depocenters are highlighted in blue and in red colors are highlighted the anticline structures. Taken from ANH 2009.

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

33
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 10. Jura - Triassic Units in the Oriente Basin. The Santiago Formation location is highlights in blue in Oriente Basin. This formation has not been
identified in the Putumayo Basin. Taken from Baby et al, 2004.

CHAPTER 3 - REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND

34
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 11. Jura - Triassic Seismic Configuration in Caguan Basin. The 7U-70 line, is located at the Basin foothills and show the reflector minted against what is
considered as basement. Taken from ICP 1998.

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

35
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 12. Seismic Configuration of Jura - Triassic Packages in Caguan Basin. In this image could be identify the difference between the Paleozoic sediments and the
wedges of Jurassic Triassic sediment.

CHAPTER 3 - REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND

36
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 13. Triassic - Jurassic Mega - sequences in the Putumayo Basin. Taken from
ECP-GEOTEC-ROBERTSON 1998.

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

Figure 14. Triassic - Jurassic Mega - sequences in the Foothills of Caguan Basin. Taken from ECP-GEOTEC-ROBERTSON 1998.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

37

CHAPTER 3 - REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND

Figure 15. Details of the arrangement of the sequences of the Jurassic Triassic. Line Y - 1 - 73, in the western margin of the basin. Taken from ICP 1998.

38
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 16. Angular Unconformities of the Pre Cretaceous Sediment. The upper seismic image corresponds to the composite line PSJ - 961810, 87 8, 01, 87 - 8 - EXT.E. The lower image correspond to the seismic of Yuralpa field in Oriente Basin. These unconformities
show tectonism at the end of this sequence. Taken from Colombian Atlas seismic, Geotec, 1998 and Baby et al 2004.

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

Upper Albian-Middle Cenomanian

The distribution of Cretaceous sequences in these basins has been analyzed


by several authors. A noticeable recent regional analysis by Mora et al. (2010)
includes information from the Oriente and Upper Magdalena Valley basin (Fig. 17).

It correspond to the basal rocks from Villeta Formation, first signaled


in the basin by Milley & McGirk (1948), where units called T sandstones, B
limestones and clays which overlay these limestones have developed.

The Putumayo basin contains Cretaceous rocks with ages which vary
from Aptian to Maastrichian, with the presence of Caballos and Villeta
Formations, where sudden sea level variations are predominant. The presence
of progradation in the sedimentary facies which shift rapidly from fluvial and
beach clastic to mixed platform facies correspond to forced regression events,
as expressed by Posamentier et al, (1992). These formations register the first
uplift pulses of the Central Cordillera west of the basin (Fig. 18).

T sandstones corresponds to sediments deposited at the beginning


of a transgressive event which occurred after a base level fall (98My, Hacq
et al., 1987); they consist of an intercalation of medium size to very thick
tabular strata of quarzarenites, massive, with variable texture (Ingeominas,
2003), deposited in a fluvial system environment with estuarian and or
tidal influence.

For the Putumayo Basin, the Cretaceous stratigraphic record may be


divided in 5 sequences:
. Upper Aptian- Albaniam
. Upper Albian-Middle Cenomanian
. Cenomanian- Turonian
. Turonian-Campanian
. Campanian-Maastrichian
These sequences begin with basal sandy bodies, overlain by limestones
or shales, which indicate the deepening processes and may be compared with
sequences identified in the Oriente and Upper Magdalena Valley basin (Fig. 19.).
Upper Aptian-Albian
Caballos Formation (in Ecuador, Hollin Formation). Initially described
by Grosse (1935) in the Caqueta river upper watershed; later on Miley &
McGirk (1948) introduced the term Caballos to describe similar rocks in
Ortega, upper Magdalena Valley.
A typical sequence of this formation presents in the base a fluvial
system which fills the valley left by an erosion surface developed on Jurassic
rocks. From the lithologic standpoint, it is described as a downward fining
sequence of clean quartzarenites, stratified in medium to thick layers,
including conglomerates; in these layers thin interlaminar bituminous coal
seams and carbonaceous clay stones are frequent (Ingeominas, 2001).
Their thickness varies from 100 to 150 meters approximately.
Above this continental sequence are deposited high energy sands related
to wave dominated deltaic environments, which grade toward sands deposited
in estuarian environments, dominated by tides (Amaya & Centanaro, 1997).

Above these sandtones are B limestones, deposited in a shallow


marine platform; their coarser facies consist of grainstone, packstone,
packstone/wackstone with presence of bivalves, ostreids and in minor
proportion of gasteropods and echinoderms, shell fragments generally
recrystallized, composing a transgressive deposit system (TDS) whose
cycle terminates with clay deposition intercalated with limestones and
some sandstones from proximal platform environments.
Cenomanian-Turonian
A new transgressive cycle begins with U sands deposits, after a rapid
base level fall (94 My, Hacq et al., 1987) composing an estuarian channel
systems with tidal influence. These sands reach a large areal distribution,
which make them an oil producing unit of great interest and productivity
in the basin.
Overlying these sands were deposited calcareous sequences called
limestones and later a muddy sequence corresponding to a proximal
environment facies and indicating the end of the transgressive event and
the stage toward a high level prism (HLP).
Turonian-Campanian
The base of this cycle corresponds to M2 sands, which form packages
of variable thickness which are overlain by M Limestones and then another
clayey package. It is possible that this sequence conforms a condensed
section westwards, toward the present piedmont.
Campanian-Maastrichian
This cycle is formed in this base by M1 Sands, consisting of channel
like deposits, from esturian transitional environments or deltaic systems
deposited at the beginning of the transgressive event.

39
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

3.1.2 Cretaceous Megasequence, Putumayo basin.

CHAPTER 3 - REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND

Eastward muddy packages were developed as medium to external


platform deposits with occasional storm deposits which would correspond
to calcareous facies of the previous sequences.

Paleocene sequence

Above these sands, in the central and eastern parts of the basin are
the N sands (Lower tene in the Oriente Basin) conforming a prograding
system with development of tidal channel facies.

Oligocene-Lower Miocene sequence

It must be mentioned that at the end of the deposition of Villeta


Formation, during Maastrichian, several tectonic pulses related to the
Andean orogeny occured. This feature seem to have influenced the
direction and the distribution of sediments of these late sequences. N
sands correspond to an important exploratory objective in the basin, with
excellent results in fields where they have been found.

Paleocene sequence

3.1.3 Cenozoic Megasequence, Putumayo Basin


This sequence is controlled by orogenic processes consolidation
and influences both the Putumayo and the Caguan basins. At least two
exhumations are identified during Cenozoic, during Eocene and during
Miocene, associated with central cordillera uplift; they produced a flexure
in the cratonic plate and permitted accumulations of Pepino and Orito
Formations toward the basin center.
Miocene tectonic pulses produced small strike faults in the interior
of the basin, with preferential direction SW-NE (Fig. 20). These faults cut
the main structures with direction N-S, separating blocks which generate
structural compartments in some fields.
Within the Cenozoic sequence several unconformable levels occur
and have clearly identified seismic information (Fig. 21). According to
Londoo & Lorenzo (2010), they have two possible origins: they may be
due to sediment buryng and compactions as the result of litospheric
flexure, or to tectonic processes which control the base level with respect
to fluvial deposit sedimentary cycles.

40
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

In figure 21 unconformities can be observed (disposed in a


paraconformable way) and wedges possibly developed by tectonic
transport eastward are shown in blue color. From the analyses carried out
by these authors, it is estimated that 80% of these unconformities are the
result of tectonic load, associated with thrusting of the Eastern Cordillera
over the basin.
The sediment distribution of this megasequence and their origin are
controlled by the uplift size and the distance to the emerged areas, mainly
developed under continental environments. The following are the four
sequences identified in the basin:

Eocene sequence

Pliocene-Quaternary sequence

This sequence corresponds to Rumiyaco Formation (in Ecuador Tena


Formation), named originally by Miller & McGirk (1948) and composed of sandy
levels intercalated with thin conglomeratic levels. This formation has been reported
in Mandur-2, Rio Pescado-2, Montanita-1, La Turbia-1 and Aeropuerto-1 wells.
In outcrops located in the northwest parts of the basin, Ingeominas
(2003) and UPTC (2008) found packages of claystones, red siltstones with
some sandy levels deposited on the basal sands. Toward the center of the
basin, intercalated layers of clayey sands and silty sands are present. In
terms of sequential stratigraphy, this interval corresponds to a transgressive
cycle which results from a reactivation of the Florencia paleohigh uplift at
the end of Cretaceous (Ingeominas, 2003).
Eocene sequence
This sequence is formed by rocks developed in continental
environments which became thinner eastward; it consists of Pepino
Formation, initially defined by Miley & McGirk (1943) with thicknesses
which reach 600 feet approximately in the area comprised between
Payara I and Losada-I wells. Ingeominas (2003) proposes 3 members for
this formation:
Lower member: consisting of massive conglomerates, coarse
to medium, with abundant lithics large scale trough cross stratification,
medium sized sandy lenses, locally clayey matrix.
Middle Member: consisting of clays and silts intercalations with
some sandstone levels, red color, massive, with siliceous cement at the
top. Brittle sandstones, red; scarce conglomerates.
Upper Member: alternate massive levels of conglomerates,
sandstones, claystone and siltstones; siltstones are red to brown and
conglomerates are black with silty-clayey matrix.

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

Oligocene-Lower Miocene sequence


This sequence is formed by Orito Group, plus Orteguaza and OritoBelen Formations, as defined by Shell Company, also belong to it.
Orteguaza Formation: it was first described by Saville (1943, in
Milney and McGirk, 1948); it was deposited between two important
tectonic phases which are considered to have produced the major Andes
uplift. It was deposited in a brackish restricted environment and consists of
an intercalation of claystones, grey siltstones, fine grained and ferruginous
sandstones and thin carbonaceous layers. It presents abundant lignite
intercalations. Its thickness decreases westward and it is absent from the
(of the basin northeastern part).

Pliocene-Quaternary.Sequence
After the Eastern Cordillera uplift, the Putumayo and Caguan Basins
received sediments derived from it known as Caiman-Guamves Formation
in Putumayo. These units are composed of alterning sands, clays and some
thin conglomerate levels which generally show a high red colored cuff
content (Geotec, 1972).
Alluvial continental deposits (alluvial fans) with outcrop thicknesses
up to 200m are signaled near the La Mona y Conejo Anticline (Total, 1995).
These deposits have been slightly uplifted and dissected, forming terraces.

Orito-Belen Formation appears in outcrops located in the basin as


packages of thin to thick mudstones, silftone and sandy silftstone strata,
intercalated with thick packages of immature lithoarenites showing ripples
and through lamination, in some places conglomerate with abundant
organic matter, gypsum and coal sheets (Ingeominas, 2003).

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

41

CHAPTER 3 - REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND

42
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 17. Distribution of Cretaceous


Sequences in Southern Colombia and
Northern Ecuador. Taken from Mora,
Mantilla and De Freitas 2009.

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

Figure 18. Schematic diagram of the Tectonic Features for Back Arck configuration, developed
during Cretaceous in Putumayo and Caguan basin. Taken from Repsol YPF, 2005.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

43

CHAPTER 3 - REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND

Figure 19. Stratigraphic Cycles Comparison identified in the Oriente, Putumayo and Lower Magdalena
Valley Basin. Modified from Mora, Mantilla and De Freitas 2009.

44
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

Figure 20. BSchematic Diagram for the Structural Configuration in the Putumayo Basin. Modified from Rossero et.al. 2006.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

45

CHAPTER 3 - REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND

46
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 21. Model for the Cenozoic deposition process associated with tectonic events and
sediment load. Taken from Londoo and Lorenzo 2010.

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

3.1.4 Cretaceous Megasequence, Caguan basin

Fig. 23 presents the evolution model for the Caguan basin, where it is
assumed that the Macarena sierra corresponds to a topographic high through
the history and that it is separating this basin from the Eastern Llanos Basin.
Structurally speaking, high angle faults occur and affect the basement
(Fig. 11 and 12) with displacements which reach milliseconds (ICP, 1998).
Among the Cretaceous sequence, the Caballos Formation is described
as a conglomeratic sequences intercalated with fine grained sand and muddy
levels, from coastal alluvial plain environments (ECOPETROL ICP, 1997).
This basal sequence is overlain by quartzitic sandstone levels, immature
from textural and compositional points of view, with claystone intercalation
and carbonatic levels developed in alluvial to coastal plain environments.
Upper sequences, which in the Putumayo Basin correspond to the
Villeta Formation, are here substituted by Macarena Formation (ICP, 1998),
which is divided in ti two members:
Lower Macarena: intercalation of yellow is quartzic, very fine to
fine grained sandstone levels with angular to subangular clasts, locally
conglomeratic; fissil dark grey to black claystone levels, occasional coal
levels; these members are interpreted as alluvial coastal plain deposits.
Upper Macarena: quartzic sandstones, yellowish with angular and
subangular clasts, with medium to poor selection, carbonaceous fragments
and massive grey claystones; it is interpreted as formed in alluvial to coastal
plain environments (ANH, 2009).
During surface mapping south of Florencia, a sequence called Neme
was identified (Miley & McGirk, 1948) as upper Cretaceous, which would
correspond to the Campanian-Maastrichian Cycle form the Putumayo Basin.
Neme Formation: Its distribution is restricted to the flanks of the Garzon
and Macarena highs (Fig. 24) with outcrops which reach thicknesses of 170 m; it
is composed of medium grained white quartzarenites, locally conglomeratic with
thick tabular layers and presence of lenticular sets with through inclined lamination
locally tuff and light grey colored massive ash levels (UPTC-ANH, 2009).

The presence of hydrocarbon impregnation in the sands of this


formation is the origin of its name. Its upper part presents packages of
mottled, colorful clay-stones and siltstones, from continental environments.
In some areas the Pepino Formation sands lye directly over this unit.
3.1.5 Cenozoic Mega sequence, Caguan basin
The Cenozoic stratigraphic record in this basin shows difference with
respect to the Putumayo Basin; some authors even correlate it with the
Llanos Orientales Basin, which causes nomenclature differences depending
on the location. For instance the basal unit of this sequence is called Pepino
Formation, seeking a correlation with rocks of the Putumayo Basin; on the
other hand, Oligocene units have been called Mirador Formation, seeking
a correlation with this formation in the Llanos Orientales Basin.
Paleocene has not been recorded in this basin and the only reference
starts at Eocene with Pepino Formation (Fig. 2).
Pepino Formation. Also called Lozada Formation, it is found on the
flanks of the Florencia paleohigh. Supply areas for this age are located
eastward, mainly the Guayana shield and westward in the uplifted areas
which correspond presently to the Central Cordillera.
Mirador Formation. It is defined as a grayish white conglomeratic
sandstone, with fine to medium grain, moderate selection, containing
chert metamorphic lithics. Locally gray greenish mudstones are present,
intercalated with muddy, quartzic sandstone levels, with sub angular to
angular grains, moderate to poor selection, with coal fragments and gray
claystones, massive, locally fissile, they were deposited in a coastal to
internal environment, with local alluvial influence.
The distribution of this unit can be observed in the structural
map (ICP, 1998) where Florencia and Sierra de la Macarena paleo-highs
constitute the depositional limits for this unit. (Fig 25).
Arrayan Formation: thus called in the La Uribe area and know as
San Fernando Group in the Sierra de la Macarena, this unit was deposited
on the Mirador Formation. According to ICP (1997) it comprises an
intercalation of gray to red lutitic rocks with fine grained sandstone levels,
coal seams and some fossiliferous levels in which gasteropods, ostracods
and foraminifera can be observed. These deposits were formed in alluvial
plain to transitional environments and local marine incursions and may be
correlated with Carbonera Formation in the Llanos Orientales basin.

47
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

As for the Putumayo Basin, this megasequence stratigraphic record


started during Aptian, mainly located in the western margin of the basin, near
the Garzon Massif (Fig. 22.., ICP, 1998). These sediments were deposited in a
foreland basin, with a lesser extension than in the Putumayo basin, a fact which
in interpreted as the permanence of emerged zone in the basin eastern sector.

CHAPTER 3 - REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND

Serrania Formation: Thicknesses of 45 m have been reported in the


San Vicente del Caguan area (ECOPETROL-ICP, 1997). Its lithology includes
reddish, fine to medium grained, quartzic sandstone levels intercalated
with siltstone and claystone levels. Its contact with the Lower Miocene
Formation is conformable, but its superior limit with overlying Pliocene
deposits are unconformable as a result of the Andean orogeny pulses.
The upper stratigraphic unit which covered this basin during
Pliocene-Pleistocene corresponds to Talanquero Formation, composed of
alterning sands, clay and some thin conglomeratic levels, with a generally
high content of red color tuffs. (Geotec,1972). The environments where
these units were deposited are of alluvial fans.

48
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

Figure 22. Distribution of Cretaceous sequences in the Caguan Basin. Taken from ICP 1998.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

49

CHAPTER 3 - REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND

50
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 23. Scheme of Tectonic - Stratigraphic


Evolution of Caguan Basin. Taken from ICP 1998.

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

Figure 24. Surface Geology Map in the Caguan Basin. In the upper left corner shows the location of this mapping, south of the city of Florence in Caquet. The orange
bands represent the distribution of Neme formation, (Upper Cretaceous), arranged on the Garzon Complex rocks (purple color). Modified from ANH, 2009.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

51

CHAPTER 3 - REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND

52
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 25. Structural Map in Time at Top of Mirador Formation in Caguan


Basin. The distributions of the sediments are influenced by the position of
Florence Paleo-high.

4. ANALYSIS OF THE SOURCE


ROCK QUALITY

CHAPTER 4 - ANALYSIS OF THE SOURCE ROCK QUALITY

Source rock quality is one of the uncertainty elements for the


evaluation of these 2 basins. As observed in the production fields,
sometimes units which were considered promissory yield no oil or are
invaded by water. For these reasons a short analysis of these aspects is
carried out for each one of the basins.
4.1 Source rock quality
The Putumayo Basin possesses numerous source rocks levels which
correspond mainly to the Caballos and Villeta Formations as primary
deposits, and siliclastic conglomerate levels of the Pepino Formation as
secondary deposits. Furthermore, an exploratory potential associated to
the calcareous levels of Villeta Formation is also analyzed.
4.1.1 Sanstones from the Caballos Formation
The Caballos Fm. is the main reservoir rock; the sandstones are
composed mainly of quartz, with minor proportions of clays, mud clasts
and mica. Glauconite is present at the top of the formation and the main
authigenic phase consists of quartz and kaolinite overgrowths. Core
samples were interpreted as formed in point bars, distributor channels
and marine transgressive environments.
Data obtained from cores gave porosity ranges between 9 and 15%, with an
average of 13% (Fig. 26) and permeability ranges between 14 mD and 1300 mD
(Fig. 27) with average values oscillating between 200 and 250 mD. Well logs show
apparent porosities (not corrected for clay) oscillating between 12 and 20% (Fig. 28).
Total thickness of the formation may vary between 200 and 300 feet,
distributed in 4 genetic sequences, of which the lower 3 have produced
liquid hydrocarbons in the entire basin; the upper sequence yielded oil in
Orito field only, due to the loss of petrophysical properties resulting from a
high clay content, mainly glauconite (Mantilla & Estrada, 2000).

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

The Caballos Formation is characterized by its large salinity variation in the


entire basin and in producing fields (as in Orito and Colon); it shows also numerous
inclined water - oil contacts, which have been interpreted as resulting from a high
hydrodynamic pressure (Ruiz, 1994) or from a stratigraphic control in an active
tectonic environment where fault influence is dominant (Mantilla & Estrada, 2000).
Whatever the mechanism is, the importance of fluid control is the opportunity to
find traps in a basin under structural and/ or stratigraphic plays.
4.1.2 Sandstones from Villeta Formation
The main Villeta Formation deposits are located in the sandy intervals
called N Sandstones, U Sandstones and T Sandstones. This formation is
characterized by a high sediment heterogeneity in which the petrophysical

properties of the rock are controlled by a depositation environment. The


distribution of the different lithologies which conform Villeta Formation
and the average distribution of this porosity values from the combination
of density and neutron logs are shown in Fig. 29.
Porosity averages for sandy intervals are between 17 and 20%, with
permeabilities which vary between 400 mD and 800 mD on average.
These units present high water cuts which may oscillate between 30
and 65% for N sandstone, between 20 and 60% for U sandstone and around
85% for T sandstone (Data taken from Field Production Statistics, ACIPET).
It is important to signal the conspicuous inverse salinity gradient of
the basin formation water which, varies from an average of 3600 ppm NaCl
for N sandstone, through 19 000 ppm NaCl for U sandstone to values of 15
000 ppm NaCl for T sandstone.
The total hydrocarbon column thickness is strongly controlled by
the presence of water-oil contact in each one of these units; this fact may
cause the variation of the net reservoir thickness from 10 to more than
100 feet, as it happens in Topoyaco Block (Pacific Rubiales, 2010).
4.1.3 Limestones from Villeta Formation
Calcareous intervals of the Villeta Formation correspond to units called M2
Limestones, A Limestones, B Limestone and C Limestones. These calcareous intervals
are productive in active fields (Ex. Bermejo) of the Oriente Basin in Ecuador.
In Colombia, these calcareous intervals have shown hydrocarbon
traces in different wells as Inti-2 (M2 Limestone) and Pinuna-I (A and B
Limestones) (well history, ANH) and intervals with important thicknesses
in M1 Limestone (10 feet), M2 Limestones (65 feet) and B Limestone (50
feet) with hydrocarbon saturations which oscilate between 55 and 72% in
Topoyaca-2 well (Revista Petroleum, October 2010).
Fig. 30 is a multiple well graphic where the predominance of fracture
porosity is identified for calcareous intervals of the Villeta Formation.
4.2 Source rock quality, Caguan basin
The analysis of the source rock quality for this basin is restricted
due the amount and quality of the available information; it covers also
preCretaceous rocks because some oil traces have been found there and
have been interpreted as migrations coming from cretaceous rocks.
All the data and conclusions presented there come from the synthesis
carried out by ICP (1998) as part of the integrated analysis of this basin.

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

Differentiation of Paleozoic sandy units is incipient because they are


considered as economic basement and few wells have enough records
to establish its sequence. Only Payara-I well has recorded a large sand
interval of this age, between 3725 and 4497 feet: Porosity values for this
sequence are around 9%, which are similar to those obtained in outcrops
of this same unit in the vicinity of the well (11%).
Permeability values obtained in this well (8 mD) are not sufficient to reach
a conclusion, because a single sample cannot be considered in a regional analysis.
4.2.2 Caballos Formation sandstones
These Sandstone were formed in fluvial environments dominated
by tides. The coastal line has been discussed in order to define these
sandstones distribution. ICP considers that this limits is located south west
of the Florencia paleohigh. This unit has not been deeply studied because
only the Uribe-I well cuts a small section of Caballos Formation, which is
not enough to carry out an analysis.
4.2.3 Macarena Group Sandstones
This unit is well distributed in the entire basin and contrarily to Villeta
Formation, its equivalent is in Putumayo, it shows thick sandstone sequences
developed in shallow marine environments (Copper, 1995); Ecopetrol, 1997).

To analyze this sandstone porosity, data from San Juan-I, SA-I and Rio
Guejar-I wells were used. Values from 20 to 23% were obtained. These values
decrease toward the formation top, possibly because the clay content increases.
Permeability values obtained in these sections are high, between 300 and 9000
mD. As a result of this analysis, an empirical relation between porosity and permeability
has been determined, given in the following equation with a R2 coefficient of 0.603.
K = 2E + 0.7 x 7.08
4.2.4 Mirador Formation Sandstones
These sedimentary rocks stretch from the paleohighs which surround
it (Fig. 25) and near its limits, they are deposited over Paleozoic rocks. This
unit has been recorded in all the wells drilled in the basin, and ten of these
wells were selected by ICP to perform a rock quality analysis, which gave
porosities between 15 and 25%, with best values in the northern part of
the basin.
Porosity has a homogeneous behavior, but permeability has
variable values, from 0 to 230 mD, obtained in the same intervals. As for
the Cretaceous sandstones, an empirical equation relating porosity and
permeability was obtained, with R= 0.67
K = 1E + 0.7 x 7.305

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

4.2.1 Paleozoic sandstones

CHAPTER 4 - ANALYSIS OF THE SOURCE ROCK QUALITY

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 26. Porosity distribution Taken From Core Data


in ACAE 10 and ACAE 11 - 11, wells in Caballos
Formation. The figure shows the histogram and statistics
of porosity intervals in cores from wells in the Field
ACAE. Data taken from Ruiz, H (1994) and displayed in
the Interactive Petrophysics software.

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

Figure 27. Permeability Distribution


Taken From Cores in ACAE - 10 and
ACAE 11 wells, Caballos Formation.
The figure shows the histogram and
statistics of permeability in the intervals
cores from wells in the Field ACAE. Data
taken from Ruiz, H (1994) and displayed
in the Interactive Petrophysics software.

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59

CHAPTER 4 - ANALYSIS OF THE SOURCE ROCK QUALITY

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 28. Density - Neutron Graphics, ACAE


Field, Caballos Formation. The figure shows that
the main sandstones of the Caballos formation (less
than 60 UAPI GR) have a total porosity between
12 and 20%. Data taken from Ruiz, H (1994) and
displayed in the Interactive Petrophysics software.

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

Figure 29. Lithology Graphic, Villeta Formation. The figure shows


the distribution of major lithologies that make up the Formation as well
as the total porosity of the various sand intervals identified as reservoir
rock in the basin. Data provided by ANH and displayed in Interactive
Petrophysics software.

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 30. Porosity Resistivity - Porosity


Neutron Graphics in Villeta Formation. The
figure shows the prevalence of fracture porosity
(porosity resistivity greater than neutron porosity)
at intervals of calcareous affinity (log density
increased to 2.6 RhoB gm / cc). Well data
provided by the ANH and displayed in Interactive
Petrophysics software.

5. EXPLORATION POTENTIAL

CHAPTER 5 - EXPLORATION POTENTIAL

5.1 The Putumayo Basin


The Putumayo Basin reports 2 preserves near 594 MMBO (IHS, 2008)
evaluated in 41 producing fields. Most of this production occurs in Caballos,
Villeta and Pepino Formation sandstones. Source rock corresponds to
shales and limestones identified in the Villeta Formation.
A report on the reserves of the oil fields of this basin is given in fig
31, where major potentials are concentrated in the western margin of the
basins, as for Orito, Costayaco and Acae fields.
It is interesting to notice that Orito field data present accumulated production
which is near the estimated total reserves, 240 M barrels; this indicates that the
original oil OOIP is much more abundant than what was previously calculated.
This situation indicates that the general potential of this basin has
been underestimated, particularly if compared with data obtained in fileds
located south near (Oriente Basin, Ecuador) where oil fields have an OOIP
over 2X109 barrels (Shushufindi field).
The analysis carried in this book Oil Bearing Systems chapter
sustains the presence of at least 2 active systems:
. Upper Villeta-Pepino (!)
. Lower Villeta-Caballos (!)
These systems have also been identified in the Oriente basin in Ecuador.
Source rock for these systems is conformed by Villeta Formation shales
and organic matter bearing mudstone layers from Caballos Formation,
with COT values above 2%. Type I and II kerogen show hydrogen indexes
which vary from 100 to 800 mg HC/gr. TOC values decrease eastward.
According to geochemical modeling, a hydrocarbon generation and expulsion
period was identified during Middle Paleocene, as shown in the map of events (Fig. 32).

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Oils generated and trapped in these petroleum systems show a good


production in U,T,M and N Cretaceous sands and in the Cenozoic sands from
Pepino Formation; the latter work as reservoir, mainly in the piedmont sector.
Traps associated to these petroleum systems are formed by anticlines associated
to high angle faults, produced by tectonic reactivation, in some cases with the occurrency
of strike movement (Fig 7 and 16). In the same way, pinching out against the basement of
Cretaceous sequences correspond to stratigraphic type traps; it is also important to mention
that stratigraphic variations within each unit generate compartments in the reservoirs.

The quality and the quantity of information available for the basin
enable to carry out an analysis of the distribution of the elements which
define the reservoir, in terms of porosity, saturation and net sand thickness.
5.1.1 Caballos Formation Sandstones
A thickness increase in the northwestern direction is noticed for the
Caballos Formation (Fig. 33). These characteristics are also reported for the
Oriente Basin, which means that the Caballos Formation sedimentation
control is given by paleogeography, and that the Guyana shield is the
source of the sediment supply, east of the basin.
Resistivity analysis carried out for this formation is based on the deep
resistivity record and is calculated from the geometrical average in bodies
with clay volume less than 50% Fig. 34 shows these resistivities distribution
and the tendency at the saturation front, outlined by an broken red line.
The map on this figure indicates that water front pushes the oil eastward,
a fact which is confirmed by field production data.
A porosity evaluation was carried out by calculation of the clay
volume (Vsh) using an arithmetic average on these intervals with clay
content lower than 50%. These values are mapped in Fig. 35.
Tendencies for porosity, related to source rock quality, show that best
values are obtained in the central south part of the evaluated area, with
a tendency to decrease northward and westward; this indicates that the
tectonic activity located in this part of the basin affects porosity negatively.
Moderate to good values can be expected in the eastern part of the
basin (8 and 12%), as suggested by the previous analysis.
In conclusion, Caballos Formation reservoir sandstone has a
distribution which tends to pinch out against basement eastward. However,
it should be remembered that the deposition of this unit is determined by
paleo-topographic highs produced by pre-existing block tectonics.
The defined water front shows an invasion eastward, and this
permits to infer that the hydrocarbon load tends to be located on eastward
direction. This idea is supported by the fact that hydrocarbon quality
decreases in the opposite direction. Oils with higher API values are found
in this formation, and values up to 40 API have been reported.
5.1.2 Villeta Formation sandstones
This formation reports 3 sandy levels with exploration interest; they
correspond, from base to top, to T sands, U sands and N sands.

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

T sands distribution is observed in Fig. 36, where thicknesses vary


from 10 to 13 feet. Major thicknesses are located in the west. It is important
to remember that T sands and U sands are interpreted as the beginning
of stratigraphic sequences which become deeper due to the calcareous
development above them, which act as regional seals.
Resistivity analysis for T sands defines that intervals with values under
6 ohm m are invaded by water. Fig. 37 shows the distribution of these values
for the evaluated zone. A red broken line shows the possible invasion front,
which, in a way different from the Caballos Formation situation, shows a
variable distribution, possibly northward, moving in independent fronts, a
fact which suggests a stratigraphic control for the reservoir.
Porosity analysis carried out in this sector of the basin is shown in
Fig. 38 map; Acae and Dolores fields in the south and Colembi field in the
north show porosity values which vary between 14 and 19%; however this
property average values (between 10 and 15%) obtained in the other fields
are considered as good, because the produced oil is light (32 API in average).
The distribution of unit U sands is shown in Fig. 39. Thicknesses for
this unit are greater that those found in T Unit are greater that those found
in T unit. This unit presents two intervals of upper U sands and lower U
separated by a clay-calcareous package.
Mapped thicknesses correspond to the sum of the two levels and are
found in a range between 20 and 260 feet, conserving the characteristic
thickness increase westward, as observed in T Unit.
Fields located near the cordillera (Orito, Caribe) show a decrease in
this unit thickness, which may indicate that during their deposition this
sector had already suffered some uplift which influenced the sediment
distribution in the basin (?).

A result of these analyses, it may be concluded that T and U units


correspond to good objectives in any portion of the basin and that the
risk is associated with stratigraphic variations. The disposition of shoreface
sands and of tide channel sands may control the properties; it is thus
recommended to carry out a stratigraphic analysis in each field in order
to define their disposition, as shown in Fig. 42, which corresponds to a
modern analog environment.
Another highly interesting level is the one formed by N sands (basal
Tena in the Oriente basin), described as the upper part of the Cretaceous
sequence, developed in estuarine environments; their distribution is
closely controlled by Andean orogenic processes. Greatest thicknesses
(12 to 20 feet) are located in the basin central strip and they show the
tendency to become thinner or to disappear in the flanks.
In this unit porosity values between 14 and 18% were reported; saturation
is under 40%, with the presence of heavy oils (17 to 22 API), possibly due to
re-migration processes of hydrocarbons originated during Cretaceous.
Stratigraphic characteristics for this unit correspond to channelshaped bodies embedded in clay bodies which dont pile up; thus their
presence is not common in the active fields.
Besides siliciclastic rocks, Villeta Formation also contains calcareous
sequences which have a production potential as a naturally fractures
deposits, as recorded in the field located south of the basin (Bermejo
field). Oil production from these calcareous levels in some of the fields of
this basin (Topoyaco field).permits to infer the possibility to include this
unit in future analyses of this basin.

Resistivity evaluation was carried out for this unit following the parameters
as for the previous unit, and results are shown in Fig. 40; water invaded zones
can be equally observed with recorded values lower than 6 ohm m.

Porosity distribution shown in Fig. 41 gives values which vary


between 4 and 20%, following the same evaluation methods as for the
previous units. Average values for porosity are between 12 and 16%, which
is considered as a good reservoir rock considering the hydrocarbon quality
reported in productions of the fields of this basin.

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

The broken line corresponds to the possible distribution of invasion


zones. In a similar way to for T unit, it is inferred that stratigraphic variations
control water and oil distribution in this unit.

CHAPTER 5 - EXPLORATION POTENTIAL

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 31. Reserves by fields in Putumayo and Caguan Basin. The table lists the reserves reported in each field until 2002.

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

Figure 32. Events Chart for Putumayo Basin. The red line represents the history of burial.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

69

CHAPTER 5 - EXPLORATION POTENTIAL

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 33. Location of wells with geochemical and/or thermal maturity data in the Guajra Basin (Modified from Aguilera et al., 2010).

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

Figure 34. Resistivity Distribution Map for Caballos Formation.

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CHAPTER 5 - EXPLORATION POTENTIAL

72
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 35. Porosity Distribution Map for Caballos Formation.

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

Figure 36. Net Sand Distribution Map for T Sandstones in Putumayo Basin.

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73

CHAPTER 5 - EXPLORATION POTENTIAL

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 37. Resistivity Distribution Map in T Sandstone Unit, Villeta Formation.

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

Figure 38. Porosity Distribution Map in T Sandstone Unit, Villeta Formation.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

75

CHAPTER 5 - EXPLORATION POTENTIAL

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 39. Net Sand Distribution Map for U Sandstone in Putumayo Basin.

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

Figure 40. TResistivity Distribution Map in U Sandstone Unit, Villeta Formation.

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77

CHAPTER 5 - EXPLORATION POTENTIAL

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 41. Porosity Distribution Map in U Sandstone Unit, Villeta Formation.

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

Figure 42. Modern Environment Analogous for interpreted environments in T and U Units for Villeta Formation.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

79

CHAPTER 5 - EXPLORATION POTENTIAL

5.2 The Caguan basin


The Caguan Basin, like the Putumayo Basin, contains productive oil
fields which demonstrate the existence of at least one hypothetical oil
bearing system; this system is defined as Macarena-San Fernando (?) by the
geochemical evaluation carried out in the chapter Oil bearing systems.
As for the Putumayo basin, source rock for this basin consists of siliclastic
rocks of the same Macarena Formation and of the Tertiary Serrania, Arrayan
and Mirador Formations, the latter associated with a continental origin.
ICP (1998) defines for the basin several structural types which trap
hydrocarbons:
Anticlines generated by drag folds, with high angle faults which
include crystalline basement (Fig 11 and 14) showing eastwards vergence
and NW-SE orientation. These structures are associated with the more
recent Sierra de la Macarena Uplift during Miocene-Pliocene.
Assymetric anticlines formed by the inversion of old normal
faults from Lower Paleozoic, which include basement; these faults were
reactivated during the Andean orogeny; these types of structures occurs
toward the piedmont of the San Vicente del Caguan area and corresponds
to the Piraa and Payara wells structures.
Anticlines of the fold propagation fault type, with vertical separations
on the interface crystalline basements sedimentary Paleozoic (??) (Fig. 43)
The formation of this type of structure is very related to the compressive
component of the Algeciras fault. Their age bears relation with the most recent
pulse of the Garzon Massif, occurred between 6 and 3.8 My ago. This type of
structure is specially located in the foreland front in the La Uribe region.

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Following the basin event map (Fig. 44), hydrocarbon generation may
have occurred at the end of Tertiary. The age of generation determination
was intended through the modeling of a pseudo-well in the Payare sector,
where Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments present their larger thickness.
However this model does not show enough overloading to reach the
generation window.
This uncertainty obliged to consider several possibilities with respect
to loading and migration ways. It is possible that they received hydrocarbon
migration coming from the Llanos Orientales basin or even from the Oriental
Cordillera or the upper Magdalena valley. Another possibility is that enough load
exists to reach the generation window in the eastern sector, where no sufficient
seismic information exists, but where thick sediments packages may be inferred
from basement maps prepared from Bouguer anomalies. It is possible that these
packages would have included Pre-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks.
These considerations force to consider with a major uncertainty
factor the amount of hydrocarbons present in the basin, because heat flow
and migration paths are not sufficiently known, even when the western
sector, toward the piedmont margin of this basin has been explored.

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 43. Line Y - 9N, Caguan Basin. The Paleozoic sediments are deformed during the Eocene, as a result of Garzn Massif orogenic pulse.

CHAPTER 5 - EXPLORATION POTENTIAL

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 44. SEvent Chart for the Hypothetical Petroleum Systems in Caguan Basin. urface geochemistry compositional
data from the onshore part of the Guajra Basin. From Aguilera et al. (2010).

6. PETROLEUM SYSTEMS

CHAPTER 6 - PETROLEUM SYSTEMS

This chapter succinctly identifies and characterizes the basins


principal petroleum system elements and processes. Due to the diverse
and complex stratigraphic nomenclature used by various authors, the
most adequate for this exercise has been adopted.
It is important to emphasize that the site chosen for 1-D geochemical
modeling (in deep areas of the basin) represents hydrocarbon generation
and expulsion conditions that are only valid for source rocks at that
particular site. Extending these results beyond this site, or building general
conclusions based on this site alone, is therefore inappropriate.
The Putumayo Basin is regarded as a mature basin from an exploratory point
of view. Here, around 318 wells have been drilled in 30 oil and gas fields. Additionally,
numerous seeps have been reported, confirming the presence of petroleum systems.
Tectonostratigraphically speaking, it is possible to subdivide the
Basin into two sub-basins: Cagun and Putumayo. Below, the petroleum
systems for each sub-basin are presented.
6.1 Cagun Sub-basin Petroleum System
About 14 wells have been drilled in this sub-basin, of which the Payara-1
well showed oil production. Seeps in this Sub-basin are located preferentially
towards the area of foothills and into the Sierra de la Macarena. (Figure 45).
Geochemical evaluation of crude oil, extracts and rocks, integrated
along with structural and stratigraphic information, help to identify the
elements and processes needed to support the presence of petroleum
systems within the sub-basin. (Figure 45).
6.1.1 Elements and Processes
Source rock

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Upper Cretaceous rocks from the Macarena Group (CampanianMaastrichtian) on the Uribe field, feature the best geochemical characteristics.
Additionally, recent studies suggest the existence of Cretaceous rocks
showing characteristics favorable for hydrocarbon generation.
Furthermore, the presence of generating intervals within the
Paleozoic sequence cannot be ruled out.
Reservoir Rock
Conglomerates and sandstones of continental origin of the San Fernando
Group (Oligocene-Miocene) show the best possibilities as reservoirs. Additionally,
the sandstones of the Macarena Group act as secondary reservoirs in the sub-basin.

Figure 45. Location of seeps and geochemical data of the Cagun Sub-basin

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

Seal Rock

6.1.3 Source Rock Properties

Seals are comprised by clay levels of the Macarena Group (CampanianMaastrichtian) and muddy levels of the Serrana Formation (Miocene-Pliocene).

Organic Matter Content

Trap
The main traps correspond to folds formed by inversion of normal faults, drag
folds and fault propagation wedging of Cenozoic sequences against the basement.
Overburden

The Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content in samples from wells


Payara-1 and Uribe-1 are generally low (<1), excluding an interval of the
Macarena Group, where TOC values of 5% to 8% are reported.
Organic Matter Quality
The tested samples recorded Hydrogen index (HI) values below 300
mg HC/g TOC, corresponding to type III and IV kerogens, featring more
terrestrial organic matter supplies (Figure 47).

The overburden includes the stratigraphic section ranging between


the Paleocene and recent times.
Processes of Hydrocarbon Generation and Expulsion
The surveyed well did not reach maturity values high enough in order
to develop hydrocarbon generation and expulsion processes. Nevertheless,
other areas temperatures should have been sufficient in order to generate
and expel the hydrocarbons reported on the surface (seep).
6.1.2 Event Chart
Below, Figure 46 shows the features and processes for the
hypothetical petroleum system of the Sub-basin.

Figure 46. Event chart of the hypothetical


petroleum systems at the Sub-basin.

Figure 47. Modified Van Krevelen Chart. Values


indicate type III and IV kerogen.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

87

CHAPTER 6 - PETROLEUM SYSTEMS

Organic Matter Thermal Maturity


Maximum temperature values (Tmax) range from 425 to 450 , with most
of the stratigraphic sequence starting at the oil generation window (Figure 48).

Figure 49. TOC vs. Generation Potential (S1 + S2) chart.


Some values indicate good potential for hydrocarbon generation.

Figure 48. The Maximum Temperature (Tmax) vs. Hydrogen Index (HI) chart, illustrates that most samples range between immature to the start of the generation window.

Hydrocarbon Generation Potential


Generation potential varies from poor to very good, tending to
values below 5 mg HC/g rock (poor potential). However, the low availability
of data on this particular area, does not allow to accurately assess the
hydrocarbon generation potential within the sub-basin (Figure 49).
88
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Figure 50 Shows a summary of the main properties of the generating


rocks on the Sub-basin.

Figure 50. Summary chart of source rock properties.


The Macarena group contains intervals favorable as source rock.

6.1.4 Petroleum Systems Modeling


The simulation of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion processes on
the Cagun Sub-basin was built based on a pseudo-well located on the Y-197308 seismic line, where the Sub-basin reaches maximum depths. (Figure 51).

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

Figure 51. Location profile of the pseudo-well on the Y-1973-08 seismic line.

According to the geological evolution model on this sector of the Subbasin, the base of the Early Cretaceous sequence currently reached maximum
burial depths of 4500 feet with maximum temperatures of 150 F (Figure 52).

Figure 53. % Ro profile over time. The assessed sequence was not mature
enough to reach the oil generation window.

Figure 52. The maximum burial curve occurred during the Pleistocene.

In order to build the models, a history of constant heat flux of 46 MW/m2


was used. Based on regional and local geochemical information, two generating
intervals were included on the model, belonging to the Macarena Group.
The simulation results at the modeled site indicate that these
intervals did not reach the oil generation window (Ro <0.6%, Figure 53),
and therefore there are no associated ejection processes (Figure 54).
Figure 54. No expulsion processes are present within the area.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

89

CHAPTER 6 - PETROLEUM SYSTEMS

6.1.5 Petroleum System Definition


Integration of geological, geochemical and modeled information
of the Cagun Sub-basin suggests the existence a petroleum system
with evidence of crude oil migration to the surface (seep) from lower
mature levels of the Macarena Group (assessed source rock) to outcrops
of the San Fernando Group (possible reservoir). Nevertheless, the low
quantity of available geochemical information does not allow a clear
identification of the generation kitchen.
Therefore, the existence of a speculative petroleum system is
estimated:
Macarena-San Fernando (?).
Figure 55 shows the geographical extent of the hypothetical
petroleum system and the location of the modeled pseudo-well.

Figure 55. Petroleum system map, showing the depocenter at the top of the
basement (on top of which the generation kitchen would be located, on the
northernmost part of the Sub-basin), reported seeps and the hypothetical
influence area of the system.

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

6.2 Putumayo Sub-basin Petroleum System


Several seeps and discoveries of oil (365 MBP) and gas (305 GPCS) have
been reported on this sub-basin on about 30 oil fields (Figure 56). Geochemical
evaluation of crude extracts and rocks, integrated along with structural and
stratigraphic information, allow to identify the necessary elements and processes
needed to support the presence of petroleum systems within the Sub-basin.

6.2.1 Elements and Processes


Source Rock
Main source rocks are comprised of limestones and shales of the
Villeta Formation (Middle Albian- Late Campanian) and gray mudstone
layers of the Caballos Formation (Late Aptian - Middle Albian).
Reservoir Rock
The main reservoirs are the Caballos and Villeta formations.
Secondary reservoirs are represented by the Rumiyaco (Paleocene) and
Pepino (Late Eocene- Early Oligocene) formation.
The reservoirs at the Caballos Formation are characterized by
sands deposited on fluvial-deltaic environments with porosities and
permeabilities averaging 12% and 150 md, respectively.
The main reservoir levels are comprised by sands of the Villeta Formation
deposited on a marine shelf, averaging 10% porosities and 70 md permeabilities.
Seal Rock
Seals are embodied by limestones and shales of the Villeta Formation
and claystones of the Rumiyaco and Pepino formations, while the Orteguaza
Formation (Oligocene-Miocene) is regarded as the regional seal.
Trap
The main traps are composed of asymmetric anticlinals, frequently
limited by transcurrent faulting, and folds associated with high-angle faults
(Orito, Caribe, San Miguel and Burdine fields). Stratigraphic traps located
to the east consist on wedging against the base of the Villeta Formation
sandstones, generating a lateral seal (Campo Alea).
Overburden

Processes of Hydrocarbon Generation and Expulsion


Figure 56. Location of wells, fields, seeps and geochemical data of the Putumayo Sub-basin.

Processes of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion occur mainly


from the Middle Paleocene to recent times, with a critical point located on
the modeled well by Late Miocene.

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

The overburden is conformed by Late Cretaceous and Early and Late


Tertiary stratigraphic sections, not including the sequence of eroded rock
of the Eocene and Miocene.

CHAPTER 6 - PETROLEUM SYSTEMS

6.2.2 Event Chart


Below, Figure 57. shows features and processes for the hypothetical
petroleum system of the Sub-basin.

Figure 57. Event chart of the hypothetical petroleum systems


of the Putumayo Sub-basin. The red line indicates the burial curve.

6.2.3 Source Rock Properties


Organic Matter Content
The Villeta Formation and data from an undifferentiated Cretaceous,
recorded the highest values for organic content, with values of Total Organic Carbon
percentage (% TOC) greater than 2%, ranging from good to excellent in terms of
organic content. The TOC contents are higher to the west and decrease towards the
east.

Figure 58. Modified Van Krevelen chart. The organic matter quality is very good to
excellent, prone to generate liquid hydrocarbons.

Organic Matter Quality


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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

The organic matter evaluated by Rock Eval pyrolysis and visual kerogen
analysis allow to identify kerogen type II to type III, with a minor presence
of type I, featuring high contents of marine organic matter (amorphous)
and hydrogen index values (HI), which oscillate between values below 100
and 800 mg HC/g TOC. The undifferentiated Cretaceous Section and the
Villeta Formation record the best HI values. Figure 58.

Organic Matter Thermal Maturity


Rock maturity was established by maximum temperature (Tmax) and
vitrinite reflectance (% Ro) analyses, indicating that the sequence ranges
from immature to peak oil generation, with Tmax values between 370 and
450, and% Ro from 0.4 to 0.87 (Figure 59).

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

Figure 61 shows a summary of the main properties of the generating


rocks on the sub-basin.

Figure 59. Tmax vs Hydrogen Index (HI)chart. Much of the tested


sequence has reached levels of maturity within the oil generation window.

Figure 61. Summary chart of source rock properties.


The Villeta Formation features the best characteristics as source rock.

Hydrocarbon Generation Potential

6.2.4 Crude Oil Properties

The Cretaceous sequence on the Putumayo region (Villeta Formation) registers


values of hydrocarbon generation potential (PG) in the range from good to excellent,
with values greater than 10 mg HC/g rock. The Caballos Formation also shows intervals
with generation potentials characterized as favorable to good (Figure 60).

Crudes oils have API gravities ranging between 9.4 to 41 (light to heavy),
with a predominance of normal crude. Overall, the quality decreases from east
to west. Crudes show higher API gravities in reservoirs at the Caballos Formation.
The saturated and aromatic fractions predominate over resins +
asphaltenes, whereas sulfur content ranges from 0 to 3% with tendencies
below 1%, suggesting a variety of generating sources (Figure 62 and 63).

Figure 60. TOC vs generator Potential (S1 + S2) chart,


the Cretaceous sequence shows very good to excellent values.

Figure 62. API gravity Vs % sulfur chart, crude oils are mostly normal.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

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CHAPTER 6 - PETROLEUM SYSTEMS

Table 1. summarizes the main crude oil characteristics.

Crude Oil Families


All crude oils present at the Sub-basin have been generated from
Cretaceous source rocks, formed within siliciclastic marine environments.
They can be grouped into 4 families (Figure 64).

Figure 63. Ternary SARA fraction chart. Lighter


fractions predominate on most crude oils,.

Crude Oil Properties Synthesis


Crude oils are mostly normal, marine in origin and feature medium to
low sulfur contents. Saturated hydrocarbons are close to 70% on the western
side of the sub-basin and are associated with an increased paraffin presence,
possibly derived from higher organic matter (Crdoba et al., 1997).
Crude oils featuring higher API gravity values are gathered mainly at the
Caballos Formation, while crudes with middle to lower gravities and higher
sulfur content predominate on the Villeta Formation. This can be explained
by the higher thermal history experienced by the Caballos Formation.
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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Table 1 summarizes the main crude oil characteristics.


Table 1. Crude oils property table. Some characteristics suggest the
levels were generated at the Caballos formation.

Figure 64. Pristane/Phytane Vs Gammacerano Index chart, grouping


the 4 identified crude oil families at the Sub-basin.

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

PUT1: Crude oils of good quality, poorly affected by biodegradation


processes, which can be correlated with a generating facies deposited on
a marine siliciclastic suboxic environment.
PUT2: Crude oils of good quality, poorly affected by biodegradation processes,
which can be correlated with a generating facies deposited on a marine siliciclastic
suboxic environment, with greater contribution of clays than the PUT 1 family.
PUT3: Crude oils affected by biodegradation processes, correlated with a
generating facies deposited on a siliciclastic carbonate-influenced marine environment.
PUT4: Crude oils of good quality, poorly affected by biodegradation
processes, which can be correlated with a generating facies deposited on
a marine siliciclastic anoxic environment
Oil-Rock Correlation
According to biomarker relations and isotope analysis information,
the crude oil found on the Sub-basin shows a relationship primarily with
organic facies deposited on a siliciclastic dysoxic marine environment, which
can be identified on levels of the Villeta Group and Caballos Formation
(Figure 65). Excerpts from limestones and marls of the Villeta Formation
show good correlating evidence with crude oils from the Rumiyaco, Pepino
and Villeta Formations (Crdoba et al., 1997).

Figure 66. Pseudo-well profile location located on seismic line PWD-1990-1245.

Extracts from the Caballos Formation and shales of the T and U intervals of the
Villeta Formation, show similar geochemical characteristics as PUT1 and PUT2 families
stored on the Caballos Formation and producing intervals of the Lower Villeta Formation.
6.2.5 Petroleum Systems Modeling
The simulation for hydrocarbon generation and expulsion processes on the
Putumayo sub-basin was based on a pseudo-well located on the PWD-1990-1245
seismic line, located on the area where the sub-basin reaches greater depths (Figure 66).

Figure 65. Saturated C13 Vs Aromatic C13.

Figure 67. Maximum burial curve occurred during the late Miocene.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

95

CHAPTER 6 - PETROLEUM SYSTEMS

According to the geological evolution model for this sector of the subbasin, the base of the Barremian sequence reached a burial depth of 20000 feet
during the Miocene-Pliocene and maximum temperatures of 342 F. Figure 67.

Figure 69. Subsidence and expulsion curves history chart. The expulsion process for
the Villeta and Caballos formations was reached during the Miocene.

Figure 68. % Ro over time profile. The evaluated sequence reached


the oil and dry gas generation window.

In order to perform the model, a history of variable heat flux of 45


mW/m2 for the Aptian was used, presently fluctuating up to 36 mW/m2.

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

Based on regional and local geochemical information, three generating


intervals were included on the model, corresponding to the Caballos and
Lower and Higher Villeta Formations. The simulation results indicate that these
intervals reached levels of maturity in the range of dry gas generation (% Ro>
1.35, Figure 68) with presence of expulsion processes for all intervals during
the Miocene associated with the Beln Formation (23-11 Ma). See Figure 69.

6.2.6 Petroleum System Definition


Several authors: Crdoba et al. (1997); Kairuz, Crdoba, Moros,
Calderon and Buchelli (2000) and Repsol YPF (2005), in studies conducted
within the Putumayo Sub-basin have identified two known petroleum
systems which are responsible for about 65% of the discovered reserves:
Upper Villeta - Pepino (!)
Lower Villeta - Caballos (!)
Integration of geological, geochemical and modeled information
of the Putumayo Sub-basin suggests the existence of a hypothetical
petroleum system (Magoon & Dow, 1994):
Caballos (.)
Figure 70 shows the geographical extent of the petroleum systems
and the location of the modeled pseudo-well.

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

Figure 70. SMap of petroleum systems,


showing the depocenter at the top of the
basement, as well as reported seeps and the
hypothetical area of influence of the system.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

97

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ANNEXES

ANNEXES

ANNEX 1:
OIL AND GAS FIELDS
Burdine

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

OIL AND GAS FIELDS


Structural map on top of the
Villeta N Interval

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

105

ANNEXES

ANNEX 2:
OIL AND GAS FIELDS
Caribe

106
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

OIL AND GAS FIELDS


Structural map on top of
Caballos Formation.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

107

ANNEXES

ANNEX 3:
OIL AND GAS FIELDS
Churuyaco

108
PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

OIL AND GAS FIELDS


Structural map on top of
Caballos Formation.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

109

ANNEXES

ANNEX 4:
OIL AND GAS FIELDS
Hormiga

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

OIL AND GAS FIELDS


Structural map on top of
Caballos Formation.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

111

ANNEXES

ANNEX 5:
OIL AND GAS FIELDS
Loro

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

OIL AND GAS FIELDS


Structural map on top of
Caballos Formation.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

113

ANNEXES

ANNEX 6:
OIL AND GAS FIELDS
Nancy

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

OIL AND GAS FIELDS


Structural map on top of
Caballos Formation.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

115

ANNEXES

ANNEX 7:
OIL AND GAS FIELDS
Orito

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

OIL AND GAS FIELDS


Geological cross section X X
across the orito field.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

117

ANNEXES

ANNEX 7:
OIL AND GAS FIELDS
Structural map on top of
the caballos formation and
structural map on base of
the cretaceous sequence.

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

OIL AND GAS FIELDS


Structural map on top of the pepino
formation and structural map on top
of the caballos formation.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

119

ANNEXES

ANNEX 8:
OIL AND GAS FIELDS
Puerto Colon

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

OIL AND GAS FIELDS


Structural cross section of the
Puerto Colon field across the
San Miguel-6 and acae-4 wells.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

121

ANNEXES

ANNEX 8:
OIL AND GAS FIELDS
Sucio

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

OIL AND GAS FIELDS


Structural map on top of the
Caballos formation.

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

123

ANNEXES

ANNEX 9:
OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION
PUTUMAYO

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PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

PUTUMAYO AND CAGUAN BASINS

OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION


PUTUMAYO

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF COLOMBIA

125