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FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY,

P.M.B 1526 OWERRI, IMO STATE


A
REPORT ON THE GEOELECTRICAL SOUNDING IN PART OF
FUTO
COURSE TITLE: GEOPHYSICAL FILED STUDY
COURSE CODE: GPH 505
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE PARTIAL REQUIREMENT
FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY (B.TECH)
IN GEOPHYSICS.
MARCH, 2016

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Electrical resistivity method of geophysical exploration happens to
be one of the most preferred methods in exploration. The vertical
electrical sounding (VES) is a geoelectrical method that has been
recognized to be more suitable for determination of depth of
burial of a formation.
The reason for its wide use is because the instrument is simple;
field logistics are easy and straight forward while the analysis of
data is less tedious and economical. This is the reason why many
researchers such as Olowofela et al. (2005), Omosuyi et al.
(2007), Batayneh (2009), Ezeh and Ugwu (2010), Nwankwo
(2011), Batayneh et al. (2010) and Tammaneni et al. (2006) have
all used this method for the determination of formation boundary.
Amis and Objective
The work is aimed at fair assessment of the subsurface conditions
of the area.

Objective
To determine the geoelectrical characteristics of the formation
present in the study area.
To establish the usefulness of the electricity of the resistivity
method as a potential tool in geophysical exploration.
LOCATION/ACCESSIBILITY OF THE STUDY AREA
The study area is located in the southwestern corner of the new
geology building in the Federal University Of Technology Owerri,
South Eastern Nigeria. The study area is located between latitude
5o22.872IN-5O22.746INand

between

longitude

6o59.262IE-

6o

59.592IE height above sea level range from 39.624-42.0624


meters (130-138 feet).

GEOLOGICAL SETTING OF THE AREA


Geology of the study area
The study area is underlained by the Benin Formation which is
known as the coastal plain-sands. It consists mainly of sands,
sandstone and gravel with clays occurring in tenses. The sands
sandstones are coarse to fine partly unconsolidated with thicken
ranging from 0-2100 (Avbovbo, 1978). The sediments represent
upper deltaic plain deposits. The shales are few and they may
represent upper deltaic plain deposit. However, the formation
lacks faunal content and this makes it difficult to date, though
Oligocene-Recent age is generally accepted.

The Benin Formation is composed mainly of high resistant for


water-bearing continental sands and gravels with clay and shale
intercalations (Onyeagocha, I980).The environment of deposition
is partly lagoon and fluvio-lacustrine deltaic (Raymen 1965). The
formation which dips South-westwards starts as thin edge layer at
its contact with the Ogwashi-Asaba Formation the northern part of
the area and thickens southwards to about I m in Owerri area
(Rayment, 1965). The sandy unit which constitutes about 95% of
the rock in the area is composed of 96% of quartz (Onyeagocha,
1980). A marked banding of coarse and fine layers with a large

scale cross bedding constitute the major sedimentary structures


in the area.

CHAPTER TWO
METHOD OF STUDY
The vertical electrical sounding was used to determine the
electrical resistivities

and depths of the subsurface layers with

the aid of a sensitive ABEM terrameter Signal averaging system


(SAS) 1000c. The schlumberger array of electrical resistivity
method was applied because of its relatively low cost of field
operation and reduced logistics man power.
Three VES stations were established and surveyed along the
southwestern part of the geology building in the federal university
of technology owerri.
The resistivities of the different layers were measured using the
terrameter which is capable of sending current into the earth
subsurface through a pair of conducting electrodes, automatically
computing

and

displaying

the

apparent

resistivity

subsurface structure under investigation Dobrin (1976).


Instrumentation
The equipment used in data acquisition includes;

of

the

ABEM terrameter model SAS 1000c.


A central electrode
Two current electrodes and two potential electrodes
Direct current source (battery)
Three harmers
Cutlass
Four turns of wire
Umbrella
Trunk line calibrated in dimensions of AB/2 and MN/2
Global positioning system ( GPS)
a brunton compass

THEORY OF METHOD
The purpose of the electrical surveys is to determine the
subsurface resistivity distribution by making measurements on
the ground surface. From these measurements, the true resistivity
of the subsurface can be estimated. The ground resistivity is
referred to various geological parameters such as the mineral and
fluid content, porosity and degree of water saturation in the rock.

Electrical resistivity surveys have been used for many decades in


hydro-geology, mining and geotechnical investigations. More
recently,

it

has

been

used

for

environmental

surveys.

The fundamental physical law used in resistivity surveys is Ohms


Law that governs the flow of current in the ground. The equation
for given by

J = E
where is the conductivity of the medium, J is the current density
and E is the electric field intensity. In practice, what is measured
is the electric field potential We note that in geophysical surveys
the medium resistivity p, which is equals to the reciprocal of the
conductivity (p=1/), is more commonly used.
The relationship between the electric potential and the field
intensity is given by;
E=
The more complicated cases will be examined in the later
sections.

First,

we

start

with
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the

simplest

case

with

homogeneous subsurface and a single point current source on the


ground surface (Figure 3. 1) In this case, the current flows
radically away from the source, and the potential varies inversely
with distance from the current source.
The equipotential surfaces have a hemisphere shape, and the
current flow is perpendicular to the equipotential surface. The
potential in this case is given by
=p1
2r
Where r is the distance of a point in the medium (including the
ground surface) from the electrode. In practice, all resistivity
surveys use at least two current electrodes, a positive current and
a negative current source.
Figure 3.2 show the potential distribution caused by a pair of
electrodes. The potential

values have a symmetrical pattern

about the vertical place at the mid-point between the two


electrodes.
The potential value in the medium from such a pair is given by
8

=p1
2r

1 - 1
r

c1

c2

Where rc1 and rc2 are distance of the point from the first and
second current electrodes.
In practically all surveys, the potential difference bet (normally on
the ground surface) is measured. A typical with arrangement with
4 electrodes is shown in Fig 3.3

C1

P1

C2

P2

Fig 3.3: conventional array of


electrode

The potential difference is then given by


= I

2 rC1P1

1
rC2P1

+ 1__

rC1P2

rC2P2

The above equation gives the potential that would be measured


over a homogenous half space with a 4 electrodes array.
Actual fields surveys are invariably conducted over an in
homogenous medium where the subsurface resistivity has a 3-D
distribution.
The resistivity measurements are still made by injecting current
into the ground through the two current electrodes (C1 and C2 in
figure 3.3), and measuring the resulting voltage difference at two

a resistance value, R = Acp/l, so in practice the apparent resistivity value is calculated by


resistance
value,
R = Acp/l,
sothe
in practice
the
apparent
valuethat
is calculated
by same resistance value
potential
electrodes
(P1
and
P2) resistivity
but an apparent
value
that
is
resistivity
of
a homogeneous
ground
will give the
ut an apparent value that is Data
the resistivity
of
a
homogeneous
ground
that
will
give
the
same resistance value fo
Gathering
Data
Gathering
Azara Egbelu road where it IS
lieved
to be free from buried cables and pipes to avoid abnormal asurements.
zara
Egbelu
road
where
it
IS
lieved
tompass
be freetofrom
buried their
cables
and pipes and
to avoid
abnormal
asurements.
blished and surveyed using GPS and
determine
coordinates
directional
profile
blished and surveyed
using
GPSspectively.
and(I)
mpass
determine (cp
their coordinates
andapparent
directional profile
From the
current
andtopotential
values, an
spectively.
om the VESresistivity
locations the(pa)
central
electrode
is driven into the soil, the
value
is calculated.
om the VES
locations
the
central
electrode
is driven
the soil, the
trode A and B were then
connected
to the into
battery.
trode
A and
were
then
to the battery.
N) were also
driven
intoBthe
soil
andconnected
:0 the terrameter
where readings are recorded, in an array
) were also driven
into
the
soil
and
:0
the
terrameter
where readings are recorded, in an array
a =k
S$
S $ S location of AB/2= 1 .5m to 95m and MNI2 = O.5m to 14m.
long the profile, with the total spread
ong ship
the profile,
with
the
total
spread
S depth
location
of AB/2=
to 95m
between the spread AB/2 and
beneath
the1is.5m
given
by: and MNI2 = O.5m to 14m.
ship between the spread
AB/2
and
depth
beneath
the
is
given
by:
2
Depth = 2/3 x (AB/2)
Depth
=
2/3
x
(AB/2)
Schiumberger
1
1 Array 1
1
I. Array

Schiumberger
rc 1 p 1 I. rc 2 p 1 rc 1 p 2 rc 2 p 2
I.
I.A
AA
k is a geometric
factor that depends on the
A
imum death of penetration is 63.33m.
imum
death of penetration
63.33m.
arrangement
of theis four
electrodes. Resistivity measuring

Where K =

instruments normally give a resistance value, R

/l.

The calculated resistivity value is not the true resistivity of


the subsurface, but an apparent value that is the resistivity

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of a homogeneous ground that will give the same resistance


value for the same electrode arrangement.

2.1 Data Gathering


The VES locations were chosen in the Federal University Of
Technology Owerri there we made sure that the cables were
checked for continuity using connector and cello tape to
protect broken wire and avoid current leakage and also to
ensure that electrodes were perfectly inserted down the
earth with the help of the hammers to have firm grip
ensuring tight contact with the ground. High-tension wire
and other energized electric wires were avoided during the
acquisition. The acquisition was carried out in day light
under good weather condition avoiding rain and
thunderstorm. Also busy road and noisy environments were
avoided. Three VES stations were established and survey
using GPS and compass to determine their coordinates and
directional profile respectively. The distance between the
VES points is 200 meters with a direction profile of about 210
degree.
From the VES locations the central electrode is driven into
the soil, the Current electrode A and B were then connected
to the battery. The potential electrodes (M and N) were also
driven into the soil and connected to the terrameter where
readings are recorded, in an array shown below.

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The measurements were repeated along the profile, with the


total spread at each VES location of AB/2= 1.5M TO 125M
AND MN/2=0.5M to 14m.
The relationship between the spread AB/2 and depth beneath the
subsurface is given by;
Depth = 2/3 x (AB/2)
Hence maximum depth of penetration is 83.3m

CHAPTER THREE

RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION


The records of the data from the field were interpreted by using
curve matching method. The plot of the apparent resistivity
against current electrode distance for three VES carried out in the
study.
From the plot, the curve type as well as the number of layers that
exist in the area was determined.
Further analysis of the result has revealed a four layered
structure.

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Curve shapes were used to infer the number of geo-electric layers


prior to modeling as in 4.2 on the basis of curve shapes, four geoelectric layers were proposed for the three VES locations in the
Federal University of Technology, four geo-electric layers were
modeled in the three VES location and they are modeled as
follows:-

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FOR VES I
LAYER I
This is modeled as top sandy soil for Agriculture and Foundation.
The base at 3m and resistivity of 280 ohm-m.
LAYER II
This is modeled as sandstone with base at 6.9m and resistivity of
650 ohm-m
LAYER III
This is modeled as wet sandstone { fine coarse grained ] with
base at 48.3m and resistivity of 800 ohm-m.
LAYER IV
This is modeled as saturated Sandstone with base below 50m and
resistivity of 2100 ohm-m.

FOR VES 2
LAYER I
This is modeled as Top Sandy soil for Agriculture and Foundation.
The base is at 4m and resistivity of 3400.ohm-m.

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LAYER II
This is modeled as sandstone with base at 21.3m and resistivity of
4400.ohm-m.
LAYER III
This is modeled as wet sandstone { fine coarse grained ] with
base at 36.7m and resistivity of 5500 ohm-m.
LAYER IV
This is modeled as saturated Sandstone with base below 50m and
resistivity of 4800 ohm-m.

FOR VES 3
LAYER I
This is modeled as Top Sandy soil for Agriculture and Foundation.
The base is at 4m and resistivity of 480.ohm-m.

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LAYER II
This is modeled as sandstone with base at 9.3m and resistivity of
2200.ohm-m.
LAYER III
This is modeled as saturated Sandstone with base below 55m and
resistivity of 9100 ohm-m.
LAYER III
This is modeled as wet sandstone { fine coarse grained ] with
base at 63.3m and resistivity of 3600 ohm-m.
LAYER IV
This is modeled as saturated Sandstone with base below 50m and
resistivity of 2100 ohm-m. The geo-electric section is shown
below.

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