You are on page 1of 23

Ranks and insignia of the Heer (19351945)

The Heer as the German army and part of the Wehrmacht


inherited its uniforms and rank structure from the
Reichsheer of the Weimar Republic (19211935). There
were few alterations and adjustments made as the army
grew from a limited peacetime defense force of 100,000
men to a war-ghting force of several million men.

listed uniforms it was jacquard-woven (BeVo) or sometimes machine-embroidered in silver-grey rayon, for ocers machine- or hand-embroidered in white silk or bright
aluminum wire, and for generals hand-embroidered in
gold bullion.[3] The backing was badge-cloth (Abzeichentuch), a close-woven velvetish fabric; this was originally Reichsheer grey, but in late 1935 the renamed
These ranks and insignia were specic to the Heer and
in special cases to senior Wehrmacht ocers in the in- Heer changed its Abzeichentuch color to a dark blue-green
dependent services; the uniforms and rank systems of called aschengrn (bottle-green).
the other branches of the Wehrmacht, the Luftwae (Air The war brought several variations to the breast eagle, alForce) and Kriegsmarine (Navy), were dierent, as were though it should be kept in mind that none of them was rethose of the SS which was a Party organization outside placed or de-authorized, and all were being worn side-bythe Wehrmacht. The Nazi Party also had its own series side at wars end. When hostilities began in 1939, on the
of paramilitary uniforms and insignia.
enlisted Feldbluse or eld blouse the eagle was changed
from silver-white to matte grey for reduced visibility; and
in 1940 backings began to be produced in eld-grey (feldgrau). Another version appeared with the advent of the
1 Insignia
Model 1944 Field Blouse, which used a triangular backing for speed and simplicity of manufacture. Very late in
1.1 National Emblem (breast eagle): Ho- the war some Hoheitszeichen were simply printed on thin
heitszeichen or Wehrmachtsadler
fabric.
Breast eagles
1935
1939
1940

Machine-embroidered Panzer Hoheitszeichen

There were also versions for other uniforms: both white


and grey variants on black for the Panzer uniform,
and in dull grey-blue on tan backing for the tropical
(Afrikakorps) uniform. A stamped metal pin-on breast
eagle was worn with the ocers white summer tunic.

1944
Tropical

The Reichswehr's visual acknowledgement of the new


National Socialist reality came on 17 February 1934, 1.2 Collar
patch
when the Defense Ministry[1] ordered the Nazi Party
Kragenspiegel)
eagle-and-swastika, now Germany's National Emblem, to
be worn on uniform blouses and headgear eective 1
May. The design adopted, in silver for the Reichsheer CO version
(army) and in gold for the Reichsmarine (navy), was a (embroidered)
stylized eagle with outstretched, beveled wings clutching a wreathed mobile Hakenkreuz, later to be called
the Wehrmachtsadler (armed forces eagle).[2] On tunics this took the form of a cloth patch about 9 cm (3")
dress
wide worn on the right breast, above the pocket. For en1

(Kragenpatte,

1 INSIGNIA

eld
Waenfarbe (armored corps)

Enlisted version

eld 1934

Doppellitze, ca. 1900

Waenfarbe (artillery)

In 19th century German armies, Guard and other elite


regiments wore lengths of double braid (Doppellitze) encircling all or most of the collar as a mark of distinction.
By the middle of World War I these ornate collars had
been reduced to an embroidered representation of short
lengths of braid joined at the ends, sewn to patches worn
at the front of the collar. When the Reichsheer was established in 1921 as Germanys rst national army [5] Litzen
were prescribed as the universal collar device for all personnel other than generals, and the Third Reich continued
the practice.
However, for clarication it has to be distinguished between collar patch (de: Kragenpatte or Kragenspiegel),
and NCO braid (Unterozierslitze or Kragenlitze) the
status symbol of all German NCO ranks encircling the
collar of the uniform tunic. An NCO wore both, collar
patches, and the collar encircling braid. Commissioned
ocers wore only collar patches.
1.2.1 Design and versions
Major with Kragenpatten,[4] ca. 1918

eld & service


Waenfarbe (cavalry corps)

NCO version
(machine-woven with encircling braid)

dress

On both collar points of any uniform jacket there was a


collar patch. Each patch consisted of the padding, and
two parallel facings (de: Patten), the so-called Litzenspiegel, symbolising the double braid of the 19th century.
The padding of full-dress collar patches showed the
wearers Waenfarbe (en: corps-, weapon-, or branch
color). The dress tunic version was embroidered in ne
aluminum thread on a patch of badge cloth (de: Abzeichentuch). The backing also showed through in the space
between the two parallel facings of the collar patch, and
formed so a colour center stripe.
see main article Corps colours of the German Heer
(19351945)
On eld and service uniforms, beginning in late 1935,
the collar patch was dark bottle-green to match the collar;
the Waenfarbe showed through (in fact colored cord
was sewn into) the center strip of each braid, the Litzenspiegel.

1.2

Collar patch (Kragenpatte, Kragenspiegel)

For enlisted men, service collar patches were machinewoven in silver-grey rayon; COs were embroidered more
elaborately in white silk or aluminium thread, and were
somewhat larger to match their higher collars.
NCOs (de: Unteroziere) wore standard enlisted collar patches but were distinguished by a strip of 9mm
silver-grey diamond-woven rayon braid (UnterooziersTressen, NCO-Tressen), sewn around the collar, except
on the dress, where the NCO-Tresse was bright aluminum. However, the aluminum-embroidered NCOTressen on dress uniforms (de: Ausgangsuniform/ Pardeuniform) encircled the collars upper edge, the simpler
NCO-Tressen on service or eld uniform encircled the
collars lower edge.
1.2.2

Universal design from 1938

Enlisted versions
Field tunic with collar patches and NCO-Tressen, post 1940.

Dress

enlisted eld uniform as per wartime regulations, many


opted to have their green-and-silver collar patches added
instead of (or on top of) the factory versions.
Enlisted versions, tropic

Field, 1938

eld & service

On olive tropical uniforms the collar patches were tan


with dull grey-blue Litzenspiegel for all personnel; ocers
again
sometimes added their green collar patches. TropBy 1938 the fast-growing Heer had found that it was imical
NCO
collar Tressen were copper-brown, or somepractical, for the enlisted eld uniform, to manufacture
times
olive
drab.
and stock a multitude of collar patches in assorted Waffenfarben which also had to be sewn on and frequently
changed by unit tailors. Accordingly, new universal collar 1.2.3 Armored vehicle uniforms
patches were introduced with the Litzenspiegel and Mittlestreife woven in dark green to match the backing patch, rank insignias armored troops
and which could be applied at the factory; Waenfarbe
was now displayed on the shoulder-straps, which simply
buttoned on and were easily switched.
Field, 1940

With the wartime change to lower-visibility insignia enlisted collar patches were woven in matte mouse-grey
with eld-grey stripes, which were at rst sewn to green
collar patches as before but increasingly directly to the
collar, which beginning in 1940 was made in feldgrau like
the uniform; grey collar patches were never produced.
The troops however preferred the green patches (and collars) if they had or could get them, especially on clean
uniforms for walking-out; and long-service veterans took
particular pride in pre-38 versions.
In contrast, ocers service uniform collar patches never
changed. While most ocers in the front lines wore the

collar patch

shoulder strap

1 INSIGNIA

Deaths-head

Waenfarbe (armored corps)

AFV crew collar insignia

Waenfarbe (assault artillery)

NCOs` collar patch and Tressen of I.R. Grodeutschland

1.2.4 Infanterie Regiment Grodeutschland


In June 1939, the Wehrmacht Heer wanted to renew its
ties with the Old Army tradition by introducing a new uniform for its most prestigious unit: Wachregiment Berlin
which was renamed Infantry Regiment Grodeutschland. The new dress uniform for I.R. Grodeutschland
had an elongated collar patch with single Litzenspiegel.
Although shown to the press, this new uniform was not
provided to the unit due to the outbreak of WWII and
was placed in depot storage.

A major exception to the wearing of Litzen was the 1.2.5 General Sta Corps Ocers
panzer wrap (de: Panzerjacke), the double-breasted
jacket worn by crews of tanks and other armored vehicles.
When the Panzertruppe were established in 1935 they
were issued a distinctive black uniform and as a badge
the Totenkopf or Deaths-head, versions of which had formerly been worn by the Imperial tank corps and various
cavalry units. These skulls took the form of white-metal
pins attached to black Kragenpatten which were edged in
Waenfarbe piping.
In mid-1940 crews of assault guns (Sturmgeschtzen) received a uniform of their own, identical in cut to the Panzerjacke but in standard eld-grey, which they wore with
red artillery piping. Over the course of the war a bewildering and changing series of regulations governed the
uniforms and insignia for assault guns, tank destroyers,
armored cars and self-propelled guns (SPG). Depending
on the unit and the date either the black or grey wrap
or the standard Feldbluse might be authorized, and on
the grey assault gun jacket the regulation collar patches
could be black with skulls, or grey with skulls, Litzen, or
no device at all. The result in practice was chaos; wartime
photos show a mix of uniforms and insignia worn not only
in the same battalion, but even in the same vehicle.
Ocially both colours of panzer wrap were working and
eld uniforms to be worn only in or around the vehicle; this regulation was universally ignored. Panzertruppen were issued standard uniforms for service-dress and
walking out but rarely wore them, much preferring their Rudolf Christoph Freiherr von Gersdor as Oberst im Generalunique jackets.
stab.
In North Africa, AFV crews wore the same tropical
Collar patches of General Sta ocers
uniform as the other branches, including collar patches;
many tankers however pinned their Totenkopf badges to
their lapels.

1.2

Collar patch (Kragenpatte, Kragenspiegel)

eld & service

dress uniform

OKW/OKH dress uniform

Waenfarbe (generalsta)

Generalstaboziere were ocers carefully selected and


trained to represent the German General Sta Corps in
both command and sta functions. They ranked from
Hauptmann im Generalstab (captain) through Oberst i.G.
(colonel). All were, before 1939, graduates of the Military Academy, the Kriegsakademie. On division stas
they held the position of Ia (operational chief of sta) or
Ib (chief of the rear echelon). In the higher echelons, the
intelligence and training sta sections were most of the
time in the personal charge of General Sta Corps ocers. The General Sta Ocers had their own distinctive Litzen called alt-Preuische (old Prussian), or Kolbenstickerei (lobe-embroidery). These were the same
whether on carmine dress Kragenpatten or green service
patches; colored Litzenspiegel were unnecessary. General
Sta ocers assigned to the supreme headquarters (the
Reichskriegsministerium, later the OKH and the OKW),
the Kriegsakademie, and military attaches were further
distinguished by having their Litzen in gold rather than
silver. These Generalstaboziere were called des Generalstabs, Oberst d.G., etc. The special golden Litzen
were abolished in November 1942. Only Military attaches kept their Litzen as long as they were in their
present position. The Fhrer wanted a closer union between the front and the OKW and OKH.
In addition to their collar patches, General Sta Ocers
wore trouser-stripes, of the same design as generals but
in carmine rather than scarlet.

1.2.6

Generals

Walter von Reichenau

... as Generalmajor OF-6

1 INSIGNIA

... as Field Marshal OF-10


From 1900 Prussian generals had worn ornate collar
patches embroidered in a style called alt-Larisch, which
had rst been worn in the 18th century by the 26th
(lterer von Larisch) Infantry Regiment; the Reichsheer
and the Wehrmacht continued the tradition. These devices, sometimes called Arabesken (arabesques), were
embroidered in gold bullion or golden synthetic Celleon
on Hochrot (scarlet) backing. Field Marshals wore the
same Arabesken as generals until April 1941, when they
were authorized a longer variant with three rather than
two iterations of the repeating pattern, for a total of six
prongs. In some cases GFM did not bother to replace
their generals tabs, or did so only on their dress uniforms.
General ocers of the Special Troop Service (Truppensonderdienst TDS) and of the specialist careers (medical, veterinary, ordnance, and motor park) wore the same GFM von Rundstedt in infantry ocers tunic as Chef of the 18th
insignia until April 1944, when they were ordered to I.R.
exchange their scarlet Kragenpatten for alt-Larisch tabs
backed in their respective Waenfarbe:
the late 18th century. These generals were authorized to
wear the tunic and insignia of an ocer of the regiment,
medical cornower blue Waenfarbe;
including ordinary ocers Litzen. Field Marshal Gerd
von Rundstedt, Chef of the 18th Infanterie Regiment,
veterinary carmine Waenfarbe;
wore a big 18 on his shoulderboards, and for everyday
ordnance orange[6] Waenfarbe;
wear favored the ornamented tunic of an infantry ocer
with white piping rather than a generals uniform.
motor park pink Waenfarbe;
Hitler appointed rst Generaloberst Hans von Seeckt, an TDS administrative bright blue Waenfarbe;
cient Chef der Heeresleitung, to be Chef of the 67th Infanterie Regiment on his 70th birthday in April 1936, a
TDS judiciary wine red Waenfarbe.
few months before he died. Only seven German generals
were appointed Chefs: in addition to Seeckt and RundIn October 1944, the wear-out period of the scarlet back- stedt they were General der Infanterie Ritter von Epp
ing color for Generals of the specialist careers was ex- (Chef of the 61st Infanterie Regiment in Munich); Gentended for an undetermined period.
eralfeldmarschall von Mackensen (Chef of the 5th KavalThese arabesque collar patches are still worn today by lerie Regiment in Stolp); Generaloberst von Fritsch (Chef
general ocers of the present-day Bundeswehr, albeit in of the 12th Artillerie Regiment in Schwerin); and Generalfeldmarschall von Bhm-Ermolli (Chef of the 28th
more stylized form.
Infanterie Regiment in Troppau). Generalfeldmarschall
von Blomberg was appointed Chef of Infanterie RegiChef In the Wehrmacht Heer, upon retirement, certain ment 73 and wore a big 73 superimposed over the crossed
senior German generals were awarded the honorary post batons of his shoulder board, but on 4 February 1938 he
of Chef of a regiment, much like the Honorary Colonel was dismissed and his name was deleted from the seniorin the British Army. It was a German custom dating from ity list.

1.3

Shoulder-straps (Schulterklappen) and shoulderboards (Schulterstcke)

tern would be used through the end of the war, although


in 1940 manufacture reverted to eld-grey uniform cloth,
and as usual alternate versions were made to go with the
Panzer uniform (black), tropical uniform (olive cotton)
and HBT summer uniform (reed-green twill). Schulterklappen were not worn with the fatigue uniform, nor with
camouage smocks and parkas which used an alternate
system of rank insignia.
For junior enlisted men (Mannschaften), rank insignia if
any was worn on the left sleeve. However the epaulettes
did indicate the wearers unit (usually regiment or independent battalion) together with his sub-branch if any,
machine-embroidered in branch-color. For example, a
Schulterklappe with rose-pink piping and number 4
would indicate the 4th Panzer Regiment; but if it carried a
pink number 4 and letter A it would indicate the 4th
Armored Reconnaissance (Aufklrungs) Battalion. The
German Army used a very large assortment of Latin initials, Gothic initials, script ciphers, Arabic numerals, Roman numerals and symbols to designate all its various service branches and installations. Before the war, shoulderbuttons were embossed with the number of the wearers
company as well, this practice was discontinued for the
duration.
Beginning in January 1940, shoulder-straps with unit insignia were (supposed to be) phased out as a security measure, and removable fabric loops with devices were issued
Shoulder-straps (Schulterklappen) and instead. In May 1944 the embroidery was changed from
waenfarbe to light gray.

Kragenpatte & Epaulette of von Rundstedt

1.3

shoulderboards (Schulterstcke)

1.3.1

Enlisted men

1935
1938
1940
Panzer

Non-commissioned ocers wore their rank insignia on


their shoulder-straps, consisting of braid and pips (pyramidal stars). An Unteroziers (corporals) epaulette
was edged with Tresse on three sides and an Unterfeldwebels (sergeants) on all four. Senior NCOs (Unterofziere mit Portepee) added one to three pips; in addition,
their unit identiers took the form of white-metal pins
rather than embroidery.
Shoulder-straps were made in both a standard width (4.5
cm, 1") and a wider one for three-digit unit numbers
(5.3cm, 2), and in three lengths depending on the size
of the man. There was in addition an extra-large size for
the overcoat (Mantel).

Tropical
The Reichsheers shoulder-straps were very similar to
those of World War I, made of feldgrau uniform cloth
with pointed or gable button ends. In December 1934
the material was changed to grey badge-cloth (Abzeichentuch) and in September 1935 changed again to
dark bottle-green (aschengrn). These rst pattern
shoulder-straps were not edged in Waenfarbe piping.
In 1938, simultaneous with the removal of Waenfarbe
from eld-uniform collar patches, new shoulder-straps
were issued. These second pattern straps had round
rather than pointed ends, and were edged on three sides
with wool (later rayon) piping in Waenfarbe. This pat-

1.3.2 Ocers
Ocers shoulderboards were constructed from Russia
braid, an aluminum-thread double piping. Companygrade ocers (Leutnant through Hauptmann/Rittmeister)
wore epaulettes constructed by wrapping two side-by-side
lengths of braid around the buttonhole and back, giving the appearance of eight parallel cords; the whole was
sewn to an underlay (Unterlagen) of Waenfarbe badgecloth. Until 1938 the underlay was of the same outer dimensions as the braid, and only visible edge-on; in that
year the underlay was made wider, so as to create the impression of edge piping like the enlisted shoulder-strap.

1 INSIGNIA

1.3.3 Generals

Generals shoulderboards, Wehrmacht (Heer)

1 Generalfeldmarschall (OF10, ve-star rank,


shoulder strap from April 1941);
2 Generalfeldmarschall (OF10, ve-star rank,
shoulder strap prior to April 1941);
3 Generaloberst (OF9, four-star rank);
4 General of the branch (OF8, three-star rank);
5 Generalleutnant (OF7, two-star rank); and
6 Generalmajor (OF6, one-star rank)

Cavalry Oberwachtmeister, tropical

Generals shoulderboards were constructed similarly to


those of eld-grade ocers, but comprised a length of
silver Russia braid between two braided cords of gold
bullion or Celleon. Since the resulting combination was
wider, generals boards were plaited in four 'loops rather
than ve. Their buttons were gilt, and rank was indicated
by zero to three silver pips, or crossed batons in the case
of eld marshals. The underlay was scarlet, except (from
1944) for generals of sta corps, who were instructed to
wear Waenfarbe instead.
In April 1941, Generalfeldmarschall epaulettes were
changed to incorporate a central gold cord instead of silver.

Colonels-in-chief wearing that uniform wore gold generRank was indicated by zero to two gilt-metal pips; unit als shoulderboards underlaid with the Waenfarbe of the
designators were also of gilt metal.
regiment rather than scarlet; GFM von Rundstedt someField-grade ocer (Stabsozier) shoulderboards were times simply pinned his crossed batons to an infantry
made by plaiting together double widths of Russia braid colonels epaulettes.
and looping them to form a buttonhole, sewn to a Waffenfarbe underlay; rank again was displayed by zero to
1.3.4 Retired personnel
two gilt pips.
Once the war began, dull grey aluminum braid appeared, By order of Marshal Hindenburg in March 1932, soldiers
who retired after 15 years of service received the right to
but bright aluminum continued in use.

1.5

Belt buckles (Koppelschlsser)

9
1.4.2 Ocers old-style eld cap or crusher (Feldmtze lterer Art)
1.4.3 Panzer beret
1.4.4 Garrison cap (Feldmtze)
1.4.5 Mountain, tropical, and M43 eld caps
(Gebirgs-, Tropen- und Einheitsfeldmtzen)
1.4.6 Steel helmet (Stahlhelm)
See also Stahlhelm

Generalmajor a.D.

1.4.7 Pith helmet (Tropenhelm)


wear the uniform of the unit they left. The shoulderboards
and shoulder straps of retired soldiers had a bridle 1.5 cm 1.5 Belt buckles (Koppelschlsser)
wide attached under the middle.

1.4

Headgear

Caps and helmets bore two common insignia elements, in


various forms: the National Emblem (eagle and swastika)
and the national colors. World War I caps had carried
dual cockades or roundels, one in Imperial black-whitered and one in the colors of the particular State within the
Empire. The Reichsheer changed this to a single cockade
in the Weimar Republics black, red and gold; almost as
soon as Hitler took power he restored the pre-1919 tricolor ag, and ordered the Army to return to black-whitered.
1.4.1

Peaked cap (Schirmmtze)

Enlisted Koppelschlo

Belt buckles for enlisted men were of box type, made of


aluminum or stamped steel with a pebbled surface, and
bearing a circular device with a version of the Hoheitszeichen called the Army eagle or Heeresadler (an eagle with
downswept wings clutching an unwreathed swastika) surmounted by the motto Gott mit uns, or God with us. For
eld wear these were usually painted eld-grey to reduce
visibility; on the other hand dress buckles were silverwashed.
Ocers eld and service buckles were of a two-pronged
frame type. With dress uniform ocers wore a belt of
silver braid with a circular silver-washed or -plated aluminum buckle, in the form of an oakleaf wreath surrounding a Heeresadler. Generals were the same but gilt
or gold-plated.
With the tropical uniform and its belt of cotton webbing,
ocers wore a buckle identical to the dress buckle but
painted olive-drab.

Schirmmtze cap badges

2 Ranks and rank insignia

10

2.1
2.1.1

Rank tables
Mannschaften (Enlisted personnel)

Enlisted collar Litzen


1935
1938
1940
Dress
Tropical
Red Waenfarbe: artillery
Enlisted Schulterklappen
1935

Hauptfeldwebel/Hauptwachtmeister: Hauptfeldwebel
was not a rank but an appointment: the administrative
and mustering NCO of a company and the commanders
logistical assistant. He was therefore roughly analogous
to a Company Sergeant-Major or First Sergeant, although
his duties did not usually involve combat leadership. Der
Spie [13] or die Kompanie-Mutter, as he was called, was
not necessarily the ranking Unterozier in the company,
especially since typically two of the platoons were commanded by senior NCOs rather than ocers. A Hauptfeldwebel however had to be of Portepee grade; a junior
NCO lling the role was a Hauptfeldwebeldiensttuer, one
doing Hauptfeldwebel duties.
The insignia for a Hauptfeldwebel was a pair of NCO
Tressen encircling each lower sleeve, nicknamed piston
rings;" he also carried a leather Meldetasche or reportcase tucked into his tunic front.

1938

2.1.3 Senior non-commissioned specialist ocers

1940

In two specialist career paths it was possible to attain rank


above Stabsfeldwebel: fortications engineers (Festungspioniere) and farriers (Hufbeschlagschmieder).[14] They
were actual NCOs with command authority, not Heeresbeamten (uniformed Army civil servants). There was no
direct Anglosphere equivalent; perhaps the closest examples of the time would be the British Royal Navys and
United States Navys ranks of Warrant Ocer.

Panzer uniform
Tropical
White Waenfarbe: infantry, rose pink: armor

2.1.2

RANKS AND RANK INSIGNIA

Non-commissioned ocers (Unteroziere)

NCO Litzen and Tresse

These men wore shoulderboards braided in a unique pattern, orange-red and silver on black underlay with Gothic
Fp for fortress engineers,[15] and gold-yellow and silver
on carmine with a horseshoe device for farriers.[16]

1935
2.1.4 Ocer candidates (Fhnriche)
1938
Ocer candidate collar insignia
1940
Ozier-Bewerber
Dress
Tropical
Rose-pink Waenfarbe: armored troops
NCO Schulterklappen

Ozier-Anwrter
Oberfhnrich

1935
2.1.5 Ocers (Oziere)
1938
Ocers collar insignia
1940
Panzer uniform
Tropical
Field and service

2.2

Smock/parka rank insignia

11
Unterfeldwebel

Dress
Feldwebel

Tropical [17]
Gold-yellow Waenfarbe: cavalry
2.1.6

General ocers and marshals (Generle)

In addition to their alt-Larisch collar tabs and braided


gold epaulettes, general ocers uniforms were distinguished by gold rather than silver cap badges, cap cords,
breast eagles, belt buckles and buttons, a pair of 40mm
Hochrot (scarlet) stripes down the outside of each trouserleg, overcoat lapels faced in scarlet, and dress uniforms Ocers
piped in Hochrot rather than Waenfarbe.
From May 1944 generals in the various sta corps (medical, legal, TSD etc.) were supposed to replace Hochrot
with the appropriate Waenfarben of their branches of
service; in practice this directive was imperfectly heeded
and a subsequent order extended the wear-out date for
scarlet insignia indenitely.

2.2

Oberfeldwebel

Smock/parka rank insignia

Stabsfeldwebel

Leutnant

Oberleutnant

Hauptmann

Major
Oberleutnant rank insignia

On camouage smocks, camouage and winter parkas,


mountain windbreakers and paratroop jump smocks,
epaulettes were not worn. Ocers and NCOs instead
wore sleeve rank insignia made up of bars and oak leaves.

Oberstleutnant

Non-commissioned ocers

Unterozier
Oberst

12

3 ARMED FORCES OFFICIALS AND SONDERFHRER

General ocers

Generalmajor

Generalleutnant

HV (de: Heeresverwaltung, Army Administration) yellow metal


emblem

General

Generaloberst

(Intendanten) in ranks from captain to lieutenant general; the lower administrative ocers (Zahlmeister) in the
ranks of rst and second lieutenant, and the judge advocates (Richter) in ranks from captain to lieutenant general. At this time all personnel of the Field Post Oce
were made soldiers as well, but formed a corps of their
own rather than belonging to the TSD. It was also made
possible for qualied reserve technical service ocials to
become reserve ocers of the motor maintenance troops.
The ocials had titles, not ranks: Intendant, Direktor,
Rat, Vorsteher, Inspektor, Meister, Assistent. This is a
complex subject as each branch had its own titles.

Generalfeldmarschall
3.1.1 Military ocials

2.3

3
3.1

Ranks at the Private/Senior Private Shoulderboards With certain exceptions, military oflevels
cials (de: Militr-Beamte) wore shoulderboards similar

Armed Forces ocials and Sonderfhrer


Armed Forces ocials (Wehrmachtbeamte)

Ocials in administrative, legal, and technical service


positions are a category peculiar to the German Armed
Forces. They consist of civil service personnel performing functions within the Armed Forces and are recruited,
in part, from former professional non-commissioned ocers who became military candidates for civil service (de:
Militranwrter) at the end of their 12-year contractual
period of active military service.

to those of soldiers of equivalent rank, but distinguished


by the addition of dark green elements: those equivalent to generals had a central cord in their braided shoulderboards which incorporated green chevrons, and those
equivalent to ocers wore a narrow green stripe between
the rows of braid. WO-equivalent ocials wore a complex braided shoulderboard made of green, black and silver cords. In nearly all cases the shoulderboard underlay
was a double layer of dark green under Nebenfarbe, and
metal pins with the HV (Heeresverwaltung, Heer/ army
administration) cipher were worn.

Certain services had insignia of their own: for example


the Feldpost (en: Field post oce) wore shoulderboards
with gold rather than green elements and the initials FP;
and musical ocials wore silver-and-red shoulderboards
with a lyre insignia. Beamten in the employ of a military
administration
authority in the occupied territories wore
Up to 1944, none of these ocials were classied as solMV
pins
(de:
abbreviation
to Militrverwaltung) rather
diers; in that year certain groups were converted into ofthan
HV
ciphers.
cers in the Special Troop Service (Truppensonderdienst
or TSD). These were the higher administrative ocers Most ocials wore in addition to their dark green Waf-

3.2

Sonderfhrer (Specialist leaders)

13

fenfarbe a secondary colour (Nebenfarbe) denoting their sides in Nebenfarbe; similarly ocials in the Middle
branch:
and Elevated services wore ocer-pattern Litzen, again
In March 1940 distinct Nebenfarben were abolished and with Nebenfarbe-piped patches. Ocials of the Higher
Services wore unique Kragenpatten with alt-Preussische
replaced with light grey.
Litzen in gold like Oziere des Generalstabs, but on dark
green with, again, Nebenfarbe piping. General ocerSee also
equivalents wore green patches with generals arabesques,
similarly bordered.
main article Corps colours of the Heeresverwaltung
(HV)
Rank insignias to ocials of the Militrverwaltung (MV) 3.1.2 Beamter auf Kriegsdauer
In addition to the career Beamten, wartime needs led to
the creation of Ocials for the duration of the war, or
Beamter auf Kriegsdauer. These men had needed skills
but either did not possess all the qualications to become
full-edged Beamten, or were eectively drafted from
civilian jobs. The matter was further confused by the fact
that Beamter a. K. did the same jobs and held the same
titles as career ocials.
Nonetheless, Beamter a. K. wore entirely distinct collar
patches. The backing patch was large and piped on three
General ocer ranks (1 to 3) and Ocer ranks (4 to 6)
sides like that worn by career Beamten, but was light grey
edged in green. The device was a rectangle pointed at
Shoulder straps
the upper end with braid down the center, much like a
British generals gorget patch, the colors indicating the
File 2: Rank insignias to ocials on the Reichs degree of the Beamters service: grey with green braid
court-martial (Reichskriegsgericht)
for basic services, silver with green braid for middle and
elevated services, and gold on gold for higher services.
3.1.3 Military Supreme Court ocials (Wehrmachtbeamte beim Reichskriegsgericht)
Ocials of the Wehrmacht who worked in Military
Supreme Courts wore shoulder straps without the HV
and had the secondary colour of Bordeaux red (Bordorot).

General ocer ranks (1-2), Ocer ranks (3 to 7), and Warrant


ocer ranks (8-9)

Shoulder straps 1935 until 1945


Collar patches Heeresbeamten wore distinctive collar
patches; these tabs indicated not the ocials rank or title,
but rather the grade of the service in which the ocial
was employed. These were classied by the minimum educational requirement, and ranged from Einfacher Dienst
(Basic Services), for which a grade-school education was
sucient, through Mitteler (Middle) and Gehobener (Elevated) Dienst, to Hherer Dienst (Higher Services) which
required a university degree.

3.2

Sonderfhrer (Specialist leaders)

Certain positions in ranks from major to lieutenant and in


senior non-commissioned ocer ranks could be lled by
specialists in foreign languages, propaganda work, medical service, veterinary service and the like who had not
been trained as soldiers but whose skills were needed as
Specialist leaders (Sonderfhrer). They received the
pay applicable to the position they were holding, but only
by virtue of their temporary appointment and without the
command or disciplinary powers vested in the rank.

Sonderfhrer wore the standard military uniform but their


collars and cap bands were blue-grey rather than Army
green, with unique shoulder and collar insignia. The collar patch was blue-grey with a gable-end device like that
Ocials in the Basic Services wore collar patches sim- of Beamter a. K. in matt aluminum, with aluminum braid
ilar to (but larger than) enlisted soldiers, grey Litzen down the center. Epaulette patterns changed twice during
on dark green Patten, but the patch was piped on three the war. The original patterns, worn until March 1940

14

7 BIBLIOGRAPHY

and again after December 1942, were narrow versions


of Army shoulderboards: a single doubled strip of aluminum Russia braid for company-grade ocer equivalents, and a single braided strip for eld-ocer equivalents; NCO equivalents were similar to junior ocers but
green. Instead of rank pips, Sonderfhrer wore braided
gold rings encircling the shoulderstraps. From 1940-42
an entirely dierent type of shoulderboard was worn: this
was like the Army equivalent but the braid used incorporated repeating black-white-red chevrons, giving the
whole a checkered look. Ordinary rank pips and specialization pins were worn with these Second Regulation
epaulettes.
In France. In the center an interpreter (Dolmetscher), Sonderfhrer (Z).
The Radio service of the OKW in 1939. On the far
right a Sonderfhrer.
Rommel and Bayerlein interviewed by a Sonderfhrer.

See also
World War II German uniform
Waenfarbe
Glossary of German World War II military terms
Comparative ocer ranks of World War II

Notes

[1] Reichswehrministerium, National Defense Ministry"; it


would not be renamed Reichskriegsministerium, National
War Ministry until the following year.
[2] The Luftwae, although a branch of the Wehrmacht,
would use its own eagle design.
[3] Gold bullion in this context does not (usually) refer to
actual gold, but to gold-colored wire, typically a bronze
alloy
[4] The term Kragenspiegel is post-1945.
[5] The Deutsches Heer of Imperial times comprised several
State armies under a single (Prussian) General Sta (Generalstab).
[6] Before June 1944 their Waenfarbe was bright red.
[7] These ranks were, in eect, dead end paygrades for
passed-over soldiers
[8] There is confusion in the published sources; see discussion
[9] Portepee sword-knot": senior NCOs wore swords with
dress uniform

[10] Closer to a British than an American corporal in status


and responsibilities; Unterozier was the normal rank for
a squad (section) leader
[11] Junker historically meaning Young Nobleman otherwise
Young Lord
[12] Duden; Meaning of Junker, in German.
[13] The spear. This may refer to the sergeant of a intlockera company having carried a polearm rather than a musket, or it may relate to Latin pilus prior leading spear,
the senior centurion in a cohort.
[14] Farriers, blacksmiths specializing in the shoeing and care
of horses, were a very important component of the WWII
German army, 7080% of which depended on horsedrawn transport. A standard infantry division had nearly
5,000 horses, one for every three soldiers.
[15] Combining the Waenfarben of the ordnance and engineer branches
[16] Combining the Waenfarben of the cavalry and veterinary branches; farriers were responsible for basic equine
healthcare and assisting veterinary ocers
[17] All tropical uniforms were issued with generic collar
patches; however, ocers frequently added the greenbacked Litzen and sometimes the entire green collar from
the feldgrau uniform
[18] Chaplains wore no epaulettes, a cross on the front of the
cap, and a cross (Protestant) or crucix (Catholic) around
the neck. In the eld chaplains wore a Red Cross armband
with purple borders.
[19] A Feldbischof did not wear generals collar Arabeske, but
rather litzen in gold on a violet backing; his overcoat lapel
facings were also violet rather than red.
[20] In October 1942 all infantry Schtzen were redesignated
Grenadiere. In July 1943 all Panzerschtzen and motorized Grenadiere were redesignated Panzergrenadiere.
[21] Traditional ranks in certain regiments
[22] Confusingly, Oberjger was the light-infantry equivalent
of Unterozier
[23] In artillery regiments of Panzer divisions from 12/41

6 External links
German WWII Army & SS Rank & Insignia

7 Bibliography
Angolia, John R. Uniforms & Traditions of the German Army, 19331945, Vol. 1, R. James Bender
Publishing, (1992), ISBN 0-912138-30-0.
Hettler, Eberhard.
Uniformen der Deutschen
Wehrmacht : Heer, Kriegsmarine, Luftwae. Berlin
: O. Dietrich, 1939.

15

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

8.1

Text

Ranks and insignia of the Heer (19351945) Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ranks_and_insignia_of_the_Heer_(1935%E2%80%


931945)?oldid=701977938 Contributors: Necrothesp, Rich Farmbrough, Tabletop, Rjwilmsi, Marcus Cyron, Charlik, Kintetsubualo,
Gilliam, Esrever, Hotspur23, Courcelles, Aldis90, Jmg38, Lklundin, Nyttend, FlieGerFaUstMe262, R'n'B, CommonsDelinker, Gpaetz,
Nazgul02, SGT141, Rumiton, Solicitr, Wschroedter, OberRanks, Mild Bill Hiccup, Sturmvogel 66, Londonclanger, HappyJake, Addbot,
Ayman Qasrawi, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Fraggle81, AnomieBOT, Floquenbeam, Xqbot, Hamidejaz, Kierzek, Diwas, Nightsturm, HRoestBot, Alexandre2008, JMRAMOS0109, Max-78, John of Reading, GoingBatty, Slightsmile, TuHan-Bot, Moxtheox, Wieralee, Cobaltcigs,
Liuthar, ClueBot NG, Laurindil, HHaeckel, Widr, Neogeolegend, BG19bot, Bearcat8, Mich.kramer, Pratyya Ghosh, DA - DP, Mogism, AntiMatter Wulf, Little green rosetta, Georgethewriter, Troy von Tempest, HHubi, Filedelinkerbot, Minipup, MarkFilgerleskiWiki,
Centenier, Uldra, Hubon and Anonymous: 39

8.2

Images

File:Ausgehuniform_Wrtt_Ulanenregiment_19_nach1900_Collar_Detail.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/


commons/b/b0/Ausgehuniform_W%C3%BCrtt_Ulanenregiment_19_nach1900_Collar_Detail.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
Ausgehuniform_Wrtt_Ulanenregiment_19_nach1900.jpg Original artist:
Photo: Andreas Praefcke

Ausgehuniform_Wrtt_Ulanenregiment_19_nach1900.jpg:

File:Balkenkreuz.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1f/Balkenkreuz.svg License: Public domain Contributors: German Junkers Ju 52 Messerschmitt Me-262
Own work and also based on Page 49 of
Original artist: David Liuzzo
File:Breast_Eagle_(Panzer).jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/32/Breast_Eagle_%28Panzer%29.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors:
FLMM_-_Nazi_badges_&_insignia_13-17.jpg Original artist: FLMM_-_Nazi_badges_&_insignia_13-17.jpg: Joe Mabel
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-022-2922-11,_Russland,_Adelbert_Schulz,_Oberstleutnant_der_Panzertruppen.jpg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7d/Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-022-2922-11%2C_Russland%2C_Adelbert_Schulz%
2C_Oberstleutnant_der_Panzertruppen.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons
by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation project. The German Federal Archive guarantees
an authentic representation only using the originals (negative and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals as provided by the
Digital Image Archive. Original artist: Kipper
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-089-3779-11A,_Russland,_Hauptmann_mit_Ritterkreuz.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/
wikipedia/commons/2/2f/Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-089-3779-11A%2C_Russland%2C_Hauptmann_mit_Ritterkreuz.jpg License: CC
BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv)
as part of a cooperation project. The German Federal Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals (negative
and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals as provided by the Digital Image Archive. Original artist: Finke
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-121-0008-13,_Polen,_Treffen_deutscher_und_sowjetischer_Soldaten.jpg
Source:
https:
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a9/Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-121-0008-13%2C_Polen%2C_Treffen_deutscher_
und_sowjetischer_Soldaten.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the
German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation project. The German Federal Archive guarantees an authentic
representation only using the originals (negative and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals as provided by the Digital Image
Archive. Original artist: Ehlert, Max
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-208-0021-25A,_Russland-Nord,_Oberfeldwebel_der_Panzertruppen.jpg
Source:
https:
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-208-0021-25A%2C_Russland-Nord%2C_Oberfeldwebel_
der_Panzertruppen.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal
Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation project. The German Federal Archive guarantees an authentic representation
only using the originals (negative and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals as provided by the Digital Image Archive.
Original artist: Koch
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-210-0112-01A,_Russland,_Panzeroffizier.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
commons/d/d5/Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-210-0112-01A%2C_Russland%2C_Panzeroffizier.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation
project. The German Federal Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals (negative and/or positive), resp. the
digitalization of the originals as provided by the Digital Image Archive. Original artist: Zoll
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-216-0404-23,_Russland-Mitte-Nord,_General_mit_Ritterkreuz.jpg
Source:
https:
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/51/Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-216-0404-23%2C_Russland-Mitte-Nord%2C_General_
mit_Ritterkreuz.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal
Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation project. The German Federal Archive guarantees an authentic representation
only using the originals (negative and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals as provided by the Digital Image Archive.
Original artist: Gellert
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-316-1188-05,_Italien,_Soldat_mit_Doppelrohr-Fernglas.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/
wikipedia/commons/5/5f/Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-316-1188-05%2C_Italien%2C_Soldat_mit_Doppelrohr-Fernglas.jpg License: CC
BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation project. The German Federal Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals (negative and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals as provided by the Digital Image Archive. Original artist:

16

8 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

Unknown<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718' title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718' src='https://upload.


wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png' width='20' height='11' srcset='https://
upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.
org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590'
/></a>
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-692-0274-06,_Russland,_Offiziere_der_Skijgerbrigade.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.
org/wikipedia/commons/1/1f/Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-692-0274-06%2C_Russland%2C_Offiziere_der_Skij%C3%A4gerbrigade.jpg
License: CC BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches
Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation project. The German Federal Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals
(negative and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals as provided by the Digital Image Archive. Original artist: Unknown
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-701-0357-14,_Russland,_Graf_von_Strachwitz_im_Gesprch_mit_Offizieren.jpg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d9/Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-701-0357-14%2C_Russland%2C_Graf_von_
Strachwitz_im_Gespr%C3%A4ch_mit_Offizieren.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to Wikimedia
Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation project. The German Federal Archive
guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals (negative and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals as provided
by the Digital Image Archive. Original artist: Utecht / trecht / Uetrecht
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-782-0050-16,_Nordafrika,_Soldat_mit_Pfaff-Nhmaschine.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.
org/wikipedia/commons/5/58/Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-782-0050-16%2C_Nordafrika%2C_Soldat_mit_Pfaff-N%C3%A4hmaschine.
jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches
Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation project. The German Federal Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals
(negative and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals as provided by the Digital Image Archive. Original artist: Borchert, Erich
(Eric)
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-786-0347-28,_Nordafrika,_Rommel_und_Bayerlein_bei_Interview.jpg
Source:
https:
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fc/Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-786-0347-28%2C_Nordafrika%2C_Rommel_und_
Bayerlein_bei_Interview.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German
Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation project. The German Federal Archive guarantees an authentic
representation only using the originals (negative and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals as provided by the Digital Image
Archive. Original artist: Valtingojer
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1975-025-12,_Wolf-Gnther_Trierenberg.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
commons/7/7a/Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1975-025-12%2C_Wolf-G%C3%BCnther_Trierenberg.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 de
Contributors: This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of
a cooperation project. The German Federal Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals (negative and/or
positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals as provided by the Digital Image Archive. Original artist: Unknown
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1976-130-51,_Rudolf-Christoph_v._Gersdorff.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
commons/0/01/Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1976-130-51%2C_Rudolf-Christoph_v._Gersdorff.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part
of a cooperation project. The German Federal Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals (negative and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals as provided by the Digital Image Archive. Original artist:
Unknown<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718' title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718' src='https://upload.
wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png' width='20' height='11' srcset='https://
upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.
org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590'
/></a>
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1981-159-22,_Luftlandetruppen_in_Transportfluzeug.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/
wikipedia/commons/b/bd/Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1981-159-22%2C_Luftlandetruppen_in_Transportfluzeug.jpg License: CC BY-SA
3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as
part of a cooperation project. The German Federal Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals (negative and/or
positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals as provided by the Digital Image Archive. Original artist: Unknown
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1984-019-20,_Eduard_Dietl.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/05/
Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1984-019-20%2C_Eduard_Dietl.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to
Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation project. The German Federal
Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals (negative and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals
as provided by the Digital Image Archive. Original artist: Bauriedl
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1987-047-20,_Gerd_v._Rundstedt.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/
b6/Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1987-047-20%2C_Gerd_v._Rundstedt.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation project. The German
Federal Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals (negative and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the
originals as provided by the Digital Image Archive. Original artist: Bieber, E.
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1989-034-21,_Warschau,_Parade_vor_Adolf_Hitler.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/
wikipedia/commons/e/ef/Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1989-034-21%2C_Warschau%2C_Parade_vor_Adolf_Hitler.jpg License:
CC
BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv)
as part of a cooperation project. The German Federal Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals (negative
and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals as provided by the Digital Image Archive. Original artist: Mensing
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1995-082-19,_Otto_Hitzfeld.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/88/
Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1995-082-19%2C_Otto_Hitzfeld.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to
Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation project. The German Federal
Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals (negative and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals
as provided by the Digital Image Archive. Original artist: Hackel [Hackl]

8.2

Images

17

File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-2000-009-04A,_Litauen,_Soldat_mit_jdischen_Mnnern.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.


org/wikipedia/commons/6/60/Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-2000-009-04A%2C_Litauen%2C_Soldat_mit_j%C3%BCdischen_M%C3%
A4nnern.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive
(Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation project. The German Federal Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using
the originals (negative and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals as provided by the Digital Image Archive. Original artist:
Hanisch
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-2007-0205,_Paulinus_Dickopf.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/40/
Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-2007-0205%2C_Paulinus_Dickopf.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to
Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation project. The German Federal
Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals (negative and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals as
provided by the Digital Image Archive. Original artist: Do
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_169-0165,_Bei_Poltawa,_Ukrainier_in_Nationaltracht.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/
wikipedia/commons/2/29/Bundesarchiv_Bild_169-0165%2C_Bei_Poltawa%2C_Ukrainier_in_Nationaltracht.jpg License: CC BY-SA
3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part
of a cooperation project. The German Federal Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals (negative and/or
positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals as provided by the Digital Image Archive. Original artist: Unknown
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-2000-0720-500,_Kuno_Hans_von_Both.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
commons/f/f6/Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-2000-0720-500%2C_Kuno_Hans_von_Both.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors:
This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation
project. The German Federal Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals (negative and/or positive), resp. the
digitalization of the originals as provided by the Digital Image Archive. Original artist: Kempe
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-2006-1023-501,_Wnsdor,_fEinzug_der_Panzertruppen_in_ihren_neuen_Standort.jpg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-2006-1023-501%2C_W%C3%
BCnsdor%2C_fEinzug_der_Panzertruppen_in_ihren_neuen_Standort.jpg License:
CC BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors:
This
image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of a
cooperation project.
The German Federal Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals (negative and/or positive), resp.
the digitalization of the originals as provided by the Digital Image Archive.
Original
artist:
Unknown<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718' title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png'
width='20'
height='11' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050'
data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-B05284,_Walter_v._Reichenau.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ab/
Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-B05284%2C_Walter_v._Reichenau.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: This image was
provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation
project.
The German Federal Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals (negative and/or
positive), resp.
the digitalization of the originals as provided by the Digital Image Archive.
Original artist: Unknown<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718' title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718' src='https://upload.
wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png' width='20' height='11' srcset='https://
upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.
org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590'
/></a>
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-J15556,_Rudolf_Gercke,_General_der_Infanterie.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/
wikipedia/commons/0/0d/Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-J15556%2C_Rudolf_Gercke%2C_General_der_Infanterie.jpg License:
CC
BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches
Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation project. The German Federal Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals (negative and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals as provided by the Digital Image Archive.
Original artist: Unknown<a href='//www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4233718' title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png'
width='20'
height='11' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050'
data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-L24655,_Polen,_Funker_mit_Verschlsselungsgert_\char"0022\relax{}Enigma.jpg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/01/Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-L24655%2C_Polen%2C_Funker_mit_Verschl%C3%
BCsselungsger%C3%A4t_%22Enigma%22.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to Wikimedia
Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation project. The German Federal Archive
guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals (negative and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals as provided
by the Digital Image Archive. Original artist: Wiesemann
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-W0408-503,_Walter_v._Reichenau.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/
bc/Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-W0408-503%2C_Walter_v._Reichenau.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation project. The German
Federal Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals (negative and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the
originals as provided by the Digital Image Archive. Original artist: Unknown
File:Commons-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:DAK.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9a/DAK.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Deutsches
Afrika Korps Original artist: Marco Kaiser
File:FW_cam_slv.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c6/FW_cam_slv.gif License: Public domain Contributors:

18

8 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg Original artist: Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department


File:Feldgendarmerie.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1f/Feldgendarmerie.JPG License: Public domain Contributors: Photograph taken at the Imperial War Museum, London. Original artist: Hispalois
File:FeldwebelEpaulette.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/72/FeldwebelEpaulette.jpg License: Public
domain Contributors: National Archives and Records Administration Original artist: Uploaded by User:solicitr in en.wikipedia.org (le
log)
File:FestungsoberwerkmeisterSB.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/75/FestungsoberwerkmeisterSB.
jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Solicitr
File:FestungswerkmeisterSB.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/FestungswerkmeisterSB.jpg License:
CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Solicitr
File:Flag_Schutzstaffel.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/33/Flag_Schutzstaffel.svg License: Public
domain Contributors: Flag Schutzstael.gif: <a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_Schutzstaffel.gif' class='image'><img
alt='Flag
Schutzstael.gif'
src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1c/Flag_Schutzstaffel.gif/18px-Flag_
Schutzstaffel.gif' width='18' height='12' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1c/Flag_Schutzstaffel.gif/
27px-Flag_Schutzstaffel.gif 1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1c/Flag_Schutzstaffel.gif/36px-Flag_
Schutzstaffel.gif 2x' data-le-width='324' data-le-height='216' /></a> Original artist: NielsF
File:GOTT_MIT_UNS_Koppel.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/GOTT_MIT_UNS_Koppel.JPG
License: Public domain Contributors: selbst fotograert, own work Original artist: User:StromBer
File:Gend-obgf.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/56/Gend-obgf.png License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Florival fr
File:General_(Wehrmacht)_4.jpg Source:
jpg License: Public domain Contributors:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/28/General_%28Wehrmacht%29_4.

Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg Original artist: Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department


File:Generalleutnant_(Wehrmacht)_3.jpg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/57/Generalleutnant_
%28Wehrmacht%29_3.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg Original artist: Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department
File:Generaloberst_(Wehrmacht)1.jpg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/86/Generaloberst_
%28Wehrmacht%291.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Rang insignia of the German Wehrmacht, shoulder strap Colonel-general
Heer ) to 1945. Original artist: Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department
File:Genfldm.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/af/Genfldm.png License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors:
Own work Original artist: Florival fr
File:Genl-grpf.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c1/Genl-grpf.png License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors:
Own work Original artist: Florival fr
File:Genm-brgf.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2f/Genm-brgf.png License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Florival fr
File:Genob-obrstgrf.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/03/Genob-obrstgrf.png License: CC BY-SA 3.0
Contributors: Own work Original artist: Florival fr
File:HV-Heeresverwaltung.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a2/HV-Heeresverwaltung.jpg License: CC
BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Laurindil
File:Hauptmann_Epaulette.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6d/Hauptmann_Epaulette.jpg License:
Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Herr_Oberfahnrich.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b0/Herr_Oberfahnrich.jpg License: CC BYSA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: SGT141
File:Hptm_Cam_Slv.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e0/Hptm_Cam_Slv.gif License: Public domain
Contributors:
Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg Original artist: Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department
File:HufbeschlaglehrmeisterSB.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1e/HufbeschlaglehrmeisterSB.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Solicitr
File:Kriegsmarine_insignia_casco.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/42/Kriegsmarine_insignia_casco.
svg License: Public domain Contributors: This vector image includes elements that have been taken or adapted from this:
<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Heer_-_decal_for_helmet_1942.svg' class='image'><img alt='Heer - decal for helmet
1942.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/16/Heer_-_decal_for_helmet_1942.svg/16px-Heer_-_decal_
for_helmet_1942.svg.png' width='16' height='20' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/16/Heer_-_decal_
for_helmet_1942.svg/24px-Heer_-_decal_for_helmet_1942.svg.png 1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/
16/Heer_-_decal_for_helmet_1942.svg/32px-Heer_-_decal_for_helmet_1942.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='360' data-le-height='450'
/></a> Heer - decal for helmet 1942.svg (by F l a n k e r). Original artist: Lancaster, F l a n k e r
File:Leutnant_Epaulette.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/99/Leutnant_Epaulette.jpg License: Public
domain Contributors:
Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg Original artist: Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department

8.2

Images

19

File:Lt_Cam_Slv.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ac/Lt_Cam_Slv.gif License: Public domain Contributors:


Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg Original artist: Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department
File:Luftwaffe_eagle.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/13/Luftwaffe_eagle.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: Own work Original artist: Fornax (modied by DIREKTOR)
File:Luftwaffe_epaulette_Faehnrich.svg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f3/Luftwaffe_epaulette_
Faehnrich.svg License: Public domain Contributors: <a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Luftwaffe_epaulette_Unterfeldwebel.
svg' class='image'><img alt='Luftwae epaulette Unterfeldwebel.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/
3/3c/Luftwaffe_epaulette_Unterfeldwebel.svg/100px-Luftwaffe_epaulette_Unterfeldwebel.svg.png'
width='100'
height='43'
srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3c/Luftwaffe_epaulette_Unterfeldwebel.svg/150px-Luftwaffe_
epaulette_Unterfeldwebel.svg.png
1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3c/Luftwaffe_epaulette_
Unterfeldwebel.svg/200px-Luftwaffe_epaulette_Unterfeldwebel.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='400' data-le-height='170' /></a>
Original artist: Luftwae_epaulette_Unterfeldwebel.svg: Luigi Chiesa
File:Major_Cam_Slv.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f2/Major_Cam_Slv.gif License: Public domain
Contributors:
Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg Original artist: Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department
File:Major_Epaulette.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/Major_Epaulette.jpg License: Public domain
Contributors:
Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg Original artist: Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department
File:Major_Landbeck.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4f/Major_Landbeck.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Gescannt aus Hans Gais: Mit den Olga-Dragoners 1914/18, Chr. Belsersche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, 1920
Original artist: Milgesch
File:Mannschaft_Epaulette_1938.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/66/Mannschaft_Epaulette_1938.
jpg License: Public domain Contributors: National Archives and Records Administration Original artist: Uploaded by User:solicitr
File:Mannschaft_Litzen_1934.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/33/Mannschaft_Litzen_1934.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
Ozier_Litzen.jpg_ Original artist: Ozier_Litzen.jpg_: *Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department
File:Mannschaft_Litzen_1938.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/Mannschaft_Litzen_1938.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
Mannschaft_Litzen_1940.jpg Original artist: Mannschaft_Litzen_1940.jpg: *Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S.
War Department
File:Mannschaft_Litzen_1940.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f8/Mannschaft_Litzen_1940.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg Original artist: Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department
File:Mannschaft_Litzen_Dress.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/79/Mannschaft_Litzen_Dress.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
Mannschaft_Litzen_1934.jpg
Original
artist:
Mannschaft_Litzen_1934.jpg:
*Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department

*Ozier_Litzen.jpg_:

File:Mannschaft_Litzen_Trop.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/Mannschaft_Litzen_Trop.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:


Mannschaft_Litzen_1940.jpg Original artist: Mannschaft_Litzen_1940.jpg: *Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S.
War Department
File:Mannschaft_Schulterklappe_1936.jpg
Source:
Schulterklappe_1936.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e9/Mannschaft_

Mannschaft_Epaulette_1938.jpg Original artist: Mannschaft_Epaulette_1938.jpg: Uploaded by User:solicitr


File:Mannschaft_Schulterklappe_1940.jpg
Source:
Schulterklappe_1940.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/Mannschaft_

Mannschaft_Epaulette_1938.jpg Original artist: Mannschaft_Epaulette_1938.jpg: Uploaded by User:solicitr


File:Mannschaft_Schulterklappe_Panzer.jpg
Source:
Schulterklappe_Panzer.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3e/Mannschaft_

Mannschaft_Epaulette_1938.jpg Original artist: Mannschaft_Epaulette_1938.jpg: Uploaded by User:solicitr


File:Mannschaft_Schulterklappe_Trop.jpg
Source:
Schulterklappe_Trop.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/97/Mannschaft_

Mannschaft_Epaulette_1938.jpg Original artist: Mannschaft_Epaulette_1938.jpg: Uploaded by User:solicitr


File:ObFW_cam_slv.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/ObFW_cam_slv.gif License: Public domain
Contributors:
Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg Original artist: Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department

20

8 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

File:ObLt_Cam_slv.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/ff/ObLt_Cam_slv.gif License: Public domain Contributors:


Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg Original artist: Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department
File:OberWMEpaulette.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f4/OberWMEpaulette.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: National Archives and Records Administration Original artist: Uploaded by User:solicitr in en.wikipedia.org (le log)
File:OberhufbeschlaglehrmeisterSB.jpg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/83/
OberhufbeschlaglehrmeisterSB.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Solicitr
File:Oberleutnant_Epaulette.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a1/Oberleutnant_Epaulette.jpg License:
Public domain Contributors: This is a retouched picture, which means that it has been digitally altered from its original version. Modications: Cropped, rotated, adj bright/contrast. The original can be viewed here: <a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Heer_Rank_
Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg' title='File:Heer Rank Insig from War Dept Handbook.jpg'>Heer Rank Insig from War Dept
Handbook.jpg</a>. Modications made by Solicitr. Original artist: U.S. War Department
File:ObersSleeve.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/e/ea/ObersSleeve.jpg License: PD Contributors:
National Archives and Records Administration
Original artist:
Uploaded by User:solicitr
File:Oberst_Cam_Slv.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/30/Oberst_Cam_Slv.gif License: Public domain
Contributors:
Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg Original artist: Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department
File:Oberst_Epaulette.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/33/Oberst_Epaulette.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg Original artist: Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department
File:Oberstleutnant_Epaulette.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/68/Oberstleutnant_Epaulette.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg Original artist: Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department
File:ObstLt_Cam_slv.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b8/ObstLt_Cam_slv.gif License: Public domain
Contributors:
Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg Original artist: Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department
File:OffBWEpaulette.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/06/OffBWEpaulette.jpg License: Public domain
Contributors: National Archives and Records Administration Original artist: Modied by User:solicitr.
File:Offizer_im_Generalstab_Litzen.jpg Source:
Litzen.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a0/Offizer_im_Generalstab_

Ozier_Litzen.jpg Original artist: Ozier_Litzen.jpg: *Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department


File:Offizier_im_Generalstab_Kolbenstickerei.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e9/Offizier_im_
Generalstab_Kolbenstickerei.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg Original artist: Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department
File:Offizier_im_Generalstab_Kolbenstickerei_(Oberkommando).jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/
50/Offizier_im_Generalstab_Kolbenstickerei_%28Oberkommando%29.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
Ozier_im_Generalstab_Kolbenstickerei.jpg
Original
artist:
*Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department

Ozier_im_Generalstab_Kolbenstickerei.jpg:

File:Panzer_Totenkopf.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d3/Panzer_Totenkopf.jpg License: CC BY-SA


3.0 Contributors:
FLMM_-_Nazi_badges_&_insignia_13-17.jpg Original artist: FLMM_-_Nazi_badges_&_insignia_13-17.jpg: Joe Mabel
File:Panzersonderbekleidung_Kragenpatten.jpg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9a/
Panzersonderbekleidung_Kragenpatten.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Solicitr
File:Rangabzeichen_Reichskriegsgericht.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Rangabzeichen_
Reichskriegsgericht.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: User:SGT141
File:Rangabzeichen_Wehrmachtsverwaltung.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d2/Rangabzeichen_
Wehrmachtsverwaltung.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: en:User:SGT141
File:Rank_insignia_of_Gefreiter_of_the_Wehrmacht.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/Rank_
insignia_of_Gefreiter_of_the_Wehrmacht.svg License: CC BY 3.0 Contributors: http://www.themarshalsbaton.com/army%20boards.htm
Original artist: F l a n k e r
File:Rank_insignia_of_Obergefreiter_(over_6_years_of_service)_of_the_Wehrmacht.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/
wikipedia/commons/4/40/Rank_insignia_of_Obergefreiter_%28over_6_years_of_service%29_of_the_Wehrmacht.svg License: CC BY
3.0 Contributors: http://www.themarshalsbaton.com/army%20boards.htm Original artist: F l a n k e r

8.2

Images

21

File:Rank_insignia_of_Obergefreiter_(under_6_years_of_service)_of_the_Wehrmacht.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/


wikipedia/commons/f/f0/Rank_insignia_of_Obergefreiter_%28under_6_years_of_service%29_of_the_Wehrmacht.svg License: CC BY
3.0 Contributors: http://www.themarshalsbaton.com/army%20boards.htm Original artist: F l a n k e r
File:Rank_insignia_of_Oberschtze_of_the_Wehrmacht.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3f/Rank_
insignia_of_Obersch%C3%BCtze_of_the_Wehrmacht.svg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.themarshalsbaton.com/
army%20boards.htm Original artist: F l a n k e r
File:Rank_insignia_of_Stabsgefreiter_of_the_Wehrmacht.svg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/ff/
Rank_insignia_of_Stabsgefreiter_of_the_Wehrmacht.svg License: CC BY 3.0 Contributors: http://www.themarshalsbaton.com/army%
20boards.htm Original artist: F l a n k e r
File:Reichsadler_der_Deutsches_Reich_(19331945).svg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/06/
Reichsadler_der_Deutsches_Reich_%281933%E2%80%931945%29.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work. Original artist: RsVe.
File:SA-Logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dc/SA-Logo.svg License: Public domain Contributors:
based on Image:SturmabteilungSA.jpg Original artist: Ratatosk
File:Schirmmutze_cap_badges.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/95/Schirmmutze_cap_badges.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors:
FLMM_-_Nazi_badges_&_insignia_13-17.jpg Original artist: FLMM_-_Nazi_badges_&_insignia_13-17.jpg: Joe Mabel
File:Special_Single_Litzen_for_NCO_ranks_of_Grodeutschland_IR.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
commons/1/1f/Special_Single_Litzen_for_NCO_ranks_of_Gro%C3%9Fdeutschland_IR.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own
work Original artist: Laurindil
File:StFW_cam_slv.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/StFW_cam_slv.gif License: Public domain Contributors:
Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg Original artist: Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department
File:StabsFWEpaulette.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5a/StabsFWEpaulette.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: National Archives and Records Administration Original artist: Uploaded by User:solicitr in en.wikipedia.org (le log)
File:Sturmartillerie_Kragenpatten_mit_Litzen.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/47/Sturmartillerie_
Kragenpatten_mit_Litzen.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Solicitr
File:Sturmartillerie_Kragenpatten_mit_Totenkopf.jpg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/62/
Sturmartillerie_Kragenpatten_mit_Totenkopf.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Solicitr
File:Sturmartillerie_Kragenpatten_ohne_Abzeichen.jpg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/
Sturmartillerie_Kragenpatten_ohne_Abzeichen.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Solicitr
File:Trop_Oberwachtmeister_epaulette.jpg
Source:
Oberwachtmeister_epaulette.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c7/Trop_

FLMM_-_Nazi_badges_&_insignia_13-17.jpg Original artist: FLMM_-_Nazi_badges_&_insignia_13-17.jpg: Joe Mabel


File:UFW_cam_slv.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/80/UFW_cam_slv.gif License: Public domain Contributors:
Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg Original artist: Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department
File:UOAnwarterEpaulette.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e3/UOAnwarterEpaulette.jpg License:
Public domain Contributors: National Archives and Records Administration Original artist: Modied by User:solicitr.
File:UO_Cam_Slv.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b8/UO_Cam_Slv.gif License: Public domain Contributors:
Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg Original artist: Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department
File:UnterFWEpaulette.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e9/UnterFWEpaulette.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: National Archives and Records Administration Original artist: Uploaded by User:solicitr.
File:UnteroffEpaulette.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ee/UnteroffEpaulette.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: National Archives and Records Administration Original artist: Uploaded by User:solicitr
File:Unteroffizier_Litzen_und_Tresse_1934.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/Unteroffizier_
Litzen_und_Tresse_1934.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
Mannschaft_Litzen_1934.jpg
Original
artist:
Mannschaft_Litzen_1934.jpg:
*Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department

*Ozier_Litzen.jpg_:

File:Unteroffizier_Litzen_und_Tresse_1938.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/94/Unteroffizier_
Litzen_und_Tresse_1938.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
Mannschaft_Litzen_1938.jpg
Original
artist:
Mannschaft_Litzen_1938.jpg:
*Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department

*Mannschaft_Litzen_1940.jpg:

File:Unteroffizier_Litzen_und_Tresse_1940.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c6/Unteroffizier_
Litzen_und_Tresse_1940.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
Mannschaft_Litzen_1940.jpg Original artist: Mannschaft_Litzen_1940.jpg: *Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S.
War Department

22

8 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

File:Unteroffizier_Litzen_und_Tresse_Dress.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/de/Unteroffizier_
Litzen_und_Tresse_Dress.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
Mannschaft_Litzen_Dress.jpg Original artist: Mannschaft_Litzen_Dress.jpg: *Mannschaft_Litzen_1934.jpg: *Ozier_Litzen.jpg_:
*Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department
File:Unteroffizier_Litzen_und_Tresse_Trop.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/12/Unteroffizier_
Litzen_und_Tresse_Trop.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
Unterozier_Litzen_und_Tresse_1940.jpg Original artist: Unterozier_Litzen_und_Tresse_1940.jpg: *Mannschaft_Litzen_1940.jpg:
*Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department
File:Unteroffizier_Schulterklappe_1935.jpg
Source:
Schulterklappe_1935.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/79/Unteroffizier_

UnteroEpaulette.jpg Original artist: UnteroEpaulette.jpg: Uploaded by User:solicitr


File:Unteroffizier_Schulterklappe_1940.jpg
Source:
Schulterklappe_1940.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/35/Unteroffizier_

UnteroEpaulette.jpg Original artist: UnteroEpaulette.jpg: Uploaded by User:solicitr


File:Unteroffizier_Schulterklappe_Panzer.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9d/Unteroffizier_
Schulterklappe_Panzer.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
UnteroEpaulette.jpg Original artist: UnteroEpaulette.jpg: Uploaded by User:solicitr
File:Unteroffizier_Schulterklappe_Trop.jpg
Source:
Schulterklappe_Trop.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/20/Unteroffizier_

UnteroEpaulette.jpg Original artist: UnteroEpaulette.jpg: Uploaded by User:solicitr


File:VonRundstedt-Shoulderboards-alt-Larisch.jpg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/85/
VonRundstedt-Shoulderboards-alt-Larisch.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Laurindil
File:WMacht_A_OF10-GenFeldmarschall_1942h1.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f5/WMacht_A_
OF10-GenFeldmarschall_1942h1.png License: CC BY 3.0 Contributors: WW2 - ranks Original artist: Producer:unknown; corrected by
Tzo15
File:WMacht_A_OF10-GenFeldmarschall_1945h.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a6/WMacht_A_
OF10-GenFeldmarschall_1945h.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg Original artist: Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department
File:WMacht_arabesques_OF10toOF6-hor_1945.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/31/WMacht_
arabesques_OF10toOF6-hor_1945.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: SGT141; description en, and ru
by: HHubi|user: HHubi
File:Wehrmacht_GenOberstabsarzt.jpg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cf/Wehrmacht_
GenOberstabsarzt.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Laurindil
File:Wehrmacht_Generalmajor_(2).jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/71/Wehrmacht_Generalmajor_
%282%29.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg Original artist: Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department
File:Wehrmacht_Generalmajor_(a.D.).jpg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cf/Wehrmacht_
Generalmajor_%28a.D.%29.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Laurindil
File:Wehrmacht_Generalsrangabzeichen.jpg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a2/Wehrmacht_
Generalsrangabzeichen.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: User:Fornax
File:Wehrmacht_Generalveterinr.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/31/Wehrmacht_Generalveterin%
C3%A4r.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Laurindil
File:Wehrmacht_Heer_Leutnant_insignia_horizontal.png
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fc/
Wehrmacht_Heer_Leutnant_insignia_horizontal.png License: CC BY 2.0 Contributors: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/
(<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:
0/00/Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg Original artist: work:
%E7%8E%96%E5%B7%A7%E4%BB%94' title='User talk:
'>talk</a>)
File:Wehrmacht_Heer_Oberleutnant_insignia_horizontal.png Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/13/
Wehrmacht_Heer_Oberleutnant_insignia_horizontal.png License: CC BY 2.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Wehrmacht_Officer_Gorge_Patch-cavalry.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/12/Wehrmacht_
Officer_Gorge_Patch-cavalry.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Ozier_Litzen.jpg_ from US War Dept Handbook (1943)
Original artist: Ozier_Litzen.jpg_: *Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department
File:Wehrmacht_Officer_Gorge_Patch_cavalry.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c9/Wehrmacht_
Officer_Gorge_Patch_cavalry.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg Original artist: Heer_Rank_Insig_from_War_Dept_Handbook.jpg: U.S. War Department
File:Wehrmachtsadler34.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ad/Wehrmachtsadler34.jpg License: Public
domain Contributors: TM-E 30-451: Handbook on German Military Forces http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/Germany/HB/index.html
Original artist: U.S. War Department
File:Wehrmachtsadler_1939.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ac/Wehrmachtsadler_1939.jpg License:
Public domain Contributors:

8.3

Content license

23

Wehrmachtsadler34.jpg Original artist: Wehrmachtsadler34.jpg: U.S. War Department


File:Wehrmachtsadler_1940.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/39/Wehrmachtsadler_1940.jpg License:
Public domain Contributors:
Wehrmachtsadler34.jpg Original artist: Wehrmachtsadler34.jpg: U.S. War Department
File:Wehrmachtsadler_1944.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f5/Wehrmachtsadler_1944.jpg License:
Public domain Contributors:
Wehrmachtsadler34.jpg Original artist: Wehrmachtsadler34.jpg: U.S. War Department
File:Wehrmachtsadler_Trop.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d8/Wehrmachtsadler_Trop.jpg License:
Public domain Contributors:
Wehrmachtsadler34.jpg Original artist: Wehrmachtsadler34.jpg: U.S. War Department

8.3

Content license

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0