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Tamil calendar

Tamil calendar
The Tamil calendar is a solar and sidereal Hindu calendar used in Tamil Nadu, India. It is also used in Puducherry,
and by the Tamil population in Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius and Sri Lanka. It is also used by Telugu speaking
people in Tamil Nadu. It is used today for cultural, religious and agricultural events, with the Gregorian calendar
largely used for official purposes both within and outside India. The Tamil calendar is based on the classical Hindu
solar calendar also used in Assam, West Bengal, Kerala, Manipur, Nepal, Orissa, Rajasthan and Punjab.
There are several festivals based on the Tamil Hindu calendar. The Tamil New Year follows the nirayanam vernal
equinox and generally falls on 14 April of the Gregorian year. 14 April marks the first day of the traditional Tamil
calendar and this remains a public holiday in both Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka. Tropical vernal equinox fall around 22
March, and adding 23 degrees of trepidation or oscillation to it, we get the Hindu sidereal or Nirayana Mesha
Sankranti (Sun's transition into nirayana Aries). Hence, the Tamil calendar begins on the same date in April which is
observed by most traditional calendars of the rest of India - Assam, Bengal, Kerala, Orissa, Manipur, Punjab etc.
This also coincides with the traditional new year in Burma, Cambodia, Laos, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh Nepal and
Thailand. The 60-year cycle is also very ancient and is observed by most traditional calendars of India and China,
and is related to 5 revolutions of Jupiter according to popular belief, or to 60-year orbit of Nakshatras (stars) as
mentioned in Surya Siddhanta.
The traditional Tamil year starts on 14 April 2013, Kaliyuga 5115. Vikrama and Shalivahana Saka eras are also used.
There are several references in early Tamil literature to the April new year. Nakkirar, the author of the
Nedunalvaadai writes in the 3rd century that the Sun travels from Mesha/Chitterai through 11 successive Raasis or
signs of the zodiac.[1] Kdalr Kizhaar in the 3rd century refers to Mesha Raasi/Chitterai as the commencement of
the year in the Puranaanooru.[2][3] The Tolkaapiyam is the oldest surviving Tamil grammar that divides the year into
six seasons where Chitterai marks the start of the Ilavenil season or summer. The 8th century Silappadikaaram
mentions the 12 Raasis or zodiac signs starting with Mesha/Chitterai.[4] The Manimekalai alludes to the Hindu solar
calendar as we know it today. Adiyaarkunalaar, an early medieval commentator or Urai-asiriyar, mentions the 12
months of the Tamil Hindu calendar with particular reference to Chitterai. There were subsequent inscriptional
references in Pagan, Burma dated to the 11th century CE and in Sukhothai, Thailand dated to the 14th century CE to
South Indian, often Vaishnavite, courtiers who were tasked with defining the traditional calendar that began in
mid-April.[5]

Week
The days of the Tamil Calendar relate to the celestial bodies in the solar system: Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter,
Venus, and Saturn, in that order. The week starts with Sunday.
This list compiles the days of the week in the Tamil calendar:

Tamil calendar

No. Kizhamai (Tamil)

Weekday (English) Vaasara (Sanskrit) Lord or Planet Gregorian Calendar equivalent

01. ayiu-kizhamai

Ravi-vaasara

Sun

Sunday

02.

Soma-vaasara

Moon

Monday

03. cevvi-kizhamai

Mangala-vaasara

Mars

Tuesday

04.

putan-kizhamai

Budha-vaasara

Mercury

Wednesday

05.

viyzha-kizhamai

Guru Vaasara

Jupiter

Thursday

06.

vei-kizhamai

Sukra-vaasara

Venus

Friday

07.

cani-kizhamai

Shani-vaasara

Saturn

Saturday

tingat-kizhamai

For Tamils the each day begins at the sun rise.

Months
The number of days in a month varies between 29 and 32.
The following list compiles the months of the Tamil Calendar.
No. Month (Tamil) Month (English) Sanskrit Name *

Gregorian Calendar equivalent

01.

Cittirai

Chaitra

mid-April to mid-May

02.

Vaikci

Vaiskha

mid-May to mid-June

03.

ni

Jyaishtha

mid-June to mid-July

04.

shha

mid-July to mid-August

05.

vai

Shrvaa

mid-August to mid-September

06.

Puraci

Bhdrapada/Prauhapada mid-September to mid-October

07.

Aippaci

Ashwina/Ashvayuja

mid-October to mid-November

08.

Krttikai

Krttika

mid-November to mid-December

09.

Mrkazhi

Mrgara

mid-December to mid-January

10.

Tai

Pausha/Taiya

mid-January to mid-February

11.

Mci

Mgha

mid-February to mid-March

12.

Pakuni

Phalguna

mid-March to mid-April

Note: The Sanskrit months above would start one month ahead of Tamil months since the Tamil calendar is a solar
calendar while the Sanskrit calendar is a lunisolar calendar

Seasons
The Tamil year, in keeping with the old Indic calendar, is divided into six seasons, each of which lasts two months:

Tamil calendar

Season in
Tamil

English
Transliteration

English
Translation

ila-venil

mutu-venil

Season in
Sanskrit

Season in
English

Tamil Months

Gregorian
Months

Light warmth

Vasanta

Spring

chithirai, vaigsi Mid Apr - Mid Jun

Harsh warmth

Grishma

Summer

ni, di

Mid Jun - Mid Aug

kr

Dark clouds, Rain

Varsha

Rainy

vani, puratci

Mid Aug - Mid Oct

kulir

Chill, Cold

Sharada

Autumn

aippasi,
krthigai

Mid Oct - Mid Dec

mun-pani

Early dew

Hemanta

Early winter

mrkazhi, tai

Mid Dec - Mid Feb

pin-pani

Late dew

Sishira

Late winter

msi, panguni

Mid Feb - Mid Apr

Sixty-year cycle
The 60-year cycle of the Tamil calendar is common to North and South Indian traditional calendars, with the same
name and sequence of years. Its earliest reference is to be found in Surya Siddhanta, which Varahamihirar (550 CE)
believed to be the most accurate of the then current theories of astronomy. However, in the Surya Siddhantic list, the
first year was Vijaya and not Prabhava as currently used. This 60-year cycle is also used in the Chinese calendar.
After the completion of sixty years, the calendar starts a new with the first year. This corresponds to the Hindu
"century." The Vakya or Tirukannitha Panchangam (the traditional Tamil almanac) outlines this sequence. It is
related to the position of the planets in the sky with respect to earth. It means that the two major planets Sani/Saturn (
which takes 30 years to complete one cycle round the sun) and the Viyazhan/Jupiter (which takes 12 years to
complete one cycle round the Sun) comes to the same position after 60 years.
The following list presents the current 60-year cycle of the Tamil calendar:
No. Name

Name (English) Gregorian Year No. Name

Name (English) Gregorian Year

01.

Prabhava

19871988

31.

Hevilambi

20172018

02.

Vibhava

19881989

32.

Vilambi

20182019

03.

Sukla

19891990

33.

Vikari

20192020

04.

Pramodoota

19901991

34.

Sarvari

20202021

05. Prachorpaththi 19911992

35.

Plava

20212022

06.

Aangirasa

19921993

36.

Subakrith

20222023

07.

Srimukha

19931994

37.

Sobakrith

20232024

08.

Bhava

19941995

38.

Krodhi

20242025

09.

Yuva

19951996

39.

Visuvaasuva

20252026

10.

Dhaatu

19961997

40.

Parabhaava

20262027

11.

Eesvara

19971998

41.

Plavanga

20272028

12.

Bahudhanya

19981999

42.

Keelaka

20282029

13.

Pramathi

19992000

43.

Saumya

20292030

14.

Vikrama

20002001

44.

Sadharana

20302031

15.

Vishu

20012002

45. Virodhikrithu

20312032

16.

Chitrabaanu

20022003

46.

Paridhaabi

20322033

17.

Subhaanu

20032004

47.

Pramaadhisa

20332034

18.

Dhaarana

20042005

48.

Aanandha

20342035

Tamil calendar

4
19.

Paarthiba

20052006

49.

Rakshasa

20352036

20.

Viya

20062007

50.

Nala

20362037

21.

Sarvajith

20072008

51.

Pingala

20372038

22.

Sarvadhari

20082009

52.

Kalayukthi

20382039

23.

Virodhi

20092010

53.

Siddharthi

20392040

24.

Vikruthi

20102011

54.

Raudhri

20402041

25.

Kara

20112012

55.

Dunmathi

20412042

26.

Nandhana

20122013

56.

Dhundubhi

20422043

27.

Vijaya

20132014

57.

Rudhrodhgaari 20432044

28.

Jaya

20142015

58.

Raktakshi

20442045

29.

Manmatha

20152016

59.

Krodhana

20452046

30.

Dhunmuki

20162017

60.

Akshaya

20462047

Celebrations
The months of the Tamil Calendar have great significance and are deeply rooted in the faith of the Tamil Hindus.
Some months are considered very auspicious while a few are considered inauspicious as well.
Some of the celebrations for each month are listed below. Dates in parentheses are not exact and usually vary by a
day or two. Underneath (or beside) the months of the Hindu calendar are their Gregorian counterparts.
Month

Chithirai(April)

Approx
Dates

Notes

14 April - 14 Chitra Pournami & Varusha pirappu are the most important festivals in this month. Famous Chithirai
May
thiruvizha is ceiebrated in Madurai Meenakshi Amman temple.
15 May - 14
June

Vaikaasi Visaakam is the most important day in this month.This month is most favorable month of Lord
Subramainya (Murga Kadavul). Thirumangalam[Madurai] Shri Pathrakali Mariamman Temple 13day
Vaigasi Festival starts at Sunday followed by vaigasi ammavasai[no moon day].

- Aani(June)

15 June - 14
July

Aani Thirumanjanam or Aani Uttaram for Lord Nataraja is the most famous day in this month.

- Aadi(July)

15 July - 14
August

A most important month for women. The most auspicious days are Fridays and Tuesdays in this month,
these are called Aadi Velli and Aadi Chevvai and the Aadi Amavasya. Aadi Pooram is also a special
day.18th day of adi is the most important day for the farmers (delta region) they prepare paddy
seedlings.during this month "kanchi varthal" is famous in amman temples

15 August 15
September

An important month with many rituals. Brahmins change their sacred thread on Aavani Avittam. Each
Sunday of the month is dedicated to prayers - Aavani Gnayiru.

15
September 15 October

An important month for Vaishnavas. Purattaasi Sani(Saturday) is an auspicious day for Lord Vishnu.

15 October 14
November

The monsoons typically start over Tamil Nadu in this month. Hence the saying, "Aippasi Mazhai, adai
mazhai" - meaning "Aippasi rains are persistent rains". Also Annaabishekam for Lord Shiva is very
famous in this month. The most famous Hindu festival "Deepavali" is celebrated in this month. The
Fridays of this month - Aipassi velli - are dedicated to religious observance.

15
November 14
December

Another auspicious celebration for Shiva devotees is Thirukaarthigai. The Krithikaa Pournami is the
special day of the full moon in the month of Kaarthikai, and the star is Krithikaa. Each Monday of this
month is dedicated to the worship of Lord Shiva. Every Monday is called "Somavaaram" when 108 or
1008 sangabhishekam are offered to Lord Shiva and Lord Muruga.

Vaikaasi(May)

Aavani(August)

Purattaasi(September)

Aippasi(October)

Karthikai(November)

Tamil calendar

Maargazhi(December)

- Thai(January)
(pronounced Thy)

Maasi(February)
Panguni(March)

5
15
December 14 January

This is another special month in the Tamil Calendar. Temples open earlier in the mornings and Devotees
throng the temples early for puja and prasadam - the offering made to the deity which is later distributed to
the devotees. Arudra Darisanam (Thiruvaadirai star in Tamil) is the most auspicious day in this month.
This is also a very popular festival in Kerala, where it is called Thiruvaadira. The offering made to Lord
siva is the Thiruvaadira Kali. Mukkodi Ekathesi is called "Paramapadha vaasal Thirappu" for Lord
Vishnu. The Tiruvembaavai and Thirupaavai fast takes place in this month.

15 January 14 February

Pongal, which is the harvest festival, is celebrated on the first day of this month. Thai Friday is a popular
day among Telugu speaking peoples settled in Tamil Nadu. Thaipusam is also a special day for Murugan
devotees, who carry Kavadis to one of the Aarupadaiveedu (Literally meaning "six abodes").

15 February
- 14 March

Maasi Magam is the special day of which comes in this Month. Shivaratri is an important festival widely
celebrated by Hindus in this month.

15 March 13 April

Panguni Uthiram, the last month of the year, is a famous festival and special to Murugan and Siva
devotees.

Significance
The Hindus developed a system of calendrics that encapsulates vast periods of time. For computing the age of the
earth and various geological and other epochs, as well as the age of mankind, they still employ a Tamil calendar
derived from ancient astronomical data, known as the Tirukkanida Panchanga (cf. The Secret Doctrine, 2:49-51).
This calendar contains a calculation of something over three hundred million years for the age of the present earth
since sedimentation occurred, and a period of somewhat more than eighteen million years since the first
appearance of our mankind.(?)
The 10th Tamil month, called Thai, falls in mid-January each year. It is celebrated with much enthusiasm within
the Tamil Community all over the world. Thai is marked by gifts of new clothing for family members and prayers
to God for prosperity in the coming year. Thai and the fifth month Aavani are considered very auspicious for
marriage and most marriages occur during these months.
The fourth month Aadi is considered inauspicious, so weddings do not often fall in this month. Aadi is also the
month of preparation for the next crop cycle by farmers. Therefore, farming communities avoid major events like
weddings in this month. Those members of the Tamil community who don't actively contribute/participate in
farming take advantage by having important functions like wedding in this month. For example, the business
community prefers this month for weddings. Aadi is usually the worst month for business, although when
businesses recently initiated Aadi discounts, this situation has changed significantly. Each Friday of this month is
set aside for prayer and worship.
Aadi is an inauspicious month for newlyweds to sleep together because a woman who conceives in this month
will have a difficult delivery in May, the hottest month in Tamil Nadu (Agni natchathiram [pinezu] last 7 days of
Chitharai and [munezu] first 7 days of Vaigasi)) 'Aadi' is also the windiest month in Tamil Nadu, and hence the
phrase 'Aadi kaatru ammiyai nagatrum' (literally the strong winds in the month of Aadi can even move a stone
grinder')
Purattaasi is when most of the non-vegetarian Tamil people fast from meat for a month. Each Saturday of this
month is set apart to venerate the planet Saturn.
Deepavali, is celebrated on the new moon day, in the seventh month Aipassi. The month of Aipassi is usually
characterised by the North-East Monsoon in Tamil Nadu, which has given birth to a phrase, Aipassi Adai Mazhai
meaning the "Non-stop Downpour".
Maargazhi falls in winter in Tamil Nadu, and is considered auspicious for unmarried women to find a groom. The
Shaivite fast of Tiru-vembaavai and the Vaishnava fast of Tiru-paavai are also observed in this month.
The total number of days in a Tamil Calendar is an average 365 days and the days of the week are named
similarly to those of the western calendar. The Vakiya Panchangam is employed for both sacred and civil

Tamil calendar
calculations. The Trikanitha Panchangam is employed for astrological calculations.

Festivals
The Tamil Calendar is so important to the life of Tamil-speaking people that most of the Festivals of Tamil Nadu are
based on it. Some of Festivals include Tamil New Year or Puthandu in mid-April, Thai Pongal, Deepavali, Panguni
Uthiram, Thirukaarthigai, Aadiperukku, Navaratri etc.

References
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]

Lines 160 to 162 of the Nedunalvaadai


Poem 229 of Puranaanooru
Professor Vaiyapuri Pillai, 'History of Tamil Language and Literature' Chennai, 1956 page 35, 151
Canto 26 of Silappadikaaram. Canto 5 also describes the foremost festival in the Chola country - the Indra Vizha celebrated in Chitterai
G.H. Luce, Old Burma - Early Pagan, Locust Valley, New York, Page 68, and A.B. Griswold, 'Towards a History of Sukhodaya Art,
Bangkok 1967, pages 12-32

External links
Tamil Calendar 2012 (http://www.tamildailycalendar.in/tamildailycalendar.php) @ tamildailycalendar.in
(http://www.probharat.com/indian-calendars/tamil-calendar.php) @ Tamil Calendar for all past and future
years ( )

Article Sources and Contributors

Article Sources and Contributors


Tamil calendar Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=534769049 Contributors: 2A01:388:201:3310:65AB:B0F4:7599:4310, AdjustShift, Anirudhnkl, Anthony Appleyard,
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