You are on page 1of 64

Railway Reservation

A railway was first introduced in India in 1853. Indian Railway
Reservation is a departmental undertaking of the Government of
India. The fourth largest railway network of the world, Indian Railways
has 7083 stations. It uses various different Diesel, Electric and Steam
Locomotives. Indian Railways Trains has launched Special Trains,
Express Trains, Luxury Trains, Shatabdi, Rajdhani, Janshatabdi,
Garibrath, Duronto, Tourist Trains and Special Hill Trains. These trains
connect all the different cities in the country to Mumbai. Daily, more
than 5 million people travel by train.
Railway Reservation Ticket
Indian Railways Reservation is not a very easy task as you dont
always get a seat soon. But the website contains the reservation
rules which make you aware of all the formalities before you make
your reservation. Each person can reserve only 6 seats on one
requisition form. Reservation is now made easy through Internet. So
you can sit at home and book tickets for your destination. Moreover,
the registration online is free. All you have to do is type the name of
the place from which you wish to board the train and also your
destination, the date of your journey and the type of seat that you

Railway Reservation
wish (General, First Class). In addition to this, you can also check your
Railway ticket status.

Rail Ticket Provided by Indian Railway Reservation

Most people in Mumbai choose to travel by trains as they are
able to avoid the peak hour road traffic. Daily, more than 5 million
people travel by train. But the travelers have to go through the pain
of buying tickets standing in long lines. Most of the time, half of the
ticket windows are closed. Also the coupon punching machines are
broken or do not function properly. However, the Indian Railway
Reservation is trying its best to improve the conditions of all stations.
In spite of so many terror attacks on Mumbai trains, people still
continue to travel by them as this is the best economical way of
travelling for all Mumbai kars. Each day brings a new train experience
in our lives. From people wearing suits to common people, school
children, vendors, beggars and eunuchs, everybody uses train as
they daily travel medium.
Railway Booking
A Railway Booking in India has to be done much prior to the day
when you want to start your journey. Especially in the holiday season,
bookings start 3 to 4 months before the holidays. If you book your

Railway Reservation
ticket at the last minute, it goes into the waiting list and you will get a
seat only if some other traveler cancels it.
Indian Railways is trying to think about new ideas which will help
the travelers get their tickets soon.

A route-based reservation system that facilitates the issue of
journey-cum-reservation tickets, which can be issued from any
station to any station.
Passenger journey to multiple laps of reservation can be handled
from a single terminal window.
The reservation facility is offered round-the-clock (24 hours
Changes in train profiles (train carriage addition, replacement,
de-allocation), route structures, etc., can be made effective
immediately with the appropriate contingency handling.
Dynamic definition of the advance reservation period is possible.
This feature facilitates defining different advance reservation
periods for different trains.

Railway Reservation
Any train running schedule can be accommodated. Even irregular
trains, running on only pre-defined dates, can be defined - for
example, a train running every alternate day.
Provides on-line aggregation of EIS figures such as revenue,
seat / berth utilisation, etc, and presentation of the summarised
data in the form of visual analytics from the operational system's
information store. The data aggregation is done incrementally, to
inflict minimal impact.
Can operate on a multi-vendor operating system. Multi-vendor
hardware and communication equipment are also supported.
IMPRESS is built on open standards and can be easily integrated
with similar products and applications with open standards.

Provides automatic database recovery against all kinds of

hardware and software failures.
Complete audit trails for transactions and data access.
The application software is parametric, and standard railway
business rules are incorporated in the form of data instead of
being part of the logic.

Railway Reservation

Chanakya Puri, New Delhi, is a total networking solution to Indian






computerized Passenger Reservation System (PRS) currently operates

from five regional centers located at Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras
and Secunderabad. CRIS was assigned the task of development and
implementation of the new software incorporating networking for
Indian Railways thereby interconnecting the five PRS centers. The
new On-line Passenger Reservation System -CONCERT - developed

Railway Reservation
using client-server model for distributed computing is a total solution
to the networking of the PRSs. A dedicated team of software
professionals contributed






CONCERT. The software has been successfully implemented at all of

the five PRS' site viz. Secunderabad in Sept. 1994, and New Delhi in
Sept. 1996,Calcutta 14th June 1998 and recently at Mumbai on 11th
Jan 1999, and at Chennai on 12th April 1999 thus the complete
network become operational on 18th April 1999, and has been
working satisfactorily since then. All of the five sites have been
internet-worked over a 64 kbps line using routers, on leased
communication line connections from Department of Telecom (DOT).
Thus PRS network of the Indian Railways will enable reservations
in any train, date, or class, between any pair of stations to the
traveling public on about 2000 terminals across the country. Under
the network environment it is proposed to

provide; Universal Terminals. Universal Terminals are those from

where any reservation activity on network can be done transparently.

Railway Reservation

Important - for Senior Citizens
From 1st September 2001 onwards, concession to senior citizens
through PRS (Passenger Reservation System) shall be granted only on
demand and not by default as at present. The demand for concession
shall be made on Reservation Requisition form in the case of reserved

Railway Reservation
tickets. In the case of tickets issued to senior citizens on concession,
during journey the concerned passengers are instructed to carry
some documentary proof showing their age or date of birth, issued by
any Government Institution/Agency/Local Body. Like Identity card,
Driving License, Passport, Educational certificate, certificate from
Local Bodies like Panchayat/Corporation/Municipality, or any other
authentic and recognized document. This documentary proof of age
should be produced if demanded by some Railway official during the
The minimum age for availing concession is 58 years in case of
WOMEN SENIOR CITIZENS and element of concession is 50% in Basic
Fare only.
The minimum age for availing concession is 60 years in case of
MEN SENIOR CITIZENS and element of concession is 40% in Basic
Fare only.
There will be no change in other terms and conditions in both






General Conditions
The Railway Administration reserves seats, berths,
compartments, or carriage in accordance with the rules and

Railway Reservation
conditions published in the Coaching Tariff. A passenger seeking
reservation of berth or seats should purchase tickets from the Railway
Reservation Offices/Authorised Travel Agency only.
Advance reservations are made generally up to 60 days in
advance for all classes and all trains. The period of advance
reservation (ARP) is exclusive of the day of departure of the train.
At intermediate stations where the train arrives on the
following day, such reservations can be done more than 60 days in
advance of date of journey from the intermediate station. ARP is in
relation to the date of journey from train originating station. In case of
some Inter-city day trains, the ARP is less.
An individual can book only up to six passengers on one
requisition form provided all passengers are for the same destination
and for the same train.
w.e.f. 01-12-2012,any one of the passenger booked on a PNR for
undertaking journey in any class will have to produce any one of the
10 prescribed proofs of identity in original) during the journey failing
which all

the passengers booked on that ticket will be treated as

traveling without ticket and charged accordingly. (ref. Railway Board

letter no.2011/TG-I/20/P/ID dated 01-11-2012).

Railway Reservation
Voter Photo identity card issued by Election Commission of India.
PAN Card issued by Income Tax Department.
Driving Licence issued by RTO.
Photo identity card having serial number issued by Central/State
Student Identity Card with photograph issued by recognized
School/College for their students.
Nationalized Bank Passbook with photograph.
Credit cards issued by banks with laminated photograph.
Unique Identification Card "Aadhaar".
Photo identity cards having serial number issued by Public






Administration, Municipal bodies and Penchant Administration.

As per railway board letter no.2011/tg-i/20/p/id dated
10.01.2013 attested photocopy of ration card with photograph and
nationalized bank passbook with photographs shall also be accepted
as a prescribed proof of identity only in case of reserved tickets
booked through computerized passenger reservation system (PRS)
counters, for undertaking journey in sleeper (SL) and second reserved
sitting (2S) classes. The photocopy of the ration card with photograph
and nationalized bank passbook with photograph should be attested
by gazetted officer or the chief reservation supervisor or station
manager/station master.

Railway Reservation
The above provision is not applicable for all classes of e-tickets &
tatkal tickets and tickets issued through prs counter for travelling in
air-conditioned classes and first class. Travelling with these categories
of tickets shall continue to be governed by existing instructions.
Only one requisition form is accepted from a person at one time.
However, if onward/return journey are involved, 2 or 3 forms can be
accepted for the same passengers.
Accommodation will not be reserved without purchase of necessary
journey ticket. No reservation of accommodation will be made on
provisional basis.
When berths are reserved for passengers, the intention is to
provide sleeping accommodation between 9 PM to 6 AM. During 6 AM
to 9 PM, the passengers concerned, if required make room for other
passengers in compartment up to its carrying capacity.
Passengers are requested to quote PNR number which is printed
on each tickets on the top left hand side for any enquiry or complaint
relating to reservations.
Reservation ticket issued by the computerised system against
pre-bought ticket must be accompanied by the journey tickets on
train. Similarly journey cum reservation tickets bearing zero amount
are not valid for journey unless accompanied by the valid authority to
travel authorising issue of such tickets.

Railway Reservation

Allotment of accommodation is done by the computer as per predefined logic. Efforts are made to provide compact accommodation to
persons booked under the same PNR on first come first served basis.
The Railway Administration will endeavour to provide reserved
accommodation but does not guarantee the same and will admit no
claim for compensation for inconvenience, loss or extra expense due
to such accommodation including carriages, not being provided or
reserved carriage not been attached to a particular train. The supply
of any particular type of carriage or the provision of a particular berth
and seat is also not guaranteed.
Departure time printed on the ticket is indicative for the guidance
of the passengers. Passengers must ascertain correct timings from
the Railway station on the day of journey. Such tickets are printed up
to 60 days in advance. Any changes in timing after the issue of ticket
cannot be advised.
While every endeavour is made to advise changes in Time Table
by due publicity, Railway Administration shall not be liable for any
claim/compensation if a passenger misses a train on this account.

Railway Reservation

Transfer/Resale of Tickets Prohibited

Under Section 142 of the Railways ACT, journey tickets including
any half of a return ticket and season ticket are not transferable.
If any person not being a Railway Servant or an agent authorised
in this behalf :
a.sells or attempts to sell any ticket or any half of a return ticket, or or attempts to part with the possession of a ticket against
which reservation of a seat or a berth has been made or any half of a
return ticket or season ticket. He shall be punishable under the
Railways Act.
In addition, if the purchaser or holder of transferred ticket travels or
attempts to travel therewith, he shall forfeit the ticket which he so
purchased or obtained and shall be deemed to be traveling without a
proper ticket.
Payment through Credit Cards
Payment through credit cards for issue of reserved tickets is
accepted at nominated counters of PRS locations of Northern Railway
at IRCA Building, Lucknow and Allahabad only.

All Master Cards and Visa Cards are accepted.

Railway Reservation

Reservation fee and Supplementary Charges on Superfast Trains

The reservation fee and supplementary charge on superfast train are
as under.




AC Ist

Rs. 60

Rs. 75

AC 2 Tier

Rs. 50

Rs. 45

Rs. 50

Rs. 45

Ist (Ordinary)

Rs. 50


AC - 3 Tier

Rs. 40

Rs. 45

AC Chair Car

Rs. 40

Rs. 45

Rs. 20

Rs. 30

Second Sitting
Rs. 15

Rs. 15


Rs. 20


Second Sitting
Rs. 15


Railway Reservation
Military Officers traveling on free warrants, officers and staff of
the Railway and P & T department traveling on Railway passes and
MPs traveling on Identity Card are exempted from payment of
reservation fee.
The supplementary charge is not recoverable from MPs traveling
on Identity Card, tourist holding Indrail passes, Railway Staff traveling
on duty passes, privilege passes and PTOs.

A passenger found traveling in a Super Fast Train without paying

supplementary charge is liable to pay a penalty of Rs. 50/- in addition
to the supplementary charge. However, passenger holding through
ticket duly fulfilling distance restriction and boarding a superfast train
at an intermediate station as per the ticket, is required to pay only
the supplementary charge.
Indication of Berth/Seat Numbers
Passengers with confirmed reservation will be allotted berths at the
time of booking and the coach and berth numbers are indicated on
the ticket itself, except in case of first class ACC and first class
coaches. The compartment/cabin/coupe numbers for first ACC and
first class are allotted at the time of chart preparation.
Reservation against Cancellation (r.a.c.)

Railway Reservation
The passengers whose names figure under R.A.C., are provided
reserved sitting accommodation initially and are likely to get berths
becoming vacant due to last minutes cancellation of reservation of
passengers not turning up in time before the departure of the train,.
When Reservation Work Ceases
The requests for reservation at the reservation counters are
accepted up to 4 hours before the scheduled departure of the train,
after which, the reservation will be done at the current counters at
the stations up to one hour before the scheduled departure of the
train and thereafter by the Ticket Collector/Conductor on the
platform, if vacant berths/seats are available.

Reservation from Intermediate Stations

(a) Requisition for reservation of berths in all classes from
intermediate stations not having computerised reservation facility are
entertained on purchase of journey tickets only. Such requisition
should be given to the Station Master of the Intermediate station 72
hours before the scheduled departure of the train from the station.









reservation office at the earliest.

Cancellation of Reservation due to Late Arrival of Passenger

Railway Reservation
If a passenger, for whom a berth or seat has been reserved,
does not turn up up to 10 minutes before the scheduled departure of
the train, the Railway Administration may cancel the accommodation
reserved for him and allot it to the passenger on the RAC list/Waiting
list accordingly on priority.
Change of Boarding Point
If a passenger desires to occupy reserved accommodation from
any station enroute, he would be permitted to entrain at any
intermediate station he chooses irrespective of the distance from the
starting station subject to the following conditions.
A specific request must be made in writing at the station from
where the ticket is purchased and reservation made atleast 24 hours
before the scheduled departure of the train from the starting station.
The Railway Administration reserves the right to use such
accommodation from the originating station up to the station at
which the passenger is due to entrain.

No refund will be permissible for the portion of journey not

performed by the passenger.
Exclusive Accommodation for Ladies
One compartment of the lowest class of accommodation is
earmarked for ladies in every passenger carrying train. Some
berths/Seats in sleeper class / second seats are also earmarked for

ladies at the train originating station.

Railway Reservation

Any male passenger found occupying or attempting to occupy

such a carriage or compartment shall be liable to be prosecuted apart
from being removed from the compartment.
Boys under 12 years of age may travel in a ladies compartment
with relatives or friends.
Accommodation Classes in Indian Railways
First class Air-Conditioned (AC) (Code:1A). The Executive class in
Shatabdi type trains is also treated as Ist AC.
AC 2-tier sleeper (Code:2A)
First class (Code:FC)
AC 3 Tier (Code:3A)
3 E - AC 3 Tier Economy
AC chair Car (Code:CC)
Sleeper Class (Code:SL)
Second Sitting (Code:2S)

Chair car

Railway Reservation

Various Forms Used by Indian Railways

Reservation Forms

Railway Reservation

Concession Forms
Concession Forms for Disabled Persons
As a result of frequent enquiries, regarding availability of







Railway Reservation
admissibility of concession to the four categories of disabled
persons are put up on this web site.
The following forms can be printed and used for getting the
required concession.
Concession-Certificate-Cancer Patients
Concession-Certificate-Heart Patients
Concession-Certificate-Orthopaedically Handicapped / Paraplegic
Persons / Patients (English)
Concession-Certificate-Orthopaedically Handicapped / Paraplegic

Persons / Patients (Hindi)

Concession For Non-Infections Leprosy Patients
Concession-Certificate-Totally Deaf & Dumb Persons
Concession For Thalsamia Major Patients
Concession-Certificate-Mentally Retarded Person (English)
Concession-Certificate-Mentally Retarded Persons (Hindi)
Concession-Certificate-Completetely Blind Person (English)
Concession-Certificate-Completely Blind Person (Hindi)
Concession-Certificate-T.B Patients
Concession-Certificate-Kidney Patients
Concession-Certificate- Doctors

Concession-Certificate-Haemophillia Patients
Instruction For Filling Up The Application Form
Preferring Compensation Claim For Damage / Shortage / Loss Of

Goods / Parcel / Luggage

Presentation On Accident Compensation Claim
Railway Claim Manual
Concession form for Aplastic Anaemia patient
Concession form for Sickle-Cell Anaemia patient

Railway Reservation

Concession Rules

Railway Reservation

Concession Is Admissible To The Following Categories Of

General Rules For Concession

Break Journey

Circular Journey Ticket

Season ticket

Levy of Superfast surcharge by certain trains

Postponement or preponement of journey on a reserved, RAC

or waitlisted ticket

Travel in lower class for want of accommodation

Issue of Duplicate ticket from the station

Refund Rules - Basic Rules

Important subsidiary rules for refund

Please note

Railway Reservation
The site maintenance activities take place from 2330hrs to 0030 hrs (Indian
Standard Time) daily. During this period information will not be available. Also,
note that since the system is shut for maintenance activities no status changes
take place during this period.

Internet reservation facility through credit cards

Recently internet reservation facility has started on Indian Railways. The
web site is operational, wherein you can get the railway
reservation done through Credit Cards. For more on Reservation through credit
cards click here Internet Reservation

Network Connectivity failures

Please read the above paragraph. As mentioned in it, for the PNR
and seat availability queries, the result is fetched from the
computerized reservation applications at the five sites, viz. New
Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Secunderabad. If there is any
network link failure, or if the network lines are very congested, then
this error message is displayed. It might so happen, that you are
getting seat availability and PNR information for say trains originating
from New Delhi and Kolkata, but not for trains originating from
Sms Services
Now all the enquiries offered on the web site
are available on your mobile phone through SMS facility. For more
information on the mobile service providers and the key words to be
used on the mobile, please click here, SMS help .

Railway Reservation

Please note that we are giving the backend service only for the
SMS queries. For more information and help on key words and SMS
facility, kindly contact the mobile service provider according to the
Preferred Browser
This web site is best viewed with Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0
and above. It might not give desired results with other browsers. All
the pages, color schemes and scripts have been tested for IE 6.0 and
The latest arrival and departure timings of delayed trains,
alongwith diverted routes etc. will be made available shortly on this
web site only.
Latest Arrival & Departure Timings
The latest arrival and departure timings of delayed trains,
alongwith diverted routes etc. will be made available shortly on this
web site only.







Suggestions for web site

The complaint software is presently under development. We try
our best to forward your grievances to the concerned department.

Railway Reservation
However please note that this is not always possible. Please note that
all your complaints and suggestions for the improvement of the web

can be put on the Feedback &

suggestions page.

Please note that, in case of any problems, give the query type
(hyper link), the inputs which you gave, and the exact error message
generated by this web site. All this will help us in solving the
problems quickly. In the absence of such inputs, we can't solve the
Trains between Important Stations
On activating this option you will be prompted to select the
source and destination from the drop down list box. Also select the
appropriate class of travel and click get it. This option displays a list
of all trains that ply between the mentioned station pair along with
the classes, arrival and departure time and days of run. After
selecting a train and corresponding classes of relevance it is possible
to find the availability, fare and route of the train using the available

Railway Reservation
NOTE : If station you are looking for is not in the important trains
list, please use the "station code" enquiry, to get the station codes
and then use the query for Trains between source and destinayion.
(TIP: This is the most exhaustive option and is of great help in
planning a journey)
Passenger Status
This option displays the current status of a booked ticket. Please
note that in case there is any change in the staus after chart
preparation it will not be available through the system and can be
known only at the station, which in effect means that the status
indicated by the system after the chart preparation will not be further

Concessional Fare Enquiry for a Train

This option displays a complete breakup of the fare for valid
classes of a train and a pair of stations. Note that valid classes
depend on the pair of stations and the entered concession code. It is
also possible to view the fare for different age groups. Availability for
this train can also be obtained from here using the available buttons.
Station Codes
This option helps you to obtain the list of station codes of those
stations where the station name matches the input sub-string. This

Railway Reservation
offers the option of searching for stations names which start with the
input string or which somewhere in their name contain the input
string. You may see the output sorted on either the station name or
Train Schedule
On activating this option you will be prompted to enter few
characters of either the Train name or Train number of the train you
are interested in. On submitting the query a list of all trains that
match the entered characters will be displayed along with their
respective source and destination details.
Now from here you may select the train of your requirement and
then click on the button labled as Get Route. This will display the
complete route of the selected train along with arrival & departure

Passenger Service Information

This has a list of
Reservation rules
Refund rules
Break journey rules
Name change rules
Tatkal trains

Special Trains
Season tickets
Class codes
Quota codes
Booking locations
Travel agents
Luggage Rules
International tourists
Royal Orient Train
Shivalik Deluxe Train
Shivalik Palace Train
Shivalik Queen Train

Railway Reservation

Quotas in Indian Railways

S. No.








General Quota
Ladies Quota
Head quarters/high official Quota
Defence Quota
Parliament house Quota
Foreign Tourist Quota
Duty Pass Quota
Tatkal Quota
Female(above 45 Year)/Senior
Citizen/Travelling alone
Physically Handicapped Quota

Railway Reservation


Railway Employee Staff on Duty for the train

General Quota Road Side
Out Station
Pooled Quota
Reservation Against Cancellation
Road Side
Lower Berth

RAC is a special provision to 'split' a berth into two or more
seats. This is really speaking not a quota but it is a predefined
allocation to take care of the above mentioned special provision. In
case of each road-side station quota, berths/seats are booked by the
originating station for journeys up-to the road-side station only up-to
the extent of accommodation earmarked for that Road-Side quota .In
such cases, distance restriction does not apply. If that berths/seat is
redefined from a remote location, then booking can also be done
beyond the road side station, within the limits defined for the remote
location quota. In no case can a through passenger be given
accommodation in the RS berth and the redefined portion. For eg., a









accommodation in a berth defined as GNRS up-to BPL and

subsequently redefined as GN from BPL to MAS.

Railway Reservation

Step 1
Using the menu option 'Trains / Berths / Full Fare' get the list of
train numbers.
Note: If you know the station code you can also directly enter the
codes after clicking on 'Know Station Codes! Click here', Otherwise
just enter 2-3 characters of the station names you are interested in
(in the source and destination station fields). This will prompt you
with valid station codes as per the input strings out which you can
select stations that satisfy your requirement.
Step 3:
If there are no trains between the specified pair of stations you will
be prompted with an error.
Step 4:

Railway Reservation
After you see the list of trains, enter the desired date of journey
and select the train of your choice using the radio button next to the
desired train number. Also select the desires class. You are now in the
capacity to get the Availability, Fare, Route Information for the
selected train using the buttons provided both on the top and bottom
of the table.


Indian railway E-booking

Indian railway ticket fare has the lowest fares across the country.
The reservation system of Indian railway, dating back in 1980s was
manual, thus making the reservation process more complex. By
1986, developed was the first reservation center with computerized
system at New Delhi.
In the year of 1995, the entire Indian Railway ticket fare and
reservation system became Internet friendly and it became easy to
access the latest information concerning availability of seats and

Railway Reservation
status. With a few far-flung regions as an exception, the ticket fare
and reservation has become completely computerized providing ease
to the passengers.
Indian Railway E-booking system
IRCTC provides reservation services online, through its own
official website. It is a subsidiary of Indian Railway Network.
Passengers can book the tickets online by means of net-banking
account, with a debit card or credit card. This Indian Railway Ebooking system is used by millions every year.

Steps to book a ticket online

Register and create an account on IRCTC website
Fill up your personal information and sign up as a new user in order to
make an account on IRCTC website. The website offers several
additional facilities including Season-ticket booking, booking via SMS,
preferred options for payment, registration

Railway Reservation
alternatives for Subh Yatra and Railway Credit-Card of SBI along with
the sign up options for commercial offers, special offers and
Indian railway E-booking reservation
Once you are done with the procedure to create the account, you can
book the tickets simply by logging into your account. Select the travel
date, destination station and source code or name, class of
accommodation and the kind of ticket desired by you.
Kinds of E-booking tickets
Indian railways offer two kinds of ticket, namely E-Ticket and ITicket. I-ticket is a normal ticket that is basically delivered by the
courier company at the doorstep of the passenger within the
timeframe of two to three days. If you are looking forward to book ITicket, then it is recommended to book the tickets in advance. These
tickets are basically issued for RAC, Confirmed and Waiting List cases.
Another type of ticket is E-Ticket. To book this ticket it is required to
log in to the account and then enter the details of ID proof like Voter
ID card, PAN Card, Ration Card, Driving License or Government ID
Card. Then you have to take out a print out of the ERS (Electronic
Reservation Slip) and carry it along while traveling.

Railway Reservation
Indian Railways Launch Mobile Ticketing SMS to Be Used As Proof of Ticket

Indian Railways has unveiled a new facility, which will allow

passengers to book railway tickets through their mobile phones and
use the text message received on their mobile phones by Indian
Railways as a valid ticket according to The Mobile Indian.
With this new facility Passengers dont have to carry paper
printouts of their e-Tickets anymore and passengers will now get a
ticket through SMS in 20 minutes.
This new facility was unveiled by West Bengal chief minister
and former railway minister, Mamata Banerjee who launched this
public friendly facility in Kolkata.
The m-ticket service is part of the new website launched recently, which will provide all
enquiries like train alert, PNR status, train status, seat availability,
train schedule, time table and fare on a single website.
A passenger has just to show the SMS to the ticket collector,
backed up by a photo ID to travel on train. The facility of booking
tickets through the web portal will be available between 12.30 am
and 11.30 pm on a daily basis. Railway officials said the newly
launched e-ticketing facility bars travel agents and such bulk
customers from using the service.

Railway Reservation
Recently, the Railway reservation site blocked over
460,000 fraudulent user IDs and since March 2011, IRCTC has
enhanced its cyber surveillance and has been disabling IDs which are
found to be violating laws.

Indian Railways were first introduced to India in 1853, is the fourth

largest railway network (running length of 64,000 km) and 7,083
stations in the world and ferries two million passengers a day.

Railway Reservation


In 1985, CMC developed IMPRESS, the railway reservation
system based online transaction processing (OLTP), for the Indian
Railways, which has been successfully operating it since 1987. Since
then, however, the system has undergone a major change for
networking all nodes in the railway network. The current software is
CONCERT, implemented by the Centre for Railway Information
Systems (CRIS).
The impact of IMPRESS / CONCERT on the system's users as well
as on the Indian Railways has been tremendous. The benefits include
substantial savings in transportation costs and in reservation time,
telescopic fare benefits for cluster journeys, reduced malpractice and,
above all, a modern, efficient and convenient system.
For the Railways, there is substantial reduction in cost per
ticket issued, manpower savings (a 40 per cent increase in
transactions handled per day), savings in space required, less

Railway Reservation
strenuous work, higher productivity and fewer errors in fare
computation, concession calculations, etc.
IMPRESS is being enhanced proactively, using state-of-the-art
relational database management systems on open systems. The
enhanced IMPRESS is built around an RDBMS core and supports a full
client-server architecture. It can also

work on character-based

terminals (used in the reservation and charting modules) in a hostbased environment.

The application has been designed as an open distribution system,

so that the data and transaction volume can be segregated between
multiple host sites. Networking is an inherent feature of the
The IMPRESS software can support both graphic user interface
(GUI) and character-based terminals, which act as front-ends installed
at the booking counters to cater to passenger requests.
This software conforms to open standards. Hence, it can be
interfaced to other applications like airline reservation systems, hotel
reservation systems, etc., which are also based on open standards.

Railway Reservation
The IMPRESS software is 'parametric' in terms of data and
business rules, for fare computation, refund rules, cancellation, break
journey rules, etc. Here, business rules are also kept as data items in
the back-end repository instead of being part of the application logic.
Therefore, the system can absorb changes in business rules
immediately, without having to regenerate the object code.
The application is secured against intrusion by two-level user
authentications as the topmost guard. Below it, the data is secured
from external access through multiple-level privileges. A data
encryption facility is available across the WAN to prevent hacking.


Indian Railways, abbreviated as IR (), is the state-owned railway
company of India, which owns and operates most of the country's rail
transport. It is overseen by the Ministry of Railways of the
Government of India.

Railway Reservation

Indian Railways has one of the largest and busiest rail networks in
the world, transporting over 18 million passengers and more than 2
million tonnes of freight daily.
It is the world's largest commercial or utility employer, with more
than 1.4 million employees. The railways traverse the length and
breadth of the country, covering 6,909 stations over a total route
length of more than 63,327 kilometres (39,350 mi). As to rolling
stock, IR owns over 200,000 (freight) wagons, 50,000 coaches and
8,000 locomotives. Railways were first introduced to India in 1853. By
1947, the year of India's independence, there were forty-two rail
systems. In 1951 the systems were nationalised as one unit,
becoming one of the largest networks in the world. IR operates both
long distance and suburban rail systems on a multi-gauge

network of broad, metre and narrow gauges. It also owns locomotive

and coach production facilities.

Railway Reservation
The novel plan for the introduction of a rail system, transformed
the whole history of India. This innovative plan was first proposed in
1832; however no auxiliary actions were taken for over a decade. In
the year 1844, private entrepreneurs were allowed to launch a rail
system by Lord Hardinge, who was the Governor-General of India. By
the year 1845, two companies were formed and the East India
Company was requested to support them in the matter. The credit
from the UK investors led to the hasty construction of a rail system
over the next few years. On 22nd Dec' 1851, the first train came on
the track to carry the construction material at Roorkee in India. With a
passage of one and a half years, the first passenger train service was
introduced between Bori Bunder, Bombay and Thana on the
providential date 16th Apr' 1853. This rail track covered a distance of
34 kms (21 miles). Ever since its origin, the rail service in India never
turned back. The British Government approached private investors
and persuaded them to join the race with a system that would
promise an annual return of 5% during the early years of operation.
Once finished, the company would be transferred under the
Government ownership, yet the operational control will be enjoyed by
the original company. In 1880, the rail network acquired a route
mileage of about 14,500 km (9,000 miles), mostly working through
Bombay, Madras and Calcutta (three major port cities). By 1895, India
had started manufacturing its own locomotives. In no time, different
kingdoms assembled their independent rail systems and the network

Railway Reservation
extended to the regions including Assam, Rajasthan and Andhra
Pradesh. In 1901, a Railway Board

was formed though the administrative power was reserved for the
Viceroy, Lord Curzon. The Railway Board worked under the guidance
of the Deptt of Commerce and Industry. It was comprised of three
members - a Chairman, a Railway Manager and an Agent respectively.
For the very first time in its history, the Railways instigated to
draw a neat profit. In 1907, most of the rail companies were came
under the government control. Subsequently, the first electric
locomotive emerged in the next year. During the First World War, the
railways were exclusively used by the British. In view of the War, the
condition of railways became miserable. In 1920, the Government
captured the administration of the Railways and the linkage between
the funding of the Railways and other governmental revenues was
detached. With the Second World War, the railways got incapacitated
since the trains were diverted to the Middle East. On the occasion of
India's Independence in 1947, the maximum share of the railways
went under the terrain of Pakistan. On the whole, 42 independent
railway systems with thirty-two lines were merged in a single unit and
were acknowledged as Indian Railways. The existing rail networks
were forfeited for zones in 1951 and 6 zones were formed in 1952.
With 1985, the diesel and electric locomotives took the place of

Railway Reservation
steam locomotives. In 1995, the whole railway reservation system
was rationalized with computerization.

Indian Railways - Introduction
The first railway on Indian sub-continent ran over a stretch of
21 miles from Bombay to Thane. The idea of a railway to connect
Bombay with Thane, Kalyan and with the Thal and Bhore Ghats
inclines first occurred to Mr. George Clark, the Chief Engineer of the
Bombay Government, during a visit to Bhandup in 1843.
The formal inauguration ceremony was performed on 16th
April 1853, when 14 railway carriages carrying about 400 guests
left Bori Bunder at 3.30 pm "amidst the loud applause of a vast
multitude and to the salute of 21 guns."
The first passenger train steamed out of Howrah station
destined for Hooghly, a distance of 24 miles, on 15th August, 1854.
Thus the first section of the East Indian Railway was opened to
public traffic, inaugurating the beginning of railway transport on the

Railway Reservation
Eastern side of the sub-continent. In south the first line was opened
on Ist July, 1856 by the Madras Railway Company. It ran between
Veyasarpandy and Walajah Road (Arcot), a distance of 63 miles. In
the North a length of 119 miles of line was laid from Allahabad to
Kanpur on 3rd March 1959. The first section from Hathras Road to
Mathura Cantonment was opened to traffic on 19th October, 1875.
These were the small beginnings which is due course
developed into a network of railway lines all over the country. By
1880 the Indian Railway system had a route mileage of about 9000

Freight and passenger traffic carried by Indian Railway has
recorded an impressive growth. This has been possible due to
conscious efforts put in by the railways in improving the productivity
of the assets and modernization and technology up gradation in
various fields. In some areas like track, signalling, communication
systems, computerization, etc., the technology in use is comparable
to that in the very advanced countries. We have attempted
modernization and technological up gradation of the system to
generate maximum capacity with minimum investment and to
provide rail transport at the least cost to our users.

Production of Rolling Stock

Railway Reservation

After Independence, Indian Railways have set up production

units for manufacture of diesel locomotives, electric locomotives,
coaches, wheels and axles, diesel components, springs, etc.
Technology transfer agreements have also been signed or manufacture
of the latest design of electric locomotives (6000 hp), diesel
locomotives (4000 hp) and light weight coaches.
Metro Railway
Indian Railways can also take the credit for introducing an
"Underground Metro Railway" for Calcutta. The whole route from Dum
Dum to Tollygunge has been commissioned and opened for
commercial operation in 1995. Similarly, the country's first elevated
Mass Rapid Transit System at Chennai has also been completed; the
system connects Chennai Beach to Luz.

Konkan Railway
The 760 km long Konkan Railway from Roha to Mangalore is nearly
complete. This section has 169 major and 1630 minor bridges and 88
tunnels with the longest one being 6.5 km long.
Electric traction is a pollution-free and energy efficient mode of
transportation. About 21 percent of the total route km of Indian
Railways, i.e.13, 509 route km, has been electrified up to March 31,

Railway Reservation

Gauge Conversion

Project uni-gauge has been undertaken to develop alternative

routes to connect important places with the broad gauge network,








transshipment points. During the Eighth Plan, 6,733 km of meter and

narrow gauge track were converted. In the Ninth Plan, conversion of
another 6,200 km has been planned.
Doubling/Quadrupling of Railway Lines
Doubling/quadrupling of railway lines is being carried out on the
saturated sections of Indian Railways to increase freight and
passenger carrying capacity on these sections. Doubling of 1089 km
of track was completed in the Eighth Plan. It has been planned to
complete another 2,500 km in the Ninth Plan.

Computerised Passenger Reservation Facility

"Computerised passenger reservation" facility has been
extended to cover over 92 percent of all reservations done on the
system. A major step in this direction is the extension of this facility

Railway Reservation
even to state capitals not having a direct rail links, e.g., Shillong,
Itanagar, Kohima, Gangtok, Port Blair, etc.


Railway Reservation
1. Indian Railways propose to meet the challenge through
implementations of following thrust areas during the Ninth Plan
2. Generation of adequate rail transport capacity for handling
increasing freight and passenger traffic with special emphasis on
development o terminals.
3. Completion of the process of rehabilitation, replacement and
renewal of over aged assets.
4. Modernisation and up gradation of the rail transport system to
reduce costs and improve reliability, safety and quality of service to
the customers.
5. Continue with the policy of unigauge.
6. Introduction of 6000 hp Electric locomotives and 4000 hp Diesel
Locomotives employing State-of-Art technology.
7. Expansion and up gradation of inter-modal operations, including
8. Improvement of manpower productivity, work culture and staff
morale. The broad details of the action plans, discipline-wise, to
achieve these objectives are as under:
High horse power (4000 hp) diesel locomotives with AC/AC
transmission and State-of -the-Art technology are being imported
with transfer of technology for their
Indigenous manufacture at Diesel Locomotive Works, Varanasi,
Modern light weight passenger coaches are also being imported with

Railway Reservation
transfer of technology for indigenous manufacture. Improved pay
load to tare freight wagons are wagons are also being planned for the
Indian Railways.
Three-phase drive AC electric locomotives of 6000 hp have been













Electrification of high-density corridors in order to conserve fossil

fuels and provide pollution-free and energy-efficient

mode of

transportation will also be pursued.

Latest design concrete sleepers, modern rail fastenings and head
hardened rails are being utilised to strengthen the track. Track
maintenance is being increasingly mechanised to improve quality and
to reduce the cost and time for maintenance.
For enhancing safety, auxiliary warning system, route relay
interlocking, solid state interlocking, and track circuiting are being
extended over the system. Modernisation of telecommunications,
including gradual switching over from analogue system to digital
system, which include digital microwave, optical fibre and digital
telephone exchanges, are being progressively adopted.
Railways are also introducing universal train radio
communication system between driver, guard and the nearest station
to enable immediate response in case of emergencies and accidents.

Railway Reservation
Line capacity works such as new lines, gauge conversion, railway
electrification, doublings, improved signaling, etc., would be carried
out on the identified sections so that Indian Railways could carry the
projected freight traffic in the Ninth Five Year
Plan. It has also been planned to introduce low tare and high pay
load wagons with increased axle loads and track loading densities
and high horse power locomotives to improve the through-put and
average speeds of the trains.
More than 94 per cent of the total reservation requirement of
Indian Railways is being done by the computerized reservation
facilities at present. There are plans to extend these facilities to more
stations, satellite locations, city booking offices and the remaining
non-rail head state capitals. It has also been planned to do
networking of the computerized reservation services. Interactive
inquiry systems are being introduced on more and more stations.
Self-printing ticketing machines are also being introduced on more
and more stations to reduce the time required for obtaining a ticket.
With the introduction of light weight modern coaches and high horse
power diesel and electric locomotives, it would be possible to
increase the number of coaches in many trains. Average speeds to
the trains would also improve.

Railway Reservation

Indian Railways is the largest rail network in Asia and Worlds
second largest under one management, Indian Railways comprise
over one hundred thousand track kilometers and run about 11000
trains every day carrying about 13 million passengers and 1.25
million tons of freight every day. Despite being reliable, safe, ecofriendly and economical mode of transport, its share in both freight
and passenger traffic has come down significantly over the years.
The scope for public private partnership is enormous in railways,
ranging from commercial exploitation of rail space to private
investments in railway infrastructure and rolling stocks. In order to
have an integrated development of Transport system, National Rail
Development Programme has also been launched in December 2002
envisaging an investment of about US$ 3.5 billion in next 5 years.
The programme envisages removal of capacity bottlenecks in the
critical sections of railway network.

The Golden quadrilateral is

Railway Reservation
proposed to be strengthened to enable running of more long distance
passenger trains and freight trains at a higher speed.


also envisages strengthening of rail connectivity to ports and

development of multi-model corridors to hinterland. Construction of
4 mega bridges costing about US$ 750 million is also included in the

Construction of a new Railway Line to Kashmir valley in

most difficult terrain at a cost of US$ 1.5 Billion and expansion of rail
network in Mumbai area at a cost of US$ 900 million has also been
taken up.




















Indian railway is a department of Government and the Ministry

of railways functions under the guidelines of Minister for railways
and assisted by Minister of State for railways.
The policy formation and management of Indian railway board
comprises of Chairman and six functional members. Wide powers

Railway Reservation
are vested in the Board to effectively supervise the running of 15







construction organization and other rail establishments.

These are generally headed by General Managers. Four
subsidiary organizations under the Ministry of Railways viz. IRCON,
RITES, CONCOR and CRIS, undertake specialized jobs in India and
aborad, contributing to Indian railways growth and progress.
The Indian Railways (IP) network is one of the largest in the
world with 63,000 kms of track and employing 1.6 million people.
Operating on three gauges board guage (1676 mm), meter guage
(1000 mm) and narrow guage (762 mm), Railways move 12 million
passengers and over 1 million tons of freight traffic daily. Nearly,
60% of freight and 48% of passenger traffic is presently hauled on
electric traction.
There are also ongoing projects to improve suburban metro
system in Calcutta, Chennai, and Mumbai.

There are being taken

forward by separate mass transit organizations. In Delhi construction

work is underway for a new metro system.

The Indian Railways reserves the right to accept or reject any or

all Expressions of Interest without assigning any reasons thereof.

Railway Reservation
The rail network is divided into nine operating zones (based
on geographical regions) and various production units,
Rail Coach Factory Kapurthala;
Diesel Loco Works Varanasi;
Integral Coach Factory Chennai; and
Wheel & Axle Plant Bangalore.
In addition to the above four manufacturing / production
units, Indian Railways also have a number of other important
elements to its structure, as follows:
IRCON responsible for IR construction and civil engineering;
RITES IRs consultancy division;
Research, Designs and Standards Organization (RDSO) IRs
research and development division and also the approval body
for new technology / products.
Central Organization for Rail Electrification (CORE) Overseas
major rail electrification projects.
Indian Railways has a large number of projects in the pipeline but
progress is slow due to resource constraints. The Govt. has drawn up

Railway Reservation
a development plan to improve and enhance capacity across the
network called the National Rail Vikas Yojana (NRVY).
The Plan was launched in August 2002 and involves an estimated
investment of Rs.15000 r over the next five years and comprises
three main elements.

The Indian Railways' Passenger Reservation System (PRS) has
long been the poster-child of a Indian e-governance projects. Like
many winning projects, this one was constantly evolving - for the
better. Today, e-ticketing has been introduced in all express trains
and PRS implemented on a nation-wide basis at over 1,300 counters.
"The PRS is the lifeline of the railways. As the custodians of this
application, we crave to make it better," says Shashi Bhushan Roy,
group general manager, PRS, CRIS (Centre for Railway Information
Systems). Custodian, it would appear, sounds a tad too earnest. But

Railway Reservation
the PRS is indeed a legacy of the Indian Railways. Right from when it
was conceptualized in the 1970s, it's been a shiny blue success that's
made the Railways proud. It's lived up to the expectations of millions
of travellers. Initially, the PRS was created purely to automate the
process of reserving tickets.
It wasn't so long ago that the Railways worked with a system in
which a central authority allocated 'ticket quotas' to each station
along a train's route. But as traffic increased manifold and the
number of long haul trains, the quota solution was driving the
Railways into the ground.
The PRS application has come a long way from when only
five zonal railway data centers were networked. This one is the third
avatar of its original form, which worked as a host-based system. It is
all-pervasive and provides the ability to make reservations from
anywhere to anywhere.

To meet rising passenger expectations,

CRIS's first strategy was to increase the number of offline reservation

counters. In just over three years, the PRS has gone from being an
application that only permitted ticketing at reservation counters to
allowing passengers to buy tickets

over the Internet. And now, reservation information and ticket status
are even available over mobile phones through SMS.

Railway Reservation
Until today, trains pulling out of a station were disconnected from
the PRS. There was no way a railway official could tally the number of
passengers cancelling their journeys at the last minute - which meant
that their seats went empty all the way to the last stop. Among the
enhancements planned for the PRS is a move to empower TTEs with
handheld terminals connected to the backend of the PRS. The
handhelds allow TTEs to 'give back' vacant berths to the system. By
updating the PRS in real-time, TTEs can signal the next station of the
number of vacant seats aboard - after the train has departed.
Initially, the PRS used with the handhelds crashed. And CRIS
continues to tackle problems with the device. It still takes more time
to read data off the handheld than off a manual chart. CRIS will need
to make it faster and train TTEs. They've also tempered their plans to
load the handhelds with passenger information to facilitate TTEs
scrolling for passenger names.
CRIS plans to provide information on connecting trains and the
PNR status for travellers en route, but with unconfirmed reservations
on connecting trains. CRIS officials say that in the future, these
terminals could also be used to book retiring rooms. Extending the
PRS to a moving train will add both revenue and boost customer

Railway Reservation

The new enhancements will also flatten cumbersome refund

procedures - and for this, CRIS has introduced the Computerized
Coaching Refunds, which provides data on passengers who have
cancelled their travel plans. Clubbed with handhelds, immediate
changes to the PRS make it easier to get a refund.

Railway Reservation

The Indian Railways has made a quantum leap forward in terms
of switching over from paper-based ticketing systems to online
ticketing. I-ticket reservation is showing a polynomial trend. It is
showing an upward trend up to 2008 but after that it startedm
declining continuously. On the other hand E-ticket reservation is
showing an upward power trend. The percentage of passengers
travelled with online Tickets is being increasing continuously. Most
preffered mode of payment by users is Net banking/Debit cards
followed by credit card option. Indian railways is not having very high
earnings from various online marketing options like promotional
mails, banners on site, confirmation mail, text link, PNR alert, etc. The
numbers of online tour package bookings are greater than counter
bookings. But in case of holiday packages the numbers of counter
bookings are much greater than online bookings. Online cab booking
and hotel booking are not performing well as compare to other online
travel services. It does not seem to be very much profitable. On the
other hand The Indian Railways has made a quantum leap forward in
terms of switching over from paper-based ticketing systems to online
ticketing. I-ticket reservation is showing a polynomial trend. It is
showing an upward trend up to 2008 but after that it started declining

Railway Reservation
continuously. On the other hand E-ticket reservation is showing an
upward power trend. The percentage of passengers travelled with
online Tickets is being increasing continuously. Most preffered mode
of payment by users is Net banking/Debit cards followed by credit
card option . Indian railways is not having very high earnings from
various online marketing options like promotional mails, banners on
site, confirmation mail, text link, PNR alert, etc.

The numbers of online tour package bookings are greater than

counter bookings. But in case of holiday packages the numbers of
counter bookings are much greater than online bookings. Online cab
booking and hotel booking are not performing well as compare to
other online travel services. It does not seem to be very much

Railway Reservation

Railway Reservation

Railway Reservation

Railway Reservation