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BLM 8

INTRODUCTION
SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
1.Simple Present: General statement of facts
2.Negative sentences with the Simple Present
Construction engineers dont work in a laboratory. They work in the
construction site.
An architect draws plans for the buildings. He doesnt repair cars.
Architects dont repair cars. Mechanics do.
A manager doesnt answer the phones. A secretary does.
3.Reading and answering questions: Safety First
Where does Ali work?
What protects his eyes?
4.Writing practice
Wastewater treatment

5.Reading Comprehension: Uses of Electricity


6.Frequency adverbs
How often does he go to work by bus?
7.Reading Comprehension: Safety in Work Areas
8.Practice exercises

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1. THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE (GENERAL STATEMENT OF


FACTS)

past
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
present

future

An electrician works with cables and wires.


Mechanics repair cars.
Employees clean the workshop everyday.
Verb Forms

Subject

affirmative
sentences

negative
sentences

questions

I/you/we/they
he/she/it

work
works

dont work
doesnt work

Do.......work?
Does .....work?

Examples:
I/You/We/They want a clean workshop.
Do I/You/We/They want a clean workshop?
I/You/We/They dont want a clean workshop.
He/She/It wants a clean workshop.
Does he/she/it want a clean workshop?
He/She/It doesnt want a clean workshop.
Wh Questions:
A: What do I/You/We/They want?
B: I/You/We/They want a clean workshop
A: What does he/she/it want?
B: He/She/It wants a clean workshop

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2. POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE SENTENCES


Make positive or negative sentences as in the examples.
Construction engineers dont work in a laboratory. They work in the construction
site.
An architect draws plans for buildings. He doesnt repair cars.
1- A secretary . (work) in a workshop. She ..
(work) in an office.
2- A worker (wear) a hard hat at the job site. He
.. (wear) a hard hat at home.
3- We .. (go) to work by bus or by train. We .
(go) to work by plane.
4- A spanner ... (tighten) screws. It ...
(tighten) bolts.
5- I (work) five days a week. I . (work) on
Saturdays or Sundays.
Look at the examples and make similar sentences.
Examples:
Architects/repair cars/mechanics
Architects dont repair cars. Mechanics do.
A manager/answer phones/a secretary
A manager doesnt answer the phones. A secretary does.
1- A handsaw/cut metals/a hacksaw
.
2- A screwdriver/tighten bolts/a spanner
.
3- Office employees/wear hard hats/field employees
.
4- Technicians/draw plans/architects

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.
5- A refrigerator/cool the room/an air conditioner
.
6- A hard hat/protect your eyes/safety glasses
.
7- Shoes/protect your hands/gloves
.

3. READ THE PASSAGE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS.


Safety First
Ali is a maintenance man. He works
in a big workshop. He always wears safety
clothes in the workshop. His safety gloves
protect his hands. His safety shoes protect
his feet. His safety hat protects his head. His
safety glasses protect his eyes. He wears
safety clothes everyday to work. He doesnt
want to have an accident.

1- Where does Ali work?


.
2- What protects Alis eyes?
.
3- What does he always wear in the workshop?
.
4- What protects his head?
.
5- What protects his feet?
.

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6- What protects his hands?


.
7- Why does he wear safety clothes?
.
8- What kind of shoes does Ali wear at work?
.

4. WRITING PRACTICE
Wastewater Treatment
Wastewater treatment is the process of cleaning used water.
Study the diagram and make sentences about the steps of this process as in the
example using the following verbs and the information given in the diagram.
go into

go through

pass through

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Example:
1- First, the wastewater goes through a screen. The screen removes large objects.
2- ..

..
3- ..

..
4- ..

..
5-..

..
6-..

..
Complete the paragraph by using your sentences above using the words
below.
second,

after that,

next,

then,

finally

There are several steps in the process of wastewater treatment. First, the
wastewater goes through ...

Finally the water

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5. READING COMPREHENSION

A: What runs on electricity in our


homes?
B: Electrical machines run on
electricity in our homes.

USE OF ELECTRICITY
We have different kinds of devices -machines- in our homes. They run on electricity.
But we dont use electricity only in our homes. We also need it in our schools,
hospitals, banks, factories, etc. Electricity brings us comfort. For example, we use it
for heating electric fires, irons and toasters. In addition to this, it runs electric motors.
For example, washing machines, refrigerators and dishwashers work through electric
power. Also vehicles such as subway trains, trolley busses and electric locomotives
have motors. So they run on electricity.
Write True or False
a) ------- We use electricity only in our homes.
b) ------- We also use it in schools and hospitals.
c) ------- Electricity doesnt run electric motors.
d) ------- Irons have electric motors.
e) ------- Subway trains run on electricity.

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1. FREQUENCY ADVERBS
FREQUENCY LINE

Study the following text.


David is a maintenance foreman.
Most days, he comes to work by
bus. One or two days a week, he
drives to work. But he comes to
work

early

everyday.

Every

morning, first, he inspects the


workshop. From time to time, he
finds it dirty. So, he gets angry with
the employees when it is dirty.
He wants a clean workshop. He shows his workers how to fix power tools when they
break down. He talks about safety and how to prevent accidents almost every morning.

Answer the following questions based on the passage and using frequency
adverbs.
1- How does David get to work?

.
2- How often does he drive to work?
.
3- Does he ever come to work late?
.
4- How often does he inspect the workshop?
.
5- Does he ever find it dirty?
.
6- What does he almost always talk about?
.
7- When does he get angry with his workers?

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7. READING COMPREHENSION
SAFETY IN WORK AREAS
In many work fields, industrial doctors and safety
engineers

work

together.

They

protect

workers

from

accidents and diseases on the job. They do this in three


ways. First, doctors examine the workers and their diseases.
Safety engineers examine accidents and their causes.
Second, doctors and safety engineers work together to change the machines or the
job because they want to prevent accidents or illnesses. Third, they educate workers
about the dangers of their job.
There are many causes of accidents and diseases at work, such as chemicals, noise
and radiation. They harm the skin, the lungs and other internal organs. Industrial
doctors and safety engineers often prevent these problems. First, they find the
causes; next they plan and design new machines to prevent accidents. For example,
they design different ways to store and transport toxic chemicals. They measure and
control gases in the air. They set standards for work in dangerous situations. For
example, some workers must wear protective clothing, like eye goggles, hard hats
and safety shoes. Finally, they make the work area a safe place.
Answer the questions about the reading passage.
1- Who protects workers from accidents and illnesses on the job?
......................................................................................................
2- How do they organize their job?
......................................................................................................
3- What are the basic causes of accidents and diseases at work?
......................................................................................................
4- How do they harm people?
......................................................................................................
5- How do industrial doctors and safety engineers prevent the problems?
.................................................................

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True or False ?
1- ------- Industrial doctors examine accidents.
2- ------- Some workers must wear protective clothing.
3- ------- Industrial doctors and safety engineers first plan and design new
i. machines to prevent the accidents.
4- ------- Safety engineers examine workers and their illnesses.
5- ------- Industrial doctors and safety engineers work together to make work
area safe.

PRACTICE EXERCISES
1. Yes/No questions.
Put the given words into the blanks
is

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)

are

do

does

have

has

.------- the tool kit contain any kinds of pliers?


.------- it got any sorts of pincers?
.------- there any sorts of spanners in the kit?
.------- there a set of screwdrivers?
.------- the hacksaw got spare blades?
.------- the packets include a solder dispenser?
.------- there a pair of snips?
.------- it got any files?
.------- it have any wrenches?
------- there any spare screws?

2. Place the words into the blanks


include

contains

have/has

is/are

a) A high quality mechanic tool kit ------------------ a good selection of tools.

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b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

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What kinds of screwdrivers ------------------ the box got?


What sorts of pincers ------------------ there in this box?
------------------ there a ring spanner in that kit?
Does the box ------------------ spare hacksaw blades?
Those tool kits ------------------ got ten different types of cutters.

3. Put the given words in their correct forms


a) Computers ------------------ (have) circuits for arithmetic operations.
b) An acid ------------------ (be) a compound. It ------------------ (contain)
hydrogen.
c) Water ------------------ (dissolve) substances such as salt, sugar, etc. ;
d) but it ------------------ (dissolve) wood, oil or sand.
e) Lasers ------------------ (print) by striking characters through a carbon.
f) A digital computer ------------------ (do) calculations quickly and exactly.
g) Water ------------------ (boil) at 100o C, and ------------------ (freeze) at Oo C.
4. Place the words into the suitable blanks
removes
protect
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

sink

fix

prevent

inspects

This rubber ball doesnt ------------------ ; it floats.


An insurance company ------------------ the damages first.
Follow the safety rules to ------------------ accidents.
Goggles ------------------ eyes.
This machine ------------------ the dirt from the fruit.
Please show me how to ------------------ the plug.

5. Place the words into the suitable blanks putting them into their correct
forms.
cool
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

draw

flow

contact

connect

glow

Plumbers ------------------ water pipes in buildings.


An air conditioner ------------------ the buildings.
Water ------------------ through the pipes.
Heat the iron bar until it ------------------.
When a drill comes into ------------------ with an electric cable, it may kill you.
First, ------------------ a line, then cut the wood with a saw.

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6. Make meaningful sentences using the scrambled words


a) a / kit / does / spare / this / not / spanner / tool /have.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------b) contains / important / this / documents / file.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------c) know / a / to / you / fix / do / how / radio / ?
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------d) from / floor / the / remove / the / dirt / please.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------e) car / those / cool / engine / fans / the.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------f) any / vehicles / the / there / street / in / are / ?
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------g) computer / anti virus / not / his / has / program / got.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7. Study the following passage
The light bulb
Light bulbs have a very
simple structure. At the base,
they have two metal contacts.
These contacts connect to the
ends of an electrical circuit.
They are attached to two stiff
wires. These wires are attached
to a thin filament. The filament
sits in the middle of the bulb on
top of a glass mount. They are
all located inside a glass bulb
filled with an inert gas, such as
argon. Unlike oxygen, an inert
gas doesnt burn.
When you switch on the
power supply, an electric
current flows from one contact
to the other, through the wires
and the filament. Electric
current in a solid conductor is
the mass movement of free
electrons from a negatively
charged area to a positively
charged area.
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These moving electrons constantly bump into the atoms of the filament which is a long,
incredibly thin tungsten metal. The energy of each impact heats the atoms up. A thin
conductor heats up easily because it is resistant to the movement of electrons. When the
atoms become hot enough (around 2200 degrees C), they emit light. The filament glows
brightly but it doesnt burn out because tungsten is a very strong metal.

Based on the text above mark if these statements are true (T) or false (F).
. 1. The filament sits at the bottom of the light bulb.
. 2. Electrons run from the negative end to the positive end of the circuit.
. 3. The filament is extremely thin and short.
. 4. The filament gives light but it doesnt heat up.
. 5. The bulb is filled with argon, an inert gas.
. 6. Oxygen is an inert gas because it doesnt burn.
. 7. Electric current is the flow of electrons through a conductor, like a
metal wire.
. 8. The filament becomes hot because moving electrons bump into its
atoms.

UNIT 8
Summary section
Simple Present Tense

Positive
Statements

Nnegative
Statements

Positive
Questions

They

work in a small workshop.

She

goes

They dont

work in a small workshop.

She

doesnt go

to work by bus.

to work by bus.

Do

they

work in a small workshop.

Does

she

go
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to work by bus.

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Dont

they

work

in a small workshop.

Doesnt

she

go

to work by bus.

Where

do

they

work

How

does

she

go

to work?

Negative
Questions

Wh
Questions

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verbs that take (s) in the Simple Present affirmative sentences


protect
draw
repair
want
clean
wear
use
follow
remove
sink
run
need
bring

verbs that take

work
come
find
get
prevent
talk
inspect
examine
change
set
educate
harm
measure

heat
control
store
transport
plan
design
make
include
contain
dissolve
print
strike
boil

adverbs

adjectives

freeze
cool
flow
connect
glow
sit
locate
burn
attach
switch
emit
give
become

expressions

(es)
do (does)
go (goes)
pass (passes)
fix (fixes)
attach (attaches)
switch (switches)
Irregular

quickly
exactly
negatively
positively
constantly
incredibly
brightly
extremely
almost

large
different
angry
internal
industrial
dangerous
protective
simple
basic
strong
thin
digital
high
spare
toxic

have (has)

Transitional expressions
First, second, next, then, after that, in addition,
such as, finally, for example, so
like, unlike

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be filled with
burn out
heat up
bump into
switch on
set standards
talk about
get to work
break down
get angry with sb
go into
go through
pass through