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R&D center

and
TS-LatAm
2016.06.02

Types of soiling

Soiling is a kind of shading the PV-Panel


usually caused by accumulation of:

Fine dust
Dirt
Sand
Lime

Soiling can happen:

Homogenous
Partial dotted
Partial covered
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Homogenous soiling

Fine dust or lime

Scabby dirt or sand

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Covering part of the panel

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Covering part of cells

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Impact of soiling

Power drop

Less energy production

Panel heating

Hotspots

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Risk of panel damage

How to measure soiling

HOW

???

Dirt thickness of covered surface


% of covered surface

Not unique for all types of dirt


Not measurable in the field

Power drop exluding all other parameters


Subjective appearance

Can be used for O&M


Evaluation of soiling

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Simulation of 3 levels of homogenous soiling

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Homogenous soiling simulation-flash test

Soiling level

soiling level 1

soiling level 2

soiling level 3

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Power Test

STC power

Voc

Isc

Vmp

Imp

Before

257.154

37.794

8.912

30.388

8.462

After

236.8

37.647

8.306

30.616

7.734

decay rate

7.92%

0.39%

6.80%

-0.75%

8.60%

Before

255.484

37.751

8.93

30.458

8.388

After

214.381

37.48

7.411

31.01

6.913

decay rate

16.09%

0.72%

17.01%

-1.81%

17.58%

Before

256.525

37.798

8.934

30.401

8.438

After

195.421

37.366

6.71

31.102

6.283

decay rate

23.82%

1.14%

24.89%

-2.31%

25.54%

IV-curves for homogenous-covered test

IV-curves (the module without homogenous dust)

IV-curves (homogenous test-level 3)

Homogenous soiling is equivalent to full shading of a panel


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Vertical: 3 bottom cells covered with dust

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Vertical: 3 bottom cells covered with dust


-flash test

Soiling level

soiling level 1

soiling level 2

soiling level 3

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Power Test STC power

Voc

Isc

Vmp

Imp

Before

257.15

37.79

8.91

30.39

8.46

After

254.07

37.80

8.95

30.83

8.24

decay rate

1.20%

-0.01%

-0.43%

-1.46%

2.61%

Before

255.48

37.75

8.93

30.46

8.39

After

246.12

37.74

9.13

31.34

7.85

decay rate

3.66%

0.02%

-2.21%

-2.89%

6.37%

Before

256.53

37.80

8.93

30.40

8.44

After

222.12

37.77

9.49

32.48

6.84

decay rate

13.41%

0.07%

-6.19%

-6.84%

18.95%

12

Horizonal: 5 bottom cells covered with dust

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13

Horizonal: 5 bottom cells covered with dust

Soiling level

soiling level 1

soiling level 2

soiling level 3

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Power Test

STC power

Voc

Isc

Vmp

Imp

Before

257.15

37.79

8.91

30.39

8.46

After

242.16

37.76

8.93

31.43

7.71

decay rate

5.83%

0.08%

-0.17%

-3.42%

8.93%

Before

256.53

37.80

8.93

30.40

8.44

After

217.17

37.76

8.97

32.50

6.68

decay rate

15.34%

0.09%

-0.36%

-6.89%

20.80%

Before

255.48

37.75

8.93

30.46

8.39

After

171.93

37.64

8.93

33.34

5.16

decay rate

32.71%

0.28%

0.02%

-9.47%

38.53%

14

IV-curves for partial-covered test

Level 1

Level 3

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Deformation of I/V curve

Moves MPP to higher voltage


Extreme drop of Imp
Causes bypass of whole substring

Hotspots caused by partial soiling


!!! Partial soiling can damage the panels !!!

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Local dirt spot

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Local dirty spot--flash test

Soiling level

3 spots (3cm) on
substring

one spot (3cm) on


random cell

Power Test

STC power

Voc

Isc

Vmp

Imp

Before

252.70

37.40

8.91

30.10

8.41

After

250.83

37.30

8.83

30.20

8.30

decay rate

0.74%

0.27%

0.90%

-0.33%

1.31%

Before

252.30

37.20

8.79

30.30

8.33

After

250.77

37.40

8.83

30.22

8.30

decay rate

0.61%

-0.54%

-0.46%

0.26%

0.36%

Few small dirt spots do not have a big impact

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BUT

Local dirt spots

. Birds do not shit


only once !!!

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Cleaning methods

Manually or automated

depends on the
O&M budget

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Cleaning methods

Water quality is an issue !!!

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Recommendation for panel cleaning

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Notes: Information presented hereby is subject to change without further notice.

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