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1: The Junco
1. How has living in an urban environment impacted the UCSD junco physical traits, behaviors, &
physiology? (List 2 3)

2. Right now the juncos that live at UCSD are still considered the same species as the juncos that
live in the mountains. This tells us that:
A) they live in the same area and they interact with each other
B) they evolved from the same ancestor
C) they can interbreed with each other
D) they have the exact same mating behavior
E) they are reproductively isolated from one another

3. Overtime the junco at UCSD may become a separate species from the one in the mountains.
Based on the video (and your answer to question #1), what type of reproductive isolation might
occur between these two groups of juncos? Do you think speciation will occur?

Part 2: Are lemurs the product of vicariance or dispersal speciation?
For questions 1-3 use the map on the slide
1. If the most close relative of lemurs lives in India, and lemurs are the result of VICARIANCE
speciation. Then we know that lemurs were separated from their sister group ~ _____________ MYA..

2. If the most close relative of lemurs lives in mainland Africa, and lemurs are the result of
VICARIANCE speciation. Then we know that lemurs were separated from their sister group
~_________ MYA.

3. In reality, the sister group of lemurs lives in mainland Africa. Using molecular dating techniques,
scientists have been able to determine that lemurs last shared a common ancester with this sister
group ~65 MYA. Based on this information, what type of speciation most likely occurred. How do
you know?

4. The diagram represents the ranges of 3 species (A, B, and C), which are separated by a mountain
range and river. Jessie has hypothesized that these three species arose via vicariance. Specifically,
she has proposed that the area was originally occupied by a single species. Its range was split first
by the mountain range. Later, the river formed, separating populations on the eastern side of the
mountains. Draw a phylogenetic tree showing the relationships between A, B, and C that would
support her hypothesis.

Part 3: Cospeciation & Adaptive Radiation

5. An adaptive radiation is a bout of rapid evolutionary diversification where one species quickly
diversifies into many different species. One example of an adaptive radiation is the hawaiian
honecreeper. Why is adaptive radiation common on island chains like the hawaiian islands?

6. If the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum were the product of co-speciation, its
closest relative would be found in:
A. mosquitoes.
B. gorillas.
C. chimpanzees.
D. orangutans.
E. pocket gophers.

Which of the following is true based on this phylogeny?
A) Chimps and gorillas are more closely related to each

other than chimps and humans

B) Orangutans are more closely related to gorillas than

they (orangutans) are to humans.

C) Humans evolved from chimps

D) B & C
E) None of the above

Part 4: The Process of Speciation
The various Ensatina salamanders of the Pacific
coast all descended from a common ancestral
population. As the species spread southward
from Oregon and Washington, subpopulations
adapted to their local environments on either side
of the San Joaquin Valley. From one population to
the next, in a circular pattern, these salamanders
are still able to interbreed successfully. However,
where the circle closes where the star is on the
map -- the salamanders no longer interbreed

If you were a taxonomist (a person who names
species), would you classify these as 1 species, 2
species, 3, species, or more? How would you
determine where the species boundaries are?