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Referencing

Guide

Adapted from:
http://intranet.yorkcollege.ac.uk/yc/new/lduweb/documents/citrefs.pdf
http://education.exeter.ac.uk/dll/studyskills/harvard_referencing.htm
Compiled by David Fisher and Terry Hanstock
Revised by IPG, January 2009 - Edited by RB, DA and ED
Revised by EB, May 2009 Edited by JW, ED and ML
Revised by ED, Oct 2009 to reflect new Study Skills materials
Revised by M Haque, Jan 2011

KICL Referencing Guide

Book
authors
last name

year of
publication

title of book

place of
publication

publisher

Cutler, T. (1986). Keynes, Beveridge and beyond. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
initial

Journal Article

authors
last name

year of
publication

title of article

title of journal

volume no.

page no.

initial

Greenfield, J. (1990). The Sevso Treasure: the legal case. Apollo, 132(341), 14-16.

Website article

authors name
or source

year of
publication

title of article

type of media

NHS Evidence. (2003). National Library of Guidelines. [online] Available at:


<http://www.library.nhs.uk/guidelinesFinder> [Accessed 10 October 2009].

website url

date you accessed the


website

KICL Referencing Guide

Contents

1. Reference Lists .................................................................................................... 5


Book one author .............................................................................................................................. 5
Book - two authors.............................................................................................................................. 5
Book three authors .......................................................................................................................... 5
Book four or more authors .............................................................................................................. 5
Edited Book ......................................................................................................................................... 6
E-book ................................................................................................................................................. 6
Journal / Magazine Article .................................................................................................................. 6
Journal / Magazine article available on the internet .......................................................................... 6
Journal article from a database .......................................................................................................... 7
Newspaper Article (printed) ............................................................................................................... 7
Newspaper Article (online) ................................................................................................................. 7
Conference Paper ............................................................................................................................... 7
Thesis or dissertation .......................................................................................................................... 8
Illustrations ......................................................................................................................................... 8
Chapter or section in a book by someone other than the editor ....................................................... 8
E-mail correspondence ....................................................................................................................... 8
Website with unknown author of text................................................................................................ 9
Website with known author of text .................................................................................................... 9
Electronic Image.................................................................................................................................. 9
YouTube Video .................................................................................................................................... 9
More than one work by the same author, different year ................................................................ 10
More than one work by the same author, with the same year ........................................................ 10
Missing Date...................................................................................................................................... 10
Missing author .................................................................................................................................. 10
Missing place of publication ............................................................................................................. 10
Missing publisher .............................................................................................................................. 10

2. Citations .............................................................................................................. 11
Integrated citation ............................................................................................................................ 11
Non-integrated citation .................................................................................................................... 11
Secondary Referencing ..................................................................................................................... 11
Direct Quotations.............................................................................................................................. 12

KICL Referencing Guide

Indented long quotations ................................................................................................................. 12


Using multiple citations in a sentence .............................................................................................. 12
More than one source in a citation .................................................................................................. 12

3. Other.................................................................................................................... 12
Difference between reference list and bibliography ........................................................................ 12
Using media sources such as the BBC ............................................................................................... 13
Alphabetical order of reference lists ................................................................................................ 13

KICL Referencing Guide

1. Reference Lists
Reference List

In-text Citation

Book one author


Details
Authors last name, Initials. (Year). Title of book. Edition. (only include this if not
the first edition) Place of publication (this must be a town or city, not a
country):Publisher.
Example
Cutler, T. (1986). Approaches to learning. London: Penguin.

Organisations have been found to differ (Cutler, 1986).

Book - two authors


Cutler, T., and Williams, J. (1986). Approaches to learning. London: Penguin.

Organisations have been found to differ (Cutler and Williams,


1986).

The order in which you write the authors names is based on the way it is written
on the original source.
Book three authors
Cutler, T., Williams, J., and Jacobs, M. (1986). Approaches to learning. London:
Penguin.

Organisations have been found to differ (Cutler, Williams and


Jacobs, 1986).

Book four or more authors


Cutler, T., et al. (1986). Approaches to learning. London: Penguin.

Organisations have been found to differ (Cutler et al., 1986).

The following examples apply to one author, but the rules above for more
than one author can be applied to any of these sources.

KICL Referencing Guide


Edited Book
Authors last name, Initials. (ed.). (Year). Title of book. Place of publication:
Publisher.
Cutler, T. (ed.). (1986). Approaches to learning. London: Penguin.

Organisations have been found to differ (Cutler, 1986).

E-book
Authors last name, Initials. (Year). Title of book. [type of medium] Place of
publication: Publisher. Available through: source/database, URL [Accessed date].
Fishman, R. (2005). The rise and fall of suburbia. [e-book] Chester: Castle
Press. Available through: City University Library, http://city.ac.uk/library [Accessed
5 June 2010].

Organisations have been found to differ (Fishman, 2005).

Journal / Magazine Article


Authors last name, Initials. (Year). Title of article. Name of journal/magazine,
Volume number, Page numbers.
Greenfield, J. (1990). The Sevso Treasure: the legal case. Apollo, 132(341), 14-16.

Organisations have been found to differ (Greenfield, 1990).

Journal / Magazine article available on the internet


Authors last name, Initials. (Year) . Title of article, Name of journal/magazine,
[online]. Available at: <web address (quote the exact URL for the article)>
[Accessed date].
Kipper, D. (2008). Japans new dawn, Popular Science and Technology,
[online] Available at: <http://www.popsci.com/popsci37b144110vgn/html>
[Accessed 22 June 2009].

Organisations have been found to differ (Kipper, 2008).

KICL Referencing Guide


Journal article from a database
Authors last name, Initials. (Year). Title of article. Full Title of Journal, [type of
medium] Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if available.
Available through: name of database [Accessed date].
Boughton, J.M., (2002). The Bretton Woods proposal: an in depth look.
Political Science Quarterly, [e-journal] 42 (6), Available through: Blackwell
Science Synergy database [Accessed 12 June 2005].

Organisations have been found to differ (Boughton, 2002).

Newspaper Article (printed)


Authors last name, Initials. (Year). Title of Article. Title of Newspaper. Day and
month of article. Page number of article - if available.
Randerson, J. (2008). Researchers find fish that can count up to four. The
Guardian. 26th February. p.14.

Organisations have been found to differ (Randerson, 2008).

Newspaper Article (online)


Authors last name, Initials. (Year). Title of Article. Title of Newspaper. [Online].
Day and month of article. Page number of article - if available. Available at: <URL>
[Accessed date].
Randerson, J. (2008). Researchers find fish that can count up to four. The
Guardian. 26th February. p.14. Available at: <http://www.lexisnexis.com/uk>
[Accessed 22nd May 2008].

Organisations have been found to differ (Randerson, 2008).

Conference Paper
Authors last name, Initials. (Year). Title of paper. Place of publication: Publisher.
Cunningham, S. (1993). Computer graphics: SIGGRAPH 93 conference proceedings,
Anaheim, California, 1-6 August, 1993. New York: The Association for Computing
Machinery.

Organisations have been found to differ (Cunningham, 1993).

KICL Referencing Guide


Thesis or dissertation
Authors last name, Initials. (Year). Title of thesis. Type of thesis, Place of
publication.
McCarthy, D.F. (1981). Group representation in the plural society: the case of the
poverty lobby. Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University.

Organisations have been found to differ (McCarthy, 1981).

Illustrations
Authors last name, Initials. (Year). Title of illustration. Type of illustration. At:
place of publication: publisher. Register number
Gosse, S. (1912). The Garden, Rowlandson House. Ink and oil. At: London: British
Museum Department of Prints and Drawings. Register number 1915-27-41.

Organisations have been found to differ (Gosse, 1912).

Chapter or section in a book by someone other than the editor


Author of chapter/sections last name, Initials. (Year). Title of section/chapter in
book. In: Editor of books last name, Initials. (ed.). Title of book. Place of
publication. Publisher. Year: pages in book
Robinson, E.A.G. (1951). The overall allocation of resources. In: Chester, D.N. (ed.).
Lessons of the British war economy. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1951: 4-57.

Organisations have been found to differ (Robinson, 1951).

E-mail correspondence
Authors last name, Initials. (Year). Subject of email, e-mail to destination (email
address), date, month.
Johnson, R. (2001). Access courses for women, e-mail to NIACE Lifelong Learning
Mailing List (lifelong-learning@niace.org.uk), 22 Aug.

Organisations have been found to differ (Johnson, 2001).

KICL Referencing Guide


Website with unknown author of text
Name of website (Year). Title of article. [Online]. Available at <URL> [Accessed
date].
Organisations have been found to differ (BBC News, 2008).
BBC News (2008) Factory Gloom worst since 1980 [Online]. Available at
<http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/7681569.stm> [Accessed 21 October 2008].
Website with known author of text
Authors last name, Initials. (Year). Title of article. [Online]. Available at: URL
[Accessed date].
Preston, R. (2011). Murdoch employs BP strategy [Online]. Available at:
Organisations have been found to differ (Preston, 2011).
<http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/thereporters/robertpeston/2011/01/murdoch_emp
loys_bp_strategy.html> [Accessed 21 October 2008].
Electronic Image
Authors last name, Initials. (Year image was created). Title of work. [type of
medium] Available at: <URL> [Accessed date].
Van Vechten, C. (1934). Man Ray. [photograph] Available at:
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Man_Ray_1934.jpg> [Accessed 04
October 2009].

Organisations have been found to differ (Van Vechten, 1934).

YouTube Video
Screen name of contributor. (Year). Video Title. [type of
medium] Available at: <URL> [Accessed date].
Organisations have been found to differ (Mrgeorged, 2009).
Mrgeorged, (2009). Top Gear The Stig revealed Full. [video online]
Available at:<http://www.youtube.com/watch#!v=eTapK5dRaw4>
[Accessed 23 June 2009].

KICL Referencing Guide


More than one work by the same author, different year
Cutler, T. (1986). Approaches to learning. London: Penguin.

Organisations have been found to differ (Cutler, 1986).

Cutler, T. (1994). Deep and surface learning. London: Macmillan.

Organisations have been found to differ (Cutler, 1994).

More than one work by the same author, with the same year
Cutler, T. (1986a). Approaches to learning. London: Penguin.

Organisations have been found to differ (Cutler, 1986a).

Cutler, T. (1986b). Deep and surface learning. London: Macmillan.

Organisations have been found to differ (Cutler, 1986b).

Missing Date
If you do not have the date, use n.d.
Cutler, T. (n.d.). Approaches to learning. London: Penguin.

Organisations have been found to differ (Cutler, n.d.).

Missing author
If you do not know the author of the work, use Anon.
Anon. (1986). Approaches to learning. London: Penguin.

Organisations have been found to differ (Anon, 1986).

Missing place of publication


If you do not know the place of publication, use s.l., which stands for sine
loco.
Cutler, T. (1986). Approaches to learning. s.l.: Penguin.

Organisations have been found to differ (Cutler, 1986).

Missing publisher
If you do not know the name of the publisher, use s.n., which stands for
sine nomine
Cutler, T. (1986). Approaches to learning. London: s.n.

Organisations have been found to differ (Cutler, 1986).


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KICL Referencing Guide

2. Citations
Integrated citation
In a integrated citation, when making reference to an authors work in your text, their name is
followed by the year of publication of their work:
Cutler (1986) claims that a deep approach will lead to being successful at university.

Non-integrated citation
If you make reference to a source without mentioning the author in the text, then the authors
name and publication year are placed in the sentence, usually at the end, in brackets:
A deep approach can lead to being successful at university (Cutler, 1986).
Remember that the full stop should appear after the citation, because it is part of the
sentence.

Secondary Referencing
Example: you are reading a journal article written by John Lucas. In the article it says this:

There are many different approaches to learning. A surface approach is typically described as a
method for passing exams (Brown, 1984).

Lucas, J. (1998). Approaches to learning. American journal of education. 13, 20-21.

You want to use the point made by Brown in your own essay. In your reference list you
should put the reference for the article which you read, the Lucas reference. Then in your
essay, you would write this for a non-integrated citation:
One method which can be described as being useful for passing exams is the surface approach
(Brown, 1984, cited in Lucas, 1998).
As an integrated citation it would be:
According to Brown (1984, cited in Lucas, 1998), a method which can be described as being useful
for passing exams is the surface approach.

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KICL Referencing Guide

Direct Quotations
When using a direct quotation in a citation, you need to use quotation marks and write the
page number next to the year.
As Jacobs (1964: 114) states, it is simply not possible to know everything, but it can be stated that
some knowledge is attainable.
Indented long quotations
When using a long quotation, you should not use quotation marks, but indent the quote.
Knowledge construction happens at all levels of society but may be more problematic at the
international level:
Governments have demonstrated how the concepts of democracies have been adapted
based on the national, cultural and religious influences of each country. This has led to
some surprises when cross-border agreements started with the rise of globalisation
(Cunningham, 1993: 121).

Using multiple citations in a sentence


The work of Dow (1964a), Dow (1964b), Pearce et al. (1976) and Cutler, Williams and Williams
(1986) concluded that history is repeating itself.

More than one source in a citation


Becoming a psychotherapeutic counsellor involves an intense process of self-examination (Turabian,
1996; Petelin and Durham, 1992).

3. Other

Difference between reference list and bibliography


If you paraphrase and/or quote different authors in your essay, you need to write the full
information about the authors work at the end of your work. This is what we call a list of
references or a bibliography. In a list of references you only need to list the sources you
have actually cited in your text; a bibliography lists all the sources you have read, whether
or not you have cited them in your essay. You will save yourself time if you make a note of
all the necessary information while you are doing your reading.

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KICL Referencing Guide

Using media sources such as the BBC


You need to be careful how you use media sources such as the BBC. Here are a few
guidelines to follow:

Consider the reliability of the source carefully. Serious journalists try to report
information correctly, while other journalists may simply want to sell their newspaper,
magazine or documentary using an exciting story or shocking statistic. Therefore the
BBCs Panorama programme is more reliable than Channel 5s Worlds Fattest
Man, The Economist is more reliable than Heat magazine, and The Financial
Times is more reliable than The Sun newspaper. You must think critically about the
sources you use.

No academic argument or report should be based on media sources alone. Your


research must include reading academic books and journal articles.

If you want to use statistics that you see in media sources, then it is good academic
practice to go to the original source of the statistics. For example, if you read a BBC
article which has a statistic from the Office of National Statistics, then you should go
to their website and find the statistic yourself, and reference that. If you cannot
access the original source of the data, use a secondary citation (see p11).

Alphabetical order of reference lists


Reference lists should be written in alphabetical order by the authors last name (which we
also call their family name or surname).
Chester, D.N., (ed.). (1951). Lessons of the British war economy. Westport: Greenwood Press.
Coyle, M. (1996). Attacking the cult-historicists. Renaissance Forum [online], 1(1). Available at:
<URL:http://www.hull.ac.uk/english/renforum/v1no1/coyle.htm> [Accessed 16 June 1997].
Cunningham, S., (ed.). (1993). Computer graphics: SIGGRAPH 93 conference proceedings, Anaheim,
California, 1-6 August, 1993. New York: The Association for Computing Machinery.

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