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THE

FORUM
FOR-

FOR

REMEDY

THE

Baron

Emperor

be done

to

for

only at

no

in

the

period when

organizationof
ought

was

this

its realization

seemed

said of it.

yet

Insensible

themselves

that

they

doctrine,that the
expenses,

the

can

more

it

stronger

neglectsits

natural

with
capital,

to

be

no

of

when

moment

an

they

the

is; they

accepted,as

that

assert

the

the

which

war

no

assault of external

internal rebellion.

no

illumine the world

They

pay

and whose

comprehends.
relations in the
*

The9e

attention

to

patriotic

tive
unproduc-

the

more

one

movement

spected;
re-

of

desires,the

competitionand

the

new

facts which

oughly
full importance publicopinionthornew

facts have

political
system

Translated

are

flatter

it will be

more

it checks

more

to

they
they

masses,

better it will resist the double

tarred

have

State ruins itself in

resources,

view

it

modern

the

among

cause

they pretend that


and

speak and

unpopularity which

tremendous

the

to

accumulatingagainstthemselves

men

facts

begin to hope.

to

country

impossible?

the progress

the

they despairat

tioned
men-

of their armaments;

them

shows

remedy

Governments

increase

the

these last years

peace,

union

anarchy; European

distant,at the time when

anything except

experienceof

nothing

is,European union

that

contradiction

longer words, nothing is

confidence
the

derisive

less

apply it :

is

it; there

reconciliation.

what

that it appears

Now

Constant

found

European

Franco-German

Through

PEACE*

de

once

to

except

substituted

by

ARMED

d'Estournelles

German

THE
cemented

JULY IQU

bv

M*rv

ns

modified

profoundlya*

J. Safford.

internatfeem,

FORUM

THE

within

system. Twice

ten

them

transformed

aviation,have
electricity,

years

in the economic

generalPeace Conference has

It was
of all the Governments.
destined
representatives
tested agreements.
The
to fail;yet it led twice to practical,
Hague Tribunal has been created;ithas performedits functions
and more
to the satisfaction of all;it operates more
frequently
united

for the benefit of the great States

as

well

the small ones;

as

it

England and Russia,the United States,Mexico,


and peacefully
serious conflicts.
Japan, to settlejuridically
of a few years, alreadyvaluable throughthe
This experience
it has been able to prevent, is of stillgreater importance
catastrophes
of what it promisesfor the future. It
as
a testimony
demonstrated
that the great military
avoid
is now
can
powers
arbitration of Casablanca did not occasion
war, if they desire. The
enabled

has

singleprotest from any quarter, while war would


left in itstrain only ruin,hatred,and fresh burdens.
a

Each

of these beneficent

one

proofsin

should have

been

family,as

stage passed,bringingmankind

regarded in

every

and

interestin the

no;

from
distinctly

more

witness the
the

among

For what

They

as

it stands

out

more

Governments

they confine themselves to developing


arbitration;
they refuse to go down to the root
Why are theywaitingto be the last to arouse?

masses;

are

the final

faith,a hope finally


justified

and

what threats,
what
impatience,

which

upon

new

to

nearer

the mists of the horizon.


a

school and

ardent desires.

objectdiminishes

awakening of

the progress of
of the matter.

favor of arbitration

country, every

which itinvokes with its most


organization
But

have

waitinguntil

the

rebellions?

everythingelse depends has

become

the

believe

fact;but

at

of such

miracle:

same

time

reconciliation

Franco-German

theyrefuse

to

accomplished
in the possibility
an

theyconfine themselves to shakingtheir heads


and abstain from any other compromisinggesture. They are
absorbed in their dailypreoccupations,
neglectingthe vital problem
a

for whose

solution the entire world, with France

is waiting
to breathe

and Germany,

freely
again.

potence;
Alsace-Lorraine,
the cost of this two-fold imas usual,pays
she complains,and her protestations
draw from one
side

sympathy,from

the other harshness.

The

incident
slightest

to
suspicions

arouses

humanityshould
a
sky that has
created only the

have

her

detriment;

greetedwith

aviation,which all
enthusiasm,under

even

the

same

discovery
magnificent
between Paris and
wretched irritability
this

even
frontiers,

no

PEACE

ARMED

FOR

REMEDY

THE

most

Berlin.
and in default of
last;blindness has itslimits,
here as
Governments, it will be necessary that privateinitiative,
All this cannot

placein

the forefront

the problem of Franco-German


of its investigations

ciliation,
recon-

the

elsewhere,should undertake

and

venture

the condition of

world-peace.
what I had on my
I have said in Berlin and have published
this subject.I have said that between France
heart concerning
and Germany revenge was
to be desired than forgetfulno
more
not being a solution;forgetfulness
being neither
ness;
revenge
of a single
conscience sufficing
to
the plaint
nor
lasting,
possible
end it.
Is there

no

issue between

these

absolute limits?

two

Must

resignourselves on both sides to hope for nothing,to do


inadmissible.
to me
nothing? This seems
the
Silence was
Now
imposed the day followingthe war.
two
great nations,hurled againsteach other by the sole fault
of their Governments, cannot
continue to live side by side,yet
completely
theycannot share in the constant progress
separated;
of the world and both stop, paralyzedby mutual distrust and
selves
by the burden of a ruinous defence. Both thus deprivethemof the start their superiorcivilization ought to secure
for them in the progress of the world; they are reduced to following
the movement
which they ought to lead. This cannot

we

last.
Each

makes

one

up

internal and external


so,
an

dangersthat

each

inwardlysays :
understanding!What
and

of all

to

the balance-sheet of its interests,


of the

civilization!

"

a
"

thinkingpeoplein

count, the others follow


state

is

of

mind, even

progress

What

This

state

France
or

pitythat

pity! What
and

in

not

be

could

we

loss

of mind

will follow.

thoughit may

that is very

it,and, havingdone

threaten

to

not

the

to

come

two

tries
coun-

is the present

Germany;
But

these alone

meanwhile, this

is progress.
noticed,

littleapparent, upon

state

which

It

Govern-

THE

4
racnts

take

cannot

but it is

must
action,and which sceptics
test,
ignoreor congreat advance,it is the beginningof the mutual

self-examination that

prelude. Each
much

to

as

than

the

and

nations feel
element

harmony

other;perhapsit is even
France.

to

precede the final concord.

must

feels that this

the world.
progress

FORUM

She
the

to

For

contributes

and

more

to

one

many
Ger-

to

necessary

as

is

sures
peacefulshe reasto the general
efficaciously

organizationof

interest in her

an

is necessary;

France

when

It is the

peace;

therefore

all the

which has become


conservation,

of the

of all. Germany,
prosperity
the contrary, however peacefulthe Emperor, his Government,
on
and the majorityof the people certainly
the
none
are, appears
less the modern
hot-bed,the high school of militarism. There
an

is no

who

one

guarantee

does

say to himself that this militarism is

not

not

only an anachronism, but a continual danger; a danger that the


ward off to-day,
but which an
policyof the Governments
may
Therefore
unchain to-morrow.
an
a defeat
impulse,
error, may
of France would be regardedthroughout the entire world as a
blow dealt at peace, and consequently
at the general security,
while the victory
of Germany would be the triumph,the consecration
of the militarism which all endure

and everyone detests.


If all this is correct, we may
many
say in other words, that Gerthe world, in her turn,
has a great interest in reassuring
her
including
and who

people,who, like

own

also claim

for
security

ours,

know

what

war

costs,

the future.

this need
disregards
Assuming that the German Government
for the benefit of socialism
of security,
itwill work againstitself,
rectly
that socialism may be indiand anarchy. No one to-daydisputes
one

of the results of militarism.

tional
In every civilized country men
no
longer accept the tradiidea of inevitable and fruitfulwars;
everywherepeopleare

beginningto

to

that the

majorityof

wars

have

nated
origi-

dynasticambitions, in chance adventures,


dread of reform.
routine,or the mere
error,
simplyin ignorance,
erly
formWe
are
commencing to realize that Governments
administered war
to the nations as a purge, a good bleeding,
in

or

understand

calm

personalor

them

and
But

create

that

diversion of their troublesome

is over,
period,happily,

and

am

quirements.
re-

very

FOR

REMEDY

THE

ARMED

PEACE

proud of havingbeen able,so far as my powers would permit,to


contribute in denouncingit. This periodis over, for permanent
which, henceforth,will be dailyaffirmed with everreasons,
force and clearness. It is not sentiment that demands
increasing
understood by all. And this
itis the common
interest,
a change,
is why you see everywherethe desire to discriminate sharply
of conquest, which are no longerwanted, and rebetween wars
sistance
of conquest, a resistance which everyone
pares,
preis
in spiteof the inevitable polemics,
a resistance which
to

wars

in the
it is necessary to organize,even
and right.
schools,in the interest of fatherland,
liberty,

organizedand which

of
with the certainty
affirm,

believes much

examination of the feelings


and interests
scrupulous
peoplethan in governmentalreports,I affirm that aside from
in the

more

of

witness who

terested
Frenchmen, who nevertheless are disinlike Paul Deroulede, the policyof reand estimable,
venge

small number

very

and
and
their

has

war
even

no

of

one

among

in its favor among


our
laboringpopulation
those who would be the firstto expose

as I should do myselfand
lives,

if the German
affirm that

no

army,

as

all my

familywould do,

I
pretext, should attack France.
will be able to induce France to attack

on

any

Government

peoplehave understood that in the last analysis


is alwaysagainstthem.
conquest, active or passive,
The French, perhaps better than the Germans, know
that
to lose and nothingto gainfrom war,
even
theyhave everything
if victorious. France would therebylose the benefit of the active
and
policyof appeasement, of which she has set the impressive
would be
contagiousexample for fortyyears. The Germans
their side;I repeat it,speaking
to deceive themselves on
wrong
without passion,
in their interest as well as in the interest of all:
the whole world would oppose to their amor
bition
willing
unwilling,
a coalition more
imposingthan that which Prince Bismarck
Germany.

The

himself headed
at

San Stefano.

in

1878

That

at

Berlin

is not

to

stop the Russian conquerors

all;this useless

war,

effectthan the ruin of each and the embarrassment


in both countries

cause

ago

"

"

more

now
enlightened

with
of

no

other

all,would

fortyyears

than

internal rebellionsand incalculable disorders.


The

Republicin

France

would

be menaced

by

return

of

THE

FORUM

Caesarian reaction;would
turn

revolt in the

The

who

man

Germany

could be

It will be

the German

in its

monarchy escape

oppositedirection?

would

dare

only a

kindle

to

fool

or

objectedthat France

between

war

France and

madman.
be swept away.

may

That

is

error.

an

The

foreignpolicyof France to-dayis not the policyof a


Government, it is the policyof the country, it is our national
our
policy.This is the great change accomplished;
moreover,
Government
is the firstto declare it openly. This policyhas
found its expression,
its future,in the conventions at The Hague
for the peaceful
settlement of international conflicts. It does not
but neither does
imply,it does not permitany forfeiture of right,
it

permitthe
cordial

Machiavellian

solutions of

violence;it favors alliances,


ments,
agree-

but
understandings;
and

most

secret

in

even

spiteof

the

treaties that Governments

most

could

that its agreements should not be directed


conclude,it requires
againstanyone; and no one can lead it into unfair preferences.
which is assuming
By the aid of this national foreignpolicy,
form after fortyyears of efforts and sacrifices succeedingrepeated
France is now
policy,
beginningto
conceive and define her national internal policy.Here our best
deafened by
to comprehend us; they are
foreign friends cease
the polemics
of our newspapers,
by the heat of our parliamentary
and they imaginethat all this uproar
discussions,
prevents us
it stimulates us.
The
from working, when
most
frequently
wealth; a wealth which is the
proof is in our ever-increasing
fruit of unceasinglabor. This labor is beginningto organize
mate,
cliof our soil,
itselfwith a view to improve the resources
our
tests

our
more

of the contrary

who, though
inhabitants,

active and industrious;


our

not

numerous,

programme

of

all the

are

economical,agricultural

commercial,intellectualand even moral work,


industrial,
whatever may be said of it,is beingoutlined and maintained;itis
under
summed
up in these words: to develop national prosperity
the

of
protection

our

amicable

international relations :

patriaper orbis concordiam,"


We hear onlyof our strikes,
our
our

own

journalscry

every

"

pro

social and other

and
crises,

Finis Gallia!

But Ger-

morning:

ARMED

and
strikes,

her

too, has

many,

FOR

REMEDY

THE

for

as

PEACE

France, we

do

not

tinue
con-

by peace; this policyhas yieldedsuch


uneasiness
results that we
can
regard the future without more
than our
neighbors;perhaps we can await events better than
are
landowners, the other
they. A good third of Frenchmen
two
aspireto be. This is a guarantee of order and progress that
turbed
disbut really
more
countries,
apparentlyless turbulent,
many
the less to progress

than

While
with

our

common

ours,

may

envy

us.

working we reason, instruct ourselves,


exchangeideas
add our experiences
and observations to the
neighbors,
mated
stock, and the policyof peace being graduallyaccli-

in the country

regarded as

of the

one

most

warlike in the

world, this policy


havingendured, havingprovedits advantages,
is overflowing
into the other nations,and importantquestions
take their proper

now

in
placesnaturally

the

of
preoccupations

publicopinion.
It is useless

to

say in

said in France:

as we
question,7'

Free

minds

they establish
insurmountable

"

Germany:

do

There

is no

raine
Alsace-Lor-

There

is no

fair."
Dreyfus af-

"

conceal from

not

the fact that Alsace-Lorraine


wall

the
separating

two

the truth;

themselves

remained

has

when
countries,

the

it could,

should,and would fain be the bond of union between them.

This

fact is stronger than all the officialstatements; it reduces them

the role of ineffectual scarecrows;

and

therefore

no

one

to

in the

good will from


themselves for governmentalobstinacy
and error.
substituting
In the day when
French thought and German
thoughtjointo
portance
seek together
the solution of the problem,it will be of littleimworld

can

prevent individualthought,
energy, and

that it should

have

fact that itis placedin the

mere

of the moral

cares

of the

will
rightly
presented,
is

once

not

power

be

two

been

not
forefront,

the
countries,

alreadya great

in the world

which

the
insoluble;
of the official,
but

declared

mere

advance.

fact that it is
And

could prevent it from

there
thus

and obtrudingitself,
the problem of a
as
presenting
precisely
Court of Arbitration presenteditself,
though people laughed
at the idea;and as the problem of the limitation of armaments
now
by
thoughpeoplepretendto be exasperated
presents itself,
it. It is a matter
simplyof the irresistibleforce of circumstances.

THE

Let the discussion

from

if not
two
me

FORUM

Government

and though I
countries,
less uneasy
There

opened,from

be

once

than

the

itis in this way


begin. For my part, I am

to

science,
con-

the

Government, between

to

its dangers,they make


clearly
of silence.
ambiguities
see

will be unreasonableness

of course;

conscience

and intolerance

both sides,

on

that all agreements, all reconciliations

allowance for the


making the largest
Governments; I will grant that at the present time they cannot
define the mutual honorable and acceptable
concessions that both
sides must
make
to reach an
Every proposition
agreement.
which has not been matured throughinvestigation
and the preliminary
discussions of public
will be sterileand merely
opinion,
raise the protests of arbitrary
minds; but the pointconcerning
which

doubt in my eyes is that it is time for the two


well as Alsace-Lorraine
herself,to put in motion

there is no

countries,
as
all their

of

and reason
to solve the problem
patriotism
and fairly,
ist
the belief that only socialand not to justify
sensibly
for us the remedy which the middle
can
levelling
procure
classes have given up as hopeless.
resources

All this is

because
crucial,

and

time, but

problems,beginningwith that of
be juggledwith
other difficultiesmay

these

will understand

fightor

onlytemporary expedients.A

are

that if the Germans


ruin

to

agreement.

yieldto

there will have been


Their

must

What
constitute

of ideas and

the
no

not

come

child
wish
to

an

longer they
And
them.
if,

it will

good

evidence,so much

cost

sense,

the

Governments

worse

for them;

lack of

will appear
render

accounts

have you

done

our

for

that the

appeals.
and their
unproductiveexpenditures

demands

They

more

do

will

and

child will also understand

general progress
not

and the French

themselves,they must

the
delaytheir reconciliation,

alone do

ments;
arma-

suppressed.

not

Dilatorymeasures

in the

problem

all the other

depend

to

the Alsace-Lorraine

on

no

resistance

but
longerdisconcerting,

to

cial
so-

monstrous.

I
with these thousands

debt, and whose

interest

our

of millions which
children will have

will
the peoplewill ask. The Governments
indefinitely?
the ports;
vainlyshow their armadas of Dreadnoughts filling
to

pay

FOR

REMEDY

THE

PEACE

ARMED

show at the same


time their submarines,torpedo
theywill vainly
which are to annihilatethe power
of thee*
boats and aeroplanes,
Dreadnoughts,outmoded and outclassed as soon as they arc
is not doubtful ; the Governments
will
completed.The outcome
be compelledto end where we have asked them to begin;their
thousand millions
will have cost onlyone hundred and fifty
error
of francs in twenty-five
years, for Europe alone ! One hundred
and fifty
thousand millions that will have been of no service,
the world.

and which would have sufficedto transform

warn

with my friends,
to
order,firstof all,I have tried,
the Governments, that of France like the rest.
Our voices

have

been drowned

of

man

by

the tumult of the hammers

forgingsteel
piercedby cannon
constantly
under the tempest of
plates,

made thicker,
and
platesconstantly
that ever
larger. All these
grow
popularwrath, will not have the resistance of a sheet of paper
of States might have signed;but theyweigh on
that two Heads
mankind
the less as an insupportable
burden.
The
none
day
will
when rebellion bursts forth,the antagonismof Governments
be nothingin comparisonwith the real antagonismtheywill have
ernments
preparedagainstthemselves,the antagonismbetween the Govand the people.
The

Governments

can

stillchoose between

reconciliation and

the chasm;

they can
the Head

but
theycan no longeranticipate
popularaspirations,
respondto them, and this would be for the Sovereign,
of

State,the Minister who

should take such

in history.
glorypeerless
It is humiliating
human
to our
that,in the
dignity

tive,
initia-

an

this

presence

of

there could be hesitation,


and that the Governments
alternative,
of the

two

great countries could

choose between

not

fame

and failure.

[A supplementaryletter from
Constant
To

is

given here,as

the Editor

Dear
I

of The

completesthe

d'Estournelles
article.
"

de

Editor.]

Forum:

Sir:

pleased that you


article on
The Remedy
am

my

it

Baron

are

publishingin The

for Armed

Peace."

This

Forum

article,

THE

io

indeed,

written

was

but

United

and

world

to

all

has

But
favor

be

must

like

fact,
I

convinced

countries

my

least,
article

will

of
situation

whole

is

new

essential
arbitration
"

stops

this

all

able

the

reach,

to

is
the

last

title

greatest

shall

of

America

when

and

in

Franco-

the

honorable

become

the

to

sions,
conces-

accomplished

an

to

so

all

coming

should

to

necessary

public
is

thanks
and

as

of

prosperity
of

work

international

of
that

effective

That

enlightened

cause

the

by

efforts

the

fully

Governments.

so

the

posterity.

reconciliation,
as

be

must

be

of

peace

her

perhaps

the

reconciliation.

world

the

the

crowned

mutual

sides,

that

already

great
It

of

as

be

only

both

concerned,

opinion,
the

the

of

of

through

to

be

ernments;
Gov-

Already

to

direction,

that

Franco-British

the

am

peace

at

realized
will

acceptable

another.
service

will

Taft,

reconciliation,

German

this

European

to

one

on

gratitude

arbitration

of

in

and

reference

immense

President

of

it

depend

rendered

admiration

the

especial

initiative

her

proposition

with

we

States

FORUM

opinion
I

why

am

passionately

that

happy

American

you,

two

much,

as

public
devoted

to

justice.
realize

the

and

only

closer,

true

the

facts:
Franco-German

way."

(Signed)

the

the

d'Estournelles

de

Constant.

the

tory
vic-

ANYTHING

IS THERE

Edwin
"

is that which

is done

"

Bjorkman

and

shall be done:

there is

no

new

patience
generationa growing imwith the life-conception
that makes out of fate
feet but a millstone
under
not
our
a
stepping-stone
inclined to challenge
More
necks.
and more
our
we
are
is in

THERE
around

time and

own

our

that sad cry of the Preacher


man

learn

may

the final sum

as

concerninglife and

drawing nigh,I, for one, believe,when


interposesitself
past, which tyrannically
be substituted

future,must

the remarkable

on

last few centuries.

advance

Arid what

in

of

substance
The

moment

for this truth of the


between

us

and

the

higher truth
knowledge made duringthe

later and

and

himself.

is

based

SUN?

Ecclesiastes.

the sun."

thingunder

what

THE

thing that hath been, it is that which shall be; and that

The

which

UNDER

NEW

wider

is this more

and

recent

truth in the last

ness
recognition gainingdailyin strengthand clearof life as endless change, as a never-endingrebirth on
far-visioned planes,as an
eternal upward
brighterand more
climb from darkness to light,
ated
from hatred to love, from infurislaveryto self-surrender in freedom?
but
analysis

"

"

"

That

which is crooked

the Preacher.

And

cannot

cried:

the Buddha

declared
straight,"

be made
"

Behold, O monks, the

old age is suffering,


holy truth of sufferingbirth is suffering,
disease is suffering,
and death is suffering."
The Preacher and the Buddha
knew nothingbut the fact of
"

disease.
reason

Its

nature

it seemed

to

was

them

stillhidden
a

from

blow struck

them.

at man

And
from

for this

without

"

that might or might not be deserved, but which


castigation
could not possibly
be avoided.
The intimate connection between
and effect,
cause
though dimly felt both by the Sage of Palestine
and the Prophet of India,was
not
yet grasped and mastered by
their reasons.
it
In so far as they foresaw the law of causation,
was
only in the form which demands that the sins of the fathers
be visited on the children unto the third and fourth generations.
a

ii

THE

12

FORUM

bility,
bringing
good no less than evil,and with equalinevitait was
to them.
whollyforeign
To us of the present day,helpedin our vision by the telescope,
the microscope,
the spectroscope, and a thousand other
modern
disease is always the logicaleffect of asinventions,
certainable

As

law

With

causes.

realize it as

hint from

life of

removed, we

awe

committed.

error

are

And

able
in

so

to

far

revealingthe nature of such an error, the


disease dependingon it will also be rendered avoidable for the
future. Thus men
have alreadybeen led into dreams of a coming
day when disease will exist only as a sporadicand quickly
checked relapseinto past mistakes.
these days.
Yes, crookedness is actually
beingmade straight
By gropingour way from link to link alongthe endless chain of
and effect,
that much which used to be
cause
we
are
discovering
as

succeed

the blind

we

deemed

in

is littlemore

fatal

than

with every passingyear, we


effectively
of cause
and effect cannot
relationship
but
line,

must

be

And

have

come

we

thought of rather
understand

to

More

accidental.

as

learningthat the
be pictured
as
a straight
series of wideningcircles.

spreadingringsof effectmay
with the tinycausal pointat their centre.
such subtle
knowledge,we are establishing
those between

the force and

tremendous

scope of those

as

more

also

are

how

and

in

prove

Acting
and

under-nourishment

comparison

on

this

new

nections
confar-reaching

and

crime,between

has already
and insanity.The surgeon'sscalpel
over-feeding
victims not
of life's supposedlyhelpless
than one
helpedmore
while the
only to see and hear, but to feel and think straight;
and the exercises of the physical
dietaryof the practitioner
trainer are turninghuman
rag-heapsinto full-brained and fullbrawned
There
struck

and

men

so

it. Our

is,of

women.

course,

deeplyin the
means

some

racial soil that


limited

stillas

are

cannot

we

as

core

of

defeat.
we

line of

some

propose

And
to

with

descent,there
as

much

we

to

over
prevail

eat

itselfinto the

porary
acknowledgetem-

we

kindness

eliminate what

roots

the fault committed

far back in the centuries has had the chance


very

yet

its

knowledge, but, like

our

rapidlyexpanding. Where

this,they are

that has

crookedness

as

cannot

our

set

purpose

mits,
per-

right. The

UNDER

NEW

ANYTHING

THE

SUN?

13

a justcause
parts thus affectedmay suffer they have certainly
But whose is the fault? Their own?
Or life's?
for complaint.
"

each of
to
unequivocally
questions.The fault must then lie with somebody or
that is smaller than life and largerthan individual

No,

that means,

merely

not

We

"

in

are,

of these

one

fact,parts of
have

may

thing
someman:

we

are

largerwhole.

and with each


largerentities,
late
suffer in so far as it happensto vio-

many
to

of life'simmutable

some

For

with the stock,the group, the race.


units within a
ourselves."
We
are

we

those

science

modern

answers

laws.

warningof dangerwithin the individual body,


be redistress and disease on a largerscale must
garded
disaster,
within the social body.
are
as warningsthat things
wrong
gral
longerdo they confront us as unchangeablefacts as intefeatures of life. They are
just symptoms that have a
As disease is a

so

No

"

traceable

that call for action.

and

cause

in almost every

And

the symptoms are discovered,


and the firstimpetusto remedial
action given,
mist.
pessilatter-day
by the painedoutcries of some

case

For

the

the life he

uses
pessimist

with its

sees,

condemning all life. And

for

as
excuse
an
shortcomings,
while he is aiming futile arrows

at

to

he said:

"

What

the human

realization of its condition.

in mind

had

be awakened

is to
requires

race

thus

lies beyond his

that which

reach,he assists in the task which Lester F. Ward


when

many

It will then find

remedy

for

its woes."
But evolution
who

wrote:

With

undreamt

was
"

He

that increaseth

the other

us, on

greater and greater


of life. No

pool which

longerdo

mirrors heaven

Before

days of the arch-pessimist


row."
knowledge increaseth sor-

suming
hand, evolution is a fact that is as-

predominancein

behold existence

we

nevertheless stinks with


of

of in the

on

as

our
a

its surface,to be

decaythat

our

but which

sure,

is inseparable
from

rapt eyes life flows


of energy.
We
restless,
current
all-embracing
movement.

comprehension
stagnant pool" a

by

like

absence

mighty,

stillso

are

lately

escapedfrom the blindness of the past, that we continue to mourn


the quickpassingof each new
which we try to hold and
moment
keep as a lastingnow." We are stillencompassedby tarrying
"

mists that tempt

us

into

spending useful time

on

such

argu-

FORUM

THE

i4
mcnts

that,after all,evolution and progress

as

different terms.

We

filled as

with

by
veins,we
down

lead

but
longerdeny that life moves
handed
and superstitions
prejudices

can

no

the

"

forefathers with the very blood flowingthrough our


stilldoubtingwhether the motion of life may really

our
are

forward.

us

are

we

wholly

two

are

But when

Galileo is needed.

new

must,

he will

burnt

at

have

not

to

cry

loud

so

he

will he be

long,nor

so

or

The

vision of truth.

the stake for his wider

he

come

as

comes,

is

race

rightman, it will
ringout from poleto pole,until the whole globeis set trembling
The world, the universe,life,
with the triumph of its message.

ready for

him.

The

moves
everything,

man,

what

Preacher

The

of

Jerusalemwas

and
possessions,

have

others before

within
builded

and orchards

also silver and

Much
'me"

he made

that

brought was

be counted

than

that the great works


which

other

many
own

and

they enjoymost

they ordain

not

the heart of his


how

mouth:

me

...

but for whom?

gardens
I gathered

things
"

are

and

men

worldly

the

Note

self
him-

his list! For

on

happinessthey
to-daywho may not
the

who

and

wise,

yet know

vineyardsand gardens
most
completelyare those

and

houses

but

for others.

find the Preacher


master

made

Here,

simplya

of all time.

But let us

in

as

child of his
get

nearer

plaint.
dieth the wise man?"

night.
"

the

"I

great, and increased

was

item

new

might lie

Jerusalem."

"

and
securely

we
things,

day, and
"And

he got

for themselves

not

in

me

never

tells us;

and maidens

So I

...

There

more

thing that

one

I
vineyards;

tried all those

worm-eaten.

"

great works/' he

before

and much

of
estate,"
disappointing as
great

that the trouble

servants

me

gold

were

The

was

me

accompanies each

he did and

even

made

I got

...

than all that

more

him

to

houses; I plantedme

me

me

after him.

and

"I

himself.

"

of

man

these, too, he found

occurred

have

to

seems

there is motion, there

same.

the

solid

the

by

wherever

and

"

remain

is cannot

raised

once

cry

To

which the

As the fool.

Therefore

answer

he called into the


came

out

I hated life."

of his

rounding
surown

UNDER

NEW

ANYTHING

it has

This is probablyto-day,
as

fear of death

of all. The

through all but

black thread
"

literature!

while!

"

Woe

look upon life lay the


dissolution. In Europe and
dark

Christ

2,000

or

death !

the bitterest drink

And

be

more.

to

and

Yes, I hated all my

fear

the Buddha
into

men

to
astoundedly

pressure

guidesthe

of that
verse.
uni-

whole

well,let us read

on

once

labor which I had taken under the

because I should leave it unto

sun:

"

kind
man-

that fear inside

find

we

before

offered

vainlyto goad

us,

moves

if the fear stillremain


"

little

the fear of

from

science has turned

carries and

years

who

the
Live, the joy of living,

to

vital force which

And

4,000

"

always there:

tried

is thus laid bare

what

the Will

"

it is

whom

"

out.

the Indies

"

both of
Schopenhauer,
the inevitable
forestalling

Schopenhauer's
againsthis own

the very men


preparedfor it

and

like

runs

the heart of

from

ever

spair
de-

worst

which lasts but

man,

resentment

same

"

takingits cue

But

at

after

years

this motive

15

infinitesimal part of mankind's

an

And

cried the Buddha.

SUN?

alwaysbeen, the

how

"

the life of

upon

THE

the

that shall be after

man

me."
There's

the rub !
"

the other.

Yet

the

not

who

men

going of

coming of
led by
counted wise
not
men
insight,
by impulserather than

were

one,

but the
"

rather than by reasoned


feeling
called wisdom
these have, in all times,labored
by what is generally
for nothingso hard as for the hope of leavinga better
after them."
the man
that came
At
lot,a brighter
earth,for
first they were
thinkingmerely of the son, the daughter,the
blood
but graduallythat
coming generationsof their own
thoughtgrew and widened and rose, until it is now
promising
all generations
of all mankind:
to embrace
Humanity. More
"

"

"

and

more

our

own

and

we

have

grown

limited hour.
of

The

live outside of ourselves,ahead

to

future and the

and
feelings

race

are

of

takingmore

and

plans. We have gone


selves possessions,
on
loves, kinships,
own
adding to our
friendships,
loyalties,
patriotismsuntil to-daythe centre of our
daries
bounfar beyond its own
to have become
beingseems
projected
more

our

cares
"

"

in time and

space.

Stillthe fear of death has

not

departedfrom

us.

Why

not?

THE

Let
and

read

us

"

FORUM

For there is a

on.

whose

man

knowledge, and in equity;yet

in

therein shall he leave it for his

labored

vanityand a great evil."


Graduallywe are admittingthat
not

to

this

to

pass

man

labor is in wisdom,
that hath

man

portion. This

"

"

portion

great

that,without reference

to

through the rearingof

Instead
of what

that, if
ever

so

foundations,and

trust

hundred

other

into our
social life.
woven
becoming inextricably
of sighing
to remain here as custodians
over
our
inability
have brought together,we
are
we
coming to realize
we

near

handlingbe
we

leave

portion not

our

of kin

"

but

to

to

all men,

this

then

man

we

or

may

that

"

he

be

shed all fears

knowledge and equityfor its proper


though
forthcoming. For we are actually
learning al-

wisdom

not

and

"

swallow

the lesson neither

that the decline of the world

our

in

Utopias;through

are

that the needed

comes

Socialist

heritanc
in-

and

"

that

should

his

knowledge or equity.The
acknowledged indirectlythrough taxation of incomes

ways

also is

wisdom,
evil of such descent is alreadybeing

or

the institution of

not

does

not

readilynor
accompany

gracefully
"

our

own.

It

ders
shoulacknowledge it: when our own
taken from under it,the world will not drop !
are
led on to see that when
are
Guided, as always,
we
by science,
own
path beginsto slopedownward, it is onlyin order that

hard, but

there may

be

we

room

must

and

energy

available for stillhigher and

perfectincarnations of the life spirit and justbecause


has served its purpose and reaped
our
own
degree of perfection
that is to take our places.
its reward in the bearingsof the new
We
that when this world of ours
begins
at last,
are
foreseeing,
itself to descend toward its final disintegration,
that, too, will
able
and energy availhappen onlyin order that there may be room
for the rebuilding
world on a granderscale and a
of a new
refined plan.
more
The
old dreamers
were
right not the brooding, carping
of mighty dreams : after Ragbut the mysticsingers
pessimists,
earth and a
narok and the dusk of the gods will follow a new
dor
splennew
Asgdrd; the New Jerusalemwill rise in eye-dazzling
visionariessaw
as
the ruins of the old. Those glorious
on
through a glassdarkly,and we are beginningto see with the
more

"

"

THE

FORUM

has developedhistorically,
And as Christianity
it
Christianity.
is simplysystematized
individualism based on a pessimistic
terpreta
inof our present life. But by givinghim a foothold
outside of this world
however
imaginary it has enabled man
himself free from the tyrannical
to wrench
sway exercised over
him by the social group to which he belonged.
littlemore
than an atom
in the social
man
was
Previously
of the coral
molecule,a polyp doomed to helpin the upbuilding
reef of the cityor the state.
The
change brought about by
and other cooperating
forces must
be pictured
not
Christianity
as
a
degeneration,
although,like most deaths that bring new
life,it proved so painfulthat its pangs are not yet outlived.
"

Such

change

"

needed

was

having progressed as far


of less circumscribed

development, life
it could without the added impetus

for life's further


as

individual variation.

ity.
to flexibilEvolutionaryprogress runs always from stability
of
At firstlife seeks mainlyto establish itself,
to make
sure
it reits own
and for this fundamental
quires
preservation,
purpose
than
order.
But no sooner
does life seem
secure
chiefly
essential aim. And
it turns to perfection
its higherand more
as
thence

it demands

onward

greater and

greater degree of

and more
while order is more
is,of flexibility
taken for granted. Conformation
precedes variation as life's

progress

that

"

"

and
principal
requisite:
nurses

the foremost

as

Individualism

whatever
virtue

for this

qualityto

and

struggle and
"

become

assert

to
"

take

righton

the

once

subordinate

hence these tears."

conscious of

creatures.

ity
else greater variabileverything
unit,togetherwith a growingchance
itself againstthe resistance of tradition

Conformation,

custom.

is made
quality,

in its

above

means

the part of the human

on

it
requires,
particularly

life

most

place,but

For

his part

not

desirable

without

the individual,
having
to

what

dom,
he calls free-

ing
impatiently
againstany and every restriction. Havhis own
between
felt and seen
the opposition
identityand
with anything
allthe rest of the universe,
he will not rest satisfied
self over
else,until
less than the spreading
of his own
everything
turns

the whole
Mine.

universe may

be

spoken of in

terms

of I and Me

and

UNDER

NEW

ANYTHING

This is individualism carried

to

THE

its utmost

SUN?

19

consequence^-and

plays a highlyimportantpart in life's economy.


all sorts
While inspired
ventures
by such ambitions,man
upon
of reckless undertakings.For these he pays often with his
the less life profits
but none
by them. The fact
very existence,
that the innovator perishes
when the world is not yet ready for
the bursting
of the form against
does not mean
which he rebels,
that his innovation perishes
The latter goes marching
with him.
happens,and the universe is
on, until the seeminglyimpossible
made over
in the image of the perished
man's dream.
actually
fer,
In this struggle
of new
againstold,the individual must sufof course, until he has learned what he is doing and what is
tation
because of every limibeingdone by others. He cries bitterly
low
encountered by his self. Were
he left unchecked to folhis own
burningdesire,he would go off at a tangent like a
shootingstar and the world would be reduced to chaos. But the
of conformation
remains all the time at work in the
principle
as the selective
background. It finds its embodiment in the mass
agent that sitsin judgment on all individual innovations,accepting
is
felt
and
what
to be life-promoting,
rejecting
ruthlessly
what is suspected
of beinglife-retarding.
A day must
however
and perhaps it has already
come,
dawned
when all is accomplished
that may be gainedthrough
this kind of blind interaction,
this apparently
purposeless
fight
between principles
that are mutuallyignorantof each others'
and justifications.
life then come
Does
natures
to
a
stop?
Hardly: for nothingthat we have discovered so far indicates
as

it

such

"

"

that life can

stop.

ever

that it rises to

we

may

on

true

nay, must

"

assume

had to be superstability
seded
u
nconsciousness.
supersedes

freedom, the individual


of the

"

stillhigherplane. As

consciousness
so
by flexibility,
instinctivestruggle
for the boundless

From

race,

Instead

passes

onward

own

open-eyedrecognition

himself and the

between
relationship

the other

to

assertion of his

race;

hand, becomes

aware
increasingly
its own
vanguard.

while the

of the part
this
When

played by the individual as


will have
understand it now,
happens,then individualism,
as we
tude
attiserved its day. Somethingelse will take its place a new
of mind
is already"in the
and this coming mood
of man
"

"

THE

20

air."

FORUM

Call it socialism,
mutualism,solidarism,
anythingyou
heart it is goingto

care

surrender on
justthis : a voluntary
the part of the individual self,
whereby it will be assured of all
it needs and wants
the freedom
within the limits of a larger
at

"

mean

self.

One
a

quotation the

more

season,

and

time

to

So there is,indeed.
gave

as

foremost

forgot to include
keen

last

"

But he who
"

time

time

to

and

be

of the fact that


recognition

to

"

alwaysprecedesdescent,we
the order of these
that descent
kind.

two

might prove

wrote
to

To

under

purpose

every

instance
"

"

one:

be

our

time

our

to

time

die,"

In

grow."

limited vision
"

our

ascent

the

and maybe higher,


different,
for growth is greater
capacity

of

to the end,
just after birth and decreases steadily

so

that

we

of our projection
into
dyingfrom the moment
life. This ingenious
argument does not reckon with the fact
of the course
that the earlier growth is largely
a recapitulation
ground into life by our innumerable forebears,while our later
the one littlestep
to be our
to mark
own
growth is more
likely
that we personally
able to add unto
all those taken by the
are
multitudes that have precededus.
And it is this one
vast
new
step, this final venturinginto the regionsof stillunshaped life,
that takes the greatest capacity
for growth and the greatest expenditure

may

be said

to

that
possibility
might, perhaps,be reversible;

processes

It has been said that

the heaven."

born, and

is

those words, and who

have overlooked

ascent

there
everything

to

be

"

of vital energy.
be greatest in childhood, but
Flexibility
may

strengthand
endurance are not.
Man, we know now, is strongest justbefore
his strengthbegins to wane
and the future promiseshim as
its richest fruit,
not an abolishment of death, or even
necessarily
its postponement, but a prolongation
of the periodof growth
of physical
to a time of
and mental flexibility
a
preservation
life when vital stability
is most
firmlyestablished.
the childhood
Seen in the lightof these new
possibilities,
and youth of man
the part known
to be playedby the
assume
velopmen
childhood and youth of life itself. These periodsof vital dedisplaythe most rapid but not the most essential
"

"

If the

growth.

of

form

UNDER

NEW

ANYTHING

analogybe

THE

SUN?

21

true, the afternoon

of life

growing time the time for the spendingof


if we
And
sider
conwhich we have been broughtinto this world.
it seems
certain in the lightof present
life in its entirety,
being
precedesand prepares
knowledge,that the time of mere
the real

becomes

"

the time of actual


"

growing.
"

there is a season
everything
growth is dawning for this our world, as
To

"

is the very essence


the moulding of the

lies before
a

race:

well

the

of

season

self.
it-

for mankind

as

established in its humanity.What

lifehas become

Human

yes, and

and flower of

us

form

new

our

existence

as

that shall receive the

to the next
plane
triumphantly
of life. Once this has been accomplished,
a
seeming end will
There will be an ebbtide presagingand
to the old form.
come
preparingthe next and stillmightierfloodtide of life. There
will be a pause in the rhythm of being,but only in order that
and joyouslyfelt.
its beat may make itself more
clearly
Mankind
is turninginto fruit in order that the new
seed

torch from

be

may

us

and

it up

sprout and

and

sown

carry

and

grow

blossom

and

fruit

set

total of life.
to the sum
perfection
In such a consummation
there is hope and purpose
enough for
it is this new
at least. And
me
hopefulpurpose, wrung from
with which modern
science is fraught,that has
the message
changed me from a believer in the past and in the part to a
and

add

its new

of

moment

builder of the future and the whole.


And

therefore I cry joyfully


and
under the sun ! Each
somethingnew
world
be

renewed.

From

millennium

From
barelyperceptible.
eyes would

our

by

as

"

past

one

that

to

the

god

new
"

"

present

is what

one

matter.
inorganic
man,

that

we

dreaming.

it must

blinded,could theylook that far. And by and


thingis added to the other,until graduallythe

completelyoutgrown
self-conscious sun;
spiritual,

of

the advance may


be so great that

be

new

our

millennium

to aeon

aeon

seems

even:

to

there is always
sincerely:
new
day sees the whole

and the
should
For

new

all be

surelythe

man

there may
with
a sun
is to the

It is for the
sun,

and the

come
"

sun

new

soul ";

sun

ments
blind,inflexibleele-

coming of
new

the

new

life,and the

"

of
new

livingand lovingand working and


world

does

move!

THE

PASSING

OF

THE

Pendleton

Rosa

record of China's

THE

has been

OPIUM
Chiles

long strugglewith the opium

almost

an

TRAFFIC

unbroken

fic
traf-

chronicle of economic

loss,political
effacement,social degradation and moral
death.

But

within the past three years


written in which despairhas given

been

thrilling
chapterhas

placeto hope. It is a
of one
of those brilliant onsets
dazzling account
by which Right,
after long years of plodding,suddenlysweeps on to victory.No
other movement
for ethical reform in the historyof the world
in magnitude with the present anti-opiumcrusade in
compares
China, nor

has any other reform been prosecuted with such success.


Reforms
have been started in China, as well as in other

lands, before

that have

now

the surface of the

genuinedesire

sea/'but this one

and purpose

Reasons
Three

definite
it has

to

necessary

for

half century the missionaries

the Movement

out

have

awakened

wrought and wrought well

national
been

vice of China
the

united

F. Crafts and in China

from

by the Rev. E. W.

forces,agitating,
convincing,
persuading,

the conscience of the East

lives saved
element

ropium
zations
missionaryorgani"

in this
Bureau, ably represented

standards,and the guerdon, in addition


moral

mentum
mo-

England and America, and, of


lands,especially

country by Dr. Wilbur


These

the

"

have

againstthe

late,the International Reform

Thwing.

itself and

movement

smoking. Affiliated with them have


of other

to

pitchforkon
back of it the impetusof
accomplishment.
a

ing,
prominently moral awakeneconomic
than
necessity.For more

gatheredstand

influence action

written with
has

for the

reasons

ambition,and
political
a

"

been

ruin and

in the motives

and

created

to

thousands

despair,is a

new

actuatingthe work

new

cal
ethi-

vidual
of indi-

China.

The

of the past

three years cannot


be too stronglyemphasized,but the political
element is no lightconsideration.
China has been so long under
the domination

of

superiorpowers
22

that national

assertiveness

almost

has become
International
to

"

Opium?

"

No,"
not

In

an

unknown

Commission

23

of the
quantity.A member
at Shanghai referred recently

takingthe initiative.
I suggested.
that
the reply, the feeling

"

"

on

the shores of China

promise."
itslast analysis,
however,

found

TRAFFIC

OPIUM

THE

fear of

was

land
or

be

Opium

the Chinese

could

OF

PASSING

THE

foreignpower
demnity
without demanding an ina

in

no

small

measure

the

want

to

be

of
due

aggressiveness
may
to

the decrease

in

vigorfrom opium, and a valuable objectlesson on the


Pacific a few years ago broughtthis realization to the minds of
in size compared with
Chinese statesmen.
Japan,insignificant
China and supportinga people of the same
race, fought one
in modern
and defeated a first-class
of the greatest wars
history
China was
fire. If Japan had
of Europe. At once
on
power
One
done this thing,
why could not she do as much, and more?
achieve glory in the
was
opium. Men cannot
great reason
consciousness was
born
opium dens, and out of this humiliating
to be rid of opium. But though the moral idea
a determination
has grippedthe Chinese mind and conscience and the desire to
share in world progress and power has been stimulated to a high
nomic
degree,the dominant note in the great reform is a sense of ecoruin. The best lands of the Empire have been givento
The populathe poppy, a non-useful,
not to say ruinous crop.
tion
ines
has been increasing
and food production
decreasing. Famhave continued for long periodsin one
and another
district,
districtin the same
province,with sufficientsupply,has
been unable to send relief from lack of transportation.
By the
of opium the strength
of the peoplehas been sapped below
use
the earningcapacity
in thousands of cases.
The masses
have
been held in a hopelessbondage to the national vice and the
wheels of internal progress have been clogged. Such economists
and statesmen
Yuen Shi Kai and Tong Shao Yi saw
all of
as
this and saw, moreover,
that the false policyby which China
to stop the pouringof silver
sought throughdomestic production
into foreigncoffers to buy opium, had increased her troubles
fold. So theybegan to consider drastic measures
to satisfy
many
the economic necessity
of abolishing
opium.
national

THE

24

Realizingthat
memorial

General

Chou

Throne.

"

Fu, of the

Within
the

the

had arrived,the
moment
psychological
of all nationalities residing
in China now
prepared
containing1,333 signatures,which Governor-

missionaries
a

FORUM

River

month

Chengwuchu,

or

an

Provinces,"presentedto

ImperialEdict

Government

the

issued

was

Council,to draft

dering
or-

lations
regu-

of opium, and the Council reregarding the prohibition


sponded
in ten articles coveringthe various ramifications of the

subject.I give these articles in abridgedform to demonstrate


the systematic
and thorough manner
in which China set out to
deal with this

matter.

To

limit the cultivation of the poppy


alreadygiven to its production one-ninth
1.

changed to
(afterwards

years

the

of acreage

amount

the cultivation
2.

them

one-tenth

being recorded
land hitherto

on

by reducingthe
each

area

for nine

year

each year for ten years)


,
in titledeeds,and ding
forbidnot

used for the purpose.

tomed
Requiringcertificates from smokers statingthe accusused by each, in order to deal justly
with
dailyamount
in givingup the habit,and to prevent future cases, no

granted after the firstregistration.


Requiring gradual reduction in use, the amount

certificateto be
3.

upon
4.

there

the

The
were

extent

of the habit

as

recorded

the sale and

of shops and forbiddingnew


Registration

6. The

the

in the certificate.

closingwithin six months of opium shops in which


lamps for smoking, forbiddingthe sale of opium

pipesand lamps within the same


period,and
and bars.
opium in restaurants
5.

cure

ing
depend-

manufacture

of medicines

of the habit, such medicines

by
to

shops to

the Government
sold

be

at

use

of

open.

for

cost, with

free

dispensingto the poor unable to buy.


societies for local influence
organizationof anti-opium
7. The
such societies to exercise no political
and active assistance,

control.
medicines distributed,
of smokers, cures,
Registration
of
societies in each provincefor the purpose
and anti-opium
sponsible
comparing results in the several provincesand rewarding re8.

officials.
9. Prohibition of

in
smokingby officials

shorter time than

THE

26

FORUM

'

'

opium trade is morallyindefensible


Government

to

to
speedily

The

take

such steps

as

and requests his


be necessary

may

Majesty's
to bringit

close."

Rt. Hon.

John Morley, Secretaryof State for India


(now Lord Morley), stated in the discussion of the resolution
that if China really
wanted to be rid of opium the British Government
would
interposeno obstacle. The belief up to this
time had been that China's professions
of opposition
to opium
for after her last
not
were
sincere,a belief largelyjustified,
of her cause
sisting
opium war the hopelessness
produceda loss of rethat resulted in national apathy and finally
in
power
national endorsement

of the trade.

Now, however, as has been


cal,
thoroughlyaroused by a sense of moral, politiseen, China was
and industrial decadence,and with steadfast determination,
she accepted
lenge
touched by genuineenthusiasm,
Lord Morley'schalthe voice of

as

the

upon

and
opportunity,

which had been


negotiations
Council with

reference
Basis

to

the

Wai-wu-pu

entered

ernment
by the Gov-

recommended

importation.

of Agreement

convention laylargely
in the
attendinga new
difficulty
the opium
that the Treaty of Tientsin,which legalized

The
fact

could
traffic,

three

be

changed without the

and while there

powers,

would

not

given,the time consumed

be
or

a
scarcely

was

consent

doubt

of all the treaty


that full consent

in

to
gainingitwould amount
China's determination might be weakened

four years, when


the deferred conclusion of the

To overcome
matter.
by
this difficulty
Sir Edward
ment
Grey very wiselysuggestedan agreefrom
with China by which reduction in the exportation
fecting
India to all countries could be immediatelybegun without afthe treaty. His suggestion
forms the basis of the agreement,
which
"

With

reads

effectfrom

of exports

agreement

follows:

as

of

between

the

ist

January,1908, the

aggregate

ume
vol-

opium from India has been limited by


and China to
his Majesty'sGovernment
in

61,900

chests

56,800

"

"

"

"

51,700

1908
1909
1910

an
"

OF

PASSING

THE

and it has been further

OPIUM

agreed that

Government

the Chinese

THE

if

TRAFFIC

duringthese

duly carried

have

27

three years
their arrangements

out

the production
and consumptionof opium
diminishing
undertake to continue in
in China, his Majesty'sGovernment
the same
proportionthis annual diminution of the export after
the restriction of the imports of
the three years in question;
Turkish, Persian and other opium into China beingseparately
and carried out simultaneously.
arrangedby the Chinese Government
for

Thus

at

the end of

ten

when

years

the agreement

will have

a
produced its full intended effect (by extinguishing
dian
portionof the total trade equalto the average importsof Inopium into China during the period 1901-5, namely,
export of Indian opium to
51,000 chests a year),the permissible

countries other than

China

will stand

at

of

fixed maximum

16,000 chests yearly."


It is of the greatest importanceto notice that the agreement,
as

stated,affects exports and


of the

sent
quantity

to

China

all countries instead of

to

apart from

China, have

had

most

the

imports,and

not

is taken from
China

to

also that the

unfortunate

the exportation
these

alone, as

intentions of

duction
re-

either

siderations,
con-

England

or

the crusade.

effect upon

This effectwill be discussed later.

China's

Record

condition

at

the End

the Probation

Period

in three years what


entitled her to the highest
she could do has,in its results,
praise.
The

China
requiring

of

trial periodended

The

December

show

to

31,

of present conditions with conditions


of the agreement

makes

19 10,

and

previousto

such disclosures

the confirmation
the

as

comparison
following:

Many of the twenty-one provinceshave ceased cultivation


and in all the percentage of decrease is very large. The
entirely
the
onlyway in which we can properlyimaginethis is to picture
wheat
cotton
cover

of the North-west, the


of the South
as

by

corn

swept from

cyclone.Add

to

many

the

of the

be remembered

with

as

been

over

an

area

vast

if
picture,

productsof the East, for it must

opium has

West, and the

of the Middle

great

as

you

they

tracts

will,some

that the

the United

fight

States.

THE

28

placesother

In many
poppy

FORUM

crops

and this will be the

have
case

alreadytaken
the entire

over

the
area

placeof
a

"

for the scarcity


of food crops in China
substitution,

the

merciful

has made

priceof food almost beyond the reach of the miserably


poor,
while the adjustmentof industrial conditions,
includingrents,
leases,credits,and mortgages, has been regulated solelyby
tion
opium production.The Chinese officialsclaim that the reducin cultivation has reached eightyper cent., and enthusiastic
individuals claim ninety.The British Consuls acknowledge from
to fortyper cent., and the American
Consuls will this
twenty-five
fortunate
fifty
year probablyname
per cent, as a fair estimate. It is unthat China, owing to her previousloose system of accounts,
has not been able to determine accurately,
it might
as
be inferred from the articlesof prohibition
she would determine,
of reduction,
the exact amount
but a disagreement
in regardto
definite figuresis immaterial from a broad viewpoint.Any reduction
and a decrease of twenty-five
deserves the highest
praise,
But a disinterested country fixes fifty
per cent, is a marvel.
per
the

that in the poppy


fieldsof
purpleand crimson gloryhas been the symbol of a
cent., and

that

edict but embodied

been

Fang.

"

The

thousand

effectually
put

time for

Let the world

an

writingis past,"

see

deeds and

our

in the abolition of

thousand,

hundred

one

fact.

earnest

cities three

while in

"

has been
activity
In one
cityseven

opium dens.

have

in

are

Pronounced

other

in

ViceroyTuan

judge if we

peopledruin,

not written in
wrought. This is prohibition

miracle has been

says the

China, whose

means

exercised
thousand

two

have

towns

of business.

the

been

closed,in

one

thousand,

thousand, or

market

out

opium."
of
in the closing

the dens and divans


About

two

million

to comply with
placesin all have been closed. Shops neglecting

the conditions of

place is said

shrinkagein
is that
its thirst

to

been sealed.

suffered the loss of

have

revenue
"

have
prohibition

One

$1,350

wholesale

day.

The

ment
is serious,
but the attitude of the Govern-

it will

not

seek

its hunger or quench


satisfy
poison,if perchanceit may rid
to

through this baneful


ernor
its peopleof a great curse." So the decree is inexorable. GovChu, when head of the Anti-Opium Bureau at Soochow
in several provinces,
and practically
in control of the movement

THE

OF

PASSING

OPIUM

THE

in behalf of the

TRAFFIC

29

"

Hong-kong Predicament,"
whereupon he tendered his sympathy but laughed significantly
and said he could do nothing. The
Hong-kong Predicament
farm
has been bringis the case of an opium farmer, whose
ing
him a yearlyincome of $600,000, of which he has paid
for his monopoly.
$200,000 to the Government
evidences of earnestness
in the
One of the most
striking
campaign has been the effort of officialsto giveup the personal
of opium. Some of these,longin thraldom to the habit,have
use
This
lost their lives in an heroic struggle
to free themselves.
ever,
tragicnote in the reform has not hindered its progress, howand thousands of high officialshave succeeded in abandoning
in
the pipe. Some
at firstsoughttemporary
protection
and those found
but testing
bureaus were
established,
deception,
the use of opium were
less
continuing
summarilydealt with, regardof rank and degree.
demonstration connected with the generalactivities
A public
has been the burningof opium pipes. When
the reform had
been in progress
about one
year, the followingreport was

appealedto

was

"

'

"

"

issued:
"

There

have

been

eightburningsof opium

Pipes
Pipe bowls
Lamps

4)433

Boxes

3,497

Plates

3,620

Needles

8,971

3,693

"

small

oz.
Opium destroyed
Opium depositsfrom pipes

been

tures
fix-

4,482

Cooking vessels,large

In the crowds

opium

follows:

amounting as

classes have

and

collected

to

427

87
3,138
"

577

witness these demonstrations

all

a
represented,
propheticof the
spectacle
when her people,
to China
come
great developmentthat must
united in a patriotism
but now
into life,
take effectively
springing

THE

3o

FORUM

toward that progress which is the inevitable


measures
aggressive
of publicspirit,
outcome
unity,and initiative.

in the Way
Difficulties
To

realize the
to

necessary

magnitude of

consider

both Titanic and

China's

of the

some

Satanic.

of Suppression

With

which
difficulties,

be freed from

to

of country and

towns,

opium,togetherwith the

the defiles of the mountains

"

tiger lies in wait for his victim,the


been

stupendous. The

have

been

the poppy
to be swept from
with a
almost every district,

the fieldsof every provinceand


thousand walled cities,
thousand
a hundred
hamlets

it is
accomplishment,

reformers

have

and

vast

where

million

stretches

the

"

blind

of

task
been

has
suppression
in placeswith
met

hoes and

and the law has not been enforced without


pitchforks,
bloodshed.
The physical
difficulties
alone have been such as we
who live in a more
highlydeveloped portionof the world can
scarcely
comprehend. China has few railroads,and in some
sections the
had
is made

to

up

roads

worst

the

of

globe. Into such country the

form
re-

also that China


forgotten
besides
provinces,
twenty-one semi-independent

penetrate. It must

with
dependencies,

different

and

as

on

manners

this uniform

not

separate army,

separate fiscalsystem, and

In such

customs.

effort had

be

to

be made.

tion
federadisjointed
One

of the greatest

under treaty stipulations,


to
inability,
exercise full control over
the sale of opium. Oppressedby the
of this position,
China, in the International Opium
injustice
Commission, convened in Shanghaiin 1909, began to seek relief
from importation.Her action will be considered in a limited
obstacles has been the

account

of the Commission.

The

Commission

It will be remembered

Called

by the United States

sion
that this firstInternational Commis-

velt,
studythe opium problem was called by President Roosethe initiativeof Bishop Charles H. Brent, of the
upon
The countries representedwere
the United States,
Philippines.
to

TRAFFIC

OPIUM

THE

OF

PASSING

THE

31

Russia,
China, Germany, France, Austria-Hungary,
Britain,
Holland, Italy,
Portugal,
Japan,Persia,and Siam. It may

Great

be asked

why

States took

the United

The

such
is

interest

acute

desire

to

as

give moral
support to China and the consciousness that China's problem
affected the generalinterestsof the world and in no small degree
the Philippines
took
interests. In takingover
we
our
special
over
an
opium problem of serious import. Without discussing
carried out with regard to excluding
the salutary
programme
it may be stated that the report
opium from our new possessions,
of the Philippine
through China,
opium committee,circulating
her desire for reform and brought us into such
strengthened
harmonious
relation in this matter
it eminently
as to make
fitting
call this Commission.

for the United


to

States

the

to

opium

answer

to

follow up her historic attitude of

trafficby

position
op-

national
takingthe initiativefor inter-

action.
Aside from

the

was

the result of

was

out
entirely

of fitness,
however, our course
question
deep-rootedconviction that the opium trade
mere

of accord

and that the time had


to

with the processes

come

protect the world

when
from

the

civilization,

international action

as

manded
de-

was

its influence. No

againsta trade
protect itself singly

can

of

country

insistent and

nerative
remu-

opium

trafficin its present monstrous


tions.
proporAll the laws you want
be made to regulate
can
importation,
but as long as exportation
is unrestricted,
the trade will
as

and any country in which there is a demand


for
defyregulation,
if it has great sea frontage. The
opium will suffer,
especially
will be in having some
international agreeonlysure protection
ment
with reference to exportation
that will be in exact accord
with the laws respecting
importationin the various countries
making such laws.
The

work

of the International Commission

was

of

vast

portance
im-

in

standing
opening up the way for a comprehensiveunderof the great question
and more
uniform and harmonious
action with regardto it. Beinga commission for inquiry
and not
for action,
its scope was
a court
limited,but by comparisonof
the exhaustive reports of the several countries represented
and
open

discussion of the needs, it was

able

to

formulate

recom-

FORUM

THE

32
mendations

upon

which

internationallaw

can

be based.

Briefly

the followingpoints:
adopted cover
of the sincerity
of
Recognitionby the Commission

the resolutions
i.

of China

Government

the abolition of

the progress

Government

take

to

that each

of

use

held

any

by almost

Opium

Commission

finds that the

form

otherwise than for medical purposes is


for
participating
country to be a matter

every

duty of all countries


ports of

at

own

possessions.

regulation.
That the International Opium Commission

be the

its

for careful

prohibitionor
4.

in

of
gradual suppression

territories and

the International

opium in

made

delegationmove

for the

measures

opium smoking in its own


3. That

that has been

opium.

recommendation

2.

and

the

and
derivatives,
the entry of any

to

adopt reasonable

conceives it to
to prevent

measures

departurethe shipmentof opium,its alkaloids,


to any
preparations,
country which prohibits
and preparaderivatives,
opium, its alkaloids,
tions.

such drastic measures


to be
5. Urging upon all Governments
distributaken by each as will control the manufacture, sale,and tion
in itsterritoriesand
derivatives of
abuse and
6. A

opium

of morphine and such other


possessions
scientificinquiryliable to
on
appear

as

illeffects.
that each Government

recommendation
such action

part take

as

seems

anti-opiumremedies
opium and its products.
7.

Urging

upon

settlements in China
of

necessary

and

the

all Governments
to

to

to

enter

and
properties

effects of

concessions
possessing

take effective action toward

into

own

scientifically
investigate

the

with
negotiations

for effectiveand prompt measures


to
and manufacture
remedies
of such anti-opium

or

closing

opium divans in the said concessions and settlements.


8. A strong recommendation
that each delegationmove

Government

or

its

upon

its

the Chinese

ernment
Gov-

the
prohibit

trade

as

contain

opium

its derivatives in the settlements in China.


9. A

recommendation
to

that each

apply its pharmacy

laws

move
delegation
in
to its subjects

concessions and settlements in China.


districts,

ernment
its Govthe

sular
con-

FORUM

THE

34
the

from

material consideration of

more

industrial

and

stimulated

China

givingtime

for financial

adjustments,has the advantage of keeping

to

her present

domestic
high efforts in suppressing

cultivation.
This

action

recent

on

the part of

England

was

prophesied

Wright, in his speech in the International


Referring to the action of the British
Opium Commission.
Government
in voluntarily
freeingthe slaves in British colonies
teen
and chargingthe imperial
budget with a sum
something like fifby

Dr.

Hamilton

times the

involved

amount

in the Indian

opium trade, the

the Federated
opium farms of Hong-kong, the Straits Settlements,
tion
Malay States,and Ceylon,he called attention to a repetiof
to

land
historyin the beginningof an effort on the part of Engand
the opium trade at great loss to herself,
extinguish

said: "The
defend

American

people believe that Great

Britain will

herself

againstthe criticism of all right-minded


people
it mayhap, and by
her opium revenue,
sacrificing
by replacing
dual agreements and obsolete treaties,
as she sacrifices
sacrificing
and sends
are
was

of

no

unthinkable
one

to

the scrap
further use

heap an

to

that

great evil and

obsolete class of

defend

to

her

that
battleships

extensive interests."

England would sacrificeso much


not

be

to

It

ish
abol-

when
willing,

the way became clear,


As the London
menting
Times, com-

sacrificeless to abolish another.

the agreement, says


the productionof
extinguishing
upon

"

If China

opium

reallysucceeds

within

her

in

borders, it

to continue the Indian trade another


manifestly
impossible
day."
Last December
the General Assembly of China passeda law
this year.
to stop the growth of the poppy
Though the
entirely
actual result may
not
measure
fullyup to the law, it is hoped

becomes

that the cultivation and


be cut off within two

opium will

come

both the

years.

The

foreignand domestic trade will


trade
interprovincial

in native

After the Sixth Moon


end this year.
officeswill be closed,the Tuchi-pu(Board of

to

an

(July19) the tax


native opium,
on
Finance)havingagreed to give up all revenue
annual loss of nearly$44,000,000. Strenuous efforts will
an
continue to be made to stop smoking. There has alreadybeen
in the habit of about fortyper cent., but of
a reduction made

OF

PASSING

THE

TRAFFIC

OPIUM

THE

35

time after
until some
smoking will not stop entirely
trade,both foreignand domestic,has been fullycut off.
course

Results

of

the Ten-Year

the

Agreement

the ten-yearagreement, the unfortunate part is


that it has defeated its purpose
with reference to importation.
To

The
as

to

return

of

amount

chests,was

the

be

China

to

sent

to

ten

reaches

cent., or

5,100
the average amount
shippedto all
alone. That being done, 16,000 chests
per

other countries and the balance

of this loose arrangement


in the 16,000 chests intended

much

working out

contained

chests,

from

be made

to

not
countries,
to

basis of 51,000

upon

stated,but the reduction of

has been

were

was
exportation

for

to

China.

of the

In

opium

countries

other

instead of beingreduced,has
China,and the importation,

averagedabout

3,000 chests yearlymore


before the agreement was
made.

portation
imthan the average
This was
inevitable,

it is profitable
for, since China's great reduction in cultivation,
force

into her ports. Not only so, but


possible
the merchants of Hong-kong, foreseeing
have
the rise in price,
held most
of the largestock they had on hand when the agreement
into
Chinese
the
market
to pour this
made, intending
was
when the pricehas reached the topmost notch. The net opium
to

revenue

much

as

as

of the Indian

Government

1907-8 to "4,420,600 in 1909-10,


$4,000,000.
the

opium

The

revenue

"3,000,000

more

total

revenue

opium

three years,
expectedin

last fiscal report from

Calcutta

states

that

for the past year has been "7,660,000, or


than the estimated budget for the year.
The
of India from trade with China in the past
the rise in

owing to
ten

"3,571,948 in
gain of "848,652, or about
from

rose

years.

and six times itsnormal

has exceeded the amount


price,
in China at four,five,
Opium is selling

value,and in

few

thirteen times the usual

has shot up to
at
placesit is selling
cases

price. In some
two-and-a-half times its weight in silver. This fabulous valuation
it
is a great temptationto native growers,
and has made
difficultfor China
been

to

pressingher
England.

withstand the
as

such

revenue

arguments

arguments that have


have

been

pressing

THE

36

The

FORUM

modification of the ten-year agreement

recent

includes

going into China than


the agreement calls for, and hereafter shipmentssent
from
be admitted only at cerIndia to China will bear a special
tain
label,
to inspection
by Chinese officials.
ports, and be subject
to prevent
provision

Great

The

opium

more

Economic

Gain

to

from

Both

India and

China

Until industrial conditions have been

the financial
readjusted,
in China; but both China
opium will be felt,
especially
will be tremendously
benefited when the necessary adjustments

loss from
and

India

have

forced

to

been made.
from

borrow

raise the poppy


needed in India

crop.
as

Indian growers

The

the Government

yearlya

raisingof

The

have
sum

valuable results. The

loss on

to

crop

is

land
capital,

cultivation will have

poppy

opium will be

sufficientto

larger food

in China, and the release of the

and labor that have been devoted

long been

from

$15,000,000 to

and the British Government


is generous
annually,
in arrangingfor the final relinquishment
of so much, but this loss
of India will be amply compensatedfor in
to the Government
the bettered condition of the peopleof India when more
tant
imporinterests have supersededopium production
and trade.
The aggregate yearlyloss in opium revenue
to the Chinese

$20,000,000

will be about

Government

abandoning the trade somewhat

the result of
to

the

$50,000,000,but China has estimated

people of

as

follows

Gain

in cash for opium of


expenditure
yieldfrom land given up to the poppy

total annual

$151,875,000. The
when planted in wheat, cotton, and other useful

crops,

at

least

$91,525,000, which, added to the expenditurefor opium,


annual savingof $243,400,000. The average
means
earning
an
capacityof non-opium smoking Chinese is about twenty-eight
cents
use

(or

of

day.

The

or
opium is one-fourth,

were

25,000,000

before
male

from
capacity
day. As there

lowest estimate for loss of


seven

cents

the
are

beginningof the reform) something like


an
opium smokers in China, this will mean

the

ming
saving of $547,750,000. Added to this financial sumties
up is the desire to developaccordingto the vast possibiliof this remarkable
country. With opium no longer sap-

annual

TRAFFIC

OPIUM

THE

OF

PASSING

THE

37

people and claimingtheir paltryearnings,


China feels that she might have a chance to developas Japan
has developed.The importsof China are at present fifty-eight
while those of Japan are
three dollars and
cents
per capita,
If the world sold to
eightycents, nearlyseven times as much.
China as much per capitaas to Japan it would receive annually
life of her

ping the

$1,520,000,000 from

World's

The

this

source.

Interest in the

Development of China

and thereby
questionof developingChina's resources
in
her power
to produce and to spend is a matter
increasing
The

which the whole

for the trade of China


is interested,

world

future trade of the East and


to

the increased

its expansionwill be in

exact

and the increased


earningcapacity

is the
portion
prohood
man-

and ambition of China's millions.

Opium is now seven and


matical
mathehalf per cent, of Chinese imports,and it requires
no
a
placed
geniusto estimate how long it will be before this is reiron and steel,
machinery,
by cotton fabric,food stuffs,
how high will be the percentage
and innumerable sundries,
nor
under the industrial expanof increase in the purchasing
power
sion
that must
follow the abolition of opium.

Hague Conference

The
When

the Commission

been decided

as

to

them.

Shanghai adjournednothinghad

further international

existed that
resolutions

in

but
action,

conference
subsequent

passedby the

Commission

in

an

would

effort to

tacit understanding
take up the
alize
convention-

Our

Government, by diplomaticcorrespondence,
has arrangedsuch a conference,
to convene
at The
Hague early
this

All the powers


at Shanghaiwill take
represented
part in the deliberations of this body. It is one of the vital facts
autumn.

of the century that international law is takingup this great moral

question.Universal good is bound to result,and we may hope


that the end of the opium trafficeverywherein the world, except
for medicinal uses, is in sight,
and that China, with the curse
no
longerrestingupon her, will rise above the past and take no

THE

38
"

uncertain

in the

part

FORUM

unfolding drama

of the

great world

process/'
Peking Agreement

The

followingis a precis of the opium agreement signedin

The

Peking by Sir John Jordan and the Wai-wu-pu,May 8, 191 1 :


Article
I. China shall diminish annuallyduring the next
seven
years the productionof native opium in the same
tion
proporthe annual export from

as

Article

II.

Article

III.

India is diminished.

China

having adopted a rigorouspolicyfor


the production,
prohibiting
transport, and smoking of native
opium, the British Government
agrees that the export of opium
from India shall cease
in less than seven
years if proof is given
that the productionof native opium has completely
ceased.
The

British Government

agrees

that Indian

opium shall not be conveyedto any provinceof China which has


effectively
suppressedthe cultivation and importof native opium.
It is understood,however, that the closing
of the ports of Canton
and Shanghai to the importof Indian opium shall onlytake

completionof the above measure.


IV.
ish
Article
During the periodof the agreement the BritGovernment
is permitted
to obtain continuous evidence of the
diminution of cultivation by local inquiries
ish
conducted by Briteffectas

final step for the

officials.
Article
watch the

V.

China

may

opium sales and

the

dispatchan officialto India to


packingof opium,but without any

of interference.

power

Article

VI.

The

British Government

consents

to

crease
the in-

duty to 350 taels per chest,the increase


of an equivalent
with the imposition
takingeffectsimultaneously
excise tax on native opium.
VII.
So long as the additional article of the
Article
of the present

Chifu agreement
now

placed on

provinces. The
force of laws
to

suppress

trade.

is in
the

force,China will withdraw

wholesale

trade

in Indian

foregoing articles shall

hereafter to
or
published,
the smoking of opium and

not

be
to

all restrictions

opium

in the

derogate from

published,
by

the

China

regulatethe retail

VIII.

Article
issue
the

until

number
chest

Each

THE

During

191

for

permits

export

the

certified

so

OPIUM

OF

PASSING

THE

30,600

extinction

may

be

the

chests,
of

the

imported

TRAFFIC

Indian

39

reducing

progressively

in

trade

export
into

will

Government

any

treaty

19

17.
in

port

China.
IX.

Article

by

mutual

which

agreement

may

be

revised

at

any

time

consent.

Article

on

This

X.
it

is

The

signed.

agreement

comes

into

force

on

the

date

TRYPHENA

Mrs.

Cornish

dazzled

He

gone

the

expressionof

His

out.

found

his

and

strugglingwith

man

black

show

never

white

cottage round

the

polishedthat

his whole

large face bore


Precision
"

bearing.

he

carried

he

knitted white
"

ones.
"

times

cleanliness

socks, except
should

sweep

both

inside and

avoided.

clean collar

an

extreme.

on

Sunday, when
the

Trenowden's

chimneys as

doctor

to

always so

ought

to

he

it

evident

was

home-

navy-blue

wore

clared,
alive,"he de-

man

he has

out, because

professionwas
a

he

cleanest

fightdirt at all
foe to be tactfully
walked
and always
to

flannel shirt.

his well-washed

on

wore

street

favored

He

to

be

man,"
gentle-

He

were

of boots

places." Even mud was


as
pickedhis way carefully

He

Dan

instead

in all

and

shoes

wore

boots

devil

The
a

and

blackingwith his ordinaryprofession.

well-known

realize it

not

fate.

His

in his

response

might imagine that he combined

casual observer

When
that

of another.

row
nar-

but
cheerily,

in his

corner

advertisingof

had

birds sang

nature

the

up

dailywork, if he was
he often declared; "then
why a sweep?"
overalls when
going only from a house in one

would

had

The

lowered

were

eyes

cleanliness marked

extreme

he walked

as

The

mood.

May

pullingat his pipe though he did

was

had

the

his eyes

joy in

the

nor

in

not

his home.

to

neither the warmth

Ellis

was

sun

street

heart.

Havelock

TRENOWDEN

DAN

REVOLT

JANE'S

an

art

to

him.

understand

He

stood
under-

bodies.

They

patientstudy. No
declared, though they might

he said,which wanted
constitutions,

two

seem
alike,he
chimneys were
Few
different management.
so.
smoky
They all wanted
chimneys long resisted his careful investigations. Build two
"

feet

on

new

life to

who

was

think
1

and

one
a

down

it
"

same

kitey.' To

lower

chimney.
on
as

"

another," he said,
It's the

his luck and

you'd

build up

one

same

as

yes, he

"

subdue

flue and
40

and

you

often

you'd encourage
might as well

woman

widen

when

she

another,

man

say it

gets
to

give

as

too

plaster

THE

42
4

as
a

Come

come

on,

on,

dinner's

his sleeve

flicked from

Dan

FORUM

ready,"yelleda treble voice


tinybit of mud no biggerthan

pin'shead.
"

Oh!

bones and buttons I

Hurry up, hurryup." This


followed immediately
was
by a great smackingof lipsand a wild
laugh. Dan opened the door whence the voice proceededand
by way of replywhistled a chime of wedding bells which got
immediate response in a higher key. The room
he entered
an
A brightfire blazed in the
slab." The roara kitchen.
was
ing
sound from it proclaimedthat the prophetof good chimney
dishonored
in his own
house.
He
looked
not
sweepingwas
round the room, opened the oven
door, sniffed at the contents on
the top shelf,which he drew forward, having carefully
protected
his thumb and forefinger
with his red handkerchief with
my

"

white spots. He

closed the door with

sigh.

"Hurry up!" screamed Dan's parrot.


noise like the smackingof lips,
again followed
went

laugh, and

Dan

the remark.

the bird's cage and scratched the bent head

to

over

of the

parrot.
"

What

"

Hold

The

"

cried the parrot.


noise,"retorted Dan.

lark!

your

sweep

looked

round

the littlekitchen and

then

at

the

If he had so chosen he
for one.
table laid half way
across
cloth
could have eaten his dinner from the other half,without tablefor
plate,

or

toningwith the
waistcoat
took off his long-sleeved

scrubbed

of the pasty. Dan

lightbrown
and

it was

to

hung it behind the door, before he


where
He

head.

with

then held
hand

one

his hands

he washed
a

and

beautiful

into

went
"

sluiced "

an

lery,
inner scul-

his face and

before his serious face


littlelooking-glass

while he

partedhis
carefully

thin

wet

hair with

the other.
"

Oh!

Goodness!

"

from

him peer into the

the parrot made

in hand, and cry " varmint! "


Downstairs ! " yelledthe parrot. Dan

kitchen,comb
"

and made

face

at

the parrot

as

he turned

stamped his foot


to

go

back into the

scullery.
"

The

wonder

bird be

too

uplongscome

knowable
to

by half,"he

hear she talk and

muttered.

reason."

He

"

No
can-

TRYPHENA

JANE'S
his

didlyacknowledgedto
to

REVOLT

that his " parrot

mates

folkses. It's women

men

43

she do

not

was

take

standable
underand

to

if

ing
she could say all that's in her she might be a guideto the mendor
marring of men's lives." The parrot and Dan had
for

housemates

been

"

"

standby
Dan

woman

on

lonelynights.His
promised her that he

to

keep

on

him

him

and

that it was

would

Don't

hates

Dan

had

that
spirit

had

she

would

She
the parrot company.
justas importantfor him

by

to

cook, darn and attend

to

your

bosom, my

gone

would

he

work

to
steadily

search

the

to

son,

town

find

if he

his

been

died in peace because


look up a likely

mother

to

had
to

her
a

it was

as

erally.
gen-

man

what
up."
make-

own

wife, in the
needed

pressed
im-

choose

woman

birds,for it would be like hatingher

and

cats

take

never

and

love the parrot and be loved

that she should be able

"

years

many

had

wife who

seventeen

same

special

stubborn chimney. He kept a wary eye


particularly
but for a long time he had not found
at all the houses he visited,
A cook,
anythingwhich seemed in the least like his mother.
if she would
in one place,
was
very kind to him and he wondered
her drop some
suit him.
One day, however, he saw
kidneys
without washing them,
the floor and put them on the grill
on
as she declared, they'mgood enough for that lot,"
pointing
upstairs.
his
mother
That was
unlike
could
be.
as
as
anything
The wastefulness of the servants
at the houses he visited kept
him from courting
Mother never
wasted
any of the offenders.
cook who
a
crumble," he told one
laughed at his scruples.
When, by the oven
beingthin,she burnt the bread a bit she

cowl for

"

"

"

made

we

sweet."
drew

eat

it 'cause she said burnt crusties made

While

off water

Dan
from

was

havinglunch

at

the boiler and made

one

his

the breath

house the
tea

servant

with it. Dan

missed
but there was
a draw
pretendedto take no notice,
possibly
that day. He knew what a
in the marriagelottery
chancey
It meant
a
a
or
thingmarriagewas.
cosy
rope to hang a man
"

corner

for life. Dan

as

he

bent

on

the cosy

corner.

The

women

and jumps and jerksin their daily


stockings
expressedit,he was determined to avoid. Those

with holes in their

work,

was

'

THE

44

FORUM
"

who

in a
kept a man
always "catchingup their work
fever most
of the day and had all things slatterlyagain
before night time.
He had no leanings,
the other hand,
on
let everything
who
toward women
soured and mucky
get
before theyhad the heart and nerve
to clean. A seemlyworker
in its placeand cleared and cleaned as she went
had everything
were

"

"

"

his mother

on,

Dan

woman.

her

had often said.

accident

An

brought the decisive


of its cage.

out

and the housemaid.

Dan

and

moment

There

In the

was

right

the

bedroom
sweepinga chimneyin a lady's

was

got

canary

'

when

hurried hunt

scrimmage the

canary

by

became

wedged between a box and the wardrobe, and itsleg was broken.
The comforting of the terror-stricken girlled to revelations.
She was
lover of birds,and in order to keep and
a passionate
'

I
pleaseher the ladyhad givenup cats and kept birds instead.
if he do sing,"sobbed the girl. Dan
work my fingers
can
sore
looked into her sweet
face and then at her slight,
graceful
young
figure.He wiped his sooty righthand very slowlyon his big
he did so.
white apron and looked on the floor thoughtfully
as
Then
he slowlywiped the other hand
and took the canary

gentlyfrom
"

That
"

face.

girl's
tremblingfingers.
into the girl's
be mended," he said,smiling
softly

the
can

Give

me

In less than

and

match

ten

minutes

the

44

up
A

minutes

and
Dan

the
had

woman's

tears
"

do

never

alwaysmake
saw

mother

me

whishe,sure

cry but

once

and

enough,"
that

was

passed,and seemly,ever since then,a female weeping


do give me
the same
sort of feelingas the crucifixionwhen
ponder upon it on a Sabbath day."
Lor!
said the housemaid, looking at Dan as if she had

when

father

"

"

him

seen
"

14

at

ten

set

his mind.

he muttered.

canary'sleg was

in less than

girlhad ceased crying.And


made

thin thread."

some

Have
I do

for the firsttime.


"

fancyfor parrots? asked


dearlylove to hear them talk,but
a

you

shows," she answered,

their company
44

My

and

Dan.
I've

then I suppose

manners."

parrot

badlywants

missis,"said Dan.

onlyseen them
they'vegot on

TRYPHENA

girlthoughthe

The

REVOLT

JANE'S
going to

was

45

her

make

present of

parrot and said:


"

I'd

dearlylove

case

will have

You

"

"

"

she,"respondedDan.

go to

to

can't

of both of us, you know.


We
The housemaid
looked at Dan
"

it would

but if it talked much

one,

mistress."

disturb my
"

have

to

It'llbe

separate."

and Dan

looked

at

her.

"

queriedDan.
beingso bold?
Mary," said the girlsimply.
Your age, if .you please? asked Dan kindlyas
Your

name,

"

he looked

into her eyes.


"

answered
Twenty-five,"
Mary wonderingly.
said Dan.
shall get on like the
And I be thirty,"
We
tick of a clock,"he continued.
He was
smilingas he spoke.
Dan's smile was
which slowlylighted
one
up his largeface and
and broad chin.
to his firm mouth
gave dignity
"

"

"

Mother

and

had

never

me

"

warfare," said Dan.

no

The

chatter you'll
She's a homely bird and
like,I know.
parrot's
three will hang together
like bricks and mortar."
we
What
three?"
cried the girl,
not
lieved
comprehendingthe re11

look of the
"

The

be
you'll

before her.

man

parrot and

all Dan's

was

courting.It

about

came

that the canary and the parrot and Dan


and
wind
up house togetheras it did for a west
wind

and for

night.
It is mother over
again,"said Dan
the wedding; "only mother
afore
It was
a
momentous
day when Dan
He

sweat

"

confessed
down

ran

to

his back when

parrot screamed

Dan

timidlyapproachedthe

and

There

had been

and

Mary

had

feet, into
stockinged
guess

she

was

there.

"

Mary
to

naturally

as

should

follow

an

set
east

taken

was

took

fit to

fore
justbethought on."
Mary to see the

that

aunt

"

stream

of

meetingtook place.
kill herself,"when

with

that the parrot should not


toward
advanced
very cautiously

the kitchen,so

They

his old

Mary hidingbehind his


whisperedconference in the little
in her
off her boots and glided,

cage
a

the great

laughed,

broad back.

to

afterwards

her

The

passage

and

follow

day to

"

parrot.

"

slowly,

Dan

other,of course."

the

That

be one," continued

me

THE

46
the cage,

Mary holding on

stoopinglow
be

that her

so

done it!

My!

"

That's

"

cried

Dan

said,was

objectof

horrible lies and


behind her

to

whenever

he discovered her

as

Dan
the

"

tasties

called
"

"

"

Even

"

All my

her

gave

louder than

teachingbe of

ing
reason-

quite
peacemaker
was

of calling

uglyway

an

in fun called her

had

hurled

thin,it was

him

at

ing
Laurie,"the Tory candidate,and nothcall the Liberal candidate's name,
though

not

parrot gets

again Dan

good hour tryingto teach it her.

Dan

Laurie

to

such

most

the time of the elections she

Sapphira. At

induce her

had spent
"

mother

because

tell the

to

occasional

an

Sapphirahad
Dan's

be

seemed

and

his hair grew

when

to

There

now

up with

scream

would

mischief.
that

he vexed
"

would

her existence seemed

Because
"

to

that Sapphira
whispers,
have second sight.Sapphira,

called after her Biblical namesake

mischief-maker.

bald pate

son

in solemn

Mary,

to

create

people names.
"

yelled, You've

"

impishremarks

when

instead of

not

"

the parrot

bird and seemed

queer

bewildered

and

nothing,"said Dan solemnlyas he led Mary into


again amid the wild shrieks and laughterof the

very

the whole

behind

Mary.

the passage
bird. Dan confided
a

from

coat

gentleface and slight


figureshould

Hip, pip,hurrah !

"

Dan's

to

both fell back when

They

seen.

was

FORUM

with

twinkle

in her

only ate
and

eye

ever.

Dan.

said
politics,"

exactlyover

value

no

She

by the side of

youngster in the

sun

in the
the Tory's name
while Sapphirawas
out
yelling
in the back yard." He warned
Mary that it might be possible
that Sapphirawould tellhis wife tales behind his back, but

she

must

street

be relied

understand
on

that the bird

always. Mary

was

when

theyreturned

the parrot

whistle of
"

that

Now,

so

the kitchen

listen to

might

rest

theyfelt a

not

accident?

declared it was
what

to

Mary,

"

to

parrot's

content

on

littlecreepy

"

wedding bells.
dear," whisperedDan

better mind

he

and

screamed, Sneak, sneak,"followed by

reasoningor

Mary
had

my

to

fancical "

going to

not

tales,she said,about her dear Dan,


that. When

"

was

ing
pierc-

do you

call

"

second

they said

sightlike a witch had and they


and what they did. To Dan's

REVOLT

JANE'S

TRYPHENA

47

but
reliefthe parrot not onlyloved Mary at sight
better than she loved Dan.
Mary had gentleand

parrot took them


water.

her
"

only wonder

could

with her that Dan


as

matter

She put her head on


beady eyes when she

of course,
one

at
as

and

talked

loved her

caressing
ways
The

reverence.

she took her seed and

side and looked


"

soon

baby

talk

at
"

Mary
to

the

out

of

bird.

her littlesweetheart,
her handsome
top-knot,
her bright-eyed
jewel,"kept the wilySapphirain
chick-a-biddy,
The parrot seemed almost to wink at Dan
the best of spirits.
talked silly to her,as Dan put it. Sapphiragrew
when Mary
that she was
to love Dan's wife so much
never
quitehappy when
tinct
dishouse.
She often showed
or
Mary was out of the room
he lingeredsometimes,
When
signsof jealousyof Dan.
Chuck
before starting
for his work, Sapphirawould scream,
it,Dan.
Hurry up ! House on fire." When Dan kissed Mary
it seemed to annoy Sapphirapast endurance.
She would make a
noise like the loud drawingof a cork, and make it so uncomfortable
for Dan and Mary that it became a habit,at last,
for them
alwaysto say good-byeat the front door. But Sapphiraknew
all about that. When
back to the kitchen the parMary came
rot
saluted her with
Tut, tut, tut," or with loud peals of
laughter.
One day,however, Sapphira's
happinessgot a check. There
confusion in the littlehouse and much
was
coming and going.
When
Dan came
home hurriedly,
after receiving
wire at the
a
big house,where he was to be all day,he went into the kitchen
his brushes and hang up his cap, before going upto put down
stairs.
ways
Sapphira's
wings were droopingand her head was sideof her master.
as her keen eyes caughtsight
Bald head, sure enough,"she cried.
Dan started. Dr. Ashe came
into the kitchen justthen and
told him he had a son and he instinctively
glancedat the shining
head of the kindlymedical man
and asked timidly
if the boy had
hair. The doctor thoughtit a strange question
to ask, but told
him that the child had scarcely
unusually
any hair and in fact was
bald. Sapphira's
fiendish laugh made both men
start and Dan
Mother's

pretty

"

"

"

"

11

for the firsttime in his life gave utterance


"
Blast the scurvy owl," he said.

to

an

oath.

THE

48
"

Owl

"

Valuable

"

'Tain't
"

"

!"

! Owl

yelledSapphira.

looked

round

knocked

her beak

wide

if to show

her mouth

Dan
lies,"
so

"

Hold

hair

your

do."

on,

bird,that,"said the doctor.


bird at all times,"muttered Dan

He

"

FORUM

as

"

ruefully. It's
patiently
nervouslyat Sapphiraas she imagainstthe cage and then opened
"

her round tongue

blackened with

declared.

"

said the parrot.


Mary's chick-a-biddy,"
This immediatelysent Dan upstairs
to see
touched the littlecurled-up
fingersof his son

his wife.
as

if

Dan

they would

break.
"

"

Perfect,sure

enough," he muttered, nails and all

It'smiracle work," he added


'

I shall

never

feel the

he

as

again,my

same

plete.
com-

stoopedto kiss Mary.


dear, after this,"he

continued,smoothing the baby'sbald head gentlywith the back


of his forefinger. Gosh!
You'd think he
how he do drink!
"

was

learnt all about it afore he got here.

Chimneys have

taken

the third

in my estimation,by the side of you and


place now
this lightning
conductor.
My! what wrinkles he have got and
troubles to speak on like you and me."
no
said she felt very tired but

Mary
must

be

had

she believed she

purring.
wife

Dan's
the

happy

so

"

never

recovered

from

the birth and

death

of

Little bald

called him,
pate,"as his father lovingly
been seriously
teen
handicappedat the outset and Mary, thirweeks after her child died,got a serious chillwhich developed

boy.

into

pneumonia and she

was

soon

gone.

Dan

nursed

her

night and day with the quietdoggedness characteristic of him.


He gave up all his work, as chimneyswere
one
thing and Mary
failed her. Her least wish was
another,he argued. He never
law to Dan and he got into the way of making three hours' sleep
a
night sufficehim. He fought death as he fought soot, but
his Mary.
this time he was
He could not save
beatened."
"
They'm jealousup above, we're told,"he argued,when he
"

could collect his wits and think


calculate the likes of she
Lord's will be past

nor

the

at

all.

"

The

likes of

can't

we

meaning of they up atop.

findingout, I reckon,but whoever

had

The
hand

THE

So

simpleMary,
had

denied

could
"

his wife

refuse

not

then

and

FORUM
down

sat

to

consider the situation. He

nothing while she lived and he knew

fulfilher last wish.

to

But what

he

could he do?

myself,I reckon,"he muttered,and Sapphira


in Mary's voice, Take
another missis,
response,

Best drown

"

yelledin

Love

Dan."

left

had

Love

had overtaken

him before he

was

him, just as he had got used

deliciousness. He

had

meant

have

to

and

happinesshe

things in
him

than

he had

cosy corner,
corner

ways
al-

strange

onlyrealizing
fullynow that it had
But had it left him?
He sat wondering about these
the long, lonelynights. Mary seemed
to be very
He
somehow.
felt less sad by the fire with Sapphira

left him.

near

its bewildering

to

said,and Mary had brought into that


peace

of it and

aware

when

friend

was

in

came

cheer

to

him

It took

up.

nearlyall his spare time to keep the house neat


Mary had it. He changed his waistcoat and coat
clean collar when

he

in

came

as

if his wife

and

clean like

and put

by his side

was

him

on

he

as

As he prayed he wondered
if she knew
his supper.
how
lonelyhe was and then he suddenlyhoped she did not know,
ate

might spoilheaven a bit for her and there was no sense


in
in that, he argued. Better bide his time. The
idea,once
of
his brain,that Mary might worry over
him, took possession
him and he tried to make up his mind to marry
again and soon.
as

it

'

He

had

generallyonly thought of the dead in


felt vaguelythat his mother knew when

and had
on

her grave.
than

nearer
see

Now

he

began

that,like the wind

to

though

near

churchyard

he put flowers

if the dead

wonder

was

the

you

even

were

could

not

it.
What

intensifiedthis idea of his

the strange conduct of

was

certain she saw


Sapphira. He was
things he could not see.
Sometimes, when they were
quitequiethe noticed her feathers
stand up and her keen, bead-like eyes grow
themselves on one
spot for a long time.
more

uneasy

feathers

well,
mean?

"

when
and

erect

Take
He

their wishes

were

He

more

grew

and

Sapphira repeatedagain and again, with


in that peculiarly
gentlevoice he knew so

missis,Dan

had

fix

intent and

more

heard

dear, take

people say

unfulfilled. What

missis."

the dead
was

he

What

could
to

do?

not

did it
rest

if

It made

REVOLT

JANE'S

TRYPHENA

icycold to think of
to see
got up shivering

it all and

him

even

if the door

on
was

51

nightshe often

warm

the window

shut and

all very odd and he wished

he knew

something
about other thingsbesides chimneys. Sapphirahad lost nearly
and he certainly
all her spirit
was
losinghis. Dan thoughtonce
called for
in a fitand she rarely
the bird was
laughedand never
she going to die and if so, what should he do
her bath. Was
then?
the birds outside did not singthe same
as
even
Surely,
when
Mary was alive and nothing,he noticed,seemed really
happy like they did once.
He thoughtover
the two years of their married life. How
she was!
There was
a
tripetty bend in her way
very sweet
of walkingthat sometimes made him quitefaint with longingto
he watched her pickingher way
kiss her when
through the
with her sweet
smile
lanes or going into chapel. It was
at one
It

fastened.

was

"

which

somehow

watched

them

close

Mary dead, how


he

never

much

he wondered,
.it,

cold like

alive?

they were

Dan

part of herself her smile

her without

seen

in her hands, if you


only realized,when he saw

her, even

over

enough.

turned her stiffand


when

all

seemed

"

He

most

or

had

folkses seemed

left the death

chamber

this,for he

his

to

quaintway,

her in
much

more

torn

that

as

dress

or

if he

saw

Mary
in

that had made

of his handkerchief
from

the

could

givehim

with him

or

hurriedly,
argued,in
and find

bit soiled she would

dislike it

come

and

with all her smile gone.


The
the onlytestimony
to the witchery

Dan

whollyhers. As he wet
gentlywiped away the clammy

of the closed eyes he knew


heaven take away would

corners

even

her now,

beautiful coils of hair seemed


and charm

be

just

home

hated him

one

Death
to

after his firstunconscious realization of

Had

was.

after this. He

corner

moisture

that all the earth


count

as

very

little

supposedhe must have loved her very


much, but he had never
thought about it. All he knew was
that he would
rather do what she wanted, however
slightit
than anythingelse he could think of. When
the boy was
was,
firstcoming he had not found it a bit hard to give*up tobacco,
made use of
much of it as it "-minded him
though he never
of soot."
That it made
Mary sick showed him what nasty
stuff it was.
He tried to smoke again after she died in order
"

"

THE

52

cheer himself,but his

to

FORUM
"

pipetasted

and

rancerous

thing." For the firsttime in his life he took


evil-smelling
liquidthe kindlydoctor gave him.
a

"

but

It may

the system,"said
fortify

feller would

need

the flues afterwards."


his

He

again.

had

to

take another

to

The

system that he

nervous

Dan

tonic,a bitter,

of his mates,

one

bottle

tonic,however,

like
bitter,

clean

to

strengthened

so

up his mind

made
definitely

out

to

marry

found

favor in the eyes of nearlyall the local


because of his devotion to Mary and also because it was

women

well known

that he had

"

pileof money." He could


a
easilyearn from twelve to fifteen shillings
day at sweeping
certain
chimneysand in these times,when the priceof a loaf was as unthe

as

grumbled

four

or

staid "

rivals considered,

it

stood.

She

men

the

hop

all. Let

the

same

not

rut

to

bit homesick

Trenowden

and

at

and

sort
a

days,but

gone

be

and

good mother

as

catch

on

are

Dan

they'm left

and

wife like

Nathan

as

same

took

they'll
stay in
'em lonelyand

you

like he had

her

that,in
"

be

must

and

what

her mother

henpecked later

youngster, and

sad

she realized

when

there

Mary, than if they'dbeen browbeaten


weeke,

and

weary

helplesswhen

more

never

the wooed.

for Dan

slew down

'em

who

made,
thirty-five
to

be

standbyto

man

was

things,widowers

what's

over

alone,if they'vehad

"

too

was

confided

the end of their

his

Dan
he who

was

had

her observation of
or

in.

frantic dash

small

no

week, with

of about

woman

"

matters

weather,it was

his meals, thrown

at

seemlyand

how

pounds

realize that this time

to
"

of the

state

of three

sure

saved

Tre-

like Matthew

on

Bennett."

Tryphena Jane Hocking

further confided

to

her mother

that

winsome
morsel, but so soft and clinging
delicate,
her left if Dan told
that she would believe her righthand was
her so.
She had confided to Tryphena herself,
once, that she

Mary

was

asked

had

Dan

what

books

Jane tossed her head


that
as

at

rate

any

Dan

was

never

Dialogue of
had

Devils

stomach

as

man

well ask the parrot what

The

he would

and

to

to

read.

phena
Try-

she told this story and added


enough to tell Mary she might
read

as

ask him.

Except for

Progress,he
Pilgrim's
beyond the wish to write

The

for books

like her

had
one

REVOLT

JANE'S

TRYPHENA

53

Chimneys and their Errors,but he could not trust his


enough to begin. As for Tryphena Jane, it was well
spelling
in the village
that she had a leaningtoward literature
known
for she took in Woman's
Chatter and The Fashionable
in general,
himself

on

Herald.
It

Hocking
himself

to

apparent

was

bent

was

began

on

feel

to

casual eye that Tryphena Jane


Even
Dan
marrying Dan Trenowden.
even

"

bit like

rabbit in

gin"; but he
anythingmatter one

or

did
tired to argue or protest. What
another? As Mary was
not in the runningwas

as

good

too

this

as

Best make

another?

Even
shilly-shallying.
in front of

head.

In

dim

with the old love

way

he

now

the old love remained

He

was

not

one

way

woman

bolt for it and have done with


better

hanging was

man.

he

was

tried

to

put

realized that it
destined

to

be

fixed in his heart.

Mary
with

He

to

be

oft
But

new.

confided

tinually
con-

of his

out

best

was
on

than

over

to

phena
Try-

could think
Jane,after theywere married,that he never
of Mary as dead but only as waitingsomewhere
and that he
hoped in heaven the three of them would be part and parcel
of one
another in some
how to
way the Almighty might know
fix up.
Tryphena Jane'sblue eyes met his rather angrily.
"

That's

Mormon's

stuff and

jargon.

nonsense," she said, " and

You'm

real fool in

some

worse

than

things,Dan,

in others. I can't deny I took to you


though wiser than some
to Mary, but there let
mostlybecause you was such a good man
she had hers,but don't let
it end.
I've my placenow
same
as
be worth two
A living
dead ones,
woman
us
try to mix them.
thanks be. There be no marriagenor yet givingin marriagein
heaven, we're told. There we shall be tended by angels and
have
"

no

need

That

the

one

of the other."

depends,"answered

Dan

heaven
slowly,feeling
"

was

worth while on those terms.


Seems to me
love ain't
scarcely
going to be shoved aside,even by angels,for I don't see what
call they'dhave to discountenance it,
we're told plain
considering
enough it'sthe make-up of God Himself."
Tryphena Jane said it was one thingwhat was told you and
of.
another thingwhat you could make use
Anyway," said Dan slowly, whatever we know or don't
"

"

THE

54
know

atop, this much

about up

is that what

FORUM

loves

love

must

me

I do know

be

would

onlymakeshifts

voice and

things worse.
and

women

what

Cheer

he talked of

more

called

argued about

the

more

for

votes

"

he

saw

chucked

the chin.
"

woman," he said.

up,

Mary

tawdry blither." When


checked an irritablesighand

again he

Tryphena Jane under


"

glory and them things


didn't hear Mary's slumberous

sweet

The

Dan

vexed her

he had

heaven,as I said

of

scoffed and sneered and

Tryphena Jane

that

laugh of she." As Dan caught


in a stupidway, that he had only
he felt,

Tryphena Jane'seyes
made

if I

to me

the

catch

As for

Mary.

afore,angels and harps and clouds

for certain and

I didn't

offend

to

mean

you."
afternoon if
might have ended well on that particular
parrot had not laughed and screamed and ended by yelling

All
the
"

Mary's
"

boy."

saucy

Does

that parrot love

me

or

your

blessed

best?"

Mary

queriedTryphena Jane,glaringat Dan.


God knows," answered Dan wearily.
"

"

You

rightenough, but

know

you

won't

say,"retorted Tryphena

She'm

wilyenough

Jane.
"

as

Best ask

her

will tell you,

name

"

her," growled Dan.


or

maybe

she'll tell you

lie,

to

the truth

by

chance."
"

"

angel! yelledthe parrot.


I taught her that,"cried Tryphena Jane triumphantly.
Maybe that's your answer," said Dan moodily, as he
Mother's

"

"

From

to

mend

one

of his brushes.

day Tryphena Jane was the parrot'sslave.


miserable and Tryphena Jane
dailymore
grew

that

Dan

distant and

hours

returned

Pride

mistress gave

new

more

find any joy


her all she asked for and spent
to

caressingand talkingto Sapphira.

Things had
had

parrot alone seemed

The

morose.

for her
in life,

had

with which

thin rope

splicedsome

had

home

kept him

reached

notions.

come

If

his
a

ears

woman

to

at

found

his meals

and

asking the

from
that
had

last. For

climax

whole

week

laid for him

reason,

though

alone.

rumor

to
Tryphena Jane had leanings
a

bit of money

of her own,

Dan

queer

she had

TRYPHENA

said,she ought to show


with

a
"

tilltheywere

men

REVOLT

JANE'S

55

his

man

placeand not
into giving
women

"

cowed

make

too

free

their lawful

rights.He supposedthis was what was the matter with Tryused


the littledownstairs parlorwas
Evidently
phenaJane now.
by her as a harbor of refugefrom Dan, but now that Sapphira
often keptthere,too, matters
was
began to look serious. Words
of littleuse, he knew, tillhe had squared up the thing
were
in his mind.
he wanted to tackle a smoky chimney he
When
keptquietover it and turned it over and over in his brain and
never
got rested tillhe had cured it. A good plan,Dan had
he fell asleepand when
found,was to think over a difficulty
as
he awoke he often had the whole concern
clear as crystal
as
in his mind.
lemma,
He was
determined to find a remedy in this dithough he had only the generalline of conduct of his
mother and Mary to go on.
Dan had rarelyheard men
talk
"

about

their

saved him from


His trade

His

women.

the

more

the littlehe had heard

Jan

placewith

his

of

manner

and

should like

to

less apart from

or

from

his

mates

Peters told him

once

he informed

use,

the

sort

rest

of

They

election,
theywere
got mixed

women

theywould

take them

the deuce would


Dan's

added, "
to

them

have

cut

fellows,so that

were

then where

would

be

more

Once

well have

as

would
"

the

thingsbe,
"

tom-fuzzled

well

no

enough

hot and strong,

to

he

than
pass

as
theywere
eral
genthan betting
more
on
horses; but
exciting
heaven helpthe nation, for
up in politics
like their babies,and then what
seriously,

in

of the country, he should like to know?


gulped down his third glass of beer at the bare

mate

thoughtof

he knew.

Women

they might

nonsense

the time with and when

if

his

men

and wrongs.
Dan, with rights

of it and

ask?

the

had

nature

merelyhelpedto confuse
he kept his wife in her

he further declared,were
Politics,

ever.

secretive

bootsole,and his brats,too.

they begin that


vote

and

vulgarjokesand gibesof

kepthim

his brain.

reserved

"

such

become

"

catastrophe. Look out, old chap,"he had


I saw
your missis last Wednesday afternoon listening
Before you know
where you are
she'll
suffragettes.
her hair short and be cookingyour dinner with an

ivorybutton

on

when
varmints,

her chest with


once

'

Votes for

'

women

on

it. Them

given an inch,will jollywell


they're

take

THE

S6
the

whole

about

They

country.

retorted Dan's
Dan

meaningly.

mate

nest," his mother

or

give the show

in

big fix. Home


be

if there

mind

"kill

to

or

clear to

course,

was

not

knew.

One

poison could

militant tacticsDan

Peaceable

man

as

he

flue. He

choke

Dan

was

with

downdraught
be

realized he would

with this

exactlyhow

than back

worse

he had made

up his

to

poisonout of the system


Tryphena Jane was determined

another

If

going to be behind in that show.

not

that in

he knew

was,

that

there

so

cleared the air.

lightednewspaper

chimneysand
If it

"

lies
in fami-

only noise,

was

sometimes

cleared

pondered over the whole matter and made


he fell asleep.
as
straightenit out

tryingto
He

cope

chase

was

it eased the chest like

dirtybird

proceed,in either
him yet. Like cured like,at times,he

flare-upsometimes

not

his trade.

doctor knew

remedy.

but

";

cure

his affairswith

over

As he walked home

house.

own

was

taught him,

sit and

to

if he could

man

in his

smoke

fool

conceivable

was

less than

was

than

worse

It

neighbors
relations. He knew, however, he was
A sweep
not home
at all,as it was.

to

away

had

talk

likelihood that he would

would

"

listened and said little.

had

soiled its own

on

that's about all that is

Kickingbe a beastly,
measlytrade,"retorted Dan.
be a darned sightuglier
Being governed by women
one,"

"

if

and

kick them

to

with them."

the matter

no

good husbands

want

bit and look well after them

"

FORUM

pointof

"

had

curious dream

and

lovelygarden

that

night. He
quitenatural she

it seemed

saw

in

Mary

should

be

there

Dan
could
primroses and violets so much.
It made
suffer the delicate scent of a primrose now7.
fool enough to want
to throw
up the struggleand follow
she loved

because

"

never

him

Mary.
them

"

In his dream
to

came

said

him

the
as

"

mother's-milk

scent

stepped forward

Mary

"

of thousands

smiling. All

of
she

was:

"Well, Dan."
He
"

was

justanswered:

Well, my
dead

wanted

to

or

dear," and

where

know

so

she had

never

gone

badlywhen

he

thought of asking her if she


to
was

nor

about all the


awake.

She

thingshe

glidedup

to

THE

58

FORUM

He
pieceof sackcloth and tied the bundle with string..
a

littlewooden

box which he drew

and put in the tools.


the other

to

over

He

place
cupboard by the fire-

left the box

and

open

crossed

of the

where he generally
sat.
fireplace
Mary's photographfrom the wall. She was in
corner

He

took down

her

wedding dress

with

an

"

in his left side.

wreath

orange

of flowers in her hands.

bunch

from

unlocked

her head

on

and

pain got hold of Dan

queer

"

Sakes,Mary," he whispered, Dan

be most

in."

gone

The

of

not
was
analysis
developedin Dan, but just
then he wondered
why Mary had alwaysbrought him rest and
he
Tryphena Jane nothingbut turmoil. From the firstmoment
like a cradle to babies,"
most
saw
Mary she had been to him

power

"

he told her

The

once.

"

than he could bear.

more

she had

said

to

once

thought of her justthen

mere

him

almost

was

hope I'llnever

and

hurt you, dearest,"


laughed and kissed her

he had

nothing could hurt him so long as he could go to


tell her everything.Dan, however, had not reckoned

for he knew
her

and

"

with that silent


felt rested

big tussle

he doubted

chapelbroughthim

nearer

seeingsooty chimneys clean

days and

most

He

if

"

else and
a

in

organ

death.

enemy,

since she died and

once

again. The

"

unbeknowns

as

had

he should

ever

it than thing
anyLife
was
gold."
to

times almost unbearable.

at

never

Dan's

wider open than usual as he put Mary's photographin


the littlewooden
box.
He locked it carefully
and put the key
were

eyes

on

his watchchain

her hair in it. As


She had

where

he had

he turned he

come
evidently

in her best outdoor

dressed

given him with

locket she had

saw

from

Tryphena Jane

in the doorway.

their bedroom, for she

clothes.

did

Dan

was

speak, but

not

Tryphena Jane did.


"

You're

said.
a

"

You

remarkable

say."

She

nice

resemble
sort

of

sort
a

are, Dan

chap,you

log of wood

of husband

for

more
a

than

laughed jeeringly. You can't even


to

get locks and

shoulders and looked her full in the

man.

You're

of

woman

"

keys to do
worm
pitiful
you be, and nothingmore
Dan's eyes were
very brightand
but have

Trenowden," she
I must
spirit,
defend yourself,

it for you.
less."
nor

worm,

squaredhis broad
face Tryphena Jane thought
as

he

TRYPHENA
what

fellow
splendid

he

that she could show him


"

Defiance

and

11

"

was

59

if onlyhe would

off amongst

her

defence be my

not

slowly.
Teasy, sure
littlelaugh.

REVOLT

JANE'S

buck up

bit

so

companions.
at

way

times,"said Dan

enough," cried Tryphena Jane with

jerky

Worse," said Dan

sternly.
"Oh I really,"
cried Tryphena Jane nervously,looking
towards the parrot as if for support. For once Sapphiraseemed
unequalto the occasion. Probablythe sound of the hammer
stillin her ears.
She neither moved
was
nor
spoke,but her
anxious and her head

eyes

were

had

spoken she

much

very

on

If she

side.

one

would

probablyhave declared that Dan was


clean daft
and Tryphena Jane moist with rage and terror."
been done to Sapphira's
"What's
cage?" demanded
phena
TryJane in a loud voice,in order to hide her own misgivings.
did to theirselves,
Same
I reckon,"
as
your suffragettes
said Dan severely. It's certain sure nobody can move
it without
considerable pains."
You be mazed," said Tryphena Jane lookinghard at Dan.
said Dan.
I'm getting
Very likely,"
pretty sure that is
for
to get through with before I'm qualified
so, but I've more
an
asylum. I've onlynow begun."
Good
I shall tell
gracious,"
gasped Tryphena Jane.
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

mother."
"

If you can get to her," said Dan.


Dan Trenowden," cried Tryphena

"

her
"

voice seemed

own

You

be

justlike

calls theirselves

thoughtyou

was

far

off,for she

all the miserable


and

men

lives

but I
different,

of creation all you men


Do you hear?
decent woman.
"

cowards

only to

see

was

be.

curs

"

Jane,and the
was
growing so
and

browbeat

fitto

of

terrified.
bullies

as

women.

mistaken.
Not

sound

Low,

grel
mon-

nigh no

come

"

"

ney
A chimslowly. I'm not a deaf mute.
in flames be a joke in comparisonwith you."
Tryphena Jane would have liked to scream, but she thought
Hear?

said Dan

better of it. There


He

was

look about

might throttle her, with

Dan

she had

that

sort

of

not

"

grinon

passed."
com-

his

THE

60

There

face.

was

pause.

FORUM

Tryphena Jane

nothing if

was

not

militant.
"

almost pausing between


Trenowden," she said slowly,
each word,
you'rea tyrant, a beast,a fool. If Mary had
lived she'd have grown
to hate,hate,hate you."
Dan

"

Tryphena Jane paused. Dan's mouth had tightenedand his


face was
deathlywhite.
if you please,"said Dan,
Leave Mary's name
out of this,
unless you wants
There's some
to kill you.
me
thingsbeyond
bearingwithout chloroform,I'm thinking."
Coward
1 retorted Tryphena Jane.
Names
said Dan calmly. A coward would
cost nothing,"
to stay and
run
away from your naggingand worse, but I means
conquer."
Conquer me," sniffed Tryphena Jane.
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

The

chair and
"

as

It's

said Dan
situation,"

whole
crossed

one

storm

in

rapidlyfolded

she

he

as

sat

down

in his

the other.
leg over
teacup,"said Tryphena Jane haughtily
her umbrella

and

bit off

stray thread

the button.

near
"

It's

said Dan,
nevertheless,"

storm,

wreckage. You

and

had best

me

to

come

"

and

clear

mean

may

understanding.

of us two be
as any other,and one
Marriage is a contract, same
tryingto break it."
Marriage be slaveryfor women," said Tryphena Jane.
A jaildoor has no worse
prospects."
That's bunkum," said Dan.
Marriage ain't no worse
"

"

"

"

for

than

woman

It'sheaven

man.

or

hell,seems

to

for

me,

either one."
"

I suppose
you
"
that
haughtily,
your

mean

to

say," retorted

firstmarriage was

one

Tryphena Jane

of those

states

and

second is the other."

your
"

"

you'vea mind to read it,"said Dan.


You're a jewel,you are," said Tryphena Jane.
As

should

like

reckoned
"

to

know,

now

we're

devil and this house

It's what

youVe

the foundations

talking,what

I've done

And
to

be

hell?"

left undone,"

of this home.

"

Do

said

Dan,

"

is ping
sapthink
I
married
you
you
as

TRYPHENA

REVOLT

JANE'S

61

off from me
yourself
by nightand by day? Not likely.
I beginsa job I goes throughwith it and no mincin' nor
When
skimpin'.I'm goingthroughwith this,as you will see. You and
for a week."
have not had a square meal together
me
I've cooked your meals anyway," said Tryphena Jane.
That's onlyhalf the bargain,"
said Dan.
I'm independent
of you,"said Tryphena Jane, and there's

to

shut

"

11

"

"

no

call for you

to

support

me

have

Aunt

now

left

me

bit of

money."
"

Stuff and nonsense," said


We're

remain.

to

got

one

talks

to

have

not

it

Has

about

you

whether

now

"

Dan,

what's done

likes it or

we

rightsand property

looked in their

and

votes

we've

one

as

women

and

done.
un-

the

rest

they had they'dknow


If you really
teach them.
what even
means
a fool like me
can
to get what you want
you'dbest make what you'vegot lead to it,
it the
The less row
same
as I be doingat the present time.
over
unless the soldiers
better. The drum and fife don't lead to victory
under discipline."
are
Lor!
cried Tryphena Jane.
You're lost to the world.
A lawyer or parson
would more
become
your tongue than a
sweep."
Them
women," said Dan irritably,be screaming for
moonshine, I tell you, when it'ssunshine they do want."
Tryphena Jane smiled.
That's saucy enough,anyway,"she said, whatever be its
meaning. So you reckon votes be moonshine?
In comparison,
Votes be littleworth to
yes,"said Dan.
I reckon.
Not much more
than jaw and bluster. They
men,
reckon up what they're
mostlydon't even
votingfor. I'm not
"

hearts?

and

not

that them

struck you

ever

can't be

own

If

"

"

11

"

"

"

"

"

one

"

would

as

debar

I'd let her have


goose

should be served

from

woman

the

vote

same

as

beer

if she
the

nor

tobacco
it

wants

just'cause

it'smoonshine

gander,but

wise
like-

and

the
all

the same."
"

And

what

be

sunshine,if I

may

ask?

"

queriedTryphena

Jane.
Dan

did

not

and the angry

answer,

lightwent

but all the clouds


out

of his eyes.

passedfrom
Dan

knew

his face
and

Try-

THE

62

phena Jane knew,

take

too, what

out

of the door.

As

you

"

good

of

approve

make

to

care

FORUM
in his mind.

was

I'll justpin on

votes

example of

an

She

you

grily
an-

badge

my

and

meeting,"she

the

at

went

the foot of the stairs.

called from

in his face made

strode into the passage and the anger


The
smile had gone
Tryphena Jane pause.
Dan

it

quicklyas

as

came.
"

You'll do

"

Jane'sarm.
the

hold of Trything,"said Dan, catching


phena
You've got to obey that,mind, or itwill be

such

no

sake,not mine,

It's for your

for you.

worse

makes

as

me

it."

say

Tryphena Jane trembling with

cried

"My!"

shall suffer for this.

murderer!

than

worse

if I wasn't afraid to soil my

big uglyface

your

You

"you

rage,

I'd smack

hands.

shall

You

into the newspapers


his doors against
as barricaded
as
a man
his wife and bound fast to the table the cage of his parrot 'cause
go

she

was

good

female.

that she flew down

front door

to

which

Dan

leaned

arms.

He

the passage
behind her.

she

banged
againstthe wall

meditated

for

and
shivering

was

"How

shall I

fire,
put

on

down

did

not

took

go

get

ever

and

went

moments

and then

the bottle of tonic from

through?" he muttered.
my

constitution."

He

his hat and coat, locked the front door


the

the

to

Tryphena Jane was


meeting. She was much

street.

long walk toward

be

men

says

out

of the

and folded
went

back

the shelf.

his teeth chattered.

always disagreedwith
went

as

in the littlepassage

few

the kitchen and took down

He

go

reading for them

women."

to

With

his

nice

her mother's

not
too

canes
"Hurri-

poked

the

and
carefully
in sight. She
agitated.She

house, but she did

not

in.
'

Once

own

up

he don't

care,

might as

well

give it all

up," she said to herself. She slowlywalked back toward home.


Dan's vigorousprotest had told upon her. When
she had married
him
wooed

she knew

him

and

herself

won

washingquickerthan

him
her

as

littleas

she knew

Dan.

She had

that she did a day's


spirit
neighbors.Livingwith Dan, however,
in the

same

REVOLT

JANE'S

TRYPHENA

63

trolled
opened her eyes. Dan's peacefulways and his self-conmanner
graduallyimpressedher with a strange wonder.
He was
as
He was
were.
not a bit what she had imaginedmen
and even
at cooking,scrubbing
washing.
good as any woman
he would not let her rub the clothes,
When
only soap them in,"
him or to like him
she did not at firstknow whether to despise
he told her, and
for it.
Washing be as hard as gardening,"
It'sonlyan idea that it'sher job at all." He
not fitfor women.
and patience
about everythingwith a quietpersistence
went
which irritated her into a longingto hurt him and badly,too.

had

"

"

"

fact that she seemed

The

her.

He

to

have

littleeffect upon

so

him

dened
mad-

calm, strong and apparentlyunmoved

was

by

in
Tryphena Jane knew that Dan's whole life was
living.The
Mary and in Mary dead as much as if she were
littlethingbrought
only time he reallysmiled was when some
herself needlessly,
Tryphena
By way of torturing
up her name.
Jane would often touch somethingbelongingto Mary and then
watch Dan's sad,tired face with angry glee.
anyone.

she walked

As
had the

common

back

to

let her confess it to

Dan, that she

if she chanced

loved Dan.

His

and

she would

turn

toward

subdued
as

much

knelt
what

to
was

her.

when

said,with

becoming for

meet

him.
"

she

power

as

Dan

could

him

make
to

not

got hold of her,"she owned,

grow

she bullied him

forgetMary
had

fascinated and

happy, but
wings. She

most,

and

but Dan

felt it

was

could have
never

saw

heart,onlyheard her sharpspeechesand hard


dress

littlelike

Mary. She had even


a bit after Mary's style
to pleaseDan, but all he
his brow wrinkled up, was
that he thoughtit more
a

the forehead

staid
as

to

of her years
his mother
did hers.
woman

justthen Tryphena Jane would


in her. She thoughtof these thingsas
near

"

and
miserablyjealous,
Long ago, when Mary
and simplythoughtnothing
Now
she hated Mary and

face that afternoon

longed to

had tried

done her hair

on

She

in her

laugh. She
had

His

beyond her
him

to

deep nature had


give anythingif

her.

flare up

was

of a dead woman.
jealous,
moreover,
alive Tryphena Jane liked her
was
of Dan

"

realize,
though red-hot irons would

to

sense

after this

the house

have

to

If

do

her hair low

liked

to

been

had

Mary

run

she neared home.

pin

When

THE

64
she got

the house

to

FORUM

she

the front door

saw

was

She

open.

quicklyand called for Dan, meaning to tell him that


perhapsshe had been a bit cross but if he liked she would give
in

went

up
a

with him.
It would be
at home
meetings and stay more
but Tryphena Jane was
reallywretched for
great concession,
the

fear she had

and found,

made

Dan

miserable.

only Dan,

not

She

into the kitchen

went

but Bill Thomas.

asleepin his chair and Bill Thomas

to

be

the kettle

make

tryingto

was

seemed

Dan

boil.
"

What's

up?" asked Tryphena Jane, whose knees were


knockingtogether and her sightwas so blurred that she saw
What's wrong
with Dan? "
through a mist.
everything
"

"

blessed life,Mrs.

My
kindly,
"

Dan

best get him


u

Lor!

and

he

ever

We'd

be.

can

Tryphena Jane harshly. "Whose

To

hide her
"

slightshake.

as

said

bed."

to

"

unlike hisself

as

"said

this,then?
him

be

Bill Thomas

Trenowden!"

she

terror

went

to

up

Dan," she called.

and gave

Dan

opened his

Dan

be

work

eyes

"

brokenly, Don't be frightened,dear. It's nothing


much."
Thank
goodness,
Tryphena Jane's mouth hardened.
she thought,Bill Thomas
could not guess he was
speakingto a
said

dead

She knew

woman.

turned

"

ever

At

did you find him?"


Lamb
and Flag,'"

'

the
Dan

seen

it down

advice
and
us.

yet

nor

He

Jim

had

in

was

job

best call in

at

on

on

heard,

opened it

as

and

to

fit.

hand

he

Jim
and

there.

and

have

us

anybody could
of

none

want

to

we

give

of it. Men

laid bare

was
eternity

have

before

dropped
the floor. He breathed that heavy we
Curnow
had

the

to

when

open

and
go,

send him

got him

me

but

he

front

doctor

here, but
he had

I told him

along. Neither of

he is,I believe."

Here

spoke, at the

she

for

mouths

our

the doctor's and

liked the look of Dan


was

need

no

of

stiffglasshot, sure

If

parson.

of time and

most

sudden, like a stone,

took

None

mistakes because of the

with
listening

was

thought he

be

never

make

to

and

women

We

there'd

"

he said.

afore.
spirits

take

enough, and then he talked like a


took

enough. She

in his voice well

note

Bill Thomas.

sharplyto

"Where

that

door.

walked

us

knock

Tryphena Jane
into the
silently

THE

66
so
boiling,

had

she would
felt

never

see

"

as
mechanically

Don't

for

that.

to

humble

so

ill,
too, she wondered?
and said

FORUM
It might

steadyher

in her life. Was

she

She took the milk up


she handed it to him:

bit. She

going

Dan's

to

be

to

bedside

the bedclothes. "

it on
goodness'sake spill

Dan

did not hear. He was


evidently
perhapsasleep.
Tryphena Jane smoothed out the clean apron she had just
She hung a towel on the
put on and began to tidythe room.
and put a collar of Dan's on the towel rail. She
looking-glass
"flustered."
was
certainly
considerably
I wish Mary was
I'm no
here,"she muttered to herself.
"

"

all."

at

use

Dan's
looked
much

brain

that she

"

rebel
"

at

allbut

as

nonsensical

soft

as

flurried her

so

lame

cried

you

"

Tryphena Jane.
Dan

whatever

now,

Tryphena Jane

His heart

You

I dreamt

wasn't

What

pancake."

Dan!"

drunk

not

like his mother

"

eyes,

fancy."

eyes told him

Cheer

"

dream," said Dan.

soft her voice sounded.

surelywas

"

Sakes, a-mercy,

deal.

This

almost off the bed in


jerked the bed quilt

justhad

How

smiled.

and

opened his

He

cry.

puttingit straight.

at

I've

caught the

Tryphena Jane

at

attempt

have

must

He

his eyes.
been before.

rubbed

he had

His

cryingand cryinga good

had been

softened,for that,at

any

rate,

was

bit

more

and

Mary.
up," he said kindly.
first,"said Tryphena Jane brokenly.

right. It's you

that be ill and

I can't think what

"

I'm

have

all

taken

you."
"

This milk be
"

"

stolidly. I did it on purpose, too.


after that whiskeymuck."
do such an
it you came
to
unlikely

I got drunk," said Dan

Whose

real

fault

savor
was

"

thing? asked Tryphena Jane, with


tioningly.
"

Mine," said Dan.

"

No

man

her eyes screwed

gets

up

ques-

signed order for

that."
"

It

of it."

"

was

my

fault,"said Tryphena Jane sharply; every bit

TRYPHENA

lasted on

when

bit,even

he

might as

well go

Dan, speak,"said Tryphena Jane.


I

"

Oh, dear,dear!

dull

coffinif I

Thee'rt

pass,"he

Trenowden

same

Dan

his wife.

at

worth
scarcely

slowly.
enough," retorted Tryphena

"

the

on

in

of

stream
"

another

mind to, but you


opened his eyes

hot milk had

pillows.The

sweat,"which Tryphena

qualm."

Trenowden," she cried, look


Mary, yes, I will,and let you

closed them
11

look

"

as

you'vea

said

layback

good,but he was
Jane mistook for

Dan

nag

promisenot to
slowlyand looked
againquickly.

might as well out with it as


You'm
too," said Tryphena Jane.

I'lltend you
nag all day if

you here.

and

die."

must

Tryphena Jane.

at

let it choke

tillI

me

"

and it'sbecause I know


than

me

Dan

sat

see?

manner.

done him

"

Can't you

fitto live and

not

great fool, sure

in her old

Jane,almost
Dan

"

Tryphena Jane.

fool,you know,
to

was

cried

It

Dan.

eyes, but he did not

opened his

I'm

easy,"said
"

dreaming.

on

"

know?

you

Dan

"

die

to

meant

67

woke, he found.

"

"

He

REVOLT

"

Don't

He

closed his eyes.

Dan

JANE'S

it and

I know

Mary

and that you don't know


bullyand worry you so."

slowlyup

and stared

at

among

man

it

bit

knew
as

Dan,

men,

it

ter
bet-

even

made

have

dies,

me

Tryphena Jane.

"

No, lie back and rest same


as the doctor said and hear me
said Tryphena Jane. " I've justseen
all through
to the finish,"
of Mary, but let'shope it's
it,I tellyou. I've been crazy jealous
After

over.

all

all,Mary isn't me

good, surely,
no
and
"

Good

more

than

and

I'm

not

I'm all bad.

she.

She wasn't

Even

you

be betwixt

between."
Lord!

"

cried Dan.

"

I'm

patchwork of

faults."

Tryphena Jane smiled.


You was
and masterful over
that door and
rare
certainly
the parrot and jawed at me
fitto deafen me!
Dan's uplifted
hands stoppedthe breathless flow of talk.
six
It was
By your leave,Tryphena Jane,"cried Dan.
of one
and half a dozen of the other and that's allowingfull
11

"

"

"

68

THE
the female.

to

grace

whiskeythat
11

It

the din got

FORUM
tillafter that strong

was

not

out

of my

glassof

ears."

Dan," said Tryphena Jane,

"

it shall

happen

never

no

more."
Dan
and made
"

out

put

his hands

her sit on

Look,"

death itself.
has

thingsas
tell you

he

Tryphena Jane toward

and drew

the bed.
"

said

gently,
Sparringbe one.

there be
Let's

fruit in it. I know

no

him

thingsworse

some

drop it.

nor

of them

It's one

than I did and I

more

want

the fault have been

mostlymine."
No, not at all,"sobbed Tryphena Jane.
Yes, it have," said Dan emphatically. I see it as clear as
I've been a selfish fool and wrapped up in my
daylightnow.

to

"

"

"

grief. Once

own

Mary's name,

we

was

I'd

no

below the belt and


in beads

married, seeingas

ach
stom-

it. It's hitting

rightto have mentioned

sufferable at all." The

not

couldn't

you

stood
perspiration

his face.

on

Tryphena Jane took her handkerchief from her pocketand


wiped her husband's hot forehead.
Thank
It is quitecomfortable to have
you," said Dan.
fault
tending of me like this 'ere and it's mostlymy own
you
it didn't happen sooner.
as
Justhear what I've got to say and
then we'll lock it all away
with Mary's photo and her little
knick-knacks in the box in the long cupboard."
Mary's photo ! gasped Tryphena Jane.
Yes, my dear," said Dan slowly. I locked.itout of sight
"

"

"

"

"

once

won't

"

I knew

I know

the dead

there.

I'm afraid

up

want

to

make
to

you

it up
know

speaking,I buried

and

be moulded

out

for all we

you'vehad

might confuse

know
lot

livingwoman

bear and

to

now.

you.

Dan

Trenowden
down

of what

went

as

upon

then

was,

his broad

through me

when

of
,

too."

chest.
she

now

It's all clear in my brain pan


that when I buried Mary, in the manner

to

brought his clenched hand


Dan

torturingof

The

now.

bringback

them

I want

what

"

He
This

passed

passingmade of me has to be reckoned with now


and not Mary's Dan at all. You've no cause
to be jealousof
him nor
else has
known
no
one
Mary's Dan, for you'venever

and what

known

her

him

since she died.

What

was,

while she

was

alive,I

TRYPHENA
don't
no

their

giveup

don't

69

going to dwell on that


standing
had started matrimony on that underbeen no sparksnor yet no puffs.Coffins

If you and me
there would have

more.

I'm

myselfand

know
rightly

REVOLT

JANE'S
not

dead, so there's

need

no

to

bother

over

Justdeal with his double what's here."


Tryphena Jane was cryingsoftlyinto her apron.
My Dan be part and parcelof Mary's Dan," she said
gently. If I could see clearer,perhaps I'd reckon up that
Mary have moulded you into a better shape for her as was
been your wife first." Trymeant
to follow than if she'd not
phena
of
Jane'shead drooped and she made a knot in the corner
Her face
her apron and then untied it before lookingat Dan.
she had the soft
had changed and Dan caughthimself thinking
look of Mary in her eyes. She startled him very much by saying,
she pattedhis hand as it lay outside the bedclothes:
as
she
I'm beginning
love Mary. For all we know
to really
clear." Dan's smile was
at this minute to see
us
may be helping
his firstreplyand the words came
later.
Trenowden

Dan

as

was.

"

"

"

"

I'm certain

of

sure

that,"he said.

smiled

Tryphena Jane

through her

tears

she looked

as

at

Dan.
"

It's

blessed

"

Mary," she said;


bringin

Mary

to

I'm

thing as

for much

the

as

you

feelingall different about


what you do say you'll
mean

day you die and

no

but

woman

fool would

wish it otherwise."
asked

"Why?"

Dan.

"

I'm thinking,
'Cause she'd lose you altogether,
if your
full. I'm learning
to
speechwas checked when your heart was

know
me

she

will be

same

as

if

we

was

sisters and

another

catchingone

'cause after all I've the

pullof

reckon up a woman
he do worshipher."

like her

can

"

"

and

Kiss

me,

my

There 1 I told

crying in

notion."

you,
own

dear," said Dan

you!
"

one.

up

"

cried

You're

when

before

long you
talkingof

we're

being a
kind,no

woman.

matter

softly.

"

I be

No

how

and
she
man

much

stored."
quitere-

Tryphena Jane, stilllaughing


better already at the mere

THE

70

Dan.

said

Yes,"

FORUM

all

know

the

about

central

draught

now."
"

Well,
in

always
about

head.

your

that

bothering

central

Dan
in

draught

Thomas

doctor

said
here.

was

"

Jane.
as

Is

Your

you

worrying

was

troublesome

be

work

ney
chim-

"

you?
said

Tryphena

Bill

the

when

"No!"

said

never,"

"I

solemnly,

woman,

bent

was

reckon.

the

finding

on

Chimneys

be

by

easy

comparison."

Tryphena
"

such

Oh,

Dan's
"

in

she

Dan,"
could

thing

the

mother

uncontrollably.
"

said,

what

funny

chap

if

As

are.

you

be."
wide

were

eyes

It's

laughed

Jane

chief

and

of

make-up

he

as

open

her,

said

slowly:
It

anyway.

the

was

same

"

and
"

"

Mary,"

"

Yes,"

said

in you

of

most
"

11

Whatever

Let's

give

"

equally

it

in

I'm

but

"

it be?

ferreted

away

wise

the

it
the

to

things that

some

"You're
lost

Jane.
thinking,

by

all

it's

the

signs,

still

laughing.

three."

the

observation

my

"

Dan,

can

not

There's

in

Tryphena

asked

Tryphena

Jane

hear."

"I've
to

said

saws

of
a

right,"

telling."

out

first
men

things,

woman

said

do

with
woman

never

and
never

Tryphena

bitter
as

asks

tells
that's
tell

Jane;

and

pains

me,"
the

to

one.

to

no
"

best

for

misgivings
said
of

reckon

Dan.
women,

there's

man."
some

things

be

POEMS

IRISH

Stringer

Arthur

THE

WEARING

OF

E'RE

wearin'

W
The
The

green

The

green

The
The

that

green

waves,

Home,

Ireland's

av

graves!

TROPICS

THE

IN

(O

wathers,

all the hills av

av

the green

And

ache!

Rathlin

av

green

bogland,

olden

Aran

av

Ireland knows

lough and lake,


takes us back again

av

bringsthe

And

and

whin

green

and

Home

That

av

boys,

English rose;
wearin' av the deeper green

We're

green

the green,

av

their

Beneath

The

GREEN

THE

youth again,
halfa world from this!
Half a world from palm-three,
where the coolin* rain
to be in Ireland,
Falls across
the green hillslike a woman's
kiss/)
to

be in Ireland wid

down

P and
Here

Where

Here

the

as

Parade,

the ould

the

Tropic surf
music

the Band-stand

gintrygo

Shlow beneath
Round

to

turf

the withered

I pace

Listenin'

me

and

come,

milk-white

moon

yonder kettle-drum

Throbbin'

out

itshome-sick

toon.
71

brayed.

THE

72

Round

FORUM

they drift and pass,


Thro' the palms theywheel and roam,
Where the RegimintalBrass
Plays its wishtful songs av Home.
and

round

as the dead,
stately
from lightto light,
On they move
in glarin'
red,
Soljer-men
Ladies in their ghostlywhite.

Shlow

and

I've watched

Long

theypass

as

the sea-wall shmells

Where
And

thim

av

musk

the

palm-frondsgreen as brass
Whisper thro' the Thrade-sweptdusk.

Where

and go

come

swayin'lantherns shine,
white electhrics glow,

the

Where

the

the Band-stand

Where

Where

cornets

whine;

pulseand blare
and stately
toon,

the trombones

Wid

some

shlow

the sea-wind shtirs the air

Where
And

the coral beaches

I've watched

Long

Till the
Ghosts

av

croon.

thim here

alone,

palms and music seem


known,
thingsI've scarcely
that thrail

Ghosts
And

thim

I've marked

Long

across

dream;

shleepyCross,
its shleepydome,

the soft and

Shinin' from
Seems

tellthim

to

Half

av

world

away

But I've left no

Home

And

there's

Naught

av

their loss,
from

Home.

behind,

naughtbeyontthe Sea,

kith

nor

wimmen-kind

Waitin' for the likes

av

me.

THE

74

Died

"

and

With

the coolin'

year

lough-windscreep

be in Ireland where

to

to

gerrltheyburied deep
the hawthorn's growin' near

And

this many

went

Where

(O

FORUM

the home-like

hear

to

the

see

But I'llniver
Niver

lough lies!
pigeon'swing!

that blue

slap av

the mornin'

bog-landsgreet

be in

to

skies!

waitin' for the Spring!


Ireland,
be seein' my

more

ould

Home,

hear the ould voice callin'thro' the

rain,
Niver see the Headlands
wid their foam,
flashin'
And niver win me lost youth back to me
again!)

OLD

THE
HROUGH

rp

The
Where
The
And

him

He'll
In

lightav the

black-clothed
feared

stept.

mourners

the

at

laysweet

sun

sight

sthone,

shleepwidout fear this night


!
the churchyardwid his own

och, at the sightav his hearse,

For

Death

and

minute

our

Wid
Then

all lay cold

we

gloom and the clutch and the

Av

For

breath,how

In the

the

His

we

ould backs bowed

weight av his graveyardclay:


wakened

faix,now,
Deep under

Yet

I'm

and

went

wonderin'

the loam

and

throubled,in turn, for


When

curse

mould!
drippin'

the feelin'passedoff like

And

Is

the

the crowded

av

sable crept;

av
thrappin's

coffinand hearse and

Av

But

the noise

who'd

"

MEN

he's toldt

av

our

cloud
way.

if Death
the lorn

breath,

child bein' born?

sthreet

POEMS

IRISH

DANCING

THE

IS

year

and
the

Where
'Tis many

bread

But thinkin'

Home, how

av

Wid
And

jiglike a

The

Not

went
pipin'

thro' the ould

Ragged

MacGee

were

tumble

tree

his heels

thinned,

was

and moss-grown
like the grass in the wind!

danced

worth

at

stone-heaps,

av

skim-milk wid wather

we

av

street

"

the colleens thrailed round

the thatch it was

But

street

Roth!

o' Lake

wave

all jiggedlike the leaves

walls

The
And

his

how
faith,

And

in the

danced

heart's blood

me

Home, och,where down

Av

town

for the breakin';

be had

to

the ould

to

moilin' and frettin'and froth I

Here's

Must

day back to Kindrec


gerrlshad no shoes to their feet 1
a

mile

DAYS

the childer' wanst

Where
Here's

75

broken

"

the

village,
But no wan
to fret
was
sthoppin'
And I'll wager
they're
goin'like a tree-top to-day,
Faith,dancirC and starvin* there yet!
a

traneen

was

"

THE
AN

touch

Would
Wan

mad

Would
When
The
The

lipto lipit seemed

av

and end

ease

kiss

at

desire;

the most, I

quenchthe

wan,

end, faith,I
but

saw

more
fifty

was

dreamed,

ache and fire.

she gave wan


kiss,
wishtful-eyed
touch I'd hungered for,

thrue

Not

END

this :

FORUM

THE

76

heart

And

kisses,

Soft
still

But

some

off

Stood

while

And
We

groped
havin'

And
And

Sorrow

she

heart

to

we

by

end

that

throubled

me

away!

world

and

yearned

that,

free,

day;

day

to

thim

gave

gift

wan

the
shut

end
the

ere

we

more;

was

door!

earned,

learned

OF

USE

RIGHT

THE

Temple

CRITIC,

respect, said
all wrong.

to

than

more

tesy
cour-

after

me

"

"

You

happinessin work, whereas


in which
the spirit
on
suggestedthat

Work, the Creator.

the contrary is the fact.


is done.

work

itselfwill be

their hearts into itthe work


I

have

say,
readingmy previousesLeisure* : Very fine;but your premises
that most
assume
people do not find their

Wanted
are

Scott

opinionI

for whose

LEISURE

I would

write

essay,

it was

and

because

call it
I

was

might be a joy,
written.
that I was
moved
to write as I had
My complaintis
for Leisure was
that peoplehave lost heart,and my demand
by
of givingthem hope to take heart again. For there is no
way
hope for them in work as it is done to-day,and they cannot take
desirous

to

put hearts into

people will put

joy."

another

repliedthat
people so that

Then

If

It all depends

heart in it because

heart be also."
seekers

nowhere, because there is

it ends
"

of the self in it.


I aim

Where
to

by showing them

work

urge

that

thy treasure
and

men

they can

women

no

ing
enrich-

is,there shall thy


to

be

treasure-

for
be treasure-finders;

along which they will


ing
walk through life with courage
and find their happinessin findof realizing
themselves.
Let us but believe in the possibility
How
will animate us, and lead us on.
hope,and the rightspirit
is the question.
to enrich the self,
It is a very old question.In various forms it has exercised
the profoundestminds of men;
for its rightanswer
means
piness.
hapthis is the

one

way,

it

so

to

seems

me,

Isaiah and Christ; Plato and St. Paul; Marcus


and Thomas

modern

wise

Kempis;

Dante

St.

Francis,and the host of

stoy
Spinoza to Kant and Tolset themselves this question.They approached it from the
pointof view of the Idealist,and they gave happinesson the
condition of the re-birth of the spirit
of man.
So convincing
was
their reasoning,
and so moving was
their appeal,that they did
and women
and men
actuallyawaken and change that spirit;
men

Bruno

and

Aurelius

from

In the

and

May
77

Forum.

78

THE

began

live in

to

Brotherhood

new

FORUM

ways;

live the idea of the

they began

to

and could

not

of Man.

But the wise

did

men

not

foresee all that this

change of attitude would bring about. For them, their answer


the completeanswer
was
and, therefore,there was no need to
look further. Let us live but thus,theysaid,and all will be well
with us.
But life does not permit itselfto be thus systematized
and dogmatized, even
formulas of great hearts.
by the inspired
Life is an evolution;itis dynamic and not static;
and ithas to be
lived by men
and women,
not dreamed.
Every change becomes,
in actual living,
a
step forward to another change, ~rsd while
is the

man

maker

of

product of his environment


environments.

new

environments

new

again make
change is a

more

the

Indeed, every idea realized makes

which, in

turn, call for

environments, and

new

he is much

so

on,

ideas,which

newer

Every
continually.

and every fresh creation brings new


creation,
these wise men
Yet were
new
problems,new desires,
aspirations.
indeed wise in approaching
the problem as theydid; for theyrevealed
fresh

the eternal character of the solution. New

problems,but

bring new

conditions may

the character of all solutions is of the

of the spirit the spirit


that flowers into an Ideal. The
quality
eration
alone leaves room
for a re-valuation of values,a re-considspirit
of the ever-evolving
manity
problems which must press on huand so long as
for solution,so long as a humanityexists,
is
and women
live togetherin social intercourse. The spirit
men
for
but never
it be imprisoned;
fluid;it may be directed,
may
to imprisonit is to attempt to prevent it floweringinto Ideals,
"

and

we

shall

of human

Under

succeed in this attempt.

never

existence it will be the

man

any

tions
condi-

with the Ideal who

His method
be born to show us the way
out.
inevitably
but that is not to say it
not be practicable
at the moment;
may
zens
It is for us, the living,
will be impossible.
working,hoping citi-

will

of the world,

it,and
at
we

so

make

and, no
first,

to

it

conditions

make

livingtruth.

doubt, fail in

deal with it at all will

helpus also to

do

our

our

help us

the Ideal;to realize


fitting

experimentwith it
but the fact that
experiments;
We

to

will

understand

best with it,and in

find ourselves in the end

growing to

its nature, and

doing our

love it.

best with it

are, and

We

ideas have
not

:are

take

we

fico for

or

have

we

no

79

We

for them.

use

idea,the idea that

mere

LEISURE

OF

people,
pridein sayingit,a practical

fitconditions

to

USE

RIGHT

THE

be embodied

cannot

Yet we
not
are
or
a working machine.
workingprinciple
acknowlmaterialists. We do confess and thankfully
tltogether
:dge that ideas have been embodied, both as machines and
is a

lations. The

nation is itselfthe

American

he idea that all

men

created

are

the trial?

make

not

is that
uspicion
nachine

we

true

"

we

aversion and

our

enough. We

Is it

decide if

we

can

intended it to

we

idea

ideals?

from

for

reason

Realists

not

are

than what

more

no

The

an

equalwith unalienable Godof happiness.Why is


pursuit

and the
to life,
rights
liberty
fiven
of and so averse
t that we
are
so
suspicious
But how
"ecause
theyare not practicable?
lo

of

outcome

expect from

do; but from

a
an

that we alter it in
at once, forgetting
everything
behe very act of realizing
it. Every Ideal must, necessarily,
knows
ome
degradedin its embodiment as a Real. The spirit
than the body can
We
make no allowance for
riore
express.
his ; and yet we go to the opposite
when we have found
extreme
deal

Practical Ideal.

l
'

expect

we

truth

"

and

"

For

then

we

become

"

validitythat

hedge

we

so

enamored

of its

with prece-

it round

and leave it no freedom for development


lent,root it in its constitution,
We
call it,that we
to the truth,as we
are
so loyal
nake an idol of it. Like the Israelites of old,we
forsake the

ivingGod

and

become

ude is so determined

ervingeven

of

idolaters.

that

we

count

conforming attinonconformitya heresy,deAnd

our

punishingcondemnation.

)f history
and the bloodshed

of revolutions.

enough,because we fail to understand


the work of realizing
Ideals,if only we

sts
o

each
1

us

The

We

the martyrs
are

not

that there is no

Reallimit

allow the Ideals

to

how.
of man,"
spirit

frozen in ice,nor

lot

Hence

says Mr.

bound

on

Lowes
wheel

Dickenson

"

finely,is

of fire;rather it moves

drawn by the team


of
magic car throughthe forest of life,
nstinct,
and will;bound to the past, yet free of the
habit,desire,
from the brute but tending
uture; proceeding
to the god." The
vise practical
will think long before he lightly
resociologist
ects any message
of this spirit,
for the time will surelycome
"n

THE

80

when

its message

will be the

truth

one

which he will be

to

pelled
com-

give heed.

to

It

FORUM

time
requires

become

exhausted

for the vital values of

even

Ideal
single

to

in

practice;but long before that time is


conditions brought about by the new
reached,the new
practice
or
a poet, a Bergson or
engendera new Ideal. A philosopher
a
Meredith, is appearingon the horizon,who is coming to ask us
to take thought again. This is justwhat is takingplaceto-day,
in these
especially
freedom
has

under which

produced a

alert

to

United

new

radiant in the

his conquest

from

this life of

of which

half

form

new

as-

of the old selfishness

freedom.
political
of
of

The

old

wealth, into

craft.
political

those very powers


the evil workings
thought Democracy had scotched. With political

the powers,

now

are

alive and

man

nature.

physicalmight has been translated into terms


phrases of legalcunningand into shibboleths
These

cal
politi-

him; the successful man

over

new

of

century and

the average

that will benefit

or
selfishness,

has sprung

Ideal
practical

have lived for


"

glory of

sertiveness,
a new

we

kind of citizen

chance

every

The

States.

it was

the powerfulconcentrate
permitthem the opportunity,
all their masterlyabilitiesof machinery and brain to
When
of power
for themselves.
the acquisition
they succeed,
either as capitalists,
corporationlawyers,or political
party
fashion as did the
bosses, they use it after much the same
equality
feudal barons.
So the old problemsof class distinction and inin a new
in living
form, and once
more
come
up once
are
no
longer equal,no longer free, and no longer
againmen
fice
does not suffreedom, evidently,
happy. The Ideal of political
for the new
conditions;it is not working well; we are ready
freedom

"

for

to

"

new

We

Ideal.

shall

never

This it will be the business of Leisure

enjoywhat

we

have

unless

we

use

to

mulate.
for-

it. The'

of Leisure.
the right
of Leisure,means,
use
therefore,
possession
To enjoyLeisure is,however, onlyone of the ways of usingit. It
is a very good way; perhaps,the best of all ways, but like all
to
good things,it offers the temptationof its abuse, especially
those who have not been accustomed to having good things.
And

nowhere

is this abuse

more

flagrantthan in this country,

THE

82

healthymind.
of to-dayis that
althoughour

One

to

there

are

sickness and

sick minds

our

why

reason

we

in the distressful state

are

few

nity,
healthyminds in the commuare
colleges
gymnasiums for athleticsand the
sports. A healthymind will compel the body to be

nurseries of
free from

FORUM

disease;for half

minds

"

that

minds made

command;

so

unable

are

sicknesses

our

to

due

are

will,and powerless

anxious and worried

and distressed

by
the fear of poverty and the fear of disgraceful
death. A healthy
mind is a sane
mind; an honest plumber and an honest sanitary
desirable to it than a famous physician.It
inspectorare more
believes in the preventionof disease rather than in its pathology.
to

It makes

for courage

and

in momentous
terprises,
enwillingness
of bearing children.
in the great enterprise
especially
It will see that the body is healthybefore it permitsit the high
adventure of foundinga home; and it will act thus accordingto
the dictates of its own
fathers and

exalted

of

high sense

unwillingmothers who

are

is the

nobility.It

ignoble

for the moral


responsible

that scatter disease and death,


sensuality
and that complicateour problemsto the pointof pessimism.No,
need have littleanxiety
about the health of our bodies if we
we
firstmake certain that our minds are healthy.
How
then are we to get healthyminds?
Well, one signof
this we
mental health and sanity
was
gettingLeisure. In getting
prepared,so to speak,the soil of the mind for the plantingof

bastards,the

of

spawn

fertileseeds.

With

Leisure the mind

recuperate itself. But

process

the emotions.
Mr.

as

of freedom

We

must

Charles

may

think with emotion

Pure

and
intuitive,
a seeing,

not

say.

emotion
a

pass, in order

must

Ferguson would

Intellect and Emotion.

is an

this soil

process,

reach its every


I call emotionalizing
the intellectand

air
life-giving

as

there is stillanother

through which

process,

has the time in which

is

to

refining
that the

particle.This
intellectualizing

tion,
and feel with discreThe

mind

functions

passionlet loose; it

constructive force.

Pure

tellect
in-

is power
let loose; it is a constructive force,but it is a
the
blind force, for it sees with the outward
eye only. When
emotions

are

rationalized,
they are

emotionalized, it is saved.
power

will thus have had

guided;when
pure

impartedto

the intellectis

enthusiasm
them

and

pure

of
the fine qualities

RIGHT

THE
each other.

OF

USE

LEISURE

83

In the individual the resultant force invents

chines,
ma-

builds
of art, writes inspiring
paintsmasterpieces
poems,
converts
cathedrals,
peopleto new faiths and heartens
splendid
ideals and brings
and reveals new
them with new
aspirations,
ant
noble-minded citizens. In a peoplethis resultup strong-bodied,
Civilization. A civilized peopleis thus in
force is known
as
force. It demonstrates this by realizing
itselfa creating
ideals;
for communal
by making real the dreams of its poets; utilizing
embodying in its political
purposes the machines of its inventors;
and the organizations
and social life the systems of its statesmen
of its industrial leaders,translating
the hopes of fathers and
mothers into happy homes.
Its Church is the Church of pragmatic
Practical
Ideal.
and
its
the
of
the
truth,
religion worship
It does all these things
dencies
tenby subduingthe natural self-seeking
for the purpose of social wellbeing,for the healthyorganicgrowth of a community in which
of its individual members

the individual

it and it him.

serves

and the
political
economic.
The political
side deals with the rightsto personal
freedom of the individual members
within the community,and
the sanctions by which these rights
ing
are
preventedfrom interferwith the solidarity
of the social state.
The best practical
ideal so far developedby Civilization for this purpose is Democracy
the government
of the people,by the people,for the
in political
freedom.
The economic side deals
people resulting
with the rights
of the individual to enjoythe fruits of the earth
and the productsof his labor. This is economic freedom, the
establishment of which will be one of the rightuses of Leisure.
So far,to satisfy
this side,Civilization has evolved the method
known as Competition,
ideal when carefully
limited
a practical
to itsproper sphereof activity;
but when allowed free play,as it
has been, the rightsof the individual to enjoy the fruits of
the earth and the productof his labor are left to take care
of
themselves. Instead of making for economic freedom it has resulted
in the unrestrained scramble of a medley of individuals,
each trying
to get the better of the other, and the rights
of one
beingobtained at the sacrificeof the other.

Now

there

are

two

sides

to

social life
"

the

"

"

Modern

Civilizationhas failed

to

make

good

its claim

to

its

THE

84
title. Its
freedom
The

freedom
political

to

method

the
to

is

It has

failed from

two

causes.

the

was

it

purelyintellectualconsideration
economic freedom. It appliedthe same

the solution of this problem


This

its economic

in the

problem of

freedom.

letter,and

dead

infernal machine.

an

firstis to be found

gave

FORUM

it did

as

to

that of

Economic

profounderror.

cal
politi-

freedom

is the lifeand

of a community,and life
happinessof the members
and happinessare not subject-matters
for political
but
science,
for ethics. Politics is the science of the mechanics of a society;
economics is its ethics. Every economic problem is,at bottom, a
problem in morals. This we are onlybeginningto see, but we
shall

itbetter when

see

for then
the

shall

we

in
figured-blocks
"

not

treat

Showing

our

not

with

concerned

out

logic. How

looked

for the

that

matters

we

the souls of the

Plutarch,that
the brave
The

we

ever

cause

"

of seed,

sweet;
see't."

kind

face and
science

economic

our

were

to

as

bloodless

as

with
be

not

must

mathematics

if
settlesocial questions
stone

build the ramparts of

our

"

sweet

pertainto the souls of people;as

people? It is not of

must

hearts of

second

face and

forsooth

are

if theywere

revealed;

with the soul you

the science of social life


as

in the peep

kind

you

souls,because

as

read,

you

she, the Nurse

peeps

Cloaked, but

have

women

ing;
reason-

our

sightfor thingsafield,

you

Look

part of

machine.
calculating

Where

and

men

Farther, deeper,may
Have

We

intuitions form

our

and
our

we

if
or

leave

timber,said
but of
cities,

citizens.

for this failure

on

the part of modern

ilization
civ-

enough; it has
The problem of
not
yet had the material with which to work.
zens
citieconomic freedom depends absolutely
the healthy-minded
on
citizens are possible
themselves,and healthy-minded
onlyin
sure,
a community which
permitsits members the enjoymentof Leiand offers every facility
A civilizednation
for its right
use.
is like an Atlantic
without civilized citizens,
if that were
possible,
lies in the fact that it is

liner with

an

crew
incompetent

to

not

work

civilized

her and with her coal-

RIGHT

THE
bunkers empty.

OF

USE

LEISURE

S$

fittedwith the best modern


She is splendidly

but she is adrift

on

the

ocean

because

chinery,
ma-

ing
wantingin the will-

cooperative
thought. She may have a superiorwithout a subut these are helpless
and officers,
minded captain
perior-minde
The rightuse of Leisure is to educate the
crew.
average citizen to be high-minded.Leisure produced the highthe lover of art and the patron of genius;
minded
aristocrat,
there is no reason
why itshould not also producethe high-minded
and encourage
with equalpower to appreciate
art and
citizen,
genius,and with even greater power to maintain them. And
power

of

with his arrival


Stated

our

problemof

broadlythe rightuse
alwayshave the power

economic

freedom

will be solved.

of Leisure is to fitourselves

so

enjoyit. In other words, the


it. The
to use
rightuse of Leisure is to maintain our ability
to use
anythingis measured by the results of the use; if
ability
the results are useful,work well,they are
and our
desirable,
nated
and may not be alierightto the use of Leisure will be justified
is our opportunity
from us.
strate
to demonLeisure,therefore,
No individual and no nation,in the history
of
our
ability.
ever
man,
yet maintained a rightto anythingwithout the power
to use the right.Even
a mechanic
less
may not work at his trade unhe proves himself able;he will be discharged,
deprivedof
his right,
Leisure is givenus in
to speak,if he is un-able.
so
which to cultivate ability;
to learn how to be able. Once we
are
welfare and
able,questionsof economic freedom, communal
human happiness
for our might will be
will meet their answers;
rightin the only sense that counts.
in this country to-day,among
Now what do we find existing
the so-called "idle rich" and "laboringpoor"?
The former
have the rightto Leisure,but theyhave lost the power
it.
to use
Indeed,as the phrasegoes, theyhave no use for it. The right
means
nothingto them, for theydo not know what to do with it.
in their
They are able to live at all onlyby the power stored-up
wealth,and even this power they are so abusingthat it also is
and
being threatened. What an opportunityfor these men
did theybut have the ability
Leisure ! What
to use
a
women,
mighty influencefor good might not these become in the community!
And they are unable to make
a change because
they,
that

we

to

THE

86

too, have

FORUM
"

lost

heart, and are without hope. The


laboring
have the rightto the vote, but not knowing how to use it

"

poor

theyhave lost the right. They sold it for a mess of pottage to


and political bosses."
The result is they have no
capitalists
in the community and no
rightto the right. Nay, they
power
have no righteven
is left
What
to complainof their condition.
of their rightis the mere
record of its acquisition;
witness to
a
their shameful incapacity
and futility.
"

Leisure is now
"

and

"

laboring
poor

latter that

what

the

they may

theyhave

"

done

mattrass

"of

grave

themselves,and

to

idle rich "

thought. The former,that

take

complainingand

cease

"

the time in which both

as

alike may

rise up from

theymay

their ennui; the

open

what

to

their eyes
they can do

to

to

themselves.

redeem

We

are

freedom.

asking for a new


right the rightto economic
may go on askinguntil the Day of Judgment,and

now

"

We

shall

we

givenus

not

get it. For

abuse this

shall not

with itwhen

guarantee

rightalso ?

have

we

what

no

How

rightto ask for it? There is now


deserve it. Leisure is given to
ourselves

no
us

deserve it. Yet

to

as

to

give that

we

ask

we

keep it,and

to

power

can

can

entrusted

to be

have lost

the

even

other way left to us


the time in which
deserve it is no

we

but
to

to

pare
pre-

lighttask;

understandingof the trust,


the ability
and acquiring
to hold it. Only thus shall we
regain
educatingourselves

it means

there is

the power;

no

other

to a true

Complaining,begging,and

way.

will not avail;what will avail,is doing. The doors


petitioning
closed to the mentally unsound
of the Temple of Freedom
are
and the morallyunclean. We have had these doors shut against
of our weakness and our sins. They will not be open
us because
.

againto
washed
us

unto

us

until we

pure

our

hearts.

So that

of Atonement, also.

Day

your
you, and ye shall afflict

the

to

freedom

high spiritof

theygave

All of

"

us

"

our

our

"

lives. Not

day of

It is

Leisure

Sabbath

as

well
we

"

as

must

of solemn

have

forefathers;we

their lives to obtain for


idle rich "

be for

must

rest

ful
have been unfaith-

We

souls."

sinned; and in this time of Leisure


live new

souls,and

shall have fasted,and afflictedour

mere

ver.
shekels of sil-

laboringpoor
"

the

bartered

"

have

"

highlyresolve

of
of faith,
but by living
by professions

"

to

faith.

RIGHT

THE

rilledwith Fourth

Our libraries are


our

hearts continue

Let

us

find out,

hearts and

regainour

have gone

we

renew

it is that has ailed


and how

wrong;

we

hopes.

our

fulfils
thingin which every man
in doing? It is realizing
his success
delight

What, after all,is the


himself and takes

87

of

day of Leisure,what

it is that

why

LEISURE

and yet
Julyprofessions,
by Fifth of July repudiations.

be broken

to

this

on

and is ailing
us;
may

OF

USE

most

one

by placingthere,outside of him, his own creation for all to


by realizing
enjoy;it is making good." This is what I mean
of creation. To plant
ideals it is man's evolution,
by means
gardenswhere before there were deserts;to build citieson lonely
to make
highways of bridgesfrom peak to peak; to
prairies;
visions in poems
and paintings;
to rear
trueembody hope-giving
these are the incarnations of his
and daughters;
hearted sons
soul that stand for him and pointto him as the maker of worlds.
Thus is he the Master of Change, the fillerof space with the
thus he immortalizes himself,and thus he enstuff of Reality;
dures.
"

"

also

He
"

can

then look upon

It is good." He

the work

of his hands
"

it,because he has

and

made

good."
Making good is the free man's part it is his happiness.
idle rich are wretched,because theyare not
The
making
are
good." The
laboringpoor
unhappy,because they have
idle rich
made good." The
not
not
are
making good
because theydo not use their time for creative ends. The
boring
lamade
have not
good because they have not
poor
say,

can

say

"

11

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

had the leisure in which

good

"

is the

It is

not

to

"

learn how

for
onlyhappiness,
experienced
by the

squander their life,and


not
uses.

it is consciousness of life itself.


"

idle rich

"

"

because

they

conscious of life.

therefore,never

are,

It is not

ing
Yes, this " mak-

to create.

"

because they are


experienced
by the laboringpoor
permittedto use their life;it is bought and sold for others'
conscious of what it is to live.
They also are thus never

This abuse of time is


then but
drowned

or

mere

made

at

current
to serve

the

root

of all human

of existence in which
as

the

planksof

raft

sorrow;
we
on

are

life is
either

which others

float.
Our

freedom

is a very Ariel of a sprite


which has to be continually
liberated from the cleft in the pine tree of sloth or it

THE

88

will remain

FORUM

imprisoned
by the

habit.
will become

There

be

must

witch of

and

contentment

our

idleness for the free

no

placent
comor

man,

he

the slave of his condition and the victim of the Caliban

of

dom
capitaland implacableselfishness. The dire foe of freeis automatism,the mere
response to stimuli from without;
blind unconscious movement,
moving only by the compulsion

inherent in life. Automata

are

the formulas

But it is the mark

of freedom.

the slaves of

of

formulas,even

trulyfree

of the

that he is continually
making fresh

formulas,and in this way


self;that he is continually
striving
expressinghis ever-evolving
tations
his formulas,to translate them into fresh manifesto transcend
of life. The priceof freedom
is ceaseless activity
and
continued vigilancethat we
do not become
imprisonedin our

man

formulas
11

The

freedom; for there is

of

of life.

final formula

no

letter kills the

spirit,"
plication
says Bergson, with a profound apof the phrase. And our
ardent enthusiasm,as
most
it is externalized into action,is so naturally
congealed
cold calculation of interest or vanity,
that one
takes so
"

soon

as

into the

easilythe shape
doubt
did

our

our

gether,
might confuse them tosincerity,
deny goodness and love,if we

own

dead

living." The
which

other,that

we

that the dead retain for

know

not

of the

have

sloth. We

the

are

must

to

see

it that

the

for

what
what

freedom
we

have

it we

formulation

new

compelsif we
never

are

now

are

to

of

of
a

our

life of freedom
idleness and

shall
activity
That
activity.

an

new

continue free.

understood; and because


the slaves of

our

nothing to die ; that

allow

we

followingthe formulation
a

of

through

the moment
moment

time the features of the

lovelycreations

devitalized

become

And

have

we

not

spasmodicand

is

that is
stood
under-

the slaves of
circumstance,

and the slaves of ruthless power.


Our activitieshave been hitherto

be

tem,
sys-

therefore

prisonme
We moved
onlywhen we could no longer suffer imcataclysmic.
by imposed dogmas and ingrainedhabits. This was
not

livingthe free

and

jetsam on

the
interrupted

the

current

flow and

of life which

is

to

of its river,
piecesof inert

waves

subdues circumstances

and flux of life;it was

impeded itsprogress.
the

profoundpower
passingthrough him.

by

be flotsam
that

matter

But the free


of the creative
The

free

man

man
rent
cur-

is

THE

90

FORUM

schoolmasters

and educators of the young; plantplaygroundsin


of our
citiesand play there with the children,
and

the centres

so
onlywith children,

we

learn

may

cannot

hope and

which

shall be the

love

to

work

we

keep

may

blue skies

and under

brooks

that

that

over

grassy

by rippling
vested greens,"
wander

feel her response.


We
time,so we must have leisure
and

nature

the

at

young;

"

same

of hope. If we
breeding-time
for hope,I pointto
subject-matters

for immediate

are

looking

the condition

of the poor, the condition of the laborer,


the condition of women
in our social life. But, more
I pointto the education
definitely,
of the children.

It is too late now

moulded

have become

to

in the forms

hope much

habit and ing


crampis to rouse
them out

will respond,
if but
who

own

by

an

peal
ap-

to

are

with.

work

How

with

them
inspire

giftof creative

It may be they
of fear for the future welfare of those of

out

it is otherwise.

live after them.

With

the young, ever,


howHere we have the very material for hope
to love them; how
to grow
them; how to
how

hopes,and

new

will not

have done much


of the

these

endow

to

them

with the

which Leisure will


questions
And all the Leisure of a generation
to come
to answer.
be too long in which to find the right
We
shall
answers.

help us

power;

if

we

to

look

But let us
for it;that
chained

convention,nor
we

are

are

find but the line of

rightmethod.
free

When

them

their instinctof love for their children.

to

to

those who

of custom,

dogmas. All that we can do with them


of their dogmaticslumbers,and, if possible,
move

their

from

thus free

our

firstsee
we

to

are

the tendency
direction,
it that

to

manacled

not

we,

live

to

selves
our-

lished
by estab-

faith will rise up

condemninghabit.
in us, our hope will
buoyanton the life

of love.

It is the
that

are

the rock of

impel us, and both faith and hope will ride


current

we

who
see

pathosof
see

our

present economic

and
suffering

realized the

new

are

and social conditions

under them
suffering

conditions that will leave

may
room

not

for

happiness.But it is,nevertheless,a great joy for us to


the coming of the change. We are, like
feel that we are helping
Moses, preventedby our disobedience to the laws of life from
tures
enteringthe Promised Land; but the redeeminglove in our nato stand on the Pisgahheightof our
grants us the privilege

human

RIGHT

THE

USE

leisure-builtHope and view the


If

we

enter

not

may

it,we

the roads that lead

children who

broad

acres

Land

have cleared.

we

easy

of the

citiesof freedom

children will found

our

make

so

91

the land from


broad

rate, make

inhabit it. On

to

pioneersthroughthe

are

we

destined

are

LEISURE

of
goodliness

can, at any

it,and

to

OF

and firm

the march

of

Ideal,and

day,

some

happinesson the
meantime, our hope fillsus
and an interesting
terprise
ennew

In the

and

"

of

the work
the

sure
trea-

in
and only awaits discovery
itself,

hands,in our realized ideals. If we do not find


have enriched ourselves with the
shall,at least,

our

treasure

our

the road of Leisure

with courage, and we take heart in a


the adventure in search of buried treasure; the
that lies buried in life

afar.

we

of
experience

the voyage and the joy of dangersovercome,


and
in the end,perhaps,
find that life was
worth the living
after all.
hear my criticsaying:" What you urge is all very
good, but it will take a long time to make civilizedcitizens for
I

your

to

seem

civilized community. How


"

the meantime?
the poor
it? No
content

in

be

man

it,and

But I do

can

onlyanswer

helpedin
: Will
question
be

to

off with Leisure than he is

worse

now

without

help him if he will not help himself. If he is


remain unhappy he, probably,
finds some
dull comfort
in that case
he will not thank us for disturbing
him.

one

to

is the poor man


with another

can

believe that any citizen of these United States is


that kind of a man.
of this country would not be
The history
not

what

it is were

over

and

when

high issues were


is why Hope has

That

its peopleso

utterly
helpless.On

again,theyhave

over

at
a

failed

never

stake; and

respondhighly
they always made good.
to

chance here that ithas

country. But this land is so

goodly,so

the contrary,

in any other
blessed with
bountifully
not

nature's richest

that it is difficultfor them to realize as


gifts,
yet that there is not enough for all. It is difficultfor them to see
that there is an economic problempressingfor solution,
when
statisticswhich
they are blinded and misled by mountainous
placetheir country at the head of the listin industrial prosperity
and power.
Their leaders are political
who have the
party men
welfare of party more
of the comat heart than the happiness
munity;
and
them

these,for good
if

even

reasons

of their own,

will never

the existing
situation.
theyappreciate

lighten
en-

FORUM

THE

92

And, indeed,there is

need

no

will but

see

to

it that each

enough and

is

consequent misery. There

for poverty

has fair

man

and

want

or

for all,if

more,

play and

its
we

deal,

square

played accordingto the rules of


If Leisure be the gentleman'sprivilege,
honor.
told
as
we
are
it is,let us all be gentlemen. Instead of competingagainsteach
other for the largest
of wealth,let us compete for the
possession
best expression
of self. Our publicschools,collegesand universities
the right underthe proper placesfor obtaining
standing
are
of this kind of competition;
but, unfortunately,
they
and

of life be

that the game

not

are

system

so
on

advantaged
the

to

be freed from

hand, and the pressure

one

business life on

as

the other.

The

the

dogmatism of

of the demands

humanities

are

of

sacrificed to the

a young
so that education is directed to fitting
inhumanities,
man
for fighting
others rather than for fighting
himself
fulfilling
"

himself.

This

system of making business soldiers

out

of

our

that the faculties be composed


collegeundergraduatesrequires
of professional
drillsergeants, and that the presidents
be executive
business

The

men.

undergraduate'ssense

of noblesse

is,therefore,neither stimulated by example nor


companionship. Instead,he is taught to

oblige
nursed by tutorial
be

alert and

advantage and to keep it at any price;and


he
his home life emphasizesthis teaching. So that when, later,
takes his own
he is unable to impose
placein the march of life,
quick to seize

an

but falls in line with


dealings,
the rest and succeeds by takingadvantageof others' failings
Place a Harvard, a
rather than by any noble virtue of his own.
Yale or a Princeton graduate in Wall Street,or in business,
or

the laws of honor

in his business

and in six months he will either be a


in any of the professions,
failure and move
out West
(where he ought to have gone at the
from the rest of the
outset),or he will be undistinguishable
It is not his fault;it is
crowd.
scrambling,chicaning
fighting,
his

misfortune, and

the

competitive
system

cheap
"

that

sets

more

our

misfortune
that makes
store

on

also.

He

is the

productof

thingsdear and human

goods than it does

on

souls

goodness.

value on a soul than we do on a dollar,


placedmore
should very quickly
we
bring about such a redistribution of the
and the
necessaries of life as would make poverty impossible,
If

onlywe

THE

RIGHT

rightto life,libertyand

USE
the

OF

LEISURE

93

pursuitof happinessa real

session.
pos-

if
for the women
of leisure,
righthere is the opportunity
they are trulyin earnest in their desire to do something with
their wealth of time. They can beginat the foundation,with the
ucators.
edchildren before theyare placedin the keepingof professional
They can make their homes sacred templesredolent of
an
atmosphere that will ever clingto their children wherever
memories
in them that will stay them in
theygo, and ever arouse
them in their moments
their times of temptationand encourage
of
interest themselves also in the homes
of despair.They can
assisted in nourishing
the poor to see that the mothers there are
the children,
that these children are providedwith pure milk.
or
for the Children's
They need not to establish new organizations,
Aid Society
is a splendidexisting
organization.There is a large
fund of living
enthusiasm to draw from for this most
necessary
the
work, and if they will but enter into it in the rightspirit,
coming generationwill bless them. The righteducation of the
most
cryingneed. Let
poor children in our largecitiesis the one
them
address themselves
that with their wonder-working
to
and a fine beginningwill have been made
to the right
power,
And

use

of their Leisure.

We

must

not

expect such work

to

be done

by either the State or any publicbody. It will have to be carried


and rightly
For this is the one
on
sure
so.
by privateenterprise,
And it is
ideals are finally
precipitated.
way by which practical
good for the privatepeoplethemselves that it should be so done.
in a noble enterprise
is a fine habit to acquire;
Self-forgetfulness
itmakes gentlemen and gentlewomen. This is not the work for
leaders or captains;
it is the work for us all.
The reveille must
be sounded by those in our own
ranks who
have not fallen asleepin the night. One buglecall here, another
call there,a repeatedcall further beyond,and soon
the hillswill
resound from the Alleghanies
to the Rockies, and the peoplewill
know that it is morning; that the dawn of a new
day has broken
in which theywill no longerstand by and quietly
look on, but in
which theywill girdup their loins and fight
selves.
themthe good fight,

THE

FEMININE

ACCENT

Shaemas
is the

THIS

day

The

clamor

evidence

as

awakening of

of

Woman-Spirit which

is preparingfor

part of love opposed

Laura

made

"

Yet

And

But modern

Lafcadio

is more

woman

poets, for instance,it is

Browning

Stillless realization

was

good

and

and

poetess only last


art, for

such reservation

as

for

poet of firstnote

Tynan

and

others

Fiona

Macleod.

ago

Mrs.

say:

said."

men

woman,

And

Ada

where

Negri by
Mrs.

unique,Alice Meynell and


numerous

and

year,

woman."

was
are

the
spirit,

foreseen

Fiftyyears

its praiseof
Italyhardlyqualifies
"

advent of the

heard; in the chorus of

more

familiar.

now

have

some

Hearn

Savio of Turin

at my

Messianic

force; though

to

them

this,among

But the voice of

littleis it

sociologicalfact, the

gentlerpart of the human

is the

stand.
under-

ant
of the more-or-less militant claim-

tremendous

than

so

of her brothers

many

feminine sex-consciousness.

is there that the world

as

or

more

woman:

suffrageis indeed loud in the land, but how

of the

foretold

of the voice of

herself knows,

woman

realized

O Sheel

company.

any

ing
Brownarine
Kath-

In Ameri-

ica the poetess is a

commonplace; alas! too often justthat! But


the firstgatheringhas lately
been presentedof a young
woman
whose poems
concerned at
not commonplace. They are
not
are
all with the awakeningsex-consciousness,
with the
nor
consciously
Woman-Spirit as Savior, and they ask judgment in the scales
of absolute poetry; yet the fine ultimate feeling
one
bringsfrom
nine
of the subtlety
and beauty of the femireading them is a sense
accent.

More

keen and
woman

Modern

more

is also

constant

than

man

possessedof much

in her

zations,
realispiritual
age.
courgreater spiritual

sciousness
swaying between the unrelentinginner conof the spirit
and the world's irreverence and infidelity,
in
becomes
and equivocal,
stentorian,
or
or
apologetic
agitated,
his spiritual
acknowledgments. Woman
speaks of the same
breadas
thingswith quietcertainty.The natural role of man

man,

94

adventure

of the worlds

winner and conductor

bred in him, under

ACCENT

FEMININE

THE

the

seemingof

and business has

force and

directness,
a vast
the weaker half,the real

indirectness ; while woman,

and
timidity

95

suitor in the relations of the sexes, has learned

to

be indirectin

relations while retaining as the lover who has


superficial
of
love soon
learns
absolute simplicity
awakened his lady's
an
directness in her deeper life. Contrasted with the poetry of

the

"

"

cumlocuti
ciris remarkable for its hesitancies,
the poetry of men
of sophistication
and elaborate displays
when ithas

women,

aught to

say

Contrasted

of the

spirit,
aught to

with the poetry of

express

of the emotions.

the poetry of

men,

women

is

markable
re-

and emotional
quiet,simple,direct spiritual
fear as too
of what men
utterance, its unhesitant expression
This is the feminine accent.
And this in a high degree
naive.
for its

is the mark
Not

of the poetry of Muriel

that

so

young

Rice.

poet in her firstvolume

has

presented

finalwork
or
startling
except perhapsin one poem : Miss Rice
isin no way or degreeprodigious.But she is bound one with the
marked, and
are
plainly
greater women
poets, for her qualities
and her craftsmanship
is that of one who
theyare great qualities,
needs but practice
for improvement;among
other merits,she
does not partakein the common
faults of her greater sisterand careless workmanship. Nor is she one
of
singers,
prolixity
"

the

numerous

men

company,

and

women,

who

concoct

endless

cajolethe editors. A distinction,


a positive
promise,a fragranceof rareness, resides in her word
and compelsrespect as it givesdelight.
Respectand delight.Because this is true poetry: true to
the heart of the poet. The woman
of beautiful spirit
speaking
the simple,
subtle seemingof life to herself: that alwaysis poetry
of the most
of the most
terest
incisive,
revealing.No excited inin passingcauses, no swayingto slogansand shibboleths,
no
aping of fashionable mannerisms; nothing hectic,nothing
but truth absolute to her own
stilted;
tional
spiritual
sightand emoknowledge. It is good to find God and prayer in these
not
not
ferred
poems,
brought in ostentatiously,
apologizedfor, reto naturally
includes
because the poet's
wisdom
woman's

verses

to meet

the fashions and

Poems, by Muriel

Rice.

THE

96

FORUM

these

terly
utthings.It is good to find love treated with a terrible,
calm intensity;
after all the sad thingslove has been used
for in poetry. It is good to find the poet doing justwhat she is
moved
of lyric
by her instinct for form to do in the matter
forms; equallygood that she avoids vain experimentsand all

exaggerations.It is good

through her book

to go

as

through

with not infrequent


wonderful
quietvalleybeautiful everywhere,
flowers,
or pools of mysterious
deeps,or, past the green hillsthat
wall it,glimpsesof great inspiring
peaks;and beyond them, the
There is not much of romance
of
stars.
here, not much casting
the soul's story into the fanciful mould
mould

of brave
of earth

the music of
with

and the

waters

delicate music of

more

one

intense of emotion

woman,

or

the

The sense
of heaven, the sweet
rance
fragunreality.
and its comfortingsolidity
well as its grace,
as

vale ; but
throughthis lyric
all,informingall,that finestand most

go

of ancient story

match

to

than

more

winds,these

all,containing

beautiful of presences, a
of soul. And
her intensity

poignancyof simpledirect utterance which it has been


all singers,
given the greater women
poets, preeminently
among
ties
certain actualithis woman
but fully,
to attain,
reveals,reticently
of the human
heart and soul,love and weariness,pain and
joy,despairand faith;making it beautiful and moving poetry.
with that

It is

castingaside of veils from

revelation: the

woman's

soul; a thing of brave,pure beauty.


I have

betrayedMiss Rice
masterlyconciseness
the fewest
lines that

intimacyof her poetry has not


carelessness. In fact,a
or
prolixity

that the

pointedout

into

has moulded

allbut

of these poems

two

into

possiblelines;and of this intense compressionmany


gleam and astonish

born,

are

There
intensest pressure of earth's processes.
are
memorable
but the fewest; and poignant,
or
passages,
called Love's

is everywhere.In the poem


"

There
But

was

heaven

no

left

us

and that entitled Intimations


"...

That

and

press

in

interval

ends with the

that utter

quiet of the

looks undaunted

at

fray,

"

phrase:
heart

eternity."

the

dreary
expression
no

Passing occurs

anguishof

an

under

diamonds

as

this:

LONDON

AND

THE

Brooks

Sydney

has

NEVER

the

CORONATION

overwhelmingness of London

life seemed

palpableor

so

The

"season"

so

and

oppressiveas

don
Lonat

this

is in full

swing; we have a
and constitutional revolution in progress,
political
complete in
ence
everythingsave barricades and bloodshed; the ImperialConferis sitting;
of pageants, fetes,banquets, concerts, tournaments,
moment.

horse

shows,

picture exhibitions,dinners,balls,

operas,

race
receptions,

meetings,naval and militaryreviews, there is no

end; the

and the

streets

brilliant than
somewhat

I have

resents

parks and the shops are


known

ever

the

incongruous touch

city,he
many
on

if

them; and

garlands that

finds also much

to

grand stands

lendinga

are

and

compensate

console

and unexpected splashesof color


moving spectacles

Regent Street, a rainbow-hued

Indian

isolated,majestically
unnoticed; there, on
11

"

tastic
fan-

ished
griminess of his cher-

the dim

to

more

London-lover

"

the
polesand scaffolding,

and decorations,the arches and


and

fuller and

him,
here,

"

soldier, majestically
British
a
Piccadilly,

"

acting as guide,philosopherand friend to a couple


Tommy
of dusky Cingalese;somewhere
else,the gold and white, the
scarlet or purple,of an Indian Prince's bodyguard; now,
a mixed
and glittering
and Punjabis doing"
troop of Sikhs, Goorkhas
London
under the guidance of an English officer;everywhere,
ing
in scarlet liverydrivroyalcarriageswith coachmen and grooms
in snowy
white,
Rajahs in light-blue
silk,or Moorish
envoys
"

or

and

the

resplendentheirs

Asia.

The

one

statesmen
responsible

Yet

it is on

and

that
and

four-fifths of the thrones

social strain is terrific;


one

functions for every


the

to

that is attended;
of the

is

events

gratefulfor
positively
that have

made

misses half
one,

Empire, has

such occasions that London,

one

no

her

after

any

most

98

Europe
a

dozen

and least of all


.

time

to

all,is most

think.
herself

the

dents
long chapter of acci-

not

only the biggestbut

comprehensive capitalin the world.


magnetism is not, to be sure, at all times and

the

of

Her
under

absorbent
all circum-

AND

LONDON
stances, a
not

good thingeither for herself


only dominates England, but

anythinglike

don
for the nation. Lonit and

overpowers

in

capital

no

Paris or even
or
ascendencyof London
also no provinces.England undoubtedly

the

But there

Berlin.

or

99

States there is

devitalizes it. In the United

measure

of

CORONATION

THE

are

heavy toll for the irresistibleattractiveness of London


dulness of Englishlife outside the four-mile
in the comparative
its hinterland.
it tyrannizes,
than presides,
radius. The citymore
over
It is not merely an incubus,it is almost a monopoly.
of even
half itssize and wealth and power
An American
capital
it would be dissolved by the Supreme
is a legalimpossibility;
of the Sherman
Anti-Trust Act. But
Court under the provisions
is content not to look too narrowlyinto the
at a time like this one
sity.
intellectualor other effectsof London's immensocial,
political,
pays

accepts and welcomes

One

enjoysit,without

and

the gorgeous, mellow


of Paris in the social primacyof Europe,the world's
it is

questionings,
justas
form

every

of art,

"

and

amusement

any

nate
obsti-

supplanter
centre

for

intellectual diversion,
the

not only of the Kingdom but of the Empire, the seat of


capital
the Legislature,
sand
the home of Royalty,
and the scene
of the thou-

and
year

festivitiesand

one

especially,
go with

Court.

One

wholesome

does

not

ceremonies

and branch

stop

to

that,in

Coronation

from

the presence
whether it is proper
inquire
out

of

and

all the creative and all the critical


practically
of the country should be heaped together
in this one
city.
power
One simplyplungesinto the incomparable literally
able
incomparsince the fallof the Second Empire
richness and variety
of
its social life;one
unquestioning,
steeps oneself in its tolerant,
London's code is as spacious
must
as
easy spirit.
any society's
be which has agreedthat
live and let live is the kingof social
oils. It is the most
the most
informal,the most
forgiving,
that

"

"

"

equableand

unconcerned

"

of

cities,
and, next

to

New

York, the

callous.

it has a halfOld, complex and experienced,


cynical,
half-charitable,
whollygood-humoredpardon for almost
most

every breach of

else

one

decorum
etiquette,
might say of it,is at

or

morals.

least

The
atmosphere to have round one.
had; she is showingjustnow, on

art
a

And

ever
that,what-

free and comfortable


of life London

and
splendid

has always

memorable

THE

ioo

that she has also the


scale,

FORUM
of

publicpageantry and rejoicing;


and the result,
for the time being,
is to placeher beyond criticism.
In the few and

engrossment

of

art

brief intervals that

domestic

spared from

politics,
privateentertainments

all London
publicfunctions,
with

be

can

and

"

London

for the

the
and
is

moment

England is religiously
talkingEmpire. The
in session
Imperial Conference,the fourth of its kind, is now

synonymous

"

all the Premiers

and

of the

British Dominions
self-governing

beyond the seas are taking part in it. There is not quitethe
in 1897,
same
popular interest feltin itsproceedings
as there was
in 1902, and in 1907.
The Boer war
and King Edward's
nation
Corolent to the Conference
of 1902 an extraordinary
siasm;
enthuJubilee,
1897 was the year of Queen Victoria's Diamond
when
1907

also the tides of

emotion
patriotic

the advent of the Liberals

the fiscal issue stimulated


British affairs

are

in

an

state

nation has littleinclination to

and in
flood-high;

ran

and the

of
complication
additional curiosity.
This year
of such amazing chaos that the
busy itselfwith any but domestic
to power

problems. The Coronation,moreover,


operates rather as a
than as an adjuvant to the Conference;there is no
tY
Colonial Premiers; we
have
figure among
*

nearlyall of them before and


views and personalities.
This
Conferences

ought to stand

on

know

pretty well what

is not

at

their

of adventitious excitements.
so

stand, and there is

therefore be less

not

the least

bad

largeextent

reason

to

ago,

it must

not

be assumed

contrary, it is very much


of
conception
a

vague
to

seen

their

are

ent
independ-

this one

does

think that it will

If the genits predecessors.


eral

interest in its discussions is less exuberant than four


years

standing
out-

thing. These

merits and be

own

To

than
productive

all

petitor
com-

that it is non-existent.

or

On

nine
the

lishman's
operative.The average EngEmpire does not go very far beyond

alive and
the

cient
pride of ownership,but that pride of ownership is suffimake
him genuinely
Imperial.There is a quitedistinct

of
that these gatherings
society
the leaders of the self-governing
sister-nations for consultation
in history.
under the familyroof-tree are a spectacle
unparalleled
If the knowledge of the preciseproblems theymeet to deal with
all Englishmen are at any rate at one
is capricious
and slight,
consciousness in all classes of

THE

AND

LONDON

CORONATION

101

all feel that there


their transcendent importance;
recognizing
this
in the whole sphereof British politics
is no such question
as
the bonds of Empire; all agree that Imperial
of drawingtighter
consolidation is the master-issue before the British peoples;all
hope and work for a time when the several States of the Empire,
however dissimilar in
in their local affairs,
however independent
in

some
one

shall yet
of their institutions,

form, for certain

and in their relations with the


body politic

rest

purposes,

of the world

of States.
solid unit in the society
single,
is the ideal toward which the British
That unquestionably
Empire is slowly,cumbrouslymoving. But the path is sown
shall take rank

with

as

and there
obstacles,

are

even

aspects in which

would

one

impulsetoward federation is stronger


pire
At present the British Emthan the impulsetoward separation.
abstraction. Parts of it coris littlemore
than a glittering
respond
idea of a great central State,ruling
to the old Roman
if benignant,
with absolute,
despotisma vast number of varied
and scattered dependencies.Other parts of it,and these the
vital to the future of the race, correspondto nothingthat
most
has ever
existed. If you look solely
at the relations that obtain
between Great Britain and India,for example,or the Malay
almost any of the Crown
or
Colonies,you feel yourself
States,
in the presence of an organizedsystem. But if you look at the
hesitate

to

say that the

relations that obtain between


or

presence

South Africa
of

no

presents itselfas

or

New

Britain and Canada

or

tralia
Aus-

in the
Zealand,you feel yourself

Empire in this latter aspect


of States,
haphazardcongeries
three-quarters

system
a

Great

and linked
independent,
by any but the most

at

all. The

neither

to one

another

nor

to

casual and decorative bonds.

indeed,the silken thread of the Crown

the motherland
There

is,

runningthrough them
all. But there is no unityof defence,no policyof commercial
preference,
no
action,no visible organic
machineryfor cooperative
unity.It is an Empire in feeling
perhaps,but not in fact.
The
tax
Dominions, almost without exception,
self-governing
Britishgoods as theytax the goods of foreigners.
Great Britain
shoulders almost the whole burden of Imperialdefence. The
relationsbetween the autonomous
and the despotically
governed
of defportionsof the Empire are guidedby no settled principle

THE

102

Imperialinterests. South Africa

to

erence

FORUM

Australia and British Columbia

Japanese,without
wider issues of
or

by

are

such

action may
affect the
and Australia are creating,

create, navies of their

to

which

own

Admiralty. A nation cannot


also havinga foreign
policyof itsown; and

coming,unless statesmanshipcan
Dominions
it,when the five self-governing

will have five different sets


extended

navy

by

within the

Empire
of foreigninterests,
safeguardedand

five different policies,


and enforced

The

five different

by

of such a development is enough


possibility
show that the British Empire is a fabric susceptible
ogy.
analto no
Among all the political
phenomena that the world has yet

navies.
to

have

the time may


of avertfind the means
ing

be

soon

they

posal
willingto place without restrictions at the dis-

means

of the British

without

Indian immigrants,

exclude and incense the

Imperialpolicy.Canada

about

are

no

thought of how

maltreats

mere

witnessed it is unique;unique in its anomalies,its contradictions,


its innumerable
of

sentiment
underlying
in formal arrangements
yet expressed,perhapsinexpressible,

unitynot

its sense
confusions,

and
One

not

now

ence
coher-

possess

is

officialties.

desire is any
British Imperialhistoryis one

long surrender of such ties,a continuous


Office. No

Empire

Dominions
thing the self-governing

of
multiplication

from

the

givingto

effectivenessit does

and

symmetry

that the last

an

tangiblebonds.

of the great difficulties


in

and

of

the interference of
Canadian

it otherwise,any

or

Downing

Australian

toward

dom
free-

Street and the Colonial


would

statesman

than he would

more

progress

consent

to

have

now

have

his tariff

Treasuryor his unoccupiedlands handed


All direct profit
to the Crown.
over
from, and all direct control
and
relinquished,
over, her colonies Great Britain has long ago
ematicians
the result is a relationship
which,however offensive to the mathfor
it has made
of politics,
has this grand virtue
loyaltyand content; it has diminished,almost eliminated,the
ratio
it has established a progressive
chance of serious friction;
between the devotion of the colonies to England and England's
dictated

by the

British

"

non-interference in colonial affairs. And

developand
and

prosper,

evolvinga

national tradition of their own,

as

the

over-sea

minions
Do-

national consciousness

their

of dependence
feeling

LONDON

CORONATION

THE

AND

103

Great Britain dwindles and their determination

upon

their future in their

own

way

all the

becomes

more

to carve

out

fixed.
firmly

developmentsthat,I think,make a final end of the


in the representative
old idea of calling
a solution of
as
principle
the problem of Empire. The notion of an ImperialCouncil,a
such affairs as
of the Empire,legislating
sort of Parliament
on
to each portionof it,is now
common
are
thoroughlyexploded.
time it is clear that if the Empire is to act as an
At the same
effective unit,some
better means
be found by which its
must
various parts can
keep in touch and consult with one another
for three or four weeks,
than a quadrennial
Conference,sitting
and grapplingwith a host of stupendousproblems that are
preparation.What
broughtbefore it with a whollyinadequate
is some
to be needed
posed
seems
perpetualImperialbureau, comfrom the Dominions
the
of representatives
as well as from
information
and
all the necessary
collecting
mother-country,
data in regard to Imperialproblems,and suggesting
policies
which it will be for the separate Legislatures
to accept or reject.
These

are

There
this
road

one

of

to

and machinery. There


politics

of trade.

find it

other roads

however, many

are,

Follow

forkingoff

that road

federation besides

the
is,for instance,

certain distance and

you

into three

perial
pathways. One pointsto an ImZollverein,such as exists in Germany and the United
States an arrangement, that is to say, by which all the constituent
parts of the Empire shall enjoy unrestricted free trade
themselves and impose a uniform tariffon foreigngoods
among
and products.The second pathway pointsto an ImperialCustoms
"

Union, each member


all the others and at the

it pleaseson

same

and for the

have their

shall have

time be

foreignimports. Both

deserted
practically
afford

of which

same

free trade with

to fixwhat
liberty
these pathways are

at

reason

the Dominions

tariff
now
not
can-

manufactures

restricted
nippedby the unof British goods, and England cannot
ford
afcompetition
her vast foreigntrade by adoptingprotection.
to imperil
There remains the pathway, for an advance along which Mr.
Chamberlain has boldly and eloquently
pleaded,of Imperial
Preference a series of reciprocity
agreements by which British

to

nascent

"

manufactures

would

enter

the markets

of the

Dominions, and the

THE

io4

products and

material of the Dominions

raw

British market,

FORUM

thrice

The
rates.
preferential
that policyand so long as
rejected

power

it may

its all-round

be considered

of

out

would
application

the Liberals

onlya

not

mean

Protection.

No

one,

the

British electorate has

It was

court.

enter

in

are

because
rejected
tax

meat

on

but the resurrection in these islands of the whole

corn,

So

at

would

and

system of

final.
however, regards that rejection
as

long as the Tariff issue remains

of the foremost

one

questions

in British

ered
so
long must
politics,
ImperialPreference be considThat it will be given a serious trial before
a possibility.
another decade has passed is extremely
probable. Admirably as
the Liberals have

managed

the affairs of the nation

past five years, their lease of


the

the Unionists

moment

to

return

and
indefinitely;
office ImperialPreference

cannot

power

during the

last

will be taken in hand.

Apart from

commerce,

the

most

hopefuland

to Imperial Federation
stepping-stone

the

most

sary
neces-

is that of defence.

the international pressure increases it will be seen


that the
British Empire cannot
be a unit in any vital sense
unless and

As

is organizedon a common
military
power
and is preparedto act in time of war
under a single
tion.
direcThis is perhaps the most
urgent and fundamental
tion
ques-

until its naval


basis

and

is called upon to consider.


other ways in which the unity

which the present Conference


But

beyond that there are many


of the Empire might be encouraged without beingundulyforced.
Mr. Cecil Rhodes, for instance,
ing
graspedthe importanceof makEngland the educational centre of the Empire and the idea
been
behind his famous
bequest has not yet by any means
worked
out to its fullest capacity.Much, too, might be done
for the organized provision
of information as to markets,commodities
and modes
of manufacture
throughout the Empire.
ization,
Commercial
trade-marks,naturallegislation,
patents, copyright,
appointment and activitiesof consuls,
post and cable
service and communications, shipping
dues, the currency, weights
the

and
more

measures,
or

emigration,are

less uniform

certain advance
next

and

few years

treatment.

to
susceptible

In each of these directions

all

matters

alreadybeen made and the


is likely
to be quickened.The
has

pace
mere

during the

expansion

THE

106

life

of

difficulty
of

revealed

have

his

in

subjects.
Her

Mary.
afternoon

stiffness

passivity

domestic

virtues

precisely.
feel

in

with

loyalty.

the

for

and

against

of

After
that
sentiments

and

will

demeanor

But

the

these

year's

of

the

are

sincere

is

an

event

regard

have
certain

prevent
ered
show-

was

serious

their

hits

and

the
their

rulers

new

to

ple
peo-

for

regard

Mary

of

experience

heartiest

that

Queen

respects

Coronation

their

English

and

always

affection

and

respectability
all

probably
of

abundance

same

Queen

hats,

set,"

smart

of

short-sleeved

cart-wheel

"

the

said

be

may

much

sentiments

quieter

low-necked,

skirts

tight

derision

in

too,

have

never

the

to

same,

edicts

of

will

appeal

Alexandra.

passion

Englishmen

sincere

the

Queen

with

taste

the

winning

upon

much

against

her

and

from

successful

sumptuary

upon

her

Very

gowns,

drawn

who

Sovereign

making

FORUM

pated
partici-

be
the

most

OF

FAULT

THE

Pound

Ezra

"

Some

SOME
may

may

IT

blamed

have

have blamed

us

that

""

you"

we

cease

speak
early,
to

thingswe spoke of in our verses


Saying: a lovelyvoice is such and such;
sad last week,
Saying: that lady'seyes were
the world's whole joy is born and dies;
Wherein
Of

Saying: she
Of

grace,

Ask
If
Ask
We

no

us

were

we
us

may

no

hath this way

or

that,this much

this little misericorde;


further word;

proud,then proud to be so wise


of all the thingsye heard;
more
not
speak of them, they touch us nearly.

107

EDITORIAL

Sir Edward

WHEN

House

of

he did

not

type
In the

In

to

of

be extended

comprehend

not

They

the type that

"

name

does

the

and

the

common

ridicule every

description.

they oppose

sense,

toward

movement

ful
harm-

most

recognize its true

not

tian
of Chris-

rudiments

mere

of
hypocrites

are

and
respectability

fine idea

every

"

do

civilized conduct.

or

responding

13,

far-reachingsuggestion that the

Taft's

arbitration should

Christian

and

March

on

the British

widely and wisely,


arise. He
ignore the difficultiesthat would inevitably
millions of people who professto be both civilized

that

knew

speech in

his

made

Grey

Commons,

President
of
principles

NOTES

progress.

expediency,and with a sneering reference to


Utopianism," they clingto their petty jealousiesand applaud
the

the

of

name

tellect
littlein-

strifemongersand the professionaljingoists.The


and

class,which
who

man,

popular with this stagnant


that the world is moving on, and that

loud voice

the

will

not

claims

to

see

were

have

ever

been

strivingto realize that image


longer

caricature.

gross

stillpowerful, and

are

so

that the fulfilment of the


Yet

idea

and

he

more

and

the British

and

to

the

be

is
no

ungrown

Foreign Secretaryadmitted

projectmight
to

and

more,

the stubborn

not

in this generation.

come

forward, preferringthe large

go

enthusiasm

generous

in the likeness of God,

But

afraid

not

was

made

parochialselfishness

to

and

inaction.
Events
not
on

have

marched

favorablythan

more

comprehensive lines
have

shown

opportunity,and
which
of

shared

it is

in the

an
earnestly

movement

there
may

has

is

and their desire tq

movement

surpriseto find that France


a

happy

momentous

George III,should
But

he

their faith in the

it. It is no

extend

rapidlythan he expected,though
had hoped. Already a treaty based
been drafted,and alreadyother nations

more

at

augury
war

for

that the

provoked by

the Coronation

agreement

has welcomed

of

three

nations

the Ministers

George V

securingpermanent

ering
be considpeace.

of
danger that the complete significance

be

overlooked.

The
108

collective

the

the

publicopinion

NOTES

EDITORIAL

beyond the

hich has risen

dividuals of each
re have gone

stupidor unseeing
allowed to fall again.

be

not

be

cannot

we

this

that will make

achievement

an

memorable, that

forever

:ar

far toward

so

of the

standards

nation,must

109

content

with any

mpromise,any less result than an agreement that shall cometelyexclude war, between Great Britain,France, and this
there will
with this accomplished,
untry, at least. And even
main the great but not insoluble problem of reducingarmain
As Baron d'Estournelles de Constant explains
ents.
clearly
article that opens this number, the solution depends on
that this
srlinand Paris. Let France and Germany recognize
e

the Twentieth
e

promise

the

Century,not

of

the

Tenth; and look forward

future, not

of

mistakes

the

to

to

the

LSt.
*

The
uld

passingof a strong man is alwaysan event; and no one


downfall and expatriregardwithout interest the political

ion of Porfirio Diaz.


illprofit
by his
als and

It remains

to

be

whether

seen

Mexico

whether the old story of rival genor


exclusion,

repeateduntil the advent of


lother autocrat, strong enough to crush opposition
and to sere
of policy,
at any rate some
continuity
though not of political
There are many
eedom.
legendsabout the late Dictator; he
in allthe degreesfrom a Machiavelis been regarded
variously
savior of his country, the reorganiin criminal to the patriotic
;r

disorder will be

constant

of her finances and


has

*chy.He

industries and

had
certainly

ty to train his countrymen


*mocratic

and
institutions,

hich would
an

who

hen he

fall to

not

makes

himself

in
to

from anher preserver


well as a great opportu-

long as
of liberty
and
the comprehension
establish

stable government,

pieceswith his own


is a
indispensable

removal.

For

failure. Since

the

1876,

firstelected,
Porfirio Diaz held power continuously,
ith the exception
of the four years from 1 880-1 884. He has
was

lerefore been the

master

of Mexico

for

declaration againstreelection
riginal
i

his second

resident

two

mitation

was

term

the Constitution

consecutive terms;
abolished

was

over

was

His
thirty
years.
not
long sustained,

amended

in his third

by Congress,and

he

to

allow the

period,every
remained firmly

THE

no

FORUM

the

fixed on

throne
for onlythe insignia
of Imperipresidential
alism
were
lacking. Undoubtedly,as permanent ruler he did
much for the apparent prosperity
of his country; but to imagine
that Mexico has enjoyeda republican
form of government
would
be foolish. Perhaps President Diaz felt that his countrymen
the rights
of citizenship,
not yet able to exercise intelligently
were
his duty to prevent them from making
and that it was
for all executive,
mistakes by assuming sole responsibility
judicial
and legislative
who
during
requirements.Yet the man
has built up no system which will
thirty
years of absolute power
without

work

as

that he
so,

"

his

personal direction,has littleclaim

patriotand

Porfirio Diaz

statesman.

it is his greatest condemnation

which
self-government,

If

was.

that he should have crushed

"

those national tendencies toward

in their weakness

garded
re-

considered

to his country.
indispensable
Perhaps he

was

be

to

freedom

and

might have guided to maturityand

he

strength.
*

The

accuracy,

"

curious
with

be misunderstood

can

therefore
with
so

has

not

doubt.

If the great

tial
essen-

the decisions of the


Oil and Tobacco

Supreme Court

Trusts should be

long discussion their meaning is stillin

are
corporations

merely to

nally
dissolve nomi-

reorganizethemselves under the direction of skilled

and

lawyers,it is not

easy

to

see

that the law

vindicated.

In any case, it is of grave


Court should have assumed both

has been

adequately

importancethat

the Supreme

trative
and adminislegislative

impliedin the decisions.


assuredly
tions;
point is not whether the nation will benefit by the innovabut whether this precedentfor the indirect revision of
functions;for both

The

the
distinguish

to

that
astonishing

that after

to

the value of clearness


appreciate
tendencyto express itselfso that it
It is
the least possible
difficulty.

regard to the Standard

worded

legal mind, trained

the irrelevant and

from
and

"

subtle

are

accepted. It is a thankless task to


stead
incriticisewhen a Court of Justice
reason
beginsto talk of
that the Sherman
of technical quibbles;
yet it would seem
the Constitution

shall be

"

Anti-Trust
while the

law

terms

has

been

amended

of the decisions

are

"

though not by Congress;


in this
quiteclear,at least,

"

"

NOTES

EDITORIAL

of reconstruction which
theyinvolve methods and measures
and as
only an administrative body could define or supervise;
the Supreme Court alone can
its decisions authoritatively,
interpret

that

in the finalresort

it alone

can

decide whether the

of

terms

compliedwith; in other words, it must


take into cognizance
purelyexecutive matters, as it has already
assumed what are really
legislative
powers.
its judgmentshave

Mr.

Lloyd

has

George, the English Chancellor

of

the Exchequer,

his Budget
introducing
I believe that the Navy expenditure
the year.
He said:
in connecreached its climax." This is extremely
tion
important,
and the generalmovement
with Sir Edward
Grey'sactivity
made

for

been

one

notable

statement

in

"

toward

peace

and the reduction of

armaments.

If words

are

to

be
by deeds, there is hope that Europe will soon
shamed into abandoningthe childish belligerence
which seems
so
The
in these daysof finer effortand clearer insight.
incongruous
policyof France is alreadyfirmlysettled: defence,but never
to the soaggression.No country has been more
susceptible
called gloryof arms
heavilythan she
; no country has paid more
for her dreams, her triumphs,
has
and defeats. Her manhood
be followed

not

even

now

recovered

Napoleon;the
for powder in

from

the insatiable demands

of the first

armies of

drafted to supplyfood
boys that were
his later campaigns,removed
a
generationthat
has not yet been replaced.But prosperity
has come
to the country;
nowhere
is
the peoplemore
and nowhere
are
industrious,
wealth more
evenly distributed. Her deliberate policy the
is
policyof the nation,and not merely of the Government
of her
celebrated the jubilee
Italy,which so recently
peace.
national unity,
has no dreams
which could bring her
of war,
her work
nothingbut disaster. England needs no new colonies;
is to establish securely,
the vast federation of
without dictation,
States that her policyhas fostered,and to deal
self-governing
with her own
and terrible social problems. Spain,recovering
political
from anaemia,has no foreign
rapidly
policy,
apart from
Morocco; her internal development,and the status of the
Church and the monarchy,are her special
problems. Austria"

"

THE

ii2

Hungary, with
initiatethem.
factors.
out

All

armaments

be measured.

is focussed

the standard

set

Will

out

she take the

responsibility
the publicopinionof
peace? Will not her

in the direction of

personal feuds,and

as

civilized

Where

least

here

"

on

very

the

be

different lines from

England; yet the

quiteobvious

Miss

to

demand

It is

women.

of conversion

not

never
even

Let them
this

to

attempt

convince

convince

men

If American

of

their sisters. Much

earnest

united

rightor
combine

women

imaginary,it will

or

need

gists
for the suffratheir claims.

of
justice

of the

her

in

done

has been

work

astic,
still active,enthusibut the anti-suffragettes
direction,
are
and

very

When

numerous.

join the ranks of the reformers


in any
and

in America,

"

any

matter

sincere demand

to

and

oppose

real
for any privilege,
be conceded to them.
There is no
certainly
a

to

men

campaign has been conducted


those adopted,in good faith
methods
have been faulty.It

would

aversion.

or

solution

The

Inez Milholland

men

of the

alwaysexpedientfor

suffragist
problem.

colleaguesthat American

wrong,

longer be permittedin

no

is quitesimple. The

but bad taste, in


must

differ,it is not

women

hence

agree;

can

society?
*

at

by which

will
whose names
joinhands with the great men
in history,
acceptingthe truism that national feuds are

foolish

as

not

rather

statesmen

in

has

the present opportunity,


when
rejecting

stand

she will

events;

Germany, Russia and Turkey are the unresolved


carried
depends upon Germany. She has inflexibly

must

the world

aged Emperor, waits for

policyof preparation. She

of

her

FORUM

so,

State

State,the

antagonism between

the

and

been

as

matter

restrictions will be

sexes

that

persuadedto

united front

will follow

vote

by State, all

they have

has

be presented

can

of

course;

removed.

The.

frequentlybeen

gested,
sug-

accentuated,could very well


unpleasantly
Its use reveals inferior intelligence
dropped as a battle-cry.
peculiarlyunhappy experience.The real antagonism the
and sometimes

be
or

"

only antagonism needing


women.

When

consideration

"

is that

this is removed, there will no

problem.

between

longerbe

any

the
fragist
suf-

THE

ii4

am

who

creatures

have

other will gaze

he gave
for

me

mother
down

and my

gratitude.He thanked
him.

There

me

times when

is dead.

sat upon

the

to

had

the

chair

collector,

I chose

He

the

chair and

eyes which

not?

only

were

one

my

He

now.

why

"

from

paidhis penny

morning and, as

The

dog.

hand

my

it. The

though I

as

me

glancefrom his brown

pennieswith

at

in such fashion

at me

that

to me

gazed

ever

image of God were


my
I have only to stretch
next

that is all there is about

ugly devil,and

an

FORUM

not

take

to

got any

that way

myself.
Now, when the nursery maid's eyes had passed me over, they
looked at Dandy and her whole expression
changed. I caught
the signof friendliness,
the gentlecome-hitherly
glancewhich I
are

is the firststep in those littleadventures

know

look he would

For that
acquaintanceship.
had he been a man
by reason
she would

have answered

but she did

not

see

him.

that. And

gazingafter her.
There's nothing more
world than a lonelyman."
Dandy stretched out a

leadingto chance

have

her

spoken to

of that look, had he been

"

am

man,

onlyhis tail wagged;


passedon while Dandy and

As it was,
she

so

sat

"

lonely,Dandy,"

an

"

amendment

in this

for my hand.
He kept beating
I felt his cold littlepads in my

paw

the air until he got it. When

palm, I added

"

said I,

"

Unless

it be

dog

that is

lost."

Dandy was sharingmy mood


fast as depression
set in upon
me,

with

that

me

surelydid

so

So

morning.

his littleears

droop down, his head hang lower and his tail fall limp. Why,
when

even

turned
"

and
up

that

to

sat

I, in

came

It

Do

asked.

you

my
ever

as

passed,he

she

he closed his eyes.


effort," this'llnever
supreme

doctor
more

was

He

me.

through the Park.


than

got down

salute.
from

do,"
I held

I beckoned

his

car;

came

me.

Lazy,luckydevil,"said

I nodded

him

at

sworn

my

speakto

beside

lady smiled

have

in salute.

stop and
and

across

"

said

moment

hand

my

"

I would

away.

My God,"
at

him

beautiful

some

head.

All

he.

men

that.

call me

give consultations

in

placelike

this?

"

GARDEN

THE

made

have

would

He

stoppedhim.
Talk away,"
"

the

11

It

the strain which

outbred

"

The

eloquentone can be
there is reallynothing

it famous.

made

jack of

man

every

breed of race-horses that has

of consultation in

worst

is that I can't look


I don't

over-bred."

We're

that

suppose

smile wrinkled

Dandy

his face and

this.

heard

his head.

on

place like this,"said he,

tongue."

at your

burning down

was

sun

not

nodded.

He
"

minutes.

ten

like

is over-civilized. We're

us

how

this,"said I, in conclusion,"

to

comes

had

answer
professional

one's ills when

all. I talked for

at

matter

subtle and

how

of
description

the

over

me

115

he, and I talked.

said

It is marvellous

RESURRECTION

OF

In

Whichever

his tongue

lolled

the

case

any

it was,

broad

pointedto

same

sort

out.

him.
"

You

lives.
II

"

Well
want

it's an

"

change?

with that,is there?

matter

course

live the

obvious

of

"

thingto say,"he began.

"

That's it. A
1

completechange of place."
I want
a
wrong," said I.
complete change
"

You're

time.

to

of

"

that," said I; "we

at

the

Nothing

"

look

can

want

to

to

hundred

ago."

years

"

but I can't advise


Yes," he agreed, better still,

get there.

Italyfor
it

over

back

go

week

get

"

No

out

look

"

two

or

"

here

drop

it's not

"

down

of the train and walk

into

of

late.

too

Sicily
"

Run

off

take your

like

if you

how

you

and

"

to

time

don't go

alone."
"

shouldn't,"said I.

"You

know

I looked down
1

But I shan't

You

don't

"What's

Dandy. Dandy
You
go," I said.
at

"

seem

that?"

shrugged my

II

I'm

an

of someone?"

to

realize the

he asked.

shoulders.

ugly devil,"said

I.

looked
haven't
worst

up

at

me.

diagnosedthe

symptom

ease.
dis-

of it all."

THE

n6

FORUM

CHAPTER

Italy
not

are

good

no

was

I have
dust in

For

few

did

Odessa

if I had

as

his

of them,

minutes

mere

of what

he was,

he executed
protrudingfrom his sides,

of

dance

exhausted

joy as

he

wouldn't

of

him.

In

good feedinghad

at

the time; but when

by and

gone

for

was

"

I.

"

went

If you

Odessa."

You're

he had

more,

well," I

"

off
setting

on,

but remember

coming.

that's all

"

that God-forsaken

please,he laughed again.

not

shook

He

"

very

two

"

"

his

war

never

all about Odessa.


forgotten
No, you'renot coming this time," I said to him.
tail and laughed. He didn't believe me.
Oh
once

arms.

the force of it all

saw

ribs,a scale

happen again. A man


it,Dandy," said I.
Why should you?

put up with

I think he

strengthleft in

in my

last he

at

violent

so

been

"

it should

him

to

few months

all the

lyingbreathless

was

swore

East

I know

shadow

the

suffered quarantine
cheerfully

when

out,

and

snow

there,waitingfor Dandy's release. And


come

in the

norant.
ig-

are

so-called travelled folk have

of your
sake he has

my

There

Europe of which Dandy and I

in half the ports of the south.


born

done it all before.

his littlefootmarks

seen

placeswhere

been.

ever

I had

to me.

in

corners

many

II

"

spot,

I don't care," said

off that box, it's going to

Get

the

station."
In time he

his

about

could

him

see
as

ears.

"
"

found

He

His leash

thinkingit out,
were
saying

"

if he

I went

realize it. There

to

it alwayswas.

where

eyes

began

"

with him

"

gradual dropping
in the

corner

stillhangingin the hall.


a

puzzledfrown

There's

last time

his coat-brush

was

with

came

of

mistake.

course,

there's

himself that there


whereat,half-convincing

his

between

some

gets
for-

He

take
mis-

some

was,

his

ears

dance, a wild
began his get-ready-to-go-out
of terpsichorean
art, on his hind legs.

prickedup
"

and he

You're

not

in the
steadily
It

coming, Dandy," said I,

eyes.

At

and

last he knew, and I had

I looked
to

turn

hibition
ex-

him
away.

the expression
then that twisted his face.
piteous,
he stood
With his tail a limp and a foolish-looking
thing,

was

too

the

upon

doorstepand

of the window
It

OF

GARDEN

THE

hand

out

look back.

not

that did it. He

of the hand

wave

117

drive off. I waved

me

him, but I could

at

that

was

saw

RESURRECTION

I had

knew

beckoningto him just


with laughter so I am told
before it was
too late and, roaring
to think how nearlyI had taken him in,he leaptafter me.
playinghim

been

joke.

There

was,

"

"

I got

When

of the taxi

out

splashedwith

there he was,

at

Victoria,to

behind

mud

amazement,

my

wheels from

our

to

nose

tail.
"

knew

"

jollygood joke!

there

good
We

these?

then

was

can

of envy
I explain? Life

ever

come

no

has

ever

told the story of

morning,Dandy
in my mind.
stilllingering
has

in trouble
a

disease

as

instead.

the back

And

reached

never

man

sees

he

suggest

life;

in the whole

me

me

whom
to

No

me.

and that is part of

"

love affair to

of my existence. Whenever
a
the back; whenever
I meet
a woman
course

on

was,

lunch that

to

has

Dandy

there

so

pay for it at Algiers.


Italyto us after such journeysas

woman
man

And

to

taste

to me

jollygood jokeI

mistake."

some

back home

walked

I with the
forlorn,

How

been

littledevil had

but the poor

What

have

must

"

he roared.

slapsme

on

know, she pats

Italyfor

such

that!

nightor

two

later,I strolled into

I sup alone. The young man


go there. Corks flyout of bottles and

where

restaurant

and the young

casionally
oc-

woman

laughterfliesafter them.
Sometimes there I can imagineI have never
and when
seen
forty,
I assure
it seems
nothing nothing
myselfthat I am forty-three,
of Lethe are in the very finger-bowls
their
at all. The waters
on
it
tables,
though often indeed,as I have rubbed it on my lips,
I have tasted the waters
of Marah.
That nightafter supseems
per,
I sat in the lounge outside,
takingmy coffee. At the other
end of the settee I had chosen sat a woman
tening
lisof twenty-eight,
Here
to the egotismof a boy of twenty-six.
patiently
and there she placeda word with cunningknowledgeof his kind.
Now and again she laughed,when immediatelyrose his empty
bark above it. At times he laughedall by himself.
I suppose I shall have to marry her one of these days and
"

"

settle down," I heard

him

say, and

from

that

moment

my

ears

n8

THE

caught
stilted

sound

no

FORUM

other than

their

voices; his in limping,

two

narrative,hers in encouragingassent.

It

was

story

no

it set the blood

woman,

furious in my

has

man

racingin

fingers.It

very

the
my

rightto tell. Told to a


veins tillit tingledhot and

seemed

he had been

the West

to

Indies,tradingin what I don't know and care less. And there,


of our
no
doubt, with what we call the superiority
European
he had
civilization,
captured the affections of a planter's
daughter.
I

caught her

it. Clarissa
those
And

I heard

"

give you

must

Clarissa loved him !


of

barkinglaugh
Could

justher Christian

only Clarissa

"

youthswho
how

her

name,

his,I could

it have been
islands

sunny

Behind
see

make

all his

was

his story

boastingand
broughther

land of Ireland where

of

one

well she loved him

how

love that had

that gray

He

more.

to

names

anythingbut
to

no

he disclosed

as

name,

true.

that
too.

from

he had

taken her?
I

thought of Mary Queen

France

to

world
great

has

ever

And

historyto

make

this

as

well.

of his

care

need of

Only the

seen.

tragedyas

In the
"

Scots,exiled from her golden


those dim mists of Scotland,the greatest tragedythe
of

he had

aunts

two

there she'll have

to

stay for

placedher.
some

time.

She

wants

educating,"said he, and forthwith he proceeded to recount her


her littlemistakes,at each of
littleignorances,
her littlefollies,
which he threw back his head and laughed.
"She

nothing,"he continued; "not that I think a


But she knows absolutely
know much.
nothing.

knows

ought to
here to school.
I had thoughts of her coming over
But she's
old for that;besides,
tucked away there in Ballyshe's nicely
too
woman

sheen."
The
was

struck

name

it familiar?

know

an

Irish

me

of

my

ears.

But I had

anywhere.

glassbetokened

wandering in

my

of those tricks of

I beckoned

follow it out.

empty

name

One

quicklyon

my

no

inclination then

waiter for another Kummel.

idleness.

direction.

Ballysheen? Why
sense, perhaps. You

The

for when
listening,

I could
man
man

see

would

the woman's
never

have

to

My
eyes
pected
sus-

tellsa story,the sound of

OF

GARDEN

THE

Women,

it absorbs him.

RESURRECTION

find,are

119

different.

They

are

ever

thingsabout them.
is she going to be taught?" she asked when her
How
of my glass.
were
allayedby the filling
suspicions
and slowlyblew out the
He inhaled deeplyof his cigarette
teach her," said he.
smoke between pursedlips. Oh
they'll
From his ill-phrased
his two maiden aunts.
And they were
of them, I could see it all. He had caughta bird of
description
brilliantplumage in the wild heart of a tropicforest,and to a
foot by three he had broughther; a cage hung in some
cage one
the lightof the sun
could enter.
dull drab room,
where never
and their littleprejudices,
Behind the bars of their littlebigotries
this poor untamed
creature
was
beatingher tired wings,or she
there waitingwith watchingeyes for him to return
was
sitting
of the thousand

aware

"

"

"

"

and marry
It was

her.
the

not

of his

manner

that
telling

made

the story

real.
It

those
place. That glareof lights,

the

was

sinuous sounds

of
artificiality
to the
a glass
in public
but I had
places;

of music that crept upon one's ears, all the blatant


it,and this casual narrative told with a laugh and

lips!You

hear strange conversations

heard

never

Her

father

attracted him
"

strange than this.

anythingmore

so
wealthy,

was

to

She'll have

It

it seemed.

was

this that had

the match.
ten

thousand,when

marry," he continued;

we

worth

And more
when her father
about, you know.
thinking
dies. But there's one ghastlydrawback.
I got used to it over
for instance,
there;but since I've been back in England talking,
to women
like yourself I sometimes wonder how the devil I'm
goingto do it."
"

"

I held my breath and strained my ears to listen. It is when


you know what is coming that you are keenest of all to hear.
"

You

don't

to

mean

say she's black?

"

said his

companion,

in horror.
Back
"

would

went

Good

Lord!

tempt

thingas

his head and he

much

me
as

No!
to

marry

laughedrightdown

my

spine.

don't think any amount


of money
black,do you? I hate that sort of

You
a

anybody. No,

she's beautiful

enough,but

she's

THE

120

colored.

There's

there

was

all
Her

FORUM

the strain in her.

self
itfamily. In most of them it'sworn
but she's a set back.
it.
You
can
see
completely,
black as pitch. Not a mat, thank God; it'sfine
as

out

too.
enough. Her skin's quiteolive,

whites of her eyes are


She's got the taste, too, for gaudy

that blue-white of old china.

when

things.Wanted

she first came

that.

to

generationsback

black in the

hair's

colored

Three

The

dress herself in

to

satin
canary-colored

Ballysheen.My aunts soon


put
doubt they'll
teach her in time."
to

Oh, I've no

stop

I think

tle
justthat touch made me see it most of all. The litcreature
puttingon her brightplumage,the very colors which
Nature givesto those whose home is in the sun, and then to have
them

from her, and


stripped

in their placethe dull

of these gray countries given her to wear.


would teach her quicklyenough, those
of his.
gray

Her

learns
quickly

one

"

in such
despair,
all the forms
from
spirit
it most

see

And

room

lesson of

that.

as

of chastisement

the

be the

aunts

skies
lightless

obedience,the obedience

Ready

that

old maiden

two

can

to

their hands would

so

break

soon

satin
Just that canary-colored

sun.

of
of

be

down
made

a
me

of all.
did his

what

aunts

think of it all,I wondered.

It

aloud,for his companion echoed the

if I had wondered

as

roof would

school-room

black
religious
Oh, no doubt, they

was

tion
ques-

thought.

to my

for his bill.


shrugged his shoulders and beckoned lazily
of fact,I
Matter
Can't help what they think,"said he.
He

"

"

don't believe
The
our

they like it

inch of which

left is the old house


if I get

all. We're

rich wife.

an

old

family,you

in Ireland since Cromwell.

Fennells have been


estates, every

at

my
For

aunts

that

has gone.

live in.
reason

He

The

gave

is the greatest

curse

you

us

only property

They'llbe glad enough


suppose theyput up with

her; but it goes againstthe grain. In Ireland,you know,


of black blood

see.

can

have.

drop

They

won't

I can
tell you, it'sa mystery
let anyone get a glimpse of her.
there's someone
there. Everybody knows
over
stayingin the

house
you

"

but

know.

her put

they won't
They take

veil

over

her

let her be
her

out

face.

seen.

Rather

for walks when


You

wouldn't

rough
it'sdark

her,

on
"

believe it in

make
a

cos-

THE

122

"

We

I've

these littlereflections aloud

that he understands, but

It is not

you'd like Nature

doubt

no

she won't."
all do; but, unfortunately,

alwaysmaking

am

friend,"said I,

Ah, my

spoilyou.

to

FORUM

they do

such

to

of

heap

Dandy.
good

to me.

By nighttime
after it. When
wind
walked

home

and

coat

wet

how

he

in the world

one

was

cavernous

that and

positionas

who

on

your

and

joviallaughter
back again? Perhaps
like
have greeteda man

yawns

have

to

wondered, would

entrance, put his hands

your

was

comfortable

say between

jollyglad

there

such

rapturously
upon

greet you

of person,

manner

his feet from

to

after supper the


of rain. As I
shower

to
My steps quickenedas I pictured
Dandy lyingcurled in a completecircle upon

hearthrug. What

rise

of others

score

room.

my

myselfthe sightof
the

restaurant

with

streets

drawn

of the fire that I knew


thought with gratitude

burning in

was

of the

out

came

scouring the

was

cloud had

that gray

you

would

that.
Clarissa.

Ah, but there would


those uncontrollable
back to her that

tears

doubt

at

such

than

more

night. Perhaps she had

curl herself into the

to

laughter,there would be
of gratitudeif Clarissa's lover came

be

hour

an

as

not

completecircle
that she

even

of

fireby which

No

contentment.

fast

asleepin her tinybed


deep into the darkness,

was

with eyes set


her window?
to the ceaseless drivingof the rain upon
listening
ant
Wherever
she was, whatever doing,I could see the joy,litradi-

"

or

was

lyingawake

she

face,at the sound of his voice.


Then, when I thought of his return, I thoughtas well of him.
I
into my eyes.
The sudden pictureof his face came
straight
heard his voice. I heard his laughter. My God!
thought I,
in her

wait for such

what

to
hopelessness

knew

the worthless kind he was?

not.

So few, few
"

"that

treat

men

which left one


made

it. So

far

as

man

as

No, it was

Surelyshe
she did
likely

that!
more

do.

law of God

But what
makes

women

Nature

or

I could

it,"said I

so?"

Had

to
dignity

my

women

shred of

is

see

there

there been

myself,
an

swer
an-

back, I might have


"

was

to

none.

Unless," I

OF

GARDEN

THE

RESURRECTION

"

thought, unless it is she asks

better of

no

123

and gets but little

us

more."
words

The

to
flatly

heard

Here, I say."

stopped,peeringinto the shadow.


beneath the overhangingportalof

was

as

passed I

tradicted
con-

girlwas

tering
there,shel-

the door.

is it?" I asked.

What

Perhaps the

genuineinquiryin my voice,no doubt


thingsas well,checked her in what she was
she caughtthe words and shut her lipsupon
of

tone

thousand other
say, for

goingto

when

doorway

"

"

From

face.

my

mind

my

voice.

woman's

entered
scarcely

had

them.
"

is it? "

What

I asked

again.

She screwed up her face into


injureddignityin her heart.
"

Would

Now
should

you

have

the

surprise.It was
I
very question

few steps back.

I had

from

they asked

us

ask of any

woman

In
never

because

awkward

some

reached

But it is more
to

woman
ever

man

me

"

better.

no

has

woman

Yet

put

face I

my

direct

an

answer

myselfbut

received the

worst

what

can

"

ever

have

better

said that life has


to

come

and it is less. I have

"

adorned from

women

charity?
effort to explain
I

than that

I have

that

had

said she.

than

no

say to me,

has.

assumed

"

across

so

hide the

to

cab fare home?

my

blow of her hand

felt more

to
assumption,

to my

giveme

to

I received

had
not

like

doubt

smile;no

Come

known

and

women

whom

me

in trouble.

often wanted

hat."

I would

No
like

woman

to

have

daintyheads to the soles of their


elegant
feet;but either it is that they have husbands who do it
for them or there is some
ridiculous etiquette
which forbids it.
It seems
I am one of those men
of whom
asks nothing,
a woman
another symptom of the disease which I forgotto tellmy doctor.
You may imagine,
out
then,what I felt when this girlcame
of nowhere and asked me
to pay her cab fare home.
My hand
went
to my
straight
pocket. She might have asked so many
hat.
thingsother than that. She might have asked for a new
Her

own

was

the top of their

buy

me

sodden with rain.

THE

i24

I looked
"

I.

whole

I could

and
"

street

street.

difficultto get

so

She

empty.

was

she

see

be wet

must

You'd

whistle for

shadow,

this umbrella.

I get them

while

to

"

taxi.'

She stood

under

come

sit indoors

better

cab," said

of the

peeredout

"

justhere.

the

as

the skin.

to

here," I continued,

Look

live

the

won't find the fare

You

The

and down

up

FORUM

quitestillfor
Women

thing to do.

and stared

moment

behave

It

at times.
ridiculously

the

only obvious thing to suggest,


be aware
though I could not possibly

yet she gazed

and

of what

was

ish
fool-

at me.

at

was
as

me

saying. I

aware.

was
"

Be

good enough

severely.Then
As

there

myselfthat

moment

do them.

this

two

were

aspects
He

man.

There

I have

umbrella,"I repeated,

obeyed.

my

alwaysdoes.

under

come

along in silence to

walked

we

for the

she

to

my
the

to

would

be

door, I began
I had

case.

He

me.

knows

believe he likes it. But

to

come

see

forgotten

waitingup for

littlethings,and Moxon

are

to

how

to

would

he

like this?
"

Oh, Moxon

have

said it

Moxon
"

He

looks after

was

not

for she drew


You're

have

almost

"

swell,then?

tell me
what
you'll
if you'reright."
for

for

swell's

confirmed

she said.

the

She said it with conviction.

too.
question,

If

prompted her
"

who
sympathetically

me

opinionin her
quitesane; that Moxon, indeed,was my keeper,
littletillI laughed and explained.
a
away

Whereupon
"

must

me," I replied.

must

She said it as

you

course,

was.

that I

"

I, and, of

loud, for she asked

out

I think that

"

said

be damned,"

an

few

you

mean

moments

answer,

she

by that,"said I,
she

was

"

I'll tell

but when
silent,

said,

swell."

Then

the description
doesn't applyto me,"
certainly
I opened my door.
and, takingout the latchkey,

At firstshe hesitated
sleeve of her dress

was

to

come

drenched.

in,but I took her

arm.

plied,
re-

The

THE
"

You

OF

GARDEN

RESURRECTION

said I.
mustn't stay outside,"

"

125

Justcome

and wait in

while Moxon
sitting-room
gets a taxi.' He won't be long."
I opened the door, there,sure
The moment
enough, was
Dandy to his feet,but at the sightof my visitorhe arrested all
motion and glared. At this time of nightI was
his personalbelonging.

my

He

was

he turned round

at me,

so

This

from

There

was

doubt

no

he

sented
re-

When

and stared into the fire. I

never

proach
re-

saw

drawn in the outline of a dog'sback before.


clearly
is justa foretaste,"
thoughtI, of what we shall get
"

Moxon," and I

with

himself.

to

me

this intrusion of another person, and when he realized it


his contempt was
wonderful. With justa glance
woman,

"

had

I turned

rang

the bell.

round, she

was

lookingall about

the

room

silentwonder

in her eyes. It is comfortable,I know.


I
have been told that. But no one has ever
surveyedit with such
a

expressionin their eyes as she had then.


ashamed
of myself for calling
it my own;
for
seemed to see all the dull,cheapfinery
of her own
an

I felt almost
in that look

squalidlittle

rooms.
"

the

The

world

is hard

of Clarissa

name

was

justgoingto

women," I said
like

came

in her littlegown
I

on

of

an

myself,and again
rissa
my thoughts. Cla-

to

echo into

satin.
canary-colored

ask her

more

she forestalled

about herself when

me.
II

Do

you

I nodded
"All

live here alone?


my

this to

and the look of astonishment

"

she asked.

head.

yourself?"
I nodded again.
"Aren't you lonely?"
I felt grateful
for Moxon's
to

"

entrance.

that

He

leaptinto

opened the door,


his face

was

crous
ludi-

behold.

beg pardon,sir,"he said quickly.


I rang,"said I.
taxi for
I want
you to whistle for a
this lady. She's been caughtin the rain outside."
He went out obediently,
the door. Another moment
closing
and we heard his whistle blowingviolently
in the street.
u

"

Is that Moxon?

"

she asked,when

he had

gone.

'

11

It is."

"

What's

"

I shouldn't

believe
She

then

to

came

should
then

did you

above

all

told her

flashed

women

that

is the whole

do with

world

brought

of

appeal to
"

"

That's

true," said I,

looked

at

from

What, become

to

someone

her

own

She
"

whole

me

of

years

to

One

everything.

in distress.
to

come

hold

that
I

and

in

woman

I have

What
did.

You

me.

That's

in Ireland

to

were

taxi

me."

know

don't

and

"

the

She'll

good

for it

day,"

she

Go

and

out

saving any
you

woman

for it."

said, and

there

were

in her voice.
I

and
things differently,

saw

room.

for the

lady," said

he.

tilt

lost her

child who's

of

only hate

the face.

one

"

said I.

strangelyin
you

"

laughed.

Quixote !

What's

and, almost

"

her?

to

go

you

knight-errantto

pose

terror

'

doesn't

she

Why

Don

into the
'

"

infatuation?

She'll thank

The

But

she asked.

If this child

"

chair

else !

looked

Moxon
"

"

me?

"

Suddenly, then,
came

always

queerly deedilyis the word

me

in my

windmills, try

heart

did?

"

she?

can

I leant back
"

it if I

"

whisper, she asked,

Why

answer.

me

How

She

irrelevant

women

in here.

you

asked.

just heard.

replied, " and

Nothing,"

the fire,and

giftedwith understanding,

are

to

she

the belief I

mind

of the story I had


what's

"

understand

she

my

I feel inclined

staring at

some

complain of is that they never

why

at

across

creatures

"And

trouble

Would

is

me.

in here?

me

lips to give

my

I tell her?

there

"

bring

mind

Moxon's

Sometimes

two

or

quicklyat

up

"

I.

all."

at

moment

said

solve.

never

thinks

never

silent for

sat

say,"

"

in here?

bringing mc

to

attempt

that he

Why

It

in

of you

suddenly looked
"

to

he think

of the riddles I shall

one

to

FORUM

THE

126

at

that

moment

RESURRECTION

OF

GARDEN

THE

CHAPTER

only has

Not

ideas about

IV

his ideas about

Moxon

127

he has also his

me;

women.

"

to me,
They're a strange lot of people,"he said once
all huddled togetherin
but as if they were
meaning women,
waitingdown in the hall.
said I.
By which you mean?
By which I mean, sir,that my sisterAmy has thrown off
she was
the man
engagedto and has taken to religion."
I doubt if
That was
much what he meant.
not telling
me
it was
that he had
he really
knew himself. In all probability
to the conclusion that he knew
come
nothingwhatever
violently
about them, in which case a man
will speakknowinglyof women
"

"

"

in non-committal
In the

terms.

diplomatic
way,

same

I knew

he

must

thinkinga

be

great deal with every blast of that whistle out in the street, and
doubtless in the same
diplomatic
way, he would express it later.
I returned therefore with
"

certain

"

of expectancy

amount

to

that poor
littlecreature
had vanished away into the gray heart of her own
world. There was
that which I had slipped
into her purse which
room

my

as

might pay
what

soon

as

the

for the fare and

hats cost, for I do

into my

pocket,I

And
mind.

taxi

Moxon

perhapsa

say, I

hat

as

well. God

Wherefore, when

not.

left it to God

then,as I

driven off and

had

to

suggest the

returned,with

I put my

knows
hand

amount.

deal of expectancy in

ing
with Dandy lookputtingout my slippers
of contempt for
on
him, with expressions
Dandy assuring
his intelligence,
that it was
not a bit of good.
There's someone
with him," sniffed Dandy.
shall
We
have to sit up tilltheygo," and he looked back again into the

my

was

"

"

fire.
I remained
to

there for

hear what Moxon

said

it,upon

my

had

soul,I

watchinghim, really
waiting

moment

to

say.
to

came

He

stood up

then,and

the conclusion that I had

as

he

never

had such respect for diplomacy


before.
II
Is there anything
sir? " he asked,and had there been
more,
a

conscience

to

prickme,

swear

to

Heaven

I should

have

THE

128

FORUM

begged his pardon for having asked


smiled
"

when
serenely

No

I looked

much.

so

it was,

As

back into his face.

I think that's

enough," said I.
And
when
he replied, Yes, sir,"it was
intended to convey
that he entirely
agreed with me.
I let him get to the door and there he stopped,
lookinground
the room
if I had forgotten
to see
once
anythingon my
more,
I called him back.
It
own
account; then as he was
departing,
might have been enough for him; it was a gross misrepresentation
"

"

to
"

Do

help a
"

that it was

say

if she

woman

fresh
II

to

in trouble?

was

began,

"

wouldn't

that you

"

said anything

sir,"he replied, that I had

woman."

swallow

that

best I could and

as

begin againon

score.
"

Well," I continued, if

her her cab fare home


in
what

aware,

about any
I had

Moxon,"

"

not

was

me.

to say,

mean

you

enough for

"

drenched

woman

in the
doorway,shivering

would

cold

asked you to give


ing
to the skin,shelter-

at one

o'clock

at

night
"

"

do?

you

had

woman

"

Naturally if you put it that way, sir but it'sagainstmy


o'clock at
I'm never
out
at one
and, what's more,
principles,
eleven."
night,I make a pointof being in by half-past
This was
evasive for me.
So far as his principles
too
are
"

"

concerned, I know
mother

and

talk about

all about
sisters out

two

to

who

man

earningshas

supports his

rightto

every

to help a woman
principles
call upon one
to believe
special

no

fancymyselfthat when,
that

of his

in distress;

it beingagainsthis

but there is

me

them.

women

as

in

rule do

of confidence,Moxon

moment
not

take

hide his affection for the whole

him.

to

sex.

told

him, it is that he wishes

quiteagree

with him.

If I had any affection for the sex, I should try to hide it myself.
But all this was
beside the point. One thing,and one
really

thing only,was

in full occupationof my

that littlehalf-drowned
"

She'll thank you

had

mouse

for it

one

(To

be

said

mind
to

day."
continued)

me

"

the last words

before she

went.

THE

130

is also bound
"

to

which

FORUM

England by

indefinite " understanding

somewhat

effected several years ago through the able diplomacy


of King Edward.
But a year after that monarch
had
was

succeeded in

healingthe

breach which had been

ing
widenconstantly
between Russia and England since the Russo-Japanese
War,
the German
to solidify
Emperor seized a momentary opportunity
the TripleAlliance by and with the consent
and aid of Nicholas
II. He not only persuaded the Tsar to recognizethe complete
independenceof Bulgaria a task mitigatedsomewhat
by the
"

of Russia

eagerness

for the

to countenance

weakening of Turkey

Porte.

of the

What

to

approve

govina
provincesof Bosnia and Herze-

States hitherto under the

two

"

by Austria

which should make

but he got Nicholas

"

the annexation

move

any

of
suzerainty

the Sublime

he

promised Russia in return for these friendly


acts is not definitely
known, but the result has been a tightening
of the bonds between Germany and Austria.
On the other hand the Kaiser justrecently
received a rude
setback in his
gave

him

was
policy

propaganda when

understand

to

stillin

Moroccan

of

out

that the Dual


not

liance
Al-

brook

any

with the actions

Germany

Empire.

Germany

more

situation. She has

fian Empire which

ago

and her Moroccan

remember

must

the part of

desire of

political
pie is nowhere

are

on

in the Moorish
constant

France

as

three months

some

and that Russia would


effect,

officiousinterference

The

far

so

concerned,Germany

was

of France

that

Russia

to

have

fingerin

every

evident than in her attitude in the


"

no

vital interests " in the Sheree-

requirelookingafter,while Spainand France

concerned in the affairsof that turbulent corner


closely
the Kaiser considers it entirely
Africa; but apparently
sistent
conwith his dreams of a Greater Germany to make capital
very

of any situation of distrustbetween other Powers.


clamoringfor a concession from
press is justnow

on
a coaling-station
particularly

The

man
Ger-

Morocco,

the Atlantic Coast of Northern

Africa; and with that end in view the Foreign Office is quietly
in Madrid.
England and France
stirring
up anti-French feeling
to be leased
could not afford to allow Mogador, for instance,
or

the

ceded
routes

to
to

Germany, for that would

givethe

Kaiser

base

on

South Africa and South America; yet any attempt

BALANCE

THE
to

of

OF

POWER

prevent itwill call for the nicestkind of

Europe is to be preserved.As

matters

IN

131

19 15

diplomacyif the
stand

at

peace

present the

attitude of Russia may act as a check on German


Franco-phile
thoughthe vacillations of Muscovite diplomacystand in
designs;
the way of any definitesettlement of the difficulty.
interested but passive
The United States has remained
an
spectator of the situation in Europe. To be sure, the strength
which stillranks second only to that of Great
of our
navy
immense
wealth would make us a highlydesirable
Britain and our
this,
allyfor one faction or the other; and, recognizing
in his power
the Kaiser has long been doingeverything
to win
favors upon Americans
both
He has showered
our
friendship.
here and in Germany; in 1902 he invited the President's daughter
to christen his American-built
yacht;he sent his brother,
Prince Henry, on a visitto the United States ; institutedexchange
between American and Prussian universities has
professorships
done everything,
in fact,that he could do to earn
our
good will,
and perhapsalso to alienate our national affection for England.
Yet he can scarcely
be said to have succeeded;for though he has
been most
his officialrepin littlethings,
and friendly
courteous
resentativ
of political
have ever
and
opposed ours in matters
economic importance.In questions
such vital interests
affecting
the tariff,
the potashdispute,
as
arbitration,
disarmament, the
of neutrals at sea, Germany and
Open Door in China, the rights
America have taken positions
other;
opposed to one andiametrically
whereas in all such discussions our representatives
have
worked alongsubstantially
lines as the English. And
the same
if to put the finishing
touch upon the Kaiser's discomfiture,
as
now,
the most
colossal
to erecting
we
to be in a fair way
seem
monument
to international peace ever
attempted a categorical
and bindingarbitration treaty with England. This agreement
will leaguetogetherin sympathetic
union all the English-speaking
"

"

"

"

peopleof this earth,who control the destinies of one-third of the


populationof the world, and who have stood shoulder to shoulder
for

for the past one-hundred years.


and progress
liberty
The state of equilibrium
in which the great Powers
now
find themselves will,in all probability,
remain stable until 19 15,
when it will be disturbed,
if not completely
destroyed,
by the

THE

132

opening of the Panama


of the

FORUM

Canal

Anglo-JapaneseTreaty of

forces that will then tend

to

from

and

two

Japan

sources,

the

and

expirationby limitation

Offence

disturb the

positionof the United

and

stains

Defence.
quo

will

The

emanate

Germany. Furthermore, the


States

as

World

Power

tered
alof

must

necessity
change her hitherto passiveattitude toward her fellownations and compel her,however unwillingly,
the role
to assume
of active participant
in the political
and economic strugglefor
supremacy.

In the firstplace the


from

the Atlantic

Power

to

in the greatest of

probablyfor
of

Canal, by giving passage to our fleet


the Pacific,
the dominant
will make
us

While

oceans.

fleet is now,

our

and

long time will be, materially


stronger than that

Japan, it is not

part of it in either

great

enough
Our

admit

to

of

maintaininga

our

for

keeping it constantly
in the Atlantic are many, chief among
them being the fact that
have neither the docking nor
the coalingfacilitieson our
we
ocean.

reasons

adequate for the proper maintenance of a large


fleetof modern battleships.
By the time the Canal is finished we
hope to have brought the dockyardat Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, to
such a state of efficiency
that,in conjunctionwith the Mare
Island and Bremerton
Navy Yards (and to a lesser extent those
be able to keep our
at Cavite and Olongapo) we
fightingmay
of the moment
demand.
shipsin either sea, as the exigencies
the Canal, which lately
of fortifying
The question
promised
endless trouble and dispute,has fortunately
been setto cause
tled
of erectingsuitable forts and
in Congress, and the work
western

may

at

each end will

begin.

soon

hostile fleet;further,the fixed works


a

mobile

force of soldiers

fortificationsfrom

great deal of money,


such

It is

essential
absolutely
these should be of such extent and completenessthat they
attack by a
guard the Canal againstany possible
effectually

batteries
that

coast

interests are

enormous

the seizure of the waterway

cripplingof
to
opposition

the

our

be

supplementedby

adequate to protect both Canal

land attack.
but

must

This will

dare

we

at

by

not

undoubtedlycost

consider expense

stake; and the


a

and

mere

foreignPower,

when

thought of

ant
with the result-

sea-strength,
ought of itself to silence any

appropriations.

BALANCE

THE
As
look

to

IN

auxiliariesto the defences of the Canal


of Hawaii,
protection

the

mentioned; and
at

namo,

POWER

OF

the

eastern

end

of

itselfwe

and the naval arsenal

the Atlantic side

on

must

already

developGuanta-

must

we

133

19 15

Cuba, about 660 miles north of

logicalstrategic
outpost for the
It is admirablysuited by itslocation
naval defence of the Canal.
end of the Isthmus,
to guard all the approachesto the eastern
that we
it into a strong
and it is imperative
convert
eventually
base for our
fleet. Its topographical
such that
are
peculiarities
fortificationwould be easy, and its roadstead is more
than ample
for our needs. A great and efficientdockyardand repair-station
of several shipsat a
should be erected there able to take care
is too

time,for Hawaii

yardon

is the

Guantanamo

Colon.

far away, and the nearest


first-class
navy
the Atlantic Coast (Norfolk) is about 2,000 miles from

Colon.
While

priceto
North

peopleitwould

to some

and South

pay

for

America, we

look

Canal
must

as

across

not

if all this were


the Isthmus

lose

sightof

an

orbitant
ex-

joining
salient

two

facts.

the Canal will prove of inestimable value in the


Firstly,
and secondly,
developmentof the Pacific Coast of both continents;
it would prove utterly
ruinous to our
growth and safety
should it fall into the hands of some
With a
foreignPower.
hostile flagflying
the Canal Zone and an enemy'sfleetconover
centrated
either at Colon or Panama
(thecitiesat the termini of
the waterway) our Gulf Coast and our western
seaboard could
not possibly
be properlyprotected
in the event of a state of war
between us and any other Power.
The Panama
existing
Strip
is strategically
line,
as well as politically
an
integral
part of our coastand, except perhapseconomically,
quiteas importanta part
as

New

York

It is by

no

or

San Francisco.

means

difficultto

foresee what

the effect will be

Pacific States of the

openingof the Canal to traffic. The


expected great influx of immigrants from Europe into the
sections of California,Oregon and Washingsparsely-settled
ton
will effecttremendous
changesin economic conditions there ;
and it is perhapsnot too much to hope that the present overcrowding

on

our

of

tide of

our

Atlantic

seaboard

cities due

immigrationfrom overpopulatedEurope

to

may

the
be

huge
ar-

THE

134
rested

by

the Far

the

FORUM

diversion of

the

the

through

stream

Canal

to

West.

Another

aspect of the

trafficwhich

changedconditions

will lie in the

mercial
com-

will be

brought into being by the newlyAlreadya Japanese steamshipcompany has

opened trade route.


its intention of establishing
line to New
The
York.
signified
a
Hamburg-Amerika Line not long ago acquiredthe Kosmos Line,
a German
Company operatingsteamshipson the west coast of
These

South America.

if we

by others,and

will surelybe
enterprises

new

Americans

do

wish

not

to see

followed

allthe business

monopolized by the alert merchants of aggressiveGermany and


Japan, we must bestir ourselves and urge upon Congress the
of affording
relieffrom the intolerable
necessity
at present hamper our
deep-seashippingtrade
of

merchant

our

conditions which
and

the

growth

marine.

Both

Germany and Japan use the same methods of fostering


trade
cheap goods and cheap freightsin subsidized ships;and
ods,
England and the United States,unless they adopt similar methican
to see what share theynow
are
likely
possess in South Amerbusiness taken from them by these two
militant
commercially
"

The

nations.

trade of the northern

half of the Pacific is

alreadystronglydominated by the powerfulsteamshiplines of


the Mikado's
and we may in all reasonableness expect
subjects,
the splendidnew
turbine liners of the Nippon Yusen
to
see
Kaisha and the Toyo Kisen Kaisha invadingthe South Atlantic
thereto without making the long
have access
as soon
as theycan
detour

the Horn.

around

will

Americans

and

and

Lloyd

soon

And

on

have

to

the

western

compete

Hamburg-Amerika

coast

the

English

with the North

Lines,the

two

man
Ger-

largestand

best-managed ship-owningcompanies of the worldSuccessful competition


will not be easy, for the wages
paid to
the

among

and

the Germans

Japanese are

vastlylower

their

crews

those

and onlyfrom one-quarter to


paid on Englishvessels,

by

American

compelled to
the Stars and Stripes.
complements of shipsflying
half

as

So

much

unless

as

we

come

well abandon

our

senses

are

and

by

pay

to

one-

the

ment
increased Govern-

impending competition,
we
may
of
the fast-growing
the idea of holdingour share

aid take steps


as

to

owners

than

to

meet

this

America.

trade of South

trade follows the

POWER

OF

BALANCE

THE

IN

135

19 15

if it be in any wise true that


low
surelywill the flagtend to fol-

And

flag,
justso

Japan and Germany feel the


and what were
need of an outlet for their surpluspopulation,
natural than that they should try to found colonies in the
more
have had plentyof
We
temperate latitudes of South America?
warningexamplesof what would happen in a mercantile way
their sovereignty
should Japan and Germany succeed in forcing
and
Just as Korea, parts of Manchuria
upon alien territory.
gent
the Kiao Tschiao Peninsula are shut to our trade by the strinlaws of Japaneseand German
rule,so also should we find
closed to our exports and imports.
those parts of South America
of the Kaiser and the Mikado
do not invite outThe subjects
side
for they are not rich enough
as do Englishmen,
competition
and
to be able to afford the luxuryof free-for-all competition,
with the selfishpolicyof exnot in a position
to do away
ploiting
so are
for the sole benefit of their
possessions
newly-acquired
on

the heels of trade.

Both

countrymen.

own

Of

course

there is

one

serious obstacle in the way

very

of

Doctrine, which states


Germany and Japan the Monroe
that the United States cannot
and will not allow any
clearly
further acquisition
of American
territory
by any European (or
other foreign)Power.
the British Government
For years now
has lent its approvalto this dictum,and we
pect
excertainly
may
"

such

continuation of this line of conduct


doctrine is of

on

her part.

But

unless backed up by armed


validity
force like a blockade,itwill not be recognized
by others unless
it is unqualifiedly
efficient. Now, in the absence of a strong navy
could not expect foreigners
we
to respect the Monroe
Doctrine,
and so we must
decide promptlyand definitely
whether we wish
to withdraw
from a position
have held for
we
ignominiously
and increase our navy to
ninety
years or face the issue squarely
such dimensions as will make aggression
the part of others
on
at least unprofitable,
if not impossible.Again the question
of
either go forward, shouldering
must
expense; but we
new
sponsibilitie
rea

no

"

or

wither

and

Germany,infinitely
poorer
has chosen

to

in

die
"

such

is the law

populationand

spend immense

sums

on

wealth

of nations.
than

her navy,

and

selves,
ourwe

THE

136
either

must

in the

keep

one-half

of

her

her

on

fleet she

internal debt.

is

intolerable burden

proving an

we

"

she

treaty of 1905

can

expend

can

great

any

of

years

some

system of taxation which


in a land where love of

even

country is a burning passionin all ranks of


The

present

our

longer the
nal
to pay off part of her huge exteras
so
As it is,she is making creditable progress

onlyby virtue

that end, but

to

and

Before

at

even

only

easilykeep
exhausted by
financially

year

continue for

must

policyof rigideconomy
and

and

ours,

fleet is

Her

Japan.

to

poor,

with Russia.

war

people graduallylose

our

a
battleships

two

her, for Japan is

recent

sum

regard

powerful as

"

ahead

with

as

of increase

rate

see

or

foreignmarkets.

It is otherwise
about

the pace

up

for

contest

FORUM

with

society.

triumph of ese
Japandiplomacy. In the fall of that year, only a few days after
the officialclose of the Russo-Japanese
War, England signed a
England

treaty with Japan, the

secret

was

of which

terms

given to the public. Such information


to

offensive and

an

which

by
the

defensive

each

alliance between

covenants

to come

The

nation.

treaty was

in the

sought therebyto checkmate


Powers

would

as

there

"

such

any

had

as

to

was

be

wrested

two

tries
coun-

with any

war

other

Japan
give-and-take.

such concerted

of the

depriveher

campaigns

of

those

the aid of the other in

to

nature

fully

never

givenout points

was

as

of the latter becominginvolved in

event

were

spoilsof her

by

move

ous
victori-

recent

terventi
in-

Franco-Russo-German

no

from

her Port Arthur

the

and

the

Tung Peninsula ten years before. England was relieved of


of keeping a strong fleetin Chinese waters
the necessity
and was
of trouble in India.
assured of Japanese help in case
Liao

As

soon

force for
known

in

as

ten

the

"

years, and then

which

much

more

the

to

was

expireif not renewed

England, the anti-administration

of criticism on
for

of this pact

terms

press

"

continue in
made

were

began

paign
cam-

self
ground that England had pledged her-

than

she

could

hope

to

benefit

by; and

pointed out that in case of trouble between


Japan and the United States England would be called upon to
take sides againstan altogetherfriendly
country, and one from
the hostile papers

whom

she derived

of her food-supply.
When,
largeproportion

THE

138
tion of
The

Russia,not

FORUM

cordial either

too

actions of the German

recent

or
politically
commercially.

Government'

in the Moroccan

imbrogliohave re-openedthe old antagonism of


her neighbor across
the Rhine; while at the same
attitude of Britain
ties of the Entente
Another
and

Cordiale.

of friction between

cause

France

and

England

of the former
more

or

time the sympathetic

strengthenthe alreadyfast

to

serves

toward

France

less " in loco

the other

on

in Dutch

Germany
is the

hand

one

ence
interfer-

constant

Kaiser

affairs. The

the

on

self
considers him-

"

parentis toward the Netherlands,and

has

presumed upon his kinshipwith the Prince Consort to an


It is
extent
not
altogetherrelished by the sturdy Hollanders.
an
open secret that he looks with longingeyes on the great Dutch
for doubt but that
colonies,
Java and Sumatra ; nor is there room
him in
he would welcome
which might justify
any opportunity
annexing Holland itselfwith its rich cities and lucrative trade.
William has for years been

tryingto persuade Holland

to

tify
for-

Flushing,at the mouth of the Scheldt. Such action would


not
cut off Antwerp, Belgium'sone
only effectually
great seaport,
tile
and safe base for a hosfrom the sea, but itWould provide a new
fleet operatingagainstEngland.

burghers have
this

far

so

The

refused
steadfastly

to

hard-headed
vote

Dutch
for

the money

expensivefortificationproject,much to the Kaiser's disappointment;


and the trend of publicfeeling
throughout Holland

is turning
more

and

more

away

from

Germany

and

toward

land
Eng-

French, too, cannot view these actions


land
without trepidation,
for the littleKingdoms of Belgium and Holin the

are

nature

indeed the French


that

The

France.

and

overt

any

of

bulwark

Government

act

of

along her northern frontier;

recently
gave

aggressiontoward

it to be understood
the Netherlands

on

Germany's part would immediatelybe followed by the occupation


of Belgium by a French army.
England has, of course, not been blind to these evidences of
German
policy.Most thinkingEnglishmen who, trulypatriotic,
have
that

at

heart the welfare

sooner

or

of the entire British

questionsat issue must


the desperateneed of room

later the

Germany feels
she must
expand at
apparently

the expense

Empire, realize
be definitely
tled.
setto grow

of Great

in,but

or
Britain,

BALANCE

THE
of the United

Anglo-Saxonallow
war;

mean

Can

States.

this?

and such

the
To

balance

attempt

of power

mean

139

19 15

to prevent
seriously

itwill

tions
the very nature
of the condiruin to one
side or the other.

between

as

IN

nations which call themselves

two

from

war

which caused it would


The

POWER

OF

the

two

factions is

marily
pri-

fundamentally
dependenton the control of the sea.
of attack by land,
America
is susceptible
Neither England nor
and no attack can be effected so long as their naval forces can
prevent the landingof troops upon their shores. Therefore to
those two nations the maintenance of a powerfulnavy is paramount,
and

and

must

be looked

to

before

of the size of their armies is

all else;while the tion


quesof decidedly
secondary
matter

importance.The United States has chosen to neglecther


and has probably
land forces while addingyearlyto her fleet;
of her mobile army.
There has
too far in the neglect
gone even
been a tendencyin this country to frown upon the idea of
ever
has proved
an
adequatestandingarmy, and while this prejudice
frightfully
costlyupon at least three occasions in our national
history(1812, 1861 and 1898), we have not yet succeeded in
effectiveness
overcomingour sentimental confidence in the military
of

volunteer army
In England the same

while
looks
to come

of militia.

is found,but there are unmistakable


prejudice
signsthat it is no longerso powerfulas it was; and
it
every Briton stilldislikes the thoughtof conscription,
if compulsorymilitary
service were
bound
as
very much
within the next few years. Already Australia has voted

for it,and

New

Zealand, South Africa and Canada

are

templating
con-

her example.
following
the
Still,

navy

remains

BritishEmpire is unanimous

the paramount
in

issue,and the whole

demanding a virile and militant


of the fleet. In the
policyin respect to the steadyupbuilding
United States the peopleare onlylately
sity
awakeningto the necesfor building
and maintaining
but as yet Congress
a strong navy,
has shown no disposition
toward a generous
looseningof
the purse-strings.
The two battleships
which are annually
vided
profor are
the
older
only enough to replace
shipsas they
become obsolete,
and unless we increase the yearlyappropriations
for new
construction we
shall find ourselves graduallyfalling

THE

140

behind

in the

AlreadyGermany is abreast of
will have passedus ; and surely
should
we

Januarynext
at

race.

when

expense

such vital interests

with but two-thirds


find the

well able
so

as

by

stickle

not

If

stake.

at

are

and

us,

nation

population,and half our wealth, can


build five capitalships annually,
while at the

to

means

time

same

FORUM

our

supportingan

of 600,000 men,

army

surelywe

are

the more
equalnumber of units to our fleet,
land forces comprise no more
than 80,000 regular
add

to

our

an

soldiers.
The

navies of the

eightleadingPowers

followingtable,onlyshipscompleted for
beingcounted:
England.
10
Dreadnoughts
Older
40
battleships.
.

Dreadn't

France.

sea

June

on

in the

as

1,

Germany. Japan. Italy.Austria.

191 1,

Russia.

cruisers

"

Armored

U. S.

rank

now

34

Scouts

12

Destroyers

150

Submarines

70

....

The

notable feature of this listof

most

undoubted

of England
superiority

nations,even

the other
But

secure

and

the

when

is the
fighting-ships

and the United

is left out

France

States

all

over

of consideration.

positionof the Anglo-Saxon Powers in 191 1,


it will be evident from Table II,given below, that four years
hence conditions will have changed greatly.Germany will by
then have usurped our placeas second Power
in naval strength,
Russia

is the

as

putativecoalition

Austria,Japan
Germany, Italy,

"

will be able

"

the
flying

to

muster

force

not

and

littlesuperiorto that

White

Ensign and the Stars and Stripes.


Below are the figuresfor the fleetsof the same
nations as
with
theywill be in the year 19 15 (so far as may be predicted
any

at

assurance

the present

England.
Dreadnoughts
Older battleships
...

since

1900

Dreadn't

cruisers..

Armored

cruisers

since

1900

8.

U.

time):

France.

Germany.

Japan. Italy. Austria.

Russia.

26

14

19

25

16

13

10

10

13

14

34

(Scouts,Destroyers

13

and

13

Submarines
data

are

omitted,

concerningthem.)

as

there

is

no

reliable

BALANCE

THE

POWER

OF

IN

19 15

141

of the fleets
margin of superiority
those of England and the United States will
of the coalition over
be sufficientto warrant
not be very marked, yet it might conceivably
in
an
attempt on the part of Germany to seize territory
in her ability
South America
to retain posor
elsewhere,trusting
session
And
her flagis unfurled.
once
ture
any open act of this nafor the solidarity
be viewed by England as a hostile move,
must
of the
of the British Empire depends on the inviolability

althoughin

Now

of

routes

19 15 the

between

commerce

the Colonies

and the Mother

try.
Coun-

(Hence, for example, the necessityfor maintaininga


British squadron in the Mediterranean
the way to
to keep open
India and Australia.)The United States,also,has pledgedherself
ica,
Doctrine with regard to South Amerto uphold the Monroe
and at the same
time must
be preparedto defend the Philippines
from possible
attack and seizure by Japan. It
and Hawaii
shall also be called upon
be that we
to guard the Pacific
may
Coast of
prove

an

Canada, Australia and New


and

enormous

largerthan

ours

Zealand

all of which

"

task
well-nigh
impossible

will be four years

hence

for

its present

at

navy
rate

will
no

of

growth.
The

Anglo-American Arbitration agreement, however, is an


tween
importantfactor,and may lead to the revision of the treaty beGreat Britain and Japan; indeed,this seems
as
inevitable,
of the treaty Great Britain might be
by the present provisions
with the United States,
compelledto support Japan in a war
which the Arbitration Agreement will make
impossible.The
be
necessary modifications in the Anglo-JapaneseTreaty may
secured at the cost of extendingthe duration of the treaty for
another term
of years.* This, of course,
will affect the balance
of power
in 191 5 ; but the necessity
for facingthe ultimate issue
remains.
before it is too
Therefore
let us face it boldly now;
late. Carthage,Venice, Portugal,Holland
each in turn lost
hooves
an
empirethrough neglectof their once invincible navies: it bethen to profit
us
by their experience to take up arms
againsta sea of troubles,and by opposingend them."
"

"

"

"

for

The

six

treaty

years,

"

has

now

Editor,

been

modified

as

and
anticipated,

its

term

extended

ERNESTO

NATHAN,
Bertrand

OF

MAYOR

Martin

ROME

Tipple

majorityof foreignersvisitingRome,

1-^HE

look

to

past,

the

upon

and

temples

of

remnants

generations,to study those churches


preserve

superb specimens of the

they ride

to

the Coliseum

in

in the

large department

read

while

and

talk

they are

soil,they are

people, a people concerned

in the midst of

stocks and

with

bonds,

ownership and the redemption of


schools,playgroundsand aeroplanes.
They climb those spaciousstairs that lead
Capitol,mounting the

Tribune, fled, disguised as

They

heralds of the
their white
then rode

steeds

Aurelius.

to

create

democratic

Their

the Fountain

who

of

knows

where?

They

an

bosom."
are

on

guide book

"

At

the

any

rate

informs

Pollux,

and

watered

the hill and


to

pause

spect
in-

is

emperor

in

loyaltyeven

that is what

said.

Hawthorne

Rome.

troduce
King Saturn, the in-

that here

them

"

moments.

CapitolineHill, the heart of ancient


opened

an

asylum

fugitiveslaves,here the Sabines with the aid of the traitress,

Tarpeia, conquered,here
squawking
recess

Rienzi,the

equestrian statue

of

sentiment

of civilization,
settled,here Romulus
for

"

sight of the old heathen

evanescent

and

Square of

the

Juturna under

modern

Regillus,twin heroes who

pricelessantique in bronze, the

of Marcus

They

at

Lake

swiftlyaway,

that

enough

victoryof

to

figuresof Castor

the top the colossal

at

pass

that

lands,public

buffoon, in his last

they

wages

waste

which

slope down

same

If

store.

quicklyunderstand

Government

the

ing
Scout-

ing
and luxurious villas. Trad-

little Italian,they

ancient

on

they are

elevator.

modern

new

can

But

Ages.

their hotels

At

by

room

across

ducts,
aque-

which

museums

in the suburbs, they discover

city,
they run

and

auto-taxicab,
they travel through

an

their steam-heated

to

and

of the Middle

art

broad, well-paved,clean cityavenues.


lifted

walls

away
speak of the far-

that

monuments,

for her

come

geese, here

of the

same

the Gauls

stood the

were

frustrated

by Juno's

Temple of Jupiterand in

Books,
lay the Sibylline
142

and

deep

here fell by the

MAYOR

NATHAN,

ERNESTO

OF

ROME

143

the
hill-top
of
the fellow-conspirators
crowds looked down
old Roman
on
the Macedon
Perseus,VercingeCatiline,the African Jugurtha,
torix of ancient France,Appius Claudius,the decemvir,Sejanus,
the favorite of Tiberius,the Christian Paul, as fettered,
they
were
dropped into the dark subterranean chambers of the Maof the assassin Tiberius Gracchus.

hand

mertine.
that

"

this elevation

From

there before my

eyes

From

looks down

one

immense

opened an

this

and

remembers

grave, and out

of

in ruins,columns, triumphal
cityof monuments
broken, ruinous,but stillbeautiful
arches,temples,and palaces,
the giant
and grand, with a solemn mournful beauty! It was
of ancient Rome."
apparition
On this old Capitoline
Hill,in the heart of old Rome, sits
His officeis in the
Ernesto Nathan.
the Mayor of new
Rome
Palace of the Senators,erected by Boniface IX in 1389, altered
by Michelangeloand stillfurther altered by Ernesto Nathan.
Up to September20, 19 10, Mr. Nathan was a national but
international personage.
Here
in Italy almost any
not
an
accurate
schoolboyin his teens could have givena brief and fairly
historyof the ardent Republican.Born in 1845, tne ^^tn
of twelve sons, his mother
his father an English
an
Italian,
banker,until his thirteenth year he lived in England. Then with
the grave

rose

"

"

his widowed
he

mother

versity
Pisa,where at the great Unihis studies," cultivating
his soul in the

he

continued

to

came

Italian

style."Later on he was in Florence,Milan, and Genoa.


From
the latter cityhis mother fled to Switzerland to escape
imprisonmentfor her pronouncedsympathieswith the Republican
At this time he saw
iles,"
conspirators.
againthe gloriousex"

Maurizio

and, last of all and first


Quadrio, Aurelio Saffi,

of all,GiuseppeMazzini.

Commercial

tasks took

him

to

dinia
Sar-

and

again to Genoa and then for a short time to his boyhood


He
returned to Italyfrom London
in
home, London.
1870, the year that the King of United Italymoved into the
Quirinal

at

Rome,

imprisonmentof
Nathan

came

to

That

and

the

Pope

-the Vatican.

It

the Peninsula
he has

done

to
as

moved
was

into the

self-imposed
day-breakin Italyand

aid in the work

of

struction.
recon-

versity
editor,author, lecturer,uni-

social reformer, and political


leader.
professor,

He

THE

144

assisted in

editingthe

FORUM
Rome

pation,
of the People, Emanciand Duty, publications
expounding for the most part the
ideals and ethical idealism of Mazzini.
He
political
opened
for young
ism
debating rooms
men.
Following the rush of socialin

he
Italy,

democracy.

Twenty Years of Italian Life,in which he

wrote

make

to

attempts

papers,

clear the

For

many

also Professor

was

Commercial

and

he

years

great Girls' School in the


he

difference between

of

Colonial

socialism and

the very

was

soul of

the

Trastevere,Rome.

During this time


Ethics in the Royal High Institute of
Studies,Rome.

times he

Four

was

CityCouncil and under Mayor Ruspoli


he was
of the municipal
Executive Board.
appointed a member
In 1907 he was
chosen Mayor of Rome
and reelected in 19 10.
Modern
States, rangingfrom
Italyis the union of seven
a
militarydespotismto a flabby,corrupt tyranny." In the
elected

member

of the

"

the Italians from

eighteenthcentury Alfieri awoke

their dishonorable

In the firsthalf of the nineteenth century

slumber.

tor
appeared Manin, Mazzini, Garibaldi,D'Azeglio,Cavour, VicEmanuel
II,and the war-cry rang from Alp to iEtna : Italy
free,Italyone !
By the year i860 Italians were well on the way to the goal,
"

"

"

en6ugh along for Victor Emanuel to chance saying: It is


no
longerthe Italyof the Romans, nor that of the Middle Ages;
but it
itmust no longerbe the battlefieldof ambitious foreigners,
far

must

rather be the

II, by the

1861

of God

grace

ment
Parlia-

in Turin,

assembled

and Rome,

of all Italyexcept Venice

proclaimedVictor Emanuel

In

the Italians."

Italyof

and

by the

nation,King of Italy,and declared by solemn vote


ment
nation. The sentithat Rome
should be the capitalof the new
for a capital,
that
without Rome
of the country was
Italy

will of the

"

can

never

crushed

be

firmlyunited."

Austria

Italy. Papal

compelled the

and

Rome

was

union of the Peninsula.


the

forced withdrawal
of the

all that

was

In 1870

latter

came

moment

release Venice

the Franco-German

to

of

war,

the support

regiments from

Pope in Rome, the overthrow

Feeling the

to

lackingto completethe

now

of the French

the establishment of the French

Prussia

the field of Sadowa

On

Napoleon

III and

Republic.

opportune, Victor Emanuel

"

with the

THE

146

FORUM

wanting in respect for the creeds of others, the inalienable


rights of the individual conscience.
Everything moves,

be

evolves,enlarges,and
faith illuminated
I

ready to

am

turn

men

by knowledge.

of the

Nathan's
of

man

man

who

Luther

of

"

of the Vatican

the

religion,
answer

only questionabout

Mr.

in matters

propriety.But

Nathan.

He

is

not
honest, fearless,but certainly
convictions,

Out

these

as

be

cannot

of the sword

"

His

seasons.

on

of

masters

enemies

say

he is

diplomat. Martin

make

cannot

you

peace." Working

war,

offended

of Ernesto

sure

reformer, however,

said,

out

be

never

considers times and

tactless. A

nor

can

The

is that of

pronouncements

of strong

law,

at

me

shall
intermediary,

an

Piux X blundered.

one
propriety

if I have

of Rome;
citizenship

before God."

the

broken

office,
judgment awaits

my

soul,undismayed, without

my

If I have

...

in search of

upward

before the tribunal of the law; if I have

answer

transgressedthe duties of
hands

their eyes

feather,

this

he spoke
hypothesis,
these cardinals,
perdition,

these popes, and all this crowd of Roman


Sodom."
The Liberal
forces of Modern
Italybelieve that the Vatican of the sixteenth

century and the Vatican of the twentieth century


same

in

and, therefore,this is not


spirit,

Never

again will

understands
gone

and

much

as

ten

contest

the
France

for

same
a

The

King.

am

told that in

of the Pontiff has

privateconversation,
III,and

Pope again being King as there


of the French Republic. But
the Presidency

on,

of the

and

bitter

which

those

quarter of

disturbed

have

century and those which

puts it in this

the past, shuts itselfinto

issues

The

one.

disruptionof Spain. It is medievalism


it is the Vatican againstthe new
Italy.
Nathan

acknowledge this.

of the Curia

the

Mr.

archy
Hier-

Roman

of all Italyis Victor Emanuel

chance

as

be

and the

time for feathers.

temporal power

members

and

is of his election to
there is

forever.

gone

Pope

that the

eightout of every
The King of Rome
there is

the

one

are

compass

the
now

tially
substanpeace

of

threaten

againstmodernism,

"The

way:

are

narrower

Vatican, image of
than

the walls of

with the idea of compressingthought into that little


Belisarius,

circumference,for fear that if it should

come

the free air,it might, like the embalmed

dead

into contact

of ancient

with

Egypt,

From

into dust.

resolved

be

ROME

OF

MAYOR

NATHAN,

ERNESTO

there, from

147

fortress of

that

dogma, as a last desperateeffort to perpetuate the reign of


the one hand the order to banish from the
on
ignorance,comes
all magazinesin which modern

life and

thought
the thunderingproconsidered; on the other hand comes
are
scription
without contact
with the positive
negativeelectricity
the
and associations desirous of reconciling
pole againstmen
of the
and teachings
of their faith with the teachings
practices
of
the vital life,and the moral and social aspirations
intellect,
that cityon
the civic soul. Like cosmic matter
in dissolution,
the slopeof the Janiculum(theVatican) is a fragment of an
world."
extinguished
sun, hurled into the orbit of the modern
It should be understood
that Modern
Italyis againstthe
but
Vatican,not because the Vatican is a spiritual
institution,
because it is a political
institution and the leader of the reactionary
forces working for the destruction of the new
nation.
It is a colossal struggle.United Italyis young, vigorous,
bitious,
amdaring,confident. The Vatican is old and tried,with
of wealth, with an
vast
resources
organizationencompassing
the whole earth,perfected
and strengthened,
until it is the most
schools
religious

"

"

tremendous
machine.

human
Its

machine

strengthis

Thousands

for

set up.

of

much

is its imits weakness, its perfection


perfectio

Jews.

of its more

Minister,and

Italian Parliament.
There

is

Sonino, the leader of the


But

Italians

centre

think of these

never

country in the world

where

in the
men

as

pletely
Jew so comdicates
the name
ceases
to be a Jew as in Italy.Here
simplyinhis religious
belief: he is an
Italian of Jewish faith.
Nathan sits in his officeon the Capitoline
with his back to

the Forum

and

no

his face

the firstgreat

to

absorbed
Italy,

with the duties which

fellow Romans

have

One
you

But it is too

in silent
are
intelligent
priests
revolt against
its usurpations
and bondage,waiting,
praying
emancipation.
Mr. Nathan
is a Jew, so likewise is Luzzatti,the retiring

Prime

Mr.

ever

are

There

says to

Mayor
was

him,

asked him
"

of Rome?

Mr.
"

to

tradition that the

of the New

monument

his six hundred

thousand

undertake.

Nathan, how
After

does it

moment's

Mayor

happen that

he says,
silence,

of Rome

must

be

THE

148
member

New

of

of the old noble

one

Italythought that

asked

me

to

demonstrate

be the
to

FORUM

the time had

that there is a

alive,progressive,ambitious

begin

understand

call. He

rises from

change. They

new

Rome,

Italy,

new

share the tasks of this twentieth

to

why

he is

You
personality.
follow his
leader, why men
slowlyto and fro across the
questions,
answeringfrankly

his desk, paces

to your
listening
attentively

Six
inquiries.

your

kindle with the firesof his

to

room,

for

come

clerical. But

change, I accepted.I acceptedthe officeto

the world

century."
You beginto

families and

feet tall,athletic build,shoulders somewhat

pitchedforward, high forehead, clear-cut features,serious yet


pendent,
kindlyeyes, a thoughtful,cultured man, eager, hopeful,indeof the New
this is the Mayor
determined, spirit
Italy,
of Rome, this is the breath of
"

life that has entered into the

new

Nathan, some
imply that you are the
of the anarchistic
champion of the red flag,the representative

Campidoglio.

Mr.

Italy." Tell them to go to the devil!" is his


I behe says,
lieve
quick,half-playful
rejoinder. Then earnestly
in democracy,the new
times,the changed ideas. I have
nothing but contempt for a past condemned
by history.There
is burning in my soul an aspiration
ties
toward that era of civilliberelements

of

"

through which Rome must lift herself


of her
greatness always higher,feelingthe responsibility

and
to

human

progress

noble mission among

the

I believe in Mazzini's

'

peoplesof
Duties

of

anarchy?
of
Man/ in his apostleship
in directing
them into
men,
the earth.

Is that

justice.I believe in educatingyoung


the most
beautiful channels of thought. In America
call that

anarchy?

I believe in the

would

you

free
publicschool,entirely

I believe in a well-paid,
ignorantand corrupt priesthood;
staff of teachers,I believe in fresh-air and play-grounds."As
he speaks,you are more
and more
impressed by his moral rugand integrity.
and more
convinced of his sincerity
gedness,more
of

an

"

You

say

to

"

yourself,Truly,here

is a

personality,
superior
cise,
pre-

his thought or bargainingwith conscience,


never
willing,
concealing
misdespisingnoises,steadilyapplyinghis mind to the sion
to

Mr.

which

he has been called

Nathan

is convinced

by

Roman

that

no

democracy."
other

kingdom

has

achieved

than
largely

more

life,taking into

her

MAYOR

NATHAN,

ERNESTO

United
the

account

of her

measure

149

firstfifty
years of

Italyin the

also
considering
opportunities,

and

ROME

OF

the

natural

sources
re-

stacles
ob-

enormous

boys are going to


has been greatly
schools and to better schools,
reduced,
illiteracy
likewise taxes, labor receives a higherwage, saves
more
money
of the comforts of existence,
and enjoyssome
manufacturing
the wealth of the country is
interests are
rapidly,
multiplying
increasing
by leapsand bounds, the unityof the nation has been
the people are
happy and hopeful.
preservedand strengthened,
Rome, as the capitalof new
Italy,has been a worthy
leader in the procession.From
a provincial
town, she has been
tants.
developedinto a modern cityof six hundred thousand inhabiduringthe administration of Mayor Nathan
Especially
I do not mean
stroyed
has she been modernized.
by that that he has dethat are of such absorbing
old Rome, the monuments
she has

interest
There

had

to

the whole

to

has been

More

overcome.

earth; rather has he conserved

great hue and cry

over

his

them.

ment
treatsacrilegious

of Roman
and
treasures
art
priceless
There is littleor no ground for the charge. He
archaeology.
has been careful to preserve and guard againstfuture destruction
whatever is of real historical value.
For example,as he
himself explains, The Castle of St. Angelo, the tomb of the
dead Roman
afterward the tomb of living
jects,
papal subemperor,
is now
of antiquities
and of mediaeval art, destined
a
museum
of

of

some

the

"

teach and

to

celebrated and
used

refine

colossal

the Baths of Diocletian,


the
citizens;

monument

hay-magazineand
surrounded by gardensand

filledwith

as

to a

assume

great and matchless

It should be borne in mind


modern

Rome, filledwith

of

Roman

greatness,

dirtycottages,

the character and


monument

that Mr.

are

form

once
now

coming
be-

of ancient art."
Nathan

is the

Mayor of
in
ideas;living

peopleof modern
the present, anticipating
a
gloriousfuture. For this modern
peoplehe has striven to providea modern citywith pure water
and adequatedrainage,
clean streets, cheap and rapid transit,
telephones,
hospitals,
publicgardens and the other institutions
that minister to the welfare and happinessof modern
citylife.
has been a chosen instrument in Italyto break
Freemasonry
a

THE

150

the

unitedly

of

should

climb

to

be

of

of

Freemasonry.
and

Master

the

to

he

goodwill,

and

establish

its illustrious

has

of
the

occupies

Third

been

them
them

Italy which

For

he

has

position of

than

more

leader

time

this

for

encouraging

predecessors.

Nathan

Mr.

large part

now

people free, creating

and

heights

century

the

set

brotherhood

worthy

quarter

and

tyranny

atmosphere

an

of

chains

FORUM

in Italian

been

Grand

Grand

Honorary

Master.
He

is

believes

it

as

he

is honest

he

"

be

will

"

faith, but

What

conventional

full

question
will

this

to

It will

be

of

Mayoralty,

faith

feels

of

born

not

groping,"

are

He

programme."

so

does

He

We

so.

pieces.

to

conclusion

happen?

say

He

type.

going

are

"

enough

has

one

no

the

can

man

Italy.

to

of

not

religious forms

present

applies

says,

but

man,

well-informed

no

and

know,

the

that

Certainly
far

religious

there

that

intelligence,matured

in freedom."
conclusion

the

At

Nathan

be

will

would

be

in

his

nominated

with

accordance

recognition of his services


the

Moreover,

hands

of

the

No
and

party
in

Italy

spirit

has

to-day

democratic
in his
Third

he

he

King

him,

owns

not

Italy.

even

the

the

of

the

criticised

of

Republican
he

great

his

and

this

in his

at

large.

has

been

honor

at

in certain

publican
Re-

independence.
In

the
III

Emanuel
moral

fitting

he

party.

recognizes

Victor

mental

people,

of

This

be

country

accepting

Mr.

Senate.

Already

instance

but

person

in his

For

severely

was

the

to

him.

III.

is Mazzinian,
in

and

needs

it is another

King, strong
love

Rome

the

it would

and

that

probable

for

King

custom

Senate

But

centres.

to

Emanuel

by Victor

knighted
the

Italian

the

by

it is

theory

fact
a

that

wise,

equipment,

embodiment

of

alted
ex-

the

THE

REVOLUTION

BRITISH

Sydney

the time

this article is

ABOUT

British

has convulsed

which

will be

months

rightidea of its scope

Brooks

publishedthe controversy
for the past twenty
politics
crucial stage.

reaching a
and

character

hark

must

one

To

get

back

to

the

1906 that returned the Liberals to power with an


sion
decades of exclutwo
overwhelming majority after practically
be truer
from office. Perhaps it would
to
say that one
for the past
ought to review the developmentsof British politics
election of

in order

five and twenty years

of the present crisis;to

analyzethe

to

in the

trace

and

nature

Conservative

causes

party

the

its subjection
of imperialism
and militarism,
growth of the spirit
its revercalled the "special
in America
to what
interests,"
sion
are
to

Protection,its increasing
tendencyto buttress and

"property"as

the dominant

life of the country;


had been

the pressure

order, how
upon

to

fact in the social and

how

show

among

the Liberals

solidate
con-

cal
politithere

widening and transformation of ideals under


industrial
of searchingcriticisms of the existing
and more
to
concentrate
they were
coming more

great

the work

of social and

Carlylecalled

the

"

economic

how
reconstruction,

what

"

condition of

England question the problems


of poverty, invalidity,
unemployment, a national minimum
of subsistence,
more
were
hygiene,and the care of old age
and more
engrossingthem, and how inevitable it thus was that
so
deep and absolute an oppositionbetween the upholdersand
the attackers of monopolies and vested interests should sooner
later lead to a sharp collision.
or
"

"

But for my
of
beginnings

present

the British revolution from

in the election of
of their

it will be sufficient to

purpose

triumphwould

1906.
be

It

was

the

date the

victoryof

foreseen

that

one

the Liberals
result

bringup again the questionof the


House of Lords, a questionthat during the long reign of the
Conservatives had peacefully
slumbered.
The Lords were
not
long in showing that they had one form of treatment
for Conto

151

THE

152

servative

and

measures

or
rejected,

FORUM

another

mutilated that

so

for Liberal

they had

be

to

They

measures.

abandoned, four

first-classLiberal bills dealingwith education,with land valuation,


with

reform.
Other and
pluralvoting,and with licensing
less urgent problems the Liberals feltdebarred from tackling,

not

because

aware
theywere
found unacceptable
by

be

beforehand
the

that their solutions would

in 1909
Finally
Lords capped their destructive activities by throwing out
then sharply
Lloyd George's Budget. The issue was

the
Mr.

formed.

Liberals woke

task of

and
political
completed by
finally

once

House.
hereditary

for all

and

the fact that the

to

constitutional amendment
Mr.

had

Gladstone,and that it was

been

not

necessary

of social industrial reform


and
suspend their programme
devote themselves to the singlequestion
of removing the handicap

to

imposed
of

an

their

on

Chamber

Upper

effectivenessby the presence


parliamentary
permanentlycontrolled by their political

opponents.
The

of the Budget necessarily


rejection
a general
precipitated
election. It took placein January of last year.
The Liberals
jority,
were
again returned to power, though with a diminished maand

one,

that

moreover,

united

was

of "doing something" with the


necessity
took shape in three
policyeventually

Asquith brought forward


1

9 10, which

billwhich

later,justwhen

week

Their

resolutions which
of Commons
over

in

100,

seemed

contest

died.

It

was

on
entering

the unanimous

Mr.

April,

and

received its firstreading earlyin


the

phase, King Edward

littleexcept the
of Lords.

House

of
passedby majorities

were

in

embodied

in the House

on

were

May.

sive
its deci-

feeling

hostilitiesshould be suspended
of the country that all political
and that an effort should be made
to reach a settlement by consent.
The

effort

was

made.

Four

leading Liberals and four

leadingConservatives met in conference. They held twenty-one


five months; it was
not
protractedmeetings,extending over
broke up, having utterly
until November
1 1 that theydefinitely
the quesOnce more
failed to effectan agreement.
and abjectly
tion
handed over
to the fury of a general election and the
was
the country found itself
Once more
passionsof party politics.
engaged

in the

amazing attempt

to

evolve

what

was

nothing

THE

154

FORUM

indissoluble

has the power


of compellinga
Upper Chamber
of bringingthe machineryof government
dissolution;
to a total
stoppage, of

to

the theorythat
nullifying

of Commons

the House

of

for any Government


to enjoy full
impossible
itcommands
in both Houses; of transa majority
ferring

the power

of the purse
called

always be

can

elected Peers, who

of power
there is

to

can

from

the elected

for

account

misusing it,to

be called

never

Commons, who

to

the

non-

of thus manently
perordinatio
positionof sub-

account;

into a
thrustingthe popular Chamber
of inflicting
serious financial loss and confusion
a
tion
country, and of changing the whole accepteddistribu-

the

upon

responsible
office subjectto its goodwill;
are

it

making

unless
security

and hold

Ministers

the estates

between

of the realm.

force,in both these sets of arguments.


need only add that,in my judgment, the opinion of

force,and
I

the country and


Both

great

very

of

moderate

most

the Peers

men

favors the Liberal

the Unionists

and

admitted
have, indeed,practically

Commons
Chamber

It is clear that

be supreme
which they have
must

in all that

tention.
con-

in the House
that the

to
appertains

of

popular

finance. The

pointon
mainlyconcentrated their attack is the
provisionmaking the Speaker the sole judge of whether a given
bill is or

is not

but
with

far

so

to
authority

is

to

run

bill.

ably,
They contend, and not unreasonthat to invest the Speaker
quite ineffectually,

money

decide

that may

matters

the risk of

convertinghim into what

yet been in British history

never

"

powers

of the House

strictparty

sequence
con-

he has

man.

billseverely
limits the

nondealingwith ordinary,

which passes
that any measure
in three consecutive sessions,and is

laysdown

of Commons

House

in

of Lords

It
financiallegislation.
the

second clause in the Government's

The

be of vital party

shall
rejectedby the House of Lords in each of these sessions,
become
law on receivingthe Royal assent, providing that two

elapsed between its first introduction and its third


It is round
and final passage
through the House of Commons.
this proposalthat the battle has chiefly
raged; and to judge it
have

years

fairlyone
the

duration

which

remember

must

means,

that the Liberals propose

of Parliament
in

to

that
practice,

five instead of

in each Parliament

seven

to

restrict
years

"

there will be

BRITISH

THE
not

minimizes, is very

two

suggest amendments

years, may

the

acceptedby
but theymay

Lords

delaythe

criticise,
may

debate, may

may

The

the Liberals' programme.

to

155

working sessions. But that,while it slightly


far from removing the fundamental
tions
objec-

than four

more

REVOLUTION

of

passage

and

"

under this scheme


bill for

if

the amendments,

in the bill;
Government, will be incorporated
throw

not

it out

when
the electorate;

the

whether

to

they assent

two

it

or

or

judgment of

submit it to the

years

have

it becomes
expired,

not.

The

Conservatives

law

maintain

basis ;
the nation on a Single-Chamber
placing
that a Second Chamber
or
deprivedof the power of rejecting
to the peoplethe measures
sent up to it is a Second
referring
Chamber
onlyin name; that any scheme,however revolutionary,

that this amounts

to

would reach the Statute Book


Minister

or

of

determined

under the pressure of a determined


of the condemnation
and in spite
faction,

of the country; that what the Liberals are proposingis to


abolish the House of Lords and therefore to abolish the effective
of
rights

inside the House


the

and

suggesteddelayof

that
formality;
a

character

deadlock

of the party system


rigidity
of opinionoutside it make
inability
than a meaningless
years littlemore

the British people;that the

at

to

the
two

there is no
the
justify

all that

deadlock

between

be, and has

well-known rule of the Constitution

two

Houses

of

scheme, or, indeed,any

Government's

cannot

the

not

been, solved by the

exemplified
by the
in November,
passage in April,19 10, of the Budget rejected
that the House
the
of Lords, after referring
a bill to
1909
judgmentof the people,must bow to their verdict;and that the
Liberals are attempting
the settled balance of the
to overthrow
Constitution merely to gratify
their party prejudices.To this
"

rule

"

the Liberals

retort

that when

the Conservatives

are

in power

the country, for all practical


a
Single-Chamber
purposes, is on
since the Lords never
basis,
Conservative measamend or reject
ures;
that in the past few years the Liberals have seen
the
bills,
of which had been emphatically
endorsed by the electorate,
principles
either mutilated
in

three

or

or

rejected
by the

House

four vital directions the Liberals,no

majoritytheymay
that all advance

command
is blocked

in the House

by

the House

of Lords; that
matter

of Commons,

what
know

of Lords; that the

THE

156
party system is thus in
the intolerable

FORUM

danger of breaking down

grave

handicap imposed upon

if it does break

down, it will

be

Liberal

fierce conflictof social classes;that the


the Government's

delaythat

and

scheme

and

Germany, by

safeguardsproposed in
of

the powers

will stillbe left to the House

sufficientto prevent

legislators;
that,

in

as
replaced,

under

revision
criticism,

of Lords

from
anythingrevolutionary

amply

are

being rushed

through Parliament; and that the whole purpose of the projected


of
changes is to placethe two chief parties
on
an
equality
effectiveness and to make
Liberal vote
for
count
legislative
a
as

much

but for

as,

no

than, a Conservative

more

Here

vote.

observer would probablydecide that both


again a dispassionate
of justice
and reason
their side;but
partieshave a measure
on

he would
from

almost

add
certainly

the Liberal scheme

that the

dangers

are

greater than the

the

principal
arguments

to

feared

be

dangers of leaving

thingsas theyare.
this

From
the

of the debates

general course

inferred.

be
easily

may
to

precisof

exclude from

the maximum

the

in the House

Conservatives

The

operationof

duration

of

on

sides

of Commons

sought
steadily

have

the bill measures

Parliament,or

both

extending

the
affecting

Act

of

Corpus, the Bill of Rights,the appointmentof judges,


the Act of Union
with Ireland,the
the Protestant succession,
for the Parliamentaryfranchise,
the Established
qualification
Habeas

theyhave also sought to amend the


by providinga system of jointsessions and the referendum
of otherwise insoluble differences between
the adjudication
Church, and

so

of Lords

the House

introduced

was

months

by

ago.

the Liberals

amendments

down, and the bill that is now

voted

by

and

All these

Houses.

two

on;

is the

the House

to

On

fighton.

notice of
bill

(a)

to

Asquithin

The

Peers, however, undeterred

June

26

Lords

whelmingly
over-

are

and

by

teen
fif-

comfiture
the dis-

determined
Cromer

gave

The

first providesthat any


estant
the Protwhich affects the existence of the Crown
or
two

vital amendments.

House,

Lansdowne

the

that

comma

of Commons

Mr.

of their friends in the Lower

for

being debated

billalmost

same

have

bill

(b) which establishes a national


national Council in Ireland,Scotland, Wales

succession thereto; or
Parliament

or

REVOLUTION

BRITISH

THE

157

therein;or (c) which has


England,with legislative
powers
been referred to the JointCommittee, and which in their opinion
raises an issue of great gravity
upon which the judgment of the
shall not be preascertained,
sented
country has not been sufficiently
receive the Royal assent unless and
to his Majesty nor
until it has been submitted to and approved by the electors in
The
to be hereafter providedby Act of Parliament.
manner
is providedfor
JointCommittee referred to in this amendment
It is to
standingin Lord Cromer's name.
by the amendment
or

consist of

seven

the House

of

and

members

of the House

Commons, the former

chosen

by

of

seven

the Lord

cellor
Chan-

as
they
Speaker,"in such manner
think best adapted to provide an
impartialtribunal." The
mittee
Speakeris to presideand to have a casting
vote, and the Combe convened either by a Minister of the Crown
or
may
Its functions are
to decide
by a resolution of either House.
whether a money
billis really
bill or whether it includes
a money
that ought to be.treated and discussed as such. The
legislation

by

the

of the first amendment, it will be

purpose
grave

the latter

and

of Lords

is

seen,

exclude

to

constitutional changesfrom

Bill. The

purpose

the scope of the Government's


of the second amendment
is to relieve the

Speakerfrom the invidiousdutyof


billis really
what

whether
determining

it professes
to be

money

it contains

whether

or

non-

financial
matter.
Both these amendments
of Lords and of

Commons.
but

are

rejection
by

deadlock

certain of

adoptionby the

the Government

in the House

will thus be created from

roads of escape.
Either the Lords
their amendments, pass the bill as it stands,and
are

House

which

of

there

will withdraw

two

proclaimtheir
intentionof repealing
it at the firstopportunity that is to say,
when the Conservatives are in office again;or they will stand
firm and dare the Government
to proceedto extremities. And
the Government
is quiteprepared to proceed to extremities.
They are readyto advise the King,who for his part will have
"

no

optionbut

in

order

to

that would

to

pass

follow their advice,to


the bill into law.

wreck
fatally

Peers,I imagine,
will

the social

in the end

create

To

five hundred

prevent

of
prestige

consent

to

an

Peers

inundation

their order the

anything.Between

THE

158

this

Bill minus
still possess

if they
incursion,their preferences,

vast

surelybe

the

on

everything rather than

spiritof enlightened

the

side of

wanting powerful voices

not

are

accept the

to

political
presciencethat no recklessness
beyond their capacities.My inclination none
resolve

they will

climb

down

or

more

the British Constitution

the

Bill,and

lack
inspired
predictedas

an

be

can

the less is to anticipate

grudginglyand

less

to

store
re-

of its ancient

semblance

some

risk

to

wait until the inevitable reaction enables them

to

to

them

urge

such

of

lesser evil.

the

Government

have shown
Lords, throughout this crisis,

that

ernment
and the Gov-

Peers

new

political
sanityor

any

must
self-interest,

There

plus five hundred

Bill

the Government

FORUM

shape.
The

of the Liberals
for

mination
controversy is the righteousdeter-

of the whole

crux

writingtheir

the

win for themselves

to

tunities
oppor-

the Statute Book

on

measures

same

the

as

the
nobody can quarrel;
British peoplewith their sense
of justice
and fair play may, I
But
it without qualifications.
think, be said to have endorsed
is it to be attained?
how
There
roughly speaking,two
are,
Conservatives

One, the way

ways.

the powers

these

of Lords

the House
have

two

an

chosen, is so

of Lords

so

is

other

to

restrict

tent
equallyimpo-

that it will be

party is in office. The

compositionof
may

that aim

the Liberals have

of the House

whatever

it. Of

With

possess.

the

reform

to

servatives
Con-

that Liberals and

equal chance of obtaininga majorityin

alternatives the Liberals

have

the

followed

of Lords
is to say, their solution of the House
questionis the destruction or the paringaway of its legislative
former.

That

prerogatives.It is true that in the preamble to their bill they


speak of an intention "to substitute for the House of Lords as

"

it

at

present exists

Second

instead of
and in

basis."
hereditary
all probability
ever
none

that intention.

There

are

constituted

Chamber

many

But

no

attempt

will be made,

on

popular
made,

has been
to

give effect to

Liberals,though not, I should

judge,a majorityof the party, who desire to take up the


of Lords and to take
of reconstructing
the House
but the Radicals, all the Labor
drastically;
Irish Nationalists will have nothingwhatever

men

to

and

do with

tion
quesit up

all the

it,or

"

REVOLUTION

BRITISH

THE

159

puttingit too strongly will only agree to make the


efficientafter they have rendered it
House
of Lords personally
and I think from their
politically
impotent.What theydread
of
is that any reform of the House
dread
rightly
standpoint
Lords, any introduction into it of an elective element, will only
if that is

"

"

"

path of
limited

Liberalism.

by

statute,

reconstruction.
run

and
assertive,

it stronger, more

make

the risk of

anxious

to

greater obstacle in the

its powers
have been stringently
then be willingto undertake its

When

they may

But

done, they decline

until that has been

the
strengthening
When

remove.

very

the House

barrier

of Lords

they

to

most

are

has been made

selves
powerlessto rejectLiberal measures,
they may address themof whether it could not be made
to the question
more
efficient
ing
for the task of revising,
delayingand amendcriticising,
the bills submitted

to

it;but

not

present Government

is concerned,the

House

be considered

of Lords

This, of

may

until then.

So far

as

the

of reformingthe
question
postponed.
indefinitely

given the Conservatives their chance.


To the Liberal policy
of destroying
the powers
or
circumscribing
and privileges
of the House
of Lords the Conservatives have
opposed the policyof reformingits composition.It is impossible
to think of them as naturally
desirous of reconstructing
an
assemblyso venerable and so useful to their own
party purposes.
But theyhave been driven to advocate its reform, first,
because they recognizethat the nation has revolted againsta
Second Chamber
based on the hereditary
exclusively
principle,
has

course,

and that
every Conservative

is
principle

put

at

candidate who

serious

not

disown

that

ondly,
electioneering
disadvantage;sec-

because it is the business of every


every questiona
and the Liberals

does

party

to

propose

on

policydifferent from that of their opponents,


tion
emasculahaving concentrated on the political
of the House
of Lords, the only alternative left for the
Conservatives is to put forward the reform of its personnel;
because a knot of able and earnest
thirdly,
Peers, headed by
Lord Rosebery,
who have for twenty years and more
urged
the desirability
of altering
the composition
of the Upper House,
have now
seized the opportunity
forward their views
to press
with redoubled
because
and, fourthly,
energy and effectiveness;

160

THE

FORUM

the consciousness that the Liberals and their Labor

allies do

not

desire

to

the House

see

and Nationalist

of Lords

reformed

of
wisdom
helps to convince the Conservatives of the political
reforming it. The country, as a whole, recognizesthat the
House of Lords is (i) too large;(2) overcrowded
with members

who

have neither

taste

for public
life and who
aptitude
of the indiscriminate application

nor

sit and

vote

of the

principle;(3)
hereditary

in it simplybecause

singleclass and of
to

specialset of interests;(4)
of the great partiesin the State,so much

one

always open
Lords

the

Commons;
of

the Conservatives

to

sustained

reverses

at

to

the

favorable

too

that it is

so

retrieve in the House

of

in the House

of

pollsand

and

(5) too aloof from the direct and visible operation


publicopinion. The moderate minds of the nation
"

it is theywho

and

of
representative

much

too

in the

long run govern its politicsare alive


of these five comprehensivedefects and desire their
to the reality
removal.
They have a considerable respect for the Peerage as
whole; they do not subscribe to the familiar contention of
a
"

the Liberals that the Lords


the

sense

are

well

obstacle

an

are

to

reform, except in

be more
that every Second
Chamber
must
naturally
cautious and conservative than the popularly
elected House; they

truer

that the Lords

aware

have

proved themselves

often

of Commons;

exponents of national sentiment than the House


of
favor the preservation
they emphatically

Chamber
and

with full and

delaybut

of

effectivepowers

not

out

by

amendment

by the

troubled less

and they are


rejection;

occasional destruction dealt

only of

Second

the Lords

to

Liberal

ures
meas-

by their uncritical acceptance of all Conservative bills.


the less they recognize
that the personnelof the Assembly,

than
None

its unwieldiness,
its
and

in

both in numbers
overwhelming inclination,

opinion,toward

that,however

the

side, and

Conservative

it is not
of public
opinion,
representative

fact

the

answer-

"

tangibleconnection with the processes by


which, in a democracy,publicopinionis made known and operative
are
shortcomingsthat it is time to remedy.
ers
After many
fumblingsand hesitations the Conservative leadable

to

it and

has

no

"

in the House

remedy them.

Lord

of

Lords

have

Lansdowne,

made

an

honest

attempt

earlyin May, introduced

to

bill

ROUGES

REVES

Marion

Dorothy

THEY
That

tell me

To

have

mock

their

them

When

back

moment's
her

My

days

My

love is

so

are

They

tell me

That

as

Sweet

of

youth and
not

They

tell

sought to

nights. I

loathe the

sun

go

Have

come

who
no

sun.

have

men

dreams

their

mock

screams

in the undertow,

them
and

dreams

this

and

"

to

life is done.

my

waters

me

know

she

drowning

the

wrap

yet

life is done

back

come

brighten life before they go

me

I could

"

dead,

scenes

To

madness

I'd killed her ! when

And

them

to

sight

this,whose

me

in the warmth

I loved

screams

in the undertow,

come

of

out

dreams

cold,black depthsof night.

tell

They

And

waters

dreams

far

they go

Into the

To

men

brighten life before they go

Before

Shainwald

wrap

and

scenes

NOIRS

drowning

the

as

And
Sweet

ET

me

drown
dreams

yet

no

have

162

dreams

in Life's dark
come

to

sea,
me

them

to

"

THE

SWIMMERS

S. Reed

John

the hot electric oppressiveness


of

July night,the South


Pacific lay like a black poison spilledfrom
the inverted
like a Titan
chalice of the starless sky. It moved
uneasily,
tle
tryingto breathe; althoughthere was not a breath of wind, lit-

IN
uneven

waves

showed

teeth,and like mottles

their

on

sick

phosphorus boiled up.


ered.
On the very edge of the horizon, paleheat-lightning
slowlyflickfaint red incandescence
In another direction,
a
painted
the sky from something on the down-hill of the world.
Two
divergentrestless lines of phosphorescencestreamed
the
behind Andy Lasky, swimming steadily,
out
easilyacross
velvet tropicsea.
With the powerful kick of his legs,sea-fire
of arms,
then came
the slow relentless sweep
blazed,resisting;
whirlingtwo curvinglines of glowing eddies. A continual foam
of palelightbroke before him, shootingluminous
into
auroras
a young
face,and a mop of lighthair,brown and stragglyin the
Like a man
for a pleasureswim he moved, calm,
water.
out
buoyant,strong. Every few minutes he plunged his head under,
in ears, throat and nose, spurting
gurglingthe water deliciously
it up like a walrus blowing,rolling
in its warm
embrace.
over
But he never
looked back at the red glow in the sky. His eyes
fixed ahead, eager yet calm, as if he confidently
were
expected a
vision of something.
man's

face, the yellow-greenwhorls

SuddenlyAndy

shifted his gaze

of

for the firsttime.


right,
He stopped swimming, restingeasily,
The eddies
treadingwater.
swirled around, snuffing
Then from the darkness,dully,
out.
like a voice in a close room,
came
a faint,
high-pitched Hello !
to

the

"

he gave a tremendous
Tremblinga little,
"Coming," cried the voice, "coming!"

Andy
on

waited.

Far

the face of the

mouth.

He

paid

nervous.
curiously

no

"

shout.

rightmoved a glowing blot


Little waves
water.
slapped Andy in the
attention. He
felt unaccountablystirred,

He

the

away

to

had

made
1

63

up

his mind

what

to

do

"

and

THE

64
into

now,

human

he

alone and

was

content, another

being intruded,disturbing,
unsettling.Where

been but
The

there

one,

stranger

stroke.
into

in which

world

FORUM

fish and

arms

perhaps a responsibility.
hand
overnearer, swimming with an awkward
his head bored
flappeddown smartly,
now

foot

wash, one

two

"

out

came

of the wake

like a

ing
leap-

down.
slapped stiffly

the head

As

came

His

luminous

were

there had

out

came

of the water,

Andy

the

by

saw

phorous
phos-

glow a wizened, yellowface,surmounted by a bald head.


awkDrooping Englishwhiskers gave him the appearance of an ward
seal.
The

dently
paused, panting,a few yards distant,evi-

newcomer

exhausted.
"

cigarettes.

many

"

Where
"

"

he said querulously. Too


wind,"-"
you going?

It'smy
are

Oh, down

pike,"answered

the

Andy, with

affectation of

an

"

jauntiness. There's an island ten miles east


they told me
He
the ship""
shaken.
He stopped suddenly,
on
strangely
had made himself forgetthe ship. And now, it all rushed back
the screaming of women,
him
the sullen grumble of the
on
flames. He felt a sudden rage at this yellowthingthat had reminded
"

"

"

him.
"Same

place!" said

the littleman.

"

together eh,

Go

"

what?"

They set out in silence. Neither


easily,
strongly.He tried to shake

looked

back.

Andy

swam

off the consciousness of the

his side. But he couldn't;in the pauses between strokes


tle
he would hear the thumping leg and labored wheezing of the litat

man

knowing it he forged ahead.


Hey there,"shouted a thin voice," hold your ballyhorses.

man.
"

Without

can't hurryin the East."

You

while the littleman


came
Andy pulledup impatiently
half treadingwater.
They rested,half floating,
"

But we've

to

got

"

get there,"said Andy.

side.
along-

Haven't

got

forever,you know."
"

I know

"

I know,"

East, though blub


"

hurry the

East

puffedthe

'member

"

"

what

stranger.

"

Can't

Kiplingsays

"

man

hurrythe
tried

to

SWIMMERS

THE
11

here," said Andy, inwardly raging,"

Look

with
strength
"

"

165

kick.

every

Do

like this."

him.

showed

He

with
stillbreathing

Thanks," said the littleman,

waste

you

difficulty,

that goes better."


"
Let's get alongthen."
"

Littlerest.

Minute.

"

emphasis. Lived
what you doing?"

with

I know"

going Home
Going around
"

"

"

hurry
"

in China

out

blub

"

three years

"

the world."

eh?"
Griffin,

huh"

Uh"

all night. Can't

Got

"Griffin?"
"

First time in the East

blub

"

thoughtso

"

from

the way

blub."
travellingtoo fast you know
Come
along,"said Andy surlily,if you'recoming with
me."
He set out, the littleman
followingin silence. Night
On the horizon
like a monk's
cowl.
hung closely,
stiflingly,
shivered the heat lightning.
The strange sea-glowwhirled.
blub
What you
steering
by? shrilledthe voice behind.
Lightning."
Not
Sometimes
always sure," complained the voice.
were

you

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

shifts

blub

"

bad

too

"

"

no

"

moon

had struck him. Not alwayssure


Andy feltas if someone
sand
swimming away
wandering lost in a thousuppose they were
"

"

dark miles of limitlessocean?


4

"

Better take your


Wait tilldawn."

Andy

slowed

time," said the voice,now

down, and let the stranger approach. He

if anything,
breathing,
worse
an

of

access
"

How
'

in my

are

coming?

you

Prettyfair,pretty
side

blub

"

vast

than before.

was

Andy experienced

pity.

They lay on
the

far behind.

rest

"

their

fair
"

"

blub

minute

"

backs,on

"

can

do.

Got

what
the

littlecrick

"

d'yousay?
breast
moving irregular

of

waters.

'

Sink down,
Funny way to go home," said the highvoice.
blub
down, down
lie in oozy mud on the bottom
bore tunnel
throughthe world. One, two miles down
tunnel through
"

"

"

"

"

Hell

"

one,

two

miles up

"

blub

"
"

He

fell to

coughing as

66

THE
"

filled his mouth.

wave

FORUM

Quaint idea

very,"he laughed in

"

cracked,ugly falsetto.
All the ideas that

deep,the cold,the
of the

ocean

the

"

slimythingson

cold

shuddered.

had shut

Andy

him

under

ooze

chokingof

the

bed

sea

omless
the fath-

"

the unbounded

"

the breath

largeness
the writhingof

"

flooded back upon

"

seized him

great anger

of his mind

out

him.

He

againstthis littleyellow

fidence.
robbed him of his self-conthingthat had upset his tranquillity,
"

Shut up, will you, damn

you!

"

he broke

out, and

off

set

again.
"

"

say,"cried the voice anxiously,don't lose temper

can't do itin the East

"

That

He

true.

was

of those horrible
the
It

up his mind

made

swim

high voice

and

over

Several times he

to

"

escape

from

that

hurry the East


again. Once Andy

be heard.

not

with

stabbingthe darkness behind.

Can't

over

ahead that the voice could


a

away
"

of Death.

reminder
the

foot

mustn't think

onward,
nervously

swam

until he almost screamed.

to

awfullysorry."

"

mustn't lose his temper. He

awkward

Andy

upon

can't hurry

"

things. Stillhe

pound of that

wore

I know

"

blub

"

Then

nous
monoto-

blub," said

"

so

swam

far

he realized with

sudden horror the unutterable loneliness of the

Vague

ocean.

shapes seemed reelingin the darkness, threateninghim. The


breathinghush of interminable spaces branded his brain like a
white-hot iron. At least here was
companionship.Andy turned
scanned

and
waves

"

the blackness.

"

Where

in mortal

he called
are

terror

found

He

in that

nothing human

"Hello!"

you?

No

"

pit of the world.

vast

wildly.
said

faint voice.

lest he lose the

the littleman

but the swish of little

sound

one

swiftly

swam

link that bound

him

to

life.

easily.
get breakfast ready

again,breathingmore
resting

"

Thought you'd blub gone ahead to


morning blub."
Morning was indeed coming,with the swiftness of the tropics.
"

"

Andy

"

"

The

clouded

sky,that

had

gray like the face of a watcher


to come
gray that seemed
compass.

gleamed no

In
more.

the

been

close and

so

of the sick
"

from

dull gray-green

weary,

black,went
nate
indetermi-

particular
pointof the
sea, the phosphorescence
no

SWIMMERS

THE
"You're
"

voice.
"

"

I had

Wish

blub

great

learned how

blub

"

"

"

Look!

the

on

high

really."

"

"

confidence.

in

I've been

the

sun

the

sun

blub

"

what

"

"

of red Chinese

gong

"

the littleman,

screamed

curious direction
Like

went

"

"

most

water

"

swimmer

"

Yes," said Andy, with renewed

the

167

copper,

behind

shot up

to face it.
sky. Both men turned swiftly
Why," cried Andy, astonished, it's risingin the north.
we've been swimming wrong ! My God !
No ! no ! we're wrong
dead south !
We've been goingsouth
So we have,"muttered the querulous
voice, so we have."
Lost !we're lost,
I tellyou ! cried Andy in terror.

the thick curtain of the

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

far

how

"

wildly.He

obsessed

was

of the
It's not
the

to

about

ten

"

far?

land,to find land; at

bit

so

blub

"

"

boy.
"

"

"

How

11

It'snot

Can't be very far off. Don't lose your head, my


go slow
you can't hurry justswim north-east

bad.
Blub

"

now," said the littleman.

Here, come

any

the

moaned

other,churningthe

with the desire


cost,

to

escape

land, to find

find

to

from

water

the

mensity
impitiless

sea.

very
east

"

"

far,"said the cheerful voice.


blub

"

before

shifted
lightning
"

Came

should

good
say

"

"

miles

Ten miles ! All the

should
'

giveout.

Come

on!

"

work wasted ! What ifhis strength


night's
He was
afraid of beingafraid.
terribly
yelledAndy. They swam
alongtogetherfor a

time;then Andy drew ahead.

"Hey!"
hurry

"

came

the

voice.

Andy forced

he distanced the littleman;


of will to stop. He

"Hold

himself

to

up!
"

blub

slow down.

three times he needed

you

"

Three
all his

can't
times

strength

ached with

to let himself out, to


impatience
to gain the land and roll in the dry sand.
sprint,
Trying to keep
with
breathed loudlybehind him.
him, the littleman
up
Above them the clouds thinned away, burned into nothingness
The sky was
by the sun.
a
flamingblue,and the sea the color
of deep Indian jade. A light
breeze flutteredthe tipsof
warm

the

waves.

Andy wondered

if his

would
strength

hold

out.

He

imagined

THE

68
felt weariness

that he
his

upon

in the

FORUM

plucking at his muscles.

The

beat

sun

head, and he thought again of frigidand horrible slime


immeasurable

green,

He

profundity.

dared

look

not

ahead.
"

Look!"

shrilled the littleman.

With

like
superb effort,

lifted himself

of the

out

steel-head salmon

There,

water.

world, three slender palm-treesrose


the

raised his eyes.

Andy

if from

as

leaping,he
edge of the

the far

on

ing!
Noth-

of

the bosom

sea.

"

"

Saved!

"

high voice.

cried the

Don't

don't

hurry, man,
"

wait
rest
hurry,or you'relost blub
But Andy was
like a motor-boat.
off,tearingaside the ocean
into a racing"crawl," arm
head
He had swung
over
flashing
arm,
for the
mad
buried,feet whirringin a chaos of foam, senseless,
"

touch

land, crazed with the fear of the

of the

seemed

ripplingback
"

"

Wait!

when

his head

he

gaining
"

wave-crest

look like

him

look

again.

hurry

awkward

an

quietof

He

not

was

white.

whose

in sobs.

came

prairieof

immense

along
"

So

no

wash

the little man

foot

out

came

face

moustaches

Overhead

the

was

empty.

shuttlingfeet"

of the wake

like

No
not

he
was

made

beach

murous
murwas

tensely
in-

dazzling

unheeded; his
sea.

The

gleaming back plowing


even

bored

to

bird in the

sky.

his task.

His

into the wash,

leapingfish

sky

of the

out

awkwardly

smartly,his head

streamed

tears

he lifted himself

settled back

flapped down

arms

ocean

of

"

palm-treeslifted from

Once

he

gaining

through the immense

Pacific.

the littleman's

Down

breath

three

Once

seal,swam

the South

blue; ahead

brown,

wave-crest.

his work.

bald-headed, yellow man,


little,

to

fury of

in the

water

to

must

His

sea.

voice,farther and farther behind, caught

broke
water

leap from

to

the

came

leaped out of
not

"

"

and

one

slapped stiffly

down.
And

as

he

swam,

he murmured

to

himself

monotonously,in

ceaseless iteration:
"Can't

hurry
"

blub

"

the

East

"

can't

"

hurry

"

THE

170

FORUM

the

less evolution of the mental


comparatively
and ethical qualities.
speaking,the average type is more
Plainly
identified with the evolved instincts of the inferior race
closely

civilization and

with the

than

high-cultured
Superman of

the

civilization
respective

of which he is a member.
This draws
for

line of demarcation.
significant

high type

possiblefor

be influenced

to

It is

low type.

type, and types below the

average

an

by

It is impossible

extremely
be

to

average,

vibrations of an
by the proximityand physio-psychical
inferior race.
The reader is asked to exercise his judgment and
imaginationin reference to these hypothesesas analogous and

influenced

applicableto the
advisable

not

to

and the

negro

be

radical.

too

American

common

It is

type.

suggestionbears enough of

the ominous.
All civilizationof whatever
the moral

upon

element.

ization of lower
ties upon

which

It isthe moral

is based
description

element with itsspiritual-

instincts that underlies those refined aesthetic


the

highlycivilized race
State is founded.

character and

of a
family and community relationships
founded.
On the individual familythe
are
fact is that a desirable
significant
instincts depends upon the
hereditary

Another

transmission

of evolved

maintenance

of the moral

the decay of
influenced,
gressively

stated,a low type

If this be in any

element.

can

the

race

is certain. As

degrade a high type by

never

and brain centres.


nerve
specialized
by which highlyindividualized types may

Yet

of the latter's
a

method

retro-

way

ously
previreason

there is

drift

to

the

through the undermining of the moral sentiment. And


this is brought about by indiscriminate association and physical
abnormal

with
proximity
that

of

members

an

high type labors under


Their

sensations

are

inferior
extreme

race.

nervous

remember

must

tension and excitability.

tain
hyper-acute.Certainly,
theyenter-

high moral sentiments;yet there is no


for their maintenance

We

if contrary

particular
guarantee

instincts occur

in

too

close

A high type is either


highlyevolved nerve centres.
normal
abnormal.
or
excessively
Historyshows us that where
and mental culture succumbed
of highlynervous
mendous
to the tremen

relation with

sexual seductiveness of
the

mentalityof

those

men

and

member

those

of

an

inferior

race,

personalpsycho-physical

INFLUENCES

NEGRO

LIFE

AMERICAN

IN

171

by which theyheld their standingin the realm of affairs


qualities
dwarfed.
Marc Anthony is not the onlyinstance
were
noticeably
and it is said Cleopatrawas
an
Ethiop. At all events, these
the marked decadence of those brilliant
alone explain
suggestions
the Southern type of
and individual traits which distinguished
dal
scanseventy years ago. Those familiar with the Congressional
formed
of that time need not draw on their imagination.The unin-

"

him

to

do so and his awakened


interest may lead
reader may
of
memoirs
and biographies
peruse the personalhistory,

of

statesmen.
distinguished
understand how the average man
can
we
By this interpretation
is affected by inferior racial
and the Superman indirectly,
directly,
of the American
negro stands unexampled
types,and the history
damn
facts by
as
can
appropriately
explanatory.True, men
some

more

our

of conduct.

the surface show


treatment

accorded

yet the weak

No

that he

the negro

of

moments

one

some

would

suspect from

the

ence,
influpossessed
any telling
and the garrulousness
men

of others have revealed facts.


Thus

succumb
and directly
race
a nation or
a
indirectly
may
to the vibrations of inferiority,
providedthese have enough potency
moral
and seductiveness to disturb or undermine the general
sentiment. Turning the pages of history,
the consideration
dismissing
and confining
attention to the paradoxical
influence
our
of inferiority
there is no doubt that Rome
in
over
superiority,
its higherracial conceptions
from its close
suffered irremediably
association with the degeneratePersian civilization. There
is no

doubt that the debauched

racially
retrogressive
types

condition and the influence of the

of the Orient

the

psychological
Rome; the cause that pervertedthe simplicity,
age
courand candor of the earlyRoman
itwith
and stigmatized
spirit
fire and fever,the passionsand perversions
which enfeebled
was

downfall of

the

the warrior upon whom


Rome
ences
depended. Thus when these influassumed their most
destructive proportions
the tide of circumstance
threw

the German

masculinity
againstthe effeminate
of the Empire and a
Roman, with the result of the disruption
new
political
map of Europe.
Nature works by circuitous paths. The debauchinginfluence
which upsets

nation may

exist in the nation's consciousness.

It

THE

172

FORUM

equallyexist in the sub-consciousness of a nation,and this


situation. The degeneratinginfluences
to the American
applies
do not parade the highway of public
opinion. They operate in

may

sequesteredinstances

and

the silence which

under

has its motive

in the fear of

opinion;yet they exist as vital forces,and those


who pry closely
become knowers of facts.
There is a great deal of psychological
significance,
logical
yes, physioin the segregation
of types. There is a great
significance,
deal in the maintenance of that segregation.
It impliesthat the
racial stock,the racial physiognomy,remains uninfluenced and
that the physiological
conduct and motiveunimpaired.It means
forces remain

intact.

this truth in

our

country is

has been

"

modern

segregatedin type
All nations

as

notice the

and

converse

since

from

reason

segregationof

it is somewhat
subject,

America

various nationalities rather than

"

lines.
by political

the selection and

the

United

one

able
remark-

differentiated into

not

was

Our

eras.

definitely

more

as though marked
strictly

of

reverse

in the ancient

as

several decades

apart from

that for this

well

day as

formed

are

Though

types.

We

States,because the

The
segregationof types is marked.
tendencyto separate
was
sion.
emphasized,however, in the Southern secesnationalizing
We

had, and have,

have

"
itsproverbial
New

and Western

The

caste.

all else,
was

types, with their instincttoward

on

so

ticity;
bourgeoisdomes-

the

cause
psychological

of the Civil War.

differenceof temperament,

difference between

the Southern

and

to

than

logical
Physio-

the cially
espeNorthern
type,

reachingits climax of development,manifested

them

Western

strictdifferentiationin type of the latter,


more
and

itself in the

origin. Men ascribe


findings
faultwhen in reality
the political
political
fault-findings,
for psycho-physiologica
of expression
are
onlyavenues

bitterest clash.

and

Middle

with

type, with its eccentric accentuation of social

differences mean
wide

England type,

England conscience "; our

Southern

our

New

our

All

wars

have

similar

temperamental distinctions. The


radical between

the Western

difference in type is

and Middle

West

and

not

Northern

type; yet the distinction is recognized. In the day of further


of national types, however, the different sectional
specialization
types

are

fast

before
disappearing

the interstate materialization

of the
same

IN

INFLUENCES

NEGRO

American
typical

AMERICAN

LIFE

Historyonly repeats itself. The


has obtained not only in
specialization

type.

and
differentiation

but of all races


the formation of all nationalities,
are

throughthe

formed

association and

elements of several dead


one

ante-historicrace

historicraces

173

givingrise to

brown, red,black and white

well. Races

mentary
amalgamationof frag-

races, numbers

mingledwith

as

of survivors of

the survivors of other

the evolution of

our

modern

ante-

yellow,

races.

portant
Seeming deviations of the previousparagraphlead to an imtruth
the finalCaucasianization of
physio-psychological
the negro, making him physiologically
equal with the white.
but can
Some may laugh at the suggestion,
they satisfactorily
this question Why is it that the black color,the inkanswer
black color of the negro, has increasingly
diminished in exact
ratio as the flowing
Is
years separate us from the Civil War?
itpossibly
racial amalgamation? Racial amalgamationdoes not
involve reproduction,
essentially
althoughwholesale instances
of white into negro
not wanting. It involves the injection
are
blood and physical
ing
That alone has itstellforce,and vice versa.
interblend
Such relationships
physicalchanging process.
It is impossible
sense.
types in a tremendouslyphysiological
"

"

that members
without

of different

certain

statisticsof

races

should

have

intimate relations

exchange of physicalcharacteristics.
these thingsare not shouted from the

rally,
Natutop.
house-

All this is relative to the

gradualamalgamationof initiatively
the earlier separated
widelyseparate racial types. Similarly,
as
American types are becoming centralized into one
type, so the
American negro, alreadypossessed
of the mental and
of many
emotional characteristicsof our
nation,has become so importantly
differentfrom his African ancestor
that to callhim a plain
Ethiopwould not be touchingthe point. He is alreadyan
American citizen. Who
knows what he will be six generations
hence?

Apart from this it remains singularly


justexactly
mysterious
its darker bodily
why the negro type is graduallyrelinquishing
shade and cominginto a rarer and more
Caucasian color. There
are
growingnumber of them, whose
negroes, and an increasingly

THE

174

from

color is not far removed

Europe

Western

or

FORUM

Asia.

for Orientals of the darker

of Southern

Caucasian

the average
Many of them

in truth

might be taken

Spanish types. The only


with
reasonable hypothesis
is the amalgamation of the negro
for the gradualchange in
It alone can account
the Caucasian.
the frontal developmentof the head, the gradual thinningof
Italian

or

"

the

lips,the gradual contraction of the nostrils and the gradiu*


change in the texture of the hair,recedingfrom its primitive
hair of the South Asiatic,
black,coarse
curlystate to the straight
the

Malay or Pacific Island type. This


that attention onlyneed be called to
striking
There

is

so

emphatically

the fact.

thingswhich we know, but which we try to


ignorebecause of their vast import. But ignoringthem does not
which continues until it reaches a
change their relative influence,
pointwhere it can no longerbe checked.
and through this amalgamation a decided change is
Indirectly
the negro
is physiologically
perceptible,
a change which
raising
with the white. And the physiological
to an equality
impliesthe
temperamental, mental and psychological.Some might ask,
are

apart from

some

color is

reflection might
disfavor.

this desirable in the extreme?

not

change the balance in favor

Color has of itselfno

mental

or

to

ment's
mo-

marked

importance.
psychical

dealing,the inter-influenceof
higher and lower mental qualities.We have seen how a lower
form cannot
be absorbed by a higherwithout indirectly
partaking
It is the mental with which

we

are

of its lower

This leads to the second and


and nature.
qualities
the most
importantof the phasesin this consideration the psycho-mental
and moral, embracing numerous
subordinate subjects.
The
introduction to
as
foregoingparagraphs serve
necessary
of the
this largerfield,
to a large extent, an
requiring,
analysis
"

negro

to

life and character.

related
more
Being closer to more
conditions,
primitive
closely
the higher mammalian
types than to the exalted evolutionary

Caucasians
the
of Caucasians as such
representative
partakesof this lower enfoldment and is closer to natural
negro
closer to the animal
character in expression;
to speak explicitly,
of negroid traits will forcibly
type in instinct. A description
state

of

"

:
bringto mind the idea of this close relationship

"

the

lengthof

abnormal

The

1.

IN

INFLUENCES

NEGRO

the

AMERICAN

arm,

LIFE

sometimes

175

reachingto

knee-pan.

angle,700 ; in Caucasian,820).
Prognathism(facial
20
oz. ; average
(In gorilla,
3. Weight of brain,35 oz.
European, 45 oz.)
scleroticcoat.
4. Coal-black eye, black irisand yellowish
with dilated
snub nose, broad at the extremity,
5. Short flat,
nostrilsand concave
ridge.
6. Thick,protruding
showinginner surface.
lips,
7. Very largezygomaticarches.
him to use the head as
thick cranium,enabling
8. Exceedingly
2.

weapon

of attack.

9. Weak

low
"

lower

in
limbs,terminating
somewhat

and
instep,
projecting

flat foot,with

broad

prehensile
great

toe, and

lark heel."

Complexiondeep brown, blackish or even black,not due


to any special
pigment,but to the greater abundance of coloring
in the Malphighianmucous
membrane.
matter
11.
Short,black hair,distinctly
woolly,not frizzly.
Thick epidermis,
12.
cool,soft and velvety,
mostly hairless,
and emitting
odor described by Pruner Bey as hircine.
a peculiar
of the
of medium
out
height,thrown somewhat
13. Frame
the backward
the spine,
perpendicular
by the shapeof the pelvis,
of the head and the whole anatomical structure.
projection
10.

The cranial sutures, which close much

14.

than in other
The

earlier in the negro

races.

stands
description

between
similarity

negro

instincts. Scientistshave

merit.

itsown

on

and

measured

It shows

lower
to

the remarkable

types and

pointsof

variationin evolution of different racial brains.

primitive

accuracy

The

the

Caucasian,

of course, isin the lead. The Australian Bushman


is in the rear.
But how far removed
in frontal and generalbrain construction
isthe head of
any very

typical
negro

noticeable

from

that of

Bushman?

Not

by

degree. This is stated because of its moral

bearing.
Steepedin inferiorstandards

feeling,
sensuous
vehemently
of the negro, if admitted

in
to

of

in thoughtand
life,
primitive

the
expression,

express

themselves

moral
in

standards

highlycivil-

176

THE

community,will

ized

easier

influence it to

slipbackward

to

FORUM

than

to

desirable

no

forward.'

go

It is

degree.

It is easier for

to follow lower or more


highlycivilized community instinctively
morals than to follow its own
high ideals. Retrogresprimitive
sion

is a very

possiblecondition under

when

so

environment.

it is induced

Progressionis

the attainment

that has been

but
circumstance,

any

ticularly
par-

close

by

proximityto degenerative
symbol of self-control and of

the

the
brought about; retrogression

relaxation of that control and the conterminous


One

noticeable

feature

of the

back.
setting
more
character,one

negro

racial indifference to those


prominent than others,is a specific
high mental and moral barriers which raise the progressive
type
the
climax
of
of
civilizationand
moral
mental
and
to
vigor. The
is

negro

the
any

morallyrelaxative.

for any
extended negro

asceticism.

he fails to understand

race

moral

extreme

reason

As

endeavor.
lives

He

We

need
of

more

fear

not

vegetative

life,
requisites
eats, drinks,sleeps,
goes through all the physical
he cares
and,provided this life is not disturbed in its expression,
littlefor any other. It would be
of the race
who
representatives
are

the
considering

which

has

say that there

unjustto
are

on

higherplane,but

for it is the
collectively,

race

suggestiveforce and influence


that the increase of negro

not

are

on

our

race

as

whole

life. It is

the
population,

we

thinkable
un-

increased

should not
unhampered circumstances of negro expression,
have an importantreaction on the white population,
particularly
the negro greater and more
as the latter is daily
tant
imporallowing
is
social recognitionand privilege.By social recognition
of social courtesy, but the livingdown of
not
meant
interchange
tionship
that aloofness which previously
differentiated the relastrictly
and

of white
almost nominal
and

converse

have

allowed

and

That

seen

in that

be

may

this differentiation is

black.

growing freedom

interchangeof life which


and

furthered.

Of

our

of

the white.

This

furtherance

daily

industrial conditions

course,

this

cannot

fail

bringthe types closer togetherand increase the influence of


over

now

of social

to

negro

is parrelationship
ticularly

visiblein contrast
was

once

regarded

less demand

as

throughoutthe South,where the negro


less than human.
The South is making

for respect and

of inferiority
on
recognition

the

THE

178

limitations

perceptiblemoral
restraint

sexual
moral

is almost

uncertaintyis

influence
the

or

its

it may

exercise

last quarter

to

of

music

have

music

of

the

formed
of

music

of the

all

are

it is from

more

the negro
of sexual

otherwise

it be
in the

otherwise

it be

sensuously
his

sensuous

when

larynx

sonorous

sensuously

savage,

when

the

ancestry
howl

wild, weird, barbarous

protypical African?

It is

emphasized.

which

touches

the

of this
the

not

menta-psychical influence

physical

complete

reaction

American,

of

the

intricacy.

disturbing conditions
to

the

of the lower

influence
race

and, what

on

It is believed

the weaker

is more,

it is

by

directlyor

of the negro

that

the

as

in

counts

on

and

conduct

is visible

Easterner,

are

much

which

mental,

telling

the

Accordingly considered,

negro's thought

particularly the
and

as

physical in expression,

in racial counter-influences.

manner

these

divorce, the

for the birth

could

It is the characterization
is

mind.

illicitcohabitation,

as

from

first voiced

was

of

danger,

first voiced

How

ever
what-

American

increase

could

the

through

was

in

passion-appealing, the

discussing. How

and

mouth?

the

average

the

of

furtherance, is the atmosphere

the

and

its birth

negro

the

increased

immediate

more

been

had

significancelies

provision almost

necessary

least its

we

Its

century

latitude

it is of relative

it may,

as

code, the indiscriminate

questionable cafe

the

of

the widest

popular music, developed

our

The

rag-time.
at

that

over

uncertainty and

growing

less due

crime,

Be

the latter,

With

type.

and

unknown,

conceded.

lapsing of the marital


with

of the negro

isolatedlyconsidered.

importance

During

FORUM

many

in

social

turbance
dis-

sociologists that

indirectlyto

American

the

upon

be

uted
attrib-

the influence
life;,

portion of society.

It is

able;
reason-

true.

"

SYNGE

J. M.

W.

and

when

of

this

on

papers

heard.

way

my

On

the
About

to

Belfast

and

were

there.

sleepunder the
chaperon,nor admire

'shift"; nor

Playboy

of
sat

and

They

the

Tuesday
play had

trumpets

wished

murderer,

ing.
morn-

been
of

seats

from

the
the

Tuesday night also


to

roof with

same

Dublin

the front

on

blown

the

On

the

silence what
Irish

nor

use

women

out
with-

man

young
a

they

wrord

like

and
recognizethe country men
of Davis and Kickham
in these poetical,
women
violent,grotesque
of God so freely,
and spoke
persons, who used the name
of all thingsthat hit their fancy.
A patriotic
journalismwhich had seen in Synge'scapricious
imaginationthe enemy of all it would have young men
believe,
had

could

had

on

Ireland's womanhood.

never

Dublin

to

word

shouted

slander upon

The

of

act

until I got

more

Monday night no
forty young men

men

considered
would

no

the fall of the curtain.

fortyyoung

second

It had

success."

then

I knew

from

pit,and stamped

rise

was

in Aberdeen,
lecturing
I was
over
given a

Play great

after the

World,

shift."

the word

"

was

being performed for the first


in the morning my
host brought to my
one
broke up in disorder
second telegram,"Audience

After

bedroom

the

Dublin

Western

the

time.

at

from

sent

said,

1907,

lecture

my

telegram which
been

B. Yeats

Saturday,January 26,

ON

TIME

HIS

OF

IRELAND

THE

AND

for years

one

any

prepared for this hour, by that which

the greatest and

is

at

once

the art of
ignoblepower of journalism,
ridiculous or evil
repeatinga name
again and again with some
association. The preparation
had begun after the firstperformance
of The Shadow
of the Glen, Synge's first play,with an
assertion made
in ignorance,but repeated in dishonesty,
that
he had
mind

nor

admitted

taken
that
to

most

his fable and

characters,not

profound knowledge

possess,

Some

his

but

"

spontaneous

From

of

writer

dislike had
179

cot

and

from

curragh he

of the Roman

been

his

but

own
was

dence."
deca-

natural, for

180

THE

genius like his

FORUM

slowly,amid what it has of harsh and


of its beauty, and the depth of
strange, set forth the nobility
its compassion; but the frenzy that would
have silenced his
master-work

but

can

like

the defence
things,artificial,
of virtue by those that have but little,
which is the pomp
and
of journalism
the world.
and its rightto govern
gallantry
was,

violent

most

II
Thomas
can

to

Davis, whose

life had

give to actions the lastinginfluence that


words, had understood

institutions must

show

that

its young

which
simplicity
stylealone can give

the moral

country which
men

has

national

no

images for the affections,

although theybe but diagrams of what it should be or may be.


He and his school imagined the Soldier,
the Orator, the Patriot,
the Poet, the Chieftain,and above all the Peasant; and these,
celebrated in essay and songs and stories,
possessedso many
virtues that no matter
how England, who as Mitchell said " had
as

the

of the world,"

ear

she could

not

unabashed.
and loved

at

come

But ideas and

at

rare

moments

us,

images which have

by large numbers

no
personalexperience,

and if

though
Ireland,even
the world's other ear, might go her way
might slander

of

people,must
patienceof study,no

some

Memory

of

to be

understood

appeal to

of
delicacy

the Dead

can

rich

no

sense;

take its

and matter
manner
strengthfrom one; at all other moments
cause
will be rhetorical,
sentimental;and language,beconventional,
it is carried

will
beyond life perpetually,

be

as

wasted

as

and a dread
thought,with unmeaning pedantriesand silences,
of all that has salt and savor.
After a while,in a land that
has given itself to agitationover-much, abstract thoughtsare

the

raised up between
same

men's minds

thing twice,or

makes

and
one

does the
Nature, who never
like another,till minds,
man

patriotismis perhapsgreat enough to carry them to the


natural impulse with the morbid persistence
scaffold,
cry down

whose

of minds

unsettled

fixed idea. They are preoccupied


by some
with the nation's future,with heroes,poets, soldiers,
painters,
but onlyas these thingsare understood by a child
armies,fleets,
that what is so unreal
in a national school,while a secret feeling

IRELAND

THE

AND

J.M. SYNGE

OF

HIS

TIME

181

They
and seeks by
State which has only paper money,
like some
are
punishmentsto make it buy whatever gold can buy. They no
is
longer love,for only life is loved,and at last,a generation
needs continual defence makes

who

woman
hysterical

like an

bitter and

them

unmeasured

will make

because of
impossible
things,
solitary
thoughtwhich has turned

and believe
from

restless.

some
a

accusations

deduction
logical
portionof her mind

to stone.

Ill
if what

Even

continual

one

defends

apology,whatever

be true,
the cause,

attitude of

an

unforeseen,and in the
hither
drifting

mere

and thither that

and emotion.

zealous

of
spectacle
must

the mind

makes

it kills intellectual innocence;that

because

defence,a

delightin

the

what

world, the

before all true

come

barren
is

mere

thought

if he lives much
Irishman, especially

Ireland,spendshis time in a never-ending


argument about
Oliver Cromwell, the Danes, the penal laws, the rebellion of
a
1798, the famine,the Irish peasant, and ends by substituting
for a country; and if he be a Catholic,
traditional casuistry
yet
another casuistry
that has professors,
letter-writing
schoolmasters,
out

of

and
priests,

the authors of manuals


him

to

make

the meshes

fine,

Englishliterature,
substituting
ments
arguand hesitations for the excitement at the firstreadingof
the great poets which should be a sort of violent imaginative
puberty. His hesitations and arguments may have been right,
the Catholic philosophymay
be more
profound than Milton's
vehement
the less do we
or
vision;but none
morality,
Shelley's
lose life by losingthat recklessness Castiglione
sary
thoughtnecesin good manners,
and offend our
even
Lady Truth, who
would never, had she desired an anxious courtship,
have digged
a well to be her parlor.
I admired,thoughwe were
on
some
alwaysquarrelling
matter,
versy
J. F. Taylor,the orator, who died justbefore the firstcontrothese plays. It often seemed to me
that when he
over
spoke Ireland herself had spoken,one got that sense of surprise
comes

that

between

and

when

is far from

the

common

it has been

spoken,the

comes

man

has said what

is unforeseen,because it

thought,and yet obvious,because when


suddenlyto roll
gate of the mind seems

THE

82

back and
have

forgottensightsand

reveal

heard

never

him

life was

let loose lost


in

speak except

but there
political
society,
whose

FORUM

at any

rate,

passions. I

Irish

some

or
literary

I found
in conversation,

as

ceaseless reverie

the

and
religious
political
historyof Ireland. He saw himself pleading for his
country before an invisible jury,perhaps of the great dead,
againsttraitors at home and enemies abroad, and a sort of
a

man

frenzyin
him
and

his voice and the moral

for the

moment

"

again, Why
of

creator

I read

memory,

"

The

of wisdom

premise; and
from

detachable from

sentence

its context

beauty. Everythingwas argued from


whether in life or letters,
come
wisdom, and style,
of what
from

but statement,

displayed."The
rollingbackward
and

one

or

the presence

felt in what

from
self-evident,

is

Blake

what

of what

sense

will that made

was

now

naked

understand

but argument

and

quires
re-

beauty

obvious,the

and

with the

gone
one

that which
"

called

unforeseen

was

of the gates had

of
nobility

with the

no

day under the influence of


Roe
book, a life of Owen

other

through his

O'Neill,and found there


because

elevation of his

thoughtsgave
styleand music. One asked oneself again
is not this man
of genius,
an
artist,
a man
a

kind?

some

over

livingvoice,
he

what

logic.

saw

I found

the presence of a mind like some


noisyand powerful
machine, of thought that was no part of wisdom, but the apologetic

myselfin
of

of words

moment,
with

no

of
no
thing,
intricacy

woven

of salt

more

of
or
professorof literature,
there is no
carry

mind
own

or

the substance of

than those of

savor

any other who

writingwhich
lasting

does

not

does

can
pleasure. How
be full of abstractions and images created
even

not

define the

some

sake but for the sake of party,

leaf and

if there

know

were

Jesuit
that

or
quality,

one,
not

twig,

if one's
for their
stillthe

to the mind's
pictures
eye, discover thoughts that tightenthe muscles,or quiver and
and stand like St. Michael with the trumpet
tinglein the flesh,

need, find words that delightthe

that callsthe

body to

ear, make

resurrection?
IV

Young Ireland had


glory of Ireland for

taught

event, and

historywith the
this for lack,when less than

study of

our

J.M. SYNGE

THE

AND

IRELAND

OF

Taylor studied,of comparison with


the historical instinct. An

wrecked

HIS

that of

old

man

TIME

other

with

183

countries
academic

an

leader in the attack upon Synge,sees in


of Deirdre a re-telling
of the first
the eleventh century romance
who
appointment,

was

and
five-acttragedyoutside the classic languages,
from

his

of
description

model; while

an

it

was

written
certainly

allusion

to

copper

this
on

tragedy

the Elizabethan

boat, a marvel

of

slipper,
persuadeshim that the ancient
Irish had forestalled the modern
dockyardsin the making of
who doubted, let us say, our
fabulous
metal ships. The man
ancient kingsrunningup to Adam, or found but mythology in
hated as if he had doubted the authority
old tale,was
as
some
that he had
Above
of Scripture.
was
so
all,no man
ignorant,
amid
not by rote familiar arguments and statisticsto drive away
familiar applauseall those,had they but found strange truth in
the world or in their mind, whose knowledge has passedout of
magic like

memory

Cinderella's

and become

an

instinctof hand

or

eye.

There

was

no

for literature is a child of experience


edge
literature,
always,of knowlinstead of beinga dumb, strugand the nation itself,
never;
gling

thoughtseekinga mouth to utter it or hand to show it,a


teemingdelightthat would re-create the world, had become, at
of knowledge.
best,a subject

mined
Tayloralwaysspokewith confidence,
though he was no deterflattered or jostled
from his way; and
beingeasily
man,
heart into his mouth, made him
this,
puttingas it were his fiery
formidable. And I have noticed that all those who speak the
of many, speak confidently,
while those who speak their
thoughts
own
and timid,as thoughtheyspoke out
thoughtsare hesitating
of a mind and body grown
sensitive to the edge of bewilderment
impressions.They speak to us that we may give
among
many
them certainty,
by seeingwhat they have seen; and so it
does not come
from those
is,that enlargementof experience
oratorical thinkers,
from those decisive rhythms that move
or
largenumbers of men, but from writers that seem
by contrast
feminine as the soul when
as
it explores
in Blake's picturethe
of the grave, carryingits faint lamp tremblingand
recesses

THE

84

astonished; or
breasted
all

the Muses

as

but

Amazons,

which

art

of his

FORUM

as

who

one-

needing protection.Indeed,

women

appealsto individual
and his

picturedas

never

are

and

man

awaits the confirmation

when

seems
reveries,

arrayed against
the moral zeal,the confident logic,
the ordered proof of journalism,
vexatious thing,a tumbler who has
a trifling,
impertinent,
senses

unrolled his carpet in the way

of

marching army.

VI
I attack

thingsthat

are

dear

as

to

as

many

holy image

some

carried hither and thither

broken clan,and can


by some
body the affections I disturb,and

that I have felt in my


that if I could raise them

into

contemplationI would

but say
believed

make

sible
pos-

that findingits subject-matter


all ready in
literature,
men's minds would be, not as ours
is,an interest for scholars,
a

but the
this

of
possession

aim, and

people. I have founded

indeed

was

societies with

in Paris when

foundingone

I first

J. M. Synge,and I have known what itis to be changed


by that I would have changed, tillI became argumentativeand
in dailylife for their opinions.
even
unmannerly,hating men
with

met

though I was
year'sleaves are
And

never
a

convinced

livingforest,or thoughta

could do other than make


stone;

or

of

the

believed that literature can

what is stillblind and dumb


how

hard in

one

who

that the anatomies

within

lives where

thought have been born,not

of last

continual

apologetic
soul a vapor and the body a
be made by anything
but by

I have had
ourselves,

forms

to

learn

of

expressionand habits
for the pleasureof begetting,
but

from insincerity,
vanity,
publicgood, is that purification
which is the discoveryof style.But it
malignity,
arrogance,
for the

possibleto live when I had learnt all I had not learnt


in shaping words, in defending Synge againsthis enemies,and
that rich energies,
knew
fine,turbulent or graciousthoughts,
became

whether

in life or

but love-children.
are
letters,
VII

Synge seemed by nature


of
and with the exception
him

in Paris, that

unfitted
one

impliedsome

think

thought,
political
sentence, spoken when I firstmet
sort

to

I
of nationalist conviction,

86

THE

its face upon


would

cave

had

the whole
have

not

looked

not

FORUM

of life.

in the
quarrelling
him, if something in his nature
those wherein he
disputes,even

amused

out

most

on

himself took sides,with

that when

some

he lived in

The

women

mischievous wisdom.

He

told

me

once

peasant'shouse, he tried to make


those about him forgetthat he was
there,and it is certain that
silent in any crowded
room.
helped him to be observant and
vitality
he

was

him

even
dislike,
others,much as

in

It is

possiblethat low
and made
contemplative,

those thoughts which unite


solitude,

to

us

all

when fatigue
illnesshas sharpor
dislike,
ened
the nerves,
the
hoardings covered with advertisements,
fronts of big theatres,
big London
hotels,and all architecture
which has been made to impressthe crowd.
What
blindness did
for

Homer,

we

for

lameness

Hephaestus,asceticism for

any

saint

will,bad health did for him by making him ask no more


of lifethan that it should keep him living,
and above all perhaps
his imagination
one
thought,health itself.
by concentrating
upon
I think that all noble things are
the result of warfare; great
you

of warfare in the visible world, great poetry


classes,
of invisible warfare, the division of a mind
and philosophy,

nations and

the sacrificeof
itself,
a victory,

within

friend's noble art,

certain that my

beauty,is the victoryof

who

man

to

man

full of

so

himself.

am

passion and heroic

in poverty and

sickness

ated
cre-

and in the contemplation


delightof expression,
of images,
that is born of the minute and delicate arrangement
happiness,and health of mind. Some earlypoems have a morbid
and he himself spoke of earlywork he had destroyed
melancholy,
morbid, for as yet the craftsmanshipwas not fine enough to
as

from

bringthe
In

the

artist'sjoy which
one

poem

is of

he waits

perhaps,and while
that nobody is coming, sees
a

woman

future;and
wonders
gone

to

spectacleof the world

he

can

and

see

mix

his
come

for

corner

tity.
sanc-

friend,

understands
gradually

funerals and

two

twenty-five
years
on,

street

he waits and

on

by. Later

substance with that of

some

written

in another

if the

at

one

shivers

at

the

he
twenty-fifth
birthday,
shall be

himself

as

into all he

but
sees

as

evil as those

part of the
that flavor of
a

that makes one


extravagance, or of humor, or of philosophy,
his own
death as if it
that he contemplateseven
understand

AND

J.M. SYNGE

IRELAND

THE

and finds in his


another's,

HIS

OF

TIME

187

a
destinybut as it were
through a burning glassof that generalto men.
projection
There is in the creative joy an acceptance of what life brings,
have understood the beautyof what it brings,or a
because we

were

hatred of death

it takes away, which arouses


sympathy perhaps with all other

energy

the

so

noble,so powerful,that

terror

the

or

within

for what

through some

us,

own

of

sweetness

laugh aloud

we

and

men,

mock, in

at death
exaltation,

our

an

and

oblivion.
In

no

writer that has written of Irish life before him,

modern

Edgeworth in Castle Rackrent,was there


anythingto change a man's thoughtabout the world or stir his
and
moral nature, for they but play with pictures,
persons
except it may

be Miss

events, that whether

or

illobserved

which
on
intelligence,

Egyptianwall; for in
the tragedyof the world

amusement

an

few years, that Life had


has spokenof the moods that
All minds that have
those that

are

these

an

so

to

but

where

procession
paintedon
in

are

it escapes from meditation,a child's show


the fables of his art as significant
by contrast as some

for the mind


that makes

well

wisdom

accustomed

no

time

are

the

come

of

to

to

brew

fables,an

had been thrust


her

sleepydrug,

of its wisdom.
expression
morbid
seem
tragic
reality

writers who

have

not

faced

with that Obscure Night of the


at all;
reality
justas the saints,
that they numbered
it among
Soul,which fell so certainly
itual
spirother ascendingsteps, seem
morbid
to
states, one
among
the rationalistand the old-fashioned

Protestant controversialist.

The

like that of the Irish novelists,


is
thoughtof journalists,
neither healthynor
for it has not risen to that state
unhealthy,
where either is possible,
should we
call it happy; for who
nor
would have soughthappiness,
if happiness
not the supreme
were
attainment of man,

imaginedit above

in heroic

in the cell of the ascetic,


toils,
or

the cheerful newspapers,

above

the clouds?

VIII
Not

that

with himself any


Synge broughtout of the struggle
definite philosophy,
for philosophyin the common
meaning of
the word is created out of an anxiety
for sympathy or obedience,
and he was
that rare, that distinguished,
that most
noble thing,

THE

88

of all thingsstillof the world

which

the
itself,

to

who

his

artist. Sir

pure
"

could hear

look upon
"

FORUM

sweet

lady) and

Or

if

As

with

Oh

let them

To

be, in things past

(by which

be stirred to

not

to

beingsufficient

PhilipSidneycomplains of those
"

tunes

is nearest

he understands

"

could

delight."
ravishing

do

they

delighttherein,yet are so closed with wit,


sententious
lipsto set a title vain on it;
hear

these

for three

Ireland

sacred

tunes, and

learn

of wit, fools if

bonds

Wonder's

in

they

be

schools

fools !"

not

generationshas been like those churlish

has to take its


logicians.
Everythingis argued over, everything
trialbefore the dull sense
acter
and the hastyjudgment,and the charof the nation has so changed that it hardlykeeps but among
familytradition is stillstubborn,
country people,or where some
that made

those lineaments
the Irish

among

Borrow

cry out

he

as

monks, his friends and entertainers for all his


"

of the bravest

SpanishBible scattering, Oh, Ireland,mother


soldiers and of the

beautiful

most

seek that old Ireland which

to

scholars of the

and

women

Kerry,and

to

!"

It was,

took its mould

from

eighteenthcentury and

from

that Synge returned


still,

older

from

came

again and

again

as

I believe,

the duellists

generations
to

Aran,

to

the wild Blaskets.

IX
"

I got up this morning," he writes,after he had been


"
long time in Innismaan, I found that the people had gone to

When

mass

and latched the kitchen door

could

not

open

sat

for

"

that I
used
room

outside,so that I

givemyselflight.

nearlyan hour beside the


should be quitealone in this

before

as

After

chimney to

walls,I
corner

the

fire with

became

on

placewhere
while

as

ing
curious feel-

never

am

so

felt the

might live and work by


waited, with justlightenough from
any

man

the grayness of the


mournful, for I felt that this little
indescribably
let

me

see

the face of the


and

the rafters and

world, and the people who

dignityfrom

which

have

This

life,which he describes elsewhere

peace

littlecottage.

here with the people that I have


sitting

to

himself.
the

it to

from

we

are
as

the

live in it,

shut for ever."


most

primitive

THE

AND

J.M. SYNGE

leftin Europe, satisfiedsome

IRELAND

OF

HIS

of
necessity

his

nature.

him in Paris he had wandered

met

to

much

over

of

TIME

189

Before I

ing
Europe, listen-

storiesin the Black Forest,making friends with

servants

for
people,and this from an aesthetic interest,
had no money
to give,and cared
he had gatheredno statistics,
of the poor, being content
for
to pay
nothingfor the wrongs
of eye and ear with a tune upon the fiddle. He did
the pleasure
not love them the better because theywere
poor and miserable,
and it was
only when he found Innismaan and the Blaskets,
with poor

and

where
"

there is neither riches

poverty, neither what he calls

nor
"

"

of the rich nor


the squalorof the poor,"that his
nullity
lost itsold morbid brooding,
that he found his geniusand
writing
Here were
who under the weight
his peace.
and women
men
of their necessity
lived,as the artist lives,in the presence of
death and childhood,and the great affections and the orgiastic
when life outleapsits limits,
and who, as it is always
moment
the

with those who


had
Here

or

escaped the trivial and the

and good manners


dignity

above allwas

in, from
'

have refused

silence from

formidable

sciolist" who

"

men,

where

all our

from

manners

great

orator

mattered.
took

delight

from
indignation,

moral

porary,
tem-

the

life that
sad," from all in modern
would destroythe arts; and here, to take a thought from another
playwrightof our school,he could love Time as only
women

is

never

and great artistsdo and need

never

sellit.

X
As

I read The

since he showed

Aran

much
of

it me

knowledgeof
world

which

rightthroughfor the firsttime


I come
how
to understand
manuscript,

Islands
in

the real life of Ireland

is yet

went

to

the creation

Spain of Cervantes.
Here is the story of The Playboy,of The Shadow
of the Glen;
here is the
of the young
and the finding
ghoston horseback
man's body of Riders to the Sea,numberless ways of speechand
vehement pictures
that had seemed to owe
tion,
nothingto observaand all to some
of himself,or to some
mere
overflowing
of dramatic construction. I had thoughtthe violent
necessity
quarrelsof The Well of the Saints came
from his love of bitter
but here is a couplethat quarrelall day long amid
condiments,
a

"

as

fantastic as

"

the

THE

190

neighborswho
of

FORUM

for

gatheras

defended

I had

play.

make

burning

artist need

ChristyMahon's

leg on the ground that an


his characters self-consistent,
and yet, that

the

too

but

tion,
observa-

was

"

for

althoughthese peopleare kindlytowards each other


of
and their children,
they have no sympathy for the suffering
animals, and littlesympathy for pain when the person who feels
it is not

in

fancy Martin
ducks, but

I had

danger."
Dhoul
few

lines further

cottage, I find all the

smith

the

accused

is unknown,
indignation

in the

thought it was

read,

plucking his living

in this book

on,
"

of

Sometimes

when

I go

into

their knees

place down on
pluckingthe feathers from live ducks and geese."
He

moral

where

of the

women

of

wantonness

loves all that has

edge, all that is salt in the mouth, all


that is rough to the hand, all that heightensthe emotions by
of tragedy;and in this
contest, all that stingsinto life the sense
book, unlike the playswhere

his audience

to

nearness

he shows it without thought of other


mischief,

to

It is

constant,

so

suggests
and

it is all set

out

so

correspondencebetween

this life that shares the harshness

passionateminds love

than his.

taste

that
simply,so naturally,

food of the spiritual-minded


is sweet,
but

him

moves

it

lastingmood

of the soul

of rocks and

wind.

an

bitter food.

Indian

The

scripturesays,

Yet he is

indifferent

no

kind and sympathetic


to all about him.
observer,but is certainly
old and ailing
When
an
dreading the coming winter,cries
man,
at

his

not
leaving,

thinkingto

that the old man's


accustomed

mitten has

the

to

stick,one

interested affection as befitsa


of

study. When

he had

travelled with

heaven

and

knows,

inn where

one

searched

he understood
were

of

him

hole in it where

notices

he

again;and

the

palm is

that it is with eyes full of


simpleman and not in the curiosity
knows

left the Blaskets for the last time, he

pensionerwho

had

drifted there, why

morning, having missed him

he
staying,

theywere

island and

island

lame

see

believed he had gone

from

back

to

the
the

everywhere and questionedeverybody,till


sudden that he was
jealousas though the

woman.

dull if you read much at a time,as the later


Kerry essays do not, but nothing that he has written recalls so
the man
he was
in dailylife;and as
to my
senses
as
completely
The

book

seems

"

I read, there

when

moments

are

inflectionof his voice,grows


talked than

pages, wherein

the

onlylifehe

slowly,and only after


and when

it
business),

is

was

of

not

an

research,and this made

events,

which

on

that I

cannot

walked

we

loved with his whole

and

heart reflects

same

character in

him

while his
silent;
no

of

matters

changed.

never

instrument

thing,an
experimental

feels that he pronounces

one

face,every

unarranged,unspeculating

spoken without hesitation and

His conversation
of

these

(and he had the

it comes

line of his

191

to him
pool. Thought comes
long seeminglyunmeditative watching,

in the stillwater

itself as

was

while I read

now

every

TIME

HIS

clear in memory
when
nearer
no

so

He

realize that he is dead.

OF

IRELAND

THE

AND

SYNGE

J.M.

recall

essays

judgment even

mind, because the labor of Life itself


depth of his own
had not yet brought the philosophic
which was
generalization,
almost as much
of
his objectas the emotional generalization
beauty. A mind that generalizes
rapidly,
continually
prevents
the experience
that would have made it feel and see deeply,
just
whose character is too completein youth seldom grows
as a man
into any energy of moral beauty. Synge had indeed no obvious
understood by young men, and even
ideals,
as these are
as I think
disliked them, for he once
complainedto me that our modern
but the poetry
of the lyrical
boy," and this lack
poetry was
in the

"

makes

his

born in

art

some

have

as
strange wildness and coldness,

of

man

far-off spacious
land and time.
XI

There

artists like

who
Byron, like Goethe, like Shelley,
have impressive
active wills and all their faculties
personalities,
at the service of the will;but he belongedto those who, like
Wordsworth, like Coleridge,like Goldsmith, like Keats, have
little
far as the casual eye can see, littlepersonal
so
personality,
but fiery
and broodingimagination.I cannot
will,
imaginehim
anxious
to impress,
convince in any company,
or
or
sayingmore
than was
sufficient
to keep the talk circling.
Such men
have the
advantagethat all they write is a part of knowledge,but they
are

are

powerless before

events

and

have

often

but

one

visible

the strengthto reject


strength,
from life and thoughtall that
would mar
their work, or deafen them in the doing of it;and

THE

192

only this

taken

or

young

long

so

books

If Synge had married


passiveact.
I doubt if he would have written
profession,

as

some

been

or

it is

have been

itschosen

not

do not

like

movement

of making
opportunities

ours;

in what

money

preparation. He

had

imagination,littleinterest in anythingthat

subject.He hardlyseemed

of other writers.
and

in

almost unconscious

an

life outside his

greatlyinterested

but he refused various


must

FORUM

remember

from

that I had

him

was

of the existence

aware

if he cared

knew

never

no

for work
even

of

mine,

conventional

plicity
compliment,and yet he had the most perfectmodesty and simin dailyintercourse,
self-assertion was
impossibleto him.
On the other hand, he was
He
useless amidst, sudden events.
much

by the Playboy riot;on the firstnightconfused


excited,knowing not what to do, and illbefore many days,

was

and

shaken

but it made

difference in his work.

no

of defiance

out

softened

nor

of

out

He

neither

timidity.He

exaggerated
wrote

on

as

if

nothinghad happened, alteringThe Tinker's Wedding to a


more
serene
Deirdre,
unpopularform, but writinga beautiful,
with, for the firsttime since his
sarcasm

Riders

defiance. Misfortune

or

shook his

it left his intellectand his moral

the mask, the


self,

persona

nature
physical

shadow, character

touch of

Sea, no

untroubled.

nature

was

the

to

while

The

external

was

all.

XII
He

was

loved wild islands,because


what

saw

full of hidden

silent man
drifting,

layhidden

there,set

in himself.

English market:
drove

whole

in its

turn

togetherin

out

and
a

close

the

to

thrown

the

down

moved

was

carried

were

When

on

the

Then

sea.

the North

on

steamer

upon

after passage

of excitement.

he dwells upon some


moment
the shippingof pigs at Kilronan

the

lightof day, he

is passage

There

in which

"

in the

out

passion,and

was

scribes
de-

Island for

gettingnear, the

slipand the curraghsf


each beast was
caught

its side,while its legs were

singleknot,with

He

tag of rope

hitched

remaining,by which

itcould be carried.
"

great, yet the animals


till
shrieked with almost human
intonations,

Probably the pain

shut their eyes and

inflictedwas

not

THE

194

FORUM

lighton them, I heard

intense

far away
"It came

rhythm of

faint

music

beginning

instrument.
stringed
closer to me, gradually
and
increasingin quickness
volume with an irresistibly
it was
definite progression.When
and blood,to
in my nerves
quitenear the sound began to move
urge

some

dance with them.

to

me

"

on

that if I

I knew

of terrible agony,
knees together
with my

moment

my
"

The

be carried away into some


I struggledto remain quiet,
holding
would

yieldedI
so

hands.

sounding like the strings


continually,
as
forgottenscale,and having a resonance

music

increased

of

harps tuned to a
of the 'cello.
as the strings
searching
Then the luringexcitement became
"

will,and
"

In

limbs moved

my

breath

My

became

moment

and

form

joy;then
the
a

the

or

Then

rhythm

it grew
of

into

in

every

I could

movement.

with

whirlingof

At

of the

notes

impulse of

my

not

not

last,with

notes.

body

between
distinguish
ness.
conscious-

or

filledwith

was

was

lost in

think that there had been

the dance.

shock, the ecstasy turned

of the steps I moved


"

of

all existence

struggledto free myself,but seemed

echo the

whirlwind

and my own
person
excitement that
an

ecstasy where

an

my

me.

away

thoughts and

my

life beyond the


"

swept

was

while it seemed

vortex

spiteof

of the dance, tillI could

the instrument
For

in

powerfulthan

more

to.

When

to

agony

and

rage.

increase the sion


pasI shrieked I could only

onlyto

rhythm.
of uncontrollable

movement

frenzyI

broke

back into consciousness and awoke.


"

dragged myselftremblingto the window

looked

out.

was

sound

no

The

moon

across
glittering

was

anywhere on

of the cottage and


the

bay

and there

the island."
XIII

give direct expressionto reveries,


device that
the speechof the soul with itself,
there is some

In all drama
to

which

would

of dialogue. When
GEdipus speaks out of
rapidity
vehement
he is conscious of the presence of
passions,

checks the
the

most

the chorus,

men

before whom

he

must

keep

up

appearances,

"

children latest born

as

our

OF

HIS

who

do

breathless.

or

them, takingpart

lesser

line "

of Cadmus'

Nothinghappensbefore
and in

IRELAND

is hurried

passion.Nobody
and discuss

THE

AND

SYNGE

J.M.

as

it

share his

not

council of

of
dignity

The

eyes.

195

listen to reports

We
in

were

TIME

Greek

state.

drama,

degree of that of Corneille and Racine,depends,

contrasted with the troubled life of

Shakespeareandrama,

on

sion
and on a so continuous excluspeed of dialogue,
that thoughtremains lofty
of the animation of common
life,

almost

an

even

whose stage everything


languagerich. Shakespeare,
upon
the blinding
of Gloster,and who has no formal
may happen,even
of
check except what is impliedin the slow, elaborate structure
blank verse, obtains time for reverie by an often encumbering
Euphuism,and by such a looseningof his plot as will give his
and

characters the leisure to look


the firstmodern

to name

reaches the
who
who

can

their own

lifefrom without. Maeterlinck

at

of the old way who comes


choosinginstead of human

to

mind

"

"

beingspersons
faint as a breath upon a looking-glass,
are
as
symbols
speak a languageslow and heavy with dreams, because
same

end, by

lifeisbut

dream.

Modern

drama,

on

the other

hand,

which accepts the tightness


of the classic plot,while expressing
life directly,
has been driven to make indirect its expression
of
the

mind, which itleaves

be inferred from

to

some

commonplace

infer it in

ordinarylife;and this is,I


the cause
of the perpetual
of the hope
believe,
disappointment
imaginedthis hundred years that France or Spain or Germany
or Scandinavia will at last producethe master
await.
we
sentence

The

or

gesture

we

divisions in the

and
technical,
one

as

another

arts

the great schools of drama

by

the form

check chosen for the

the metal

or

meet

thoughtof
in one

all in the firstinstance


have been divided from
of their

mirror, by the

of dialogue.Synge found
rapidity

that suited his temperament in


Kerryand Aran. The cadence
the

almost

are

men

who

are

another's houses

listenpatiently,
each

"

elaboration of the dialects of

an

is long and

much
as

the check

meditative,as befits

alone,and who

their way

is at the

when

they

day'send

"

little
speakingin turn and for some
time, and takingpleasurein the vaguer
meaning of the words
and in their sound.
Their thought,
when not merelypractical,
is
as full of traditional wisdom
and extravagant pictures
as that of
man

THE

196

FORUM

iEschyleanchorus, and

some

though the present were held


of rhetoric,for the speaker

as

doubtless he would
but for the

itwas

too, for it could


with

rammed

"

from

themselves

of

queens

from

them.

fine arms

when

girlmaybe
or

night?

start

helpme?

it'sfew would
would

That

slap.

What

good

old

an

the

are

What

few but

woman,

This

have

the

with
sleeping

good

grand stories

be in great fear the time her hour

would

his food.

it,making

the like of Sarah

them

on

listen to

in

end, and they with


grand story of the great

has the flavor of Homer,

while Cervantes

so

the

to

I've

hit you

littlechild wouldn't be
"

not

would

I this night,God

I have

the

Ireland,with white necks

Casey,and
am

speech

littleabstract it is and

so

Ballinacree with great queens

matches

of

manner

of national propageneralizations
ganda.
the fineststory you'dhear any place

worn

telling
you

to

shinysilks on

Raftery's
whiskey-drinking

A medicinal

express,

even

those
life,

Dundalk

length. It is the reverse


his own
delight,though

serves

company's sake.

topicis,it is

arms'

tell you that like

not

I'llbe

at

the

what

matter

no

come,

was

hunger

on

cold

of the Bible,of Villon,

thought itsweet

though

in the mouth

of Irish dialect for noble purpose


by
Gregory,who had it already in her Cuchuuse

Synge, and by Lady


laln of Muirthemne, and by Dr. Hyde in those firsttranslations
he has not equalledsince,has done much for national dignity.
When

was

boy

Scottish dialect was

was

often troubled and sorrowful

capableof noble

use, but the Irish of obvious

humor
roystering
only;and this error
by so many novelists and rhymers made
wrote

down

words

and

because

fixed
me

phraseswherever

on

my

imagination

listen badly.

Synge

he went, and with that

knowledge of Irish which made all our country idioms easy to


his hand, found it so rich a thing,that he had begun translating
into it fragmentsof the great literatures of the world, and had
planned a completeversion of the Imitation of Christ. It gave
him
of
"

imaginativerichness and yet left to him the stingand tang

reality.How

eyes with

big gay look

great scholar."

version,and how

speech,in

vivid in his translation from

which

out

of them

would

Villon

are

those

from
bring folly

surelythan anythingin Swinburne's


noble those words which are yet simplecountry

More

vivid

his Petrarch

mourns

that death

came

upon

THE

AND

SYNGE

J.M.

OF

HIS

TIME

197

making chastity
easy, and the day come
and say out all thingsare in their
lovers may sittogether
when
sweet
was
making a start, littleby
hearts,"and
enemy
my
her great wariness,the way she was
to giveover
wringing
little,
a sweet
thingout of my sharpsorrow."
justas

Laura

time

IRELAND

was

"

"

XIV

sayingthat though it seemed to me that


the action at the
a conventional descriptive
passage encumbered
of crisis,
I liked The Shadow
moment
of the Glen better than
of its end, itsmood
Riders to the Sea,that is,for all the nobility
of Greek tragedy,
in suffering;
and had quotedfrom
too passive
Matthew
Arnold's introduction to Empedocles on Etna, Synge
ceeds
answered, It is a curious thingthat The Riders to the Sea sucwith an Englishbut not with an Irish audience,and The
Shadow
of the Glen which is not liked by an Englishaudience is
alwaysliked in Ireland,though it is disliked there in theory."
Since then The Riders to the Sea has grown
into great popularity
in Dublin,partlybecause with the tactical instinct of an Irish
mob, the demonstrators againstThe Playboy both in the press
and in the theatre,
where it began the evening,
selected it for applause.
It is now
what Shelley's
for many
Cloud was
years, a
comfort to those who do not like to deny altogether
the genius
theycannot understand. Yet I am certain that,in the long run,
his grotesque playswith their lyric
beauty,their violent laughter,
The Playboyof the Western World
of all,
will be loved for
most
much of the mind of Ireland. Synge has written of
so
holding
The Playboy, anyone who has lived in real intimacy
with the
Irish peasantry will know that the wildest sayingsin this play
Once when

I had been

"

"

indeed

compared with the fancies one may hear at any


littlehillsidecottage of Geesala,or Carraroe, or DingleBay."
are

tame

It isthe strangest,the

Irish fantasy,
which
that has
account
is

come

out

of

in drama of that
expression
overflowingthrough all Irish Literature
Ireland itself (compare the fantastic Irish
most

beautiful

of the Battle of Clontarf with the sober Norse

the unbroken character of Irish

genius. In modern

genius has delighted


in mischievous
the Gaelic

poet'scurse

upon

his

account)
days this

extravagance, like that of

children," There

are

three

THE

198
I

thingsthat
that

worms

are

for my

hate, the devil that is waiting for my soul, the


who are waiting
waitingfor my body, my children,

wealth

Oh, Christ,hang

and

neither for my body nor


my soul:
"
all in the same
I think those words
!
noose

spoken with

were

FORUM

care

delightin their vehemence

half the bitterness with all the

anger

Islands told

that took
An

gloom,

old

out

man

on

of
the

the very tale on which The Playboy is


founded,beginningwith the words, " If any gentleman has done
crime we'll hide him.
There was
a
a
gentleman that killed his

Aran

father,and

me

I had

him

in my

house

own

six months

tillhe got

of his slow speechhis


Despite the solemnity
have shone in that TrinityCollege
eyes shone as the eyes must
branch of the Gaelic League, which began every meeting with
prayers for the death of an old Fellow of Collegewho disliked
away

America."

to

their movement,
how
have

or

into

themselves

when

time the prayers took to


crowd, when certain Dublin

short

seen

do
theycertainly

as

ing
patriotsare tellI
the killing
of him.
had

wrought
possessed by what

papers

so
imaginary loyalty,
that
geniusof satiricfantasy,
an

the very
all but looked
one
feathered heel among
the cobble stones.
Part of
to find some
the delightof crowd or individual is alwaysthat somebody will
seemed

somebody take the sport for gloomy earnest.


let us therefore so hide our
mocking at his solemnity,

be angry,

that he may
yet.
a

be

should

Why

speak his language and

we

emotions

of all those

dream

should, and

not

and the laugh will


still,

solemn

more

because

which

theymust?

Our

so

wake

We

malice

higher

run

him

feel because

men

are

from

they

minds, being sufficient

orate
victorybut are content to elabbeauty,
our
extravagance, if fortune aid,into wit or lyric
and as for the rest, There are nightswhen a king like Concho-,
to

themselves,do

not

wish

for

"

bar would
tongues

at

spitupon his arm-ring and queens will stick out their


This habit of the mind has made
the risingmoon."

Oscar Wilde
of

comedy

and Mr.
to

our

Shaw

the

celebrated makers

most

plainerstillin the
few speechesof the other,

time, and if it has sounded

conversation of the
that is but because

Bernard

one,

and

they have

in

some

not

been able

to

turn

out

of their

youth. Yet,
playsan alien trick of zeal pickedup in struggling
the
and not
in Synge'splays also, fantasygives the form

for
thought,

the

IRELAND

THE

AND

SYNGE

J.M.

OF

HIS

is alwaysas in all great art,

core

TIME

199

ing
over-power-

an

capacityfor sharingin
of our delight.Great art chillsus at
that vision is the measure
firstby itscoldness or its strangeness, by what seems
capricious,
it has authority,
and yet it is from these qualities
as
though it
had fed on locust and wild honey. The
imaginativewriter
reversed in a
shows us the world as a painterdoes his picture,
that we may see it,
not as it seems
to eyes habit has
looking-glass
Adam
and this the firstmorning;and
but as we were
made dull,
when the new
image becomes as littlestrange as the old we shall
vision of certain

virtues,and

our

stay with him, because he has,beside the strangeness,

him, that made

to

share his

us

not

that
vision,
sincerity

strange

makes

us

share his

feeling.
speak of one's

To
to

from

out

come

emotions

under

without

fear

or

of other men's

the shadow

ambition,

moral

minds, to

oneself,that is all the Muses


utterly
of a soul from placeand hisfor. All art is the disengaging
tory,
care
its suspension
in a beautiful or terrible light,
to await the
Judgment,and yet, because all its days were a Last Day, judged
already. It may show the crimes of Italyas Dante did, or
Greek mythologylike Keats, or Kerry and Galway villages,
and
after I shall look at all with like eyes, and
that ever
so vividly
that Keats
yet I know that Cino da Pistoia thoughtDante unjust,

forgettheir needs,to

knew

Greek, that those country

no

lovable

so

be

have added

nor

lawless

so

to my

"

as

being,not

mine

and

men

author

women

sung

neither

are

it me

"; that I

knowledge.

my

XV
I
of

wrote

the

most

Normandy, and

Here I

saw

the

of these

thoughtsin

I finished

as

came

my

upon

those
placesof assembly,

with
ing-cups

stems

ordinances
of

to sleep
in.
dormitory

taken
man

from

gold to
Even

of the

cloisters on
or

the rock's
or
knights,
or

tion.
propor-

drinkPopes forbidding

these monks

when

coast

Saint Michel.

Mont

summit,the church,the great halls where monks,


men
at arms
sat at meals, beautiful from
ornament
I remembered

the

diaryon

who

the
imagining,

had but

bare

individual had

his fellows and his fathers than he gave, one


what another had begun;and all that majestic
fanfinishing
more

THE

200

of

tasy, seeming more


to

the

FORUM

Egypt than

soul,but
solitary

seemed

of

ing
Christendom,spoke noth-

to

announce

heroic temper of social men,


and of wisdom.
Then I thought more

yet to

an

come

that what

had made

these but

whether

past

or

ure
bondage of adventand
patiently

saw

sand
giventhem for a thouyears the miracles of their shrine and temporal rule by
poverishme
land and sea, was
not
to knave
a condescension
or
dolt,an imof the common
thoughtto make it serviceable and
in whatever,even
easy, but a dead language and a communion
is of incredible difficulty.
to the greatest saint,
stantiatio
Only by the subof the soul, I thought,whether in literature or in
can
we
come
sanctity,
upon those agreements, those separations
from all else that fasten men
for while a
togetherlastingly;
Burns and Scott can but create a provpopular and picturesque
ince,
and our Irish cries and grammars
serve
some
passingneed,
Homer, Shakespeare,Dante, Goethe and all who travel in their
define races
road with however poor a stride,
and create everlasting
loyalties.
Synge,like all of the great kin,sought for the
in the future,
even
or
race, not through the eyes or in history,
found God, in the depthsof the mind;
but where those monks
indeed
and in all art like this,althoughit does not command
lie the roots of far-branching
because it does not
events.
may
Only that which does not teach,which does not cry out, which
does not persuade,which does not condescend,which does not
selves
explainis irresistible. It is made by men who expressedthemand it works through the best minds ; whereas
to the full,
that they
the external and picturesque
and declamatory
writers,
and guide-books,
may create kiltsand bagpipes and newspapers
leave the best minds empty, and in Ireland and Scotland,England
as

one

and

"

"

runs

into the hole.

because
never

known

It has

no

array

of arguments

and

the great and the simple (and the Muses


which of the two most
pleasesthem) need

ims,
max-

have
their

thought for the day'swork, and yet will do it worse


if theyhave not grown
into or found about them, most perhaps
the nobleness of emotion, associated
in the minds of women,
deliberate

with the scenery and events of their country,by those great poets,
and who to this day in Europe
it in solitude,
who have dreamed
are

has
creatingindestructiblespiritual
races, like those religion

created in the East.

THE

202

the handsome

kindlyon
that,when

she had

truculent

Mary,

him

committed

swordsmanship in

plan her abduction.

fell:

youth,with

his ward, but dared

broken

With

FORUM

the

such potent

to

magic indeed
Edinburgh Castle,for his

citystreets, he

not

only

gather his clansmen about him and


For this,
and
he was
the scaffold,
to mount
to

without tears, but without mercy,


the dream stillin his eyes, he called to
not

"

had

to

was

see

him

die.

her,before the

axe

"

Most

but most
cruel of her sex!
lovely,
Happier than he, perhapsthe happiestof all Mary's minor
that

lovers,was
eighteenwho
she had

George Douglas, the gallantlad of

young

managed her

escape

from

Lochleven

Castle.

Him

She had said so frankly


expresseda wish to marry.
of his visits to his precarious
to the Regent Murray on
one
prisoner,young George being the Regent'sbrother,and at that
his mother
time an
inmate of the castle,
Lady Douglas and
even

another brother Sir William

Douglas beingthe Queen's gaolers.


The immediate result of Mary's frankness was
to banish George
Douglas from the castle;only,however, that he should the more
ing
actively
planMary's escape. A few weeks later,it was his lovthat carried his Queen ashore from the darklingboat
arms
and

his

waitinghorse; proud and happy George Douglas,


ridingby her side through the rushingnight. Nearly twenty
set

years

her

on

later,another gallantmoth

was

to

hurl himself into the

EnglishAnthony Babington who was found


his Queen for Mary's sake, and so passes in

magic dazzle,young
murder

ready to
his dream

to

Tower

And

who
lovers still,

humbler

names,

Hill.

to

these

might be added

had been eager

to

other

dare all and

those strange eyes, a touch of that


caressinghand. Ah ! those soft bird-like ways
thoughtlessly
lose all for

smile from

hers, those artless


that made

of casual tenderness

arts

all her slaves,and drove


"

If

says

of

one

her

one

of

four

I know

mistake,

folk would

gibe
far."

Maries," in Swinburne's

honied

play,

charm
to tellwhere
striving
layher mistress's all-conquering
"

She
The

has

always loved

marshal, head

love's fashions

of

mad.

pushed courtesy so

us

"

how

some

easy to

so

too

well

you

wot,

friend of this Chastelard's,

used

She
And

I cannot

Which

see

in such

snares

tender

And
There

the inside

as

but

Mary Hamilton;
talking:
So

Mary
"

The

soft and

In

of men;

sense

man's

as

of the

eye

eyelid is,

her."

about

grows

lurks

that

all the

wise

specialbeauty, subtle

What

here,

For, myself,

side of her

which

Carmichael

I think her

deems

Mary
"

cunning speech
"

of her breath

rapid shudder

with

those

looks

amorous

all souls toward

Plucks

clear

playing of those

lure of

The

eyes

poet strives

to

perfectbrows
eyelashes,
sad

as

her like

formulate

to

which

even

love,

as
a

net."

Mary's
a giftof perconveying,
sonal

her enemies

which,while all could praise,


none

fascination which

portraits
onlyhint at, but fall short of
enchantment

all."

is in her eyes:

Seton will have the charm

It is the

So

"

"

I say, her

of

itis her way

talking the rare tender little laugh


sound like a bird's sigh
The
sweet
pitiful
her voice breaks; her talkingdoes it
When
But

203

thick

little kisses

with

her

brought

he

ere

rose-harvest.

in

roses

with

talk

their

sow

As

talk

to

CHASTELARD

POET

THE

AND

STUART

MARY

could with

bore

witness,but

exactness

analyze.

After

the last secret


naming this feature and that characteristic,
stillescapes them; as perhaps it alwaysdoes in the beautythat

has done the


of

damage in the world

spellis its mystery, and wizardryknows

death!

Such, at all events, would

desperate
logicof
Pierre Boscobel
of

essence

at

to

seem

have

been

the

lover of the Queen,


quiteunpolitic
scendant
Chastelard,gentleman of Dauphine, de-

de

Swinburne's

of the Pleiade.
noble

fine frenzy,
has
madness,his really
fair due

no

that other

Bayard,and poet

Outside Mr.

its

for the

"

fore.
why or wherePlain miracle is alike the onlyexplanation
of a rose, or of
tragicMary "; and plainmadness is perhapsthe most logical
vine
worshipof such beauty. Divine beauty,divine madness, di-

divine

most

the hands

tragedy,Chastelard's
not, it seems

of romance,

not

to

to

me,

divine

received

speak of history.

THE

2o4

FORUM

History,indeed,has treated Chastelard as a crazy fribble,much


in the spirit
toward Osric:
of Hamlet's manner
Dost know
this water-fly? and romance
of his
has seemed scarcely
aware
"

"

"

existence.
"

The

egregious S. W. H. Ireland,of the famous


Ireland forgeries,"
one
more
attempted in Chastelard's name

of the guileless
publicof 1805,
mystification
confection entitled

Queen of Scotland
Scotch

Translated

College at Paris.

from

Gallic

Interspersedwith

"

command

to

Mary

manuscriptin

songs,

One

explanatory by the Translator.

notes

nauseous

from Chatelar

Effusionsof Love

"

with

sonnets

would

need

the

and
the

of that

Billingsgate
explosively
polysyllabic
literary
mudemployedin a very ecstasy of vituperative

which Swinburne

throwing,to characterize the unimaginablesillinessof Ireland's


one
production. Merely as a literary
cal
curiosity,
may quote a typithe highfalutin
of a "man
of feeling" in 1805.
passage"
ary.
Chatelar,so called,is representedas having stolen Mary's rosThese
"

his sublime raptures

are

This

I stole the

the theft of love

was

rosary

his

over

treasure:

surely'tis forgiven.

"

and in the absence of my love, I made


of these beads unseen.
Heavenly powers ! they

secret

moment,

myselfpossessor
were
touch,have
Mary's, her ivoryfingerswith love-thrilling
scient
pressed these little amber studs! her lips!love, love, omnilove! her lips,
to
Come, come
too, have kissed them!
mine

"

thus

fragrance,and I
juice!tinged
Oh, balmy essence! nectareous

and thus

"

suck their sweets!


with the vermeil

"

dye of

and thus I

their

scent

those moist rubies,which, moving,utter

dispensearound the violet's rich perfume. O


luscious than
than fragrantMay! more
exquisite

dulcet music, and


mouth
the

more

honey bee's
Even

forms

of

Mr.

rich

store

Maurice

Thus, thus, I

taste

Hewlett, friendly
by

declines
gallantry,

Queen'sQuair,to give poor

the

thee ! "

nature

in his
opportunity,

Chastelard

to

euphuistic

brilliant The

chance with

posterity;*

though he admits that he died like a gentleman,which, after all,


is an epitaphworth dyingfor. A glittering
gentleman of France,
the coxcombical exaggeration,of the sworded
the perfection,

butterfly
type
was;

of

speechand

characteristic of the Renaissance, Chastelard


one

whose

manners,

posturingelegancies
highsugar and general

fine clothes and

all the satin and

doubtedly
un-

STUART

MARY

THE

AND

POET

CHASTELARD

205

and strength
dandyismof him, masked the genuinevirility
such externals in
to be found beneath
of soul not infrequently
tastic
often in such fanstern at core, went
those days,when life,
so
so
masquerade. Surelyto those dour Scotch eyes that so
French popinjays,"
grimlywatched the landingof all those
that heartsick mistymorning of Mary's firstarrival at Leith,he
of those
lonian
Babymay well have seemed the very personification
to the godly Mr.
so unpleasing
Knox, the very
iniquities
of
skippersand dancers and
princeof that papistical
company
flown

"

"

"

"

dallierswith dames."

indulgeour modern sympathy a


bestowed
with that
sympathywhich historyhas insufficiently
from singof exquisites
new-come
ing
shivering
chapfallen
company
surdly
abFrance over
the weary sea, so laughablyout of place,
so
rock and dripmisunderstood,in this land of inhospitable
ping
houses, funereal costumes, raw-bones,sour
mist,prison-like
and harsh outlandish speech. Well might the littleQueen
faces,
lookingher last her literallast,poor Mary
cry herself to sleep,
I shall
on
"Farewell, beloved France!
laughingFrance
I
see
as
never, never
movingly described by Branyou more
illustrious French
of the many
one
tome, who was
dancingand culture
masters
otherwise the fine flower of the chivalry
of France
that formed
Mary's brilliant suite. No less than
Let

pause

us

to

moment

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

three of her uncles of the redoubtable

Guise,the Due
of
and the Grand Prior,were
d'Aumale,the Marquis d'Elboeuf,
house

of

this company,

perbore
hypreposterously
regardedby these supercilious
saints as thoughtheywere
a troupe of strolling
ers,
playsix-score noble French gentlemen,
to speak of some

not

amongst

them

and that

"

the chief

of the Louvre;

of the Court

the four Maries, her immortal maids


garden of girls,"

of honor. To

our

at anchor
eyes that littlefleetriding

and drizzle of Leith


its

ornaments

in the

fog

harbor,with its strange foreignsailors and

gay-garmented courtlyfolk, tryingto keep up their spirits

with

half-frightened
laughter, a snatch of flowerysong and a
touched lute maybe here and there,to deepen the disapproving
gaze of Scotch fishwives and glooming zealots
table
veria
seems
"

"

argosy of romance;

so

lay packed between

much

of

fated pervivid,forceful,
sonality
its decks,so much brillianthuman

THE

206

story, so much

FORUM

of the beautiful

tragicstuff of life;strong men,


fair faces,fluttering
and dreaming brains.
hearts, and plotting
One
likes to think,too, of the priests
with their sacred vessels
be

"

"

Knox's

Mr.

grim folk ashore thought of littlebut that!

the

sure

idol of the

"

mass

cate
the musicians with their deli-

"

"

old-world

their
citherns
their lutes and viols,
instruments,
and citoles"; and a specially
charge is in the keepingof
precious
Servais de Conde, no less than the library
of the learned
grave
"

Queen.

young

That

probablythe

libraryitself was
first libraryof any

housed
ever
belles-lettres,
made

by

romantic

uncouth

An

after,when

years

tory,
his-

surelyof

and

account,

in Scotland.

sympathetichand,

no

have

to

catalogue
had

Mary

fled to

notated
England, stillexists,and has been piouslyedited and anvaried
It was
a delightfully
by a modern bibliophile.
sweet
collection,
concentrating
learning dear
every form of
the Decameron
of Bocas
to the Renaissance.
was
Though
"

"

"

there,and

many

quaintArthurian

of Gaule,"

Amades

"

Two

First Buik of Rolland


"

science

gay

"

de

Bellay,and

the

friend

an

with

means

Volume

Amoreuse," and

Tyard

"

Art

Plato," and Marcus

"

so

poetry is well

Vergilius

likewise

"

"

her

"

the

"

was

was
library

Herodote,"

the

Peap," and
with
of

the
of

Books

"

Musik

one

"

The

"

as

Answer

volume

Ane

of

by

no

the First

Symposie of

The

Aurelius in Italian;and there

pairof tongs, such

"

there,and
"

resented;
rep-

familiar

own

weighty

were

treatiseswhich the Scotch cataloguer


must
theological
up with

The

Amoreuses," Du

Errores

"

"

forth;and though the

himself

Poetik in French

one.

of Horos,"

with his

Ronsard

"

First Buik of

The

of Lancilot de Laik,"

Volumes

master

frivolous

"

romance,

of the fashionable Ronsardist

Pontus

"

"

have taken

Treatie of the Premicie of

gether
toJohnne CalvynisEpistle,"

tion
which, doubtless,he approved,a transla-

Psalms, by her Latin Master, George Buchanan.

Buikis of,
Thre
of chess, and
hunting,the game
(perhaps Rizzio's)are found side by side with Saint
"

Augustine,and

lives of the saints. And

there is

one

book

surdly
ab-

"

Frenche Sonnattis in Writt," which may


cataloguedas
well have been a manuscriptvolume of Chastelard's own
poems.
Such

were

between

the volumes

Servais de Conde

that M.

had

in

keeping

decks, in fair bindings Mary had probablycaught a


"

her

"

scarcely
yet dried,and
of her own:
verses
pretty pathetic

tears

Si

en

Soit
Soit
Ou

whom

mourned

with
her

in

quelquesejour,
Bois ou
en
en
Pree,
du
l'aube
jour,
pour

soit pour

Sans

blazoned

she had

whom

were

"

207

boy-KingFrancis,for

and those of her dead

arms

de Poitiers

Diane

for fine bindingsfrom

taste

CHASTELARD

POET

THE

AND

STUART

MARY

la vespree,
sent

coeur

mon

cesse

Le regretd'un absent."

lard had

duringthe voyage the gallantChastehood,


rallythe Queen on her obstinate widow-

tellsus that

Brantome

feared

not

to

and had written her


"

sonnet

"

tres

bien faict "

in

Italian,

giova possedercittadi e regni" of which the


domains,
Of what use is it to possess widespreading
substance was:
and bowing people,to be admired, respected,
crowns
cities,
feared and gazed at, and yet sleepalone in glacial
owhood?
widBrantome
evidently
thoughtno littleof Chastelard
He made many
other very beautiful rhymes,"he
as a poet.
but theyhave
which I have read in his own
handwriting,
says,
been printed,
far as I have seen."
never
so

beginning

che

"

"

"

"

He

adds that the Queen

"

who

herself loved

and parletters,
ticularly
herself,"
was
pretty ones

rhymes,and sometimes made


much pleasedwith Chastelard's poetry, and even
back
wrote
in reply,
ing
verses
generally making him good cheer and entertainhim."
Brantome
has this further praiseof Chastelard.
The Lord Chastelard,"he says,
a
was
knightof polished
he was
as
as
good a swordsman
manners,
good at letters. He
was
very adroit with arms, and was
expert in all manly sports
and exercises,
such as fencing,
tennis,
jumping and dancing. In
short,he was a very accomplished
he
gentleman;and in spirit
less charming,
was
no
he talked well,and wrote
even
better,and
as well even
in rhyme as any gentleman of France,making very
"

'

"

sweet

and

gracefulpoetry with ease."

Chastelard's wit and


welcome

gay

had
spirits

Mary on that voyage


of which had been added
hardships
to

and
warships,

Brantome

been
evidently

very

dolorous,to the customary


the fear of capture

records

one

beth's
by Elizaconceit of
high-flown

THE

208
"

his

"

gentilmot

ce

"

dandiacal

ship'slanterns,the
that there

was

much,

"

As,

manner.

one

imagine, in his usual

can

evening,the sailors were

one

voice of

need

no

FORUM

Chastelard

of lantern

There
to

to

great house
"

French

Chastelard's

"

of

violars

all the

gave

one

music.

make

to

butterfliescontrived

say similar pretty

to

patron M.

own

Montmorenci, for
"

and

by.

see

other poets aboard

were

the Queen

of five

to

declaring

lightup the sea,


nate
brightenough to illumi-

or

for the beautiful eyes of the Queen were


with their lovelyfires the wide waters,

lighthe needed

heard

was

flambeau

the
lighting

things
d'Anville,of the

and then

"

we

hear, too,

So, doubtless,these poor

keep up a certain gaietyon the


into a providence,
as hiding
interpreted
voyage, and the fog was
them
from the sea-dogsof Elizabeth.
How
Knox interpreted
that fog it is interesting
ens,"
The very face of the heavto recall.
to

"

he says, " the time of her arrival,


did manifestly
speak what
comfort was
brought unto this country with her, to wit,sorrow,
of

darkness, dolor, and all impiety;for, in the memory


that

day of

the year, was


never
seen
a
than was
which
at her arrival,

heaven
.

most

That

part

fore-warninggave
blind."

were

Mary, and her


is recorded

that

been

hung

for

carnival

"

certain human

making

but, alas,the

for the Queen

The

Robin

Hood

"

(a

sort

and, though John Knox

"

"

serenade

providea

to

in the sermon-ridden

element

company," he

"

says,

of merry

chamber

at her

held their

have

Brantome,
her

gave
as

bad

"

"

ears.

as

Mary and

"

There

came

six hundred

five or
concert

"

window

under

of

most

her courtiers

ragamuffinsof that

be in that country, and

singingof psalms,but

so

honest

tions
salutaseem

to

her window," writes

of the vilest fiddles and

they can

land
Eng-

speakshighly

with instruments of music, and with musicians,gave

men

with

us,

tinue.
con-

gracefularts, however, might


citywhere a poor rascal had recently

mummery)

of the entertainment

are

unto

so

dames, damoisellis,and maidinnis "; though it

littlerusty in

God

did

genialJohn read the celestial


of welcome
the mood
awaiting

was

populationdid itspoor best


beneath her palacewindows.
well be

days after

two

face of the

So did the

signs,and such in the main


"

dolorous

more

man,

wretchedlyout

town,

who

littlerebecs,which

accompaniedthem
of

tune

that noth-

THE

210

the

by

up

this

Montmorencis, and

time, Chastelard

permissionfor
not

in open

as

through London
boast

that he

Mary
all too
hath

this

at

in Scotland.

timelyabsence

Meanwhile,

to

going

was

have

to

seems

breaking out

proclaim his hopelesslove for the Queen


well as in sugared sonnets, and, as he passed
coxcomb
his way north, he was
on
enough to

ceased

talk

religious
war

escaped from the dilemma of having to


his co-religionists
and his patrons, by gaining

choose sides between

he had

FORUM

ready to

received him

great confidence with

to

with

"

misunderstand.

EnglishAmbassador,

"

Scotland

to

lady love."
he was
graciousness

is well

He

the Queen,"

and
entertained,

Randolph, the
the sorrel gelding

wrote

"

Cecil, ridingupon

to

his

see

that my Lord Robert (Stuart)


Politicianshad
gave her Grace."
their eye on the affair,
shall presently
as we
see; and there were
many

"

to

censure

(as the Queen)


abjecta varlet." We
This

showeth

"

of his

book

"

is probablythose

sonage
per-

and

had, on his firstaudience,

told that he

are

presented Mary with


metre."

that any such


familiarity
to so unworthy a creature

the over-great

makings written

in

Sonnattis in Writt

own

Frenche

cataloguedin Mary's libraryat Holyrood. This book is no


and littleor nothingof Chastelard's poetry
longer in existence,
seems

be

to

have

found

found

in

its way

into

"

Laboureur's

Le

Memoirs, Castelnau having been


Mary's escorts to Scotland. Here
a

of

lament

which

well have

may

few

print. Some
Additions
not

one,

"

prez,

Rochers,

et
et

plaines,

bois,

Ruisseaux, fleuves,fontaines,

perdre je m'en vois:


D'une
plainteincertaine
De sanglotstoute plaine,
Oii

Je
La

veux

chanter

miserable

Qui

Ces

me

Qui

sont

peine

fait lamenter

buissons

et

ces

autour

of

written,with the thought

been

forets

to

Castelnau's

the firstand last verses

are

monts

are

of
the least brilliant,

Mary.
Adieu,

to

verses

arbres
de moy.

rochers et

Ces

ces

bien

Scavent

CHASTELARD

POET

THE

AND

STUART

MARY

Bref, ricn de

mon

211

marbres
esmoy;

la nature,

N'ignorela blessure,
seulement

Fors

Toys, qui prends nourriture


En

Chastelard
for

doubtless,all the

was,

beingMary's

cruel tourment.

mon

remaininglink

one

welcome

with that

"

at

"

court,
"

joyeusete of

her;and, at all events, there

forever lost to

the Louvre

more

to

seems

"

godless joyeusete at Holyrood than ever


duringthis winter of his return in 1562; and John Knox is not
that Mary's manners
the only authorityfor the statement
of a perilous
and
toward the infatuated poet were
familiarity
warmth.
trenchant
John Knox, however, is alwaysso piquantly
in his disapproval
that he becomes
attractive to quote by his
have

been

more

very vehemence.
'

at

there

was

one

that time

"

Amongst the minions of the court,"he says,


Monsieur
named
Chatelet,a Frenchman, that

passedall others

ing
In danc-

in credit with the Queen.

of the purpose
term
so
theythat dance,in which
talketh secretly;
wise men
would judge such
"

woman

like the bordell than

more

the comeliness of honest

to

and

man

fashions

women

in

"

this

dance, the Queen chose Chatelet,and Chatelet took the


Queen, for he had the best dress. All the winter Chatelet was
so

familiar in the Queen's cabinet,


earlyand late,that

scarcely

could any of the nobility


her. The Queen would
have access
unto
lie upon Chatelet's shoulder,and sometimes privily
would steal
a

so

kiss of his neck:


to say,

"

of ironical scorn,

gentleentreatment
Whether
say,

and all this,"Knox

of

was

honest

adds with

fine snort,

enough;for

it was

the

stranger."

dances,of which Knox has so much to


but
really
passed beyond decorum, is a doubtful question;
or

not

these

be very sure that


with the great reformer

we

"

may

would
very littlelevity
better versed

"

than in the

go

in the wrath

long way
to

come

of the moment;
and it is probable
pleasure-fashions
that Mrs. Oliphantcomes
the truth when she says, commenting
near
this passage :
on
Dancing was in those days the most
decorous of performances:
but if Mary had been proved to have
"

THE

212

'

danced

FORUM

seul

statelypas

'

in

minuet, it was to Knox, who


knew no better,as if she had indulgedin the wildest bobbing of
a
country fair nay, he would probably have thought the highinnocent of the
skippingrural performance by far the more
a

"

two."
Poor

Mary's passionfor dancing might almost be said to


have been a matter
of international politics
in those days. Elizabeth,
who was
fond of it herself and jealousof Mary's much
bruited charms and accomplishments,
bassador
had asked the Scotch AmMelville's
herself

Mary.

or

opinion as

the better dancer,

was

answered, with Scotch caution,

Melville had
"

that
"

which

to

"

he said,
Mary
they danced differently.The Queen
danced not so high and disposedly
Elizabeth did." Elizabeth,
as
his mistress playedwell."
ably,
Reasontoo, had asked if
"

"

"

as

"

Queen," had been his

and other such

Knox

Though

answer.

onlookers

severe

doubtless

aggerated
ex-

and unjustly,
or
ignorantly,
Mary's levity,
put the
construction upon it,there seems
that her
worst
to be no question
entertainment
such as a man
of Chastelard was
wildlyin love
misunderstand
and presume
though, had
might too easily
upon,
"

"

his eyes been less drugged,he might have noted that,in her moods
him
such favors as she showed
of affectionate expansiveness,
lavished
indiscriminately

somewhat

were

her young

and her maids

pages

of honor

a born
unquestionably
coquette, was

unless she had

everyone

of France, should have

on

Mary,

was

admiration,and

her in love with

been

too,

had

known

happy
un-

mindful
her,un-

her

at

forewarned
sufficiently

"

"

thrall,and he
cast.
treatment

pleasedher,

"
kissed the seastrange soft ways "; but he had
belle dame
merci " had him in
her eyes," "La
sans

againsther
witch

avid of

around

all who

alike.

Chastelard, who

of consequences.
the Court

on

of

was

What
a

determined
Knox

stranger

"

to

win all

or

lose all on

calls Mary's
sarcastically
had

wrought such madness

"

one

perate
des-

gentleen-

in him that,

nightof February12, 1562,while Mary was in conference


with her Ministers Murray and Lethington,he secreted himself,
on

the

dagger,in the Queen's bedchamber.


discovered by her
he was
There, before the Queen's retiring,
maids, who said nothing of his intrusion until the morning.

fullyarmed

with sword

and

AND

STUART

MARY

Mary

When

presence;

heard

THE

of

POET

it,she angrilyordered

apparentlyshe

but

his offence,for he

have

must

allowed

was

CHASTELARD

213

him

consented

from

her

overlook

to

follow the Court, when, later

to

Alas!
day,it removed from Holyrood to St. Andrews.
to have further misled the love-crazed
Mary's clemencyseems
he repeatedthe same
night,
egregious
poet, for,on the following
in the

offence. This time it was

overlooked,for the Queen's


followed presently
cries of alarm broughther attendants,
by the
grim Earl of Murray, all too glad,doubtless,in his heart,to
not

to

be

who had cried


againstthe Queen
out on him to plungehis dagger in the intruder.
But, according
for such
too God-fearing
to Knox, his friend Murray was
a man
work. He promisedthat Chastelard should be brought
summary
and so the doomed
face on
to trialinstead,
a gallant
poet, putting
his tragic
to
dilemma, was removed by the guards. Knox seems
have a sort of pityfor
poor Chatelet,"as he calls him, but
perhapshis intention is rather to pointhis moral againstthe
he hints,
the poet was
made the victim.
Queen, of whose levity,
his knees before Mary, and
He represents Murray as falling
on
the scene
Madame, I beseech your
proceedsin this fashion:
such colorable

have

matter

"

"

"

Grace,cause
Grace

me

not

'

take the blood of this man

to

has entreated him

me;

upon

your

fended
before,that ye have offamiliarly
if he shall be secretly
all your nobility;
and now
slain at
commandment, what shall the world judge of it? I
your own
shall bringhim to the presence of justice,
and let him suffer by
law according
to his deserving.'Oh,' said the queen,
ye will
let him speak?
I shall do,'said he, madam, what in
never
so

'

'

'

me

lieth to

save

Chastelard's shrift was


end:

"

Poor

Chatelet

February,
1562.

"

short.

This is Knox's

broughtback

was

Andrews,examined,put
of

'

honor.'

your

'

to

an

assize,and

from
so

account

of the

Kinghorn to

beheaded

St.

the 22nd

begged license to write to France the


of his death, which,'said he, in his tongue, was
cause
Pour etre
trouve en lieu trop suspect ; that is, Because I was
found in a
placetoo much suspected.'
At the placeof execution,
when he
He

'

'

'

saw

and

that there

'

fession,
remedy but death,he made a godly conand granted that his declining
from the truth of God,
of vanityand impiety,
was
following
justlyrecompensed
was

no

THE

2i4

But in the end he

him.

upon

'

with these words,


What
"

And

FORUM

that

ens,
concluded,lookingunto the heavcruelle dame ! that is, cruel mistress.'
'

complaintimported,lovers

so," concludes Knox


and

with

final flingat the

'

divine."

may

Puritanical snuffleof satisfaction,

Queen,

"

received Chatelet the

ward
re-

of his
should

dancing; for he lacked his head, that his tongue


'
Deliver us, O Lord,
utter the secrets of our
Queen.

not

the rage of such inordinate rulers.'"


modern
to our
Strange indeed as it seems

from

Chastelard's

at

present

execution

die within six months

seen

to

the

never

cease

Knox,

on

Most

she

lover

but
lovely,

now

cruel

so

who

"

killsme,

to

love."

So

as

also

Brantome, who

on

runs

had
most

Gordon's

scaffold in almost identical words.

same

thee,so beautiful and

shall

"

was

last cry to her,


Chastelard takes farewell

John

only a short while before; and


of her from

the second

"

for her sake.

cruel of her sex," had been Lord

notions,Mary

one

"

Adieu
I

and yet whom

orating
elabversion,slightly
was

present

the

at

rather corrects, Knox's account


and supplements,
of
or
execution,
variant.
Chastelard's good end with a picturesque
and appropriate
According to him it was not the consolations of religion
that Chastelard

found

at

the end, but the consolation of poetry,


"

for his

breviary. Executed," says


and not for any crime (the
Brantome, for his presumption,
presumptionof Phaethon),he stood on the scaffold with the
hymns of Ronsard in his hand, and for his eternal consolation,
he read through the Hymn of Death, which is very well made,
and very suitable to bring peace to the dying,seekingthe support

with

volume

of Ronsard

"

of

Coming
where

book, nor any minister or confessor.


spiritual
end of his reading,he turned towards the place

other

no

to

an

he believed the Queen

beautiful and

most

cruel

calmly offeringhis
to be

Years

to

in the
princess

neck

to

dispatchedwith the
after,when

Fotheringay,there

'

be, and cried aloud, Adieu, most

Mary

the

'

And

then,very

he allowed
executioner,

utmost

had

come

to

the block

words, and
"

"

at

recalled Chastelard's

Mary's crueltyin thus allowing him to


the Queen againstsuch
Brantome, however, would justify
have wished to discover why he
Some," he says,

last

self
him-

ease."

herself had

those who

were

world!

die.
sure.
cen-

had

oiumj

lvi/irvi

called

her

love

or

"

pity

no

still

life?

second

time, she

to

so,

well

as

it

as

consequences,

with

dignity and

it

been

the

admitted
of

possible
had

the

that

world.

that

have

to

pardoned

feel

but

law
the

speaks

Chastelard,
and

did

he

his

on

entirely compromised;

necessary

cannot

Z15

pity

no

she

Phaethon,

at

sense

proper

it

was

of

man

be

must

was

pardon,

one

played

had

have

honor,

Cji^n.i\iJ

had

how

would

the

as

she

first

There

said, had

had

^nnoi

But

her

her

save

its course."

sense,

Brantome

his

on

r\j"j"

it because

was

"

If, after

take
of

man

in.lL

last?

and
should

cruel

so

that

shown
him

i\iyu

with

dramatic

take

must

as

the
and

courage

effect the

sion
occa-

demanded.
There

those

were

will

believe, nay!

politicalmethod
was

with

name

time

enemies

in

Philip

her

as

whole
his

picture we

splendid folly.

loved

Mary

whose

his

place

glorious

so-called

hand, and

surely he

well, after

there

cuts

in the

on

his

his eyes
no

forbids

that; and

such

story."

love

that

he

with

their last

sorry

such

that
such

that

vanity

feel that

but

for

such
the

was,

upon

for

Mary,

that

long

volume
look

figure, after

the

but
of

her

man

Both-

throne.

Ronsard

seeking

all, and

but

his life for

rough-riding

coarse,

flamed
in-

have

shadow

mean

her

good
at

upon

willing to give

was

scaffold, with

her

undoubtedly

cannot

not

by

graceful fool, maybe,

and

one

Queen

motives,
his

on

any

all,with
was

their

was

tragic escapade

possible, indeed,
of

not
can-

there

his

looked

Chastelard

him

wildly

so

as

one

fouling

to

was

worked

of

than

worse

Standing

11

get

kiss compares

well

and

passion

that
the

view

son

suspicion

ends; but, tragic fool

surely no
who

his

and

upon

It is

said, what

believing,that

put

with

husband.

without

Chastelard's
hidden

affront

France,

of

madness,

Spain, whose

of

possible

may,

think

even

deliberate

enemies

Huguenot

not

in Chastelard's

indeed

hinted, and

who

in

his Queen,

deserves

his

CHILD

OF

BALLAD

G. Neihardt

John

thrilled the

YEARLY
Every June
Every

year

Reared

stock

rose

the wheatlands

golden brood:

of

World

the

wonder-child;

her

Bore

tree

mother-mood;

the

With

plum

Heard

prayingRachels,
reconciled !

and

Poet," said the plum tree's

"

Singingwhite-and-green,
11

mooning,

avails your

What

Can

fashion

you

plums?

"

"

Dreamer," crooned the wheatland's


Rippling,vocal sheen,

"

See my

golden children
Marching as with

"

"

drums!

"

By a god begotten,"
Hymned the sunningvine,
Through my lyricchildren
"
flows !

Purple music
"

Singer,"breathed

"

Are

Have

bush,

daughters

any

Mighty

rose

divine?

they not
you

the

as

rose?

"

Happy, happy mothers!

Cruel,cruel
Mine

are

words!

ghostly children,

Haunting all

the ways:
216

2i

FORUM

THE

"

vineyard,

sunning

the

Sang
Lo,

the

lyric

Sets

his

heart

Like

sap

a-throbbing

purple

grape

Mother

of

the

wheatlands,

Mother

of

the

plums,

Mother

of

the

Such
To

dreamer

the

as

comes

Mighty

as

Something

rose!

mesh!

fire

white

Spring-hope,
By

"

moon-glow,
in

Gathered

grows;

wheat-song,

glint,

and

glory

living

Mystic

Star-

vineyard,
loves

that

All

kiss

of

beguiled!
World-Joy

the

flesh!

Dreaming

into

Bird-song,

vine-thrill

Quickened

"

to

child!

THE

GARDEN

OF

BEING

RESURRECTION

THE

OF

AN

E.

UGLY

Temple

MAN

Thurston

BOOK

CHAPTER

VISION

fire.

IV

mind.
She

{Continued)

Clarissa

of

into my

STORY

LOVE

thanking me
formlessly
grew
gazed over
Dandy's head into the
There

there.

was

satin,the very shade


canary-colored
with all the joy that I had brought. A
to

in the

of

course

I turned

head.

put it out of my

travels

our

to

had

we

her

was

of

little gown

of

it,leapingand dancing

dream ! I tried
silly
Moxon, askinghim if ever
been to Ballysheen. He
very

shook his head.


is

"Where
11

familiar

does it sound

Why

assumed

thought. I
the part of

Herculean

Prime

watched

him

wrought

up

Moxon

suddenly made

with keen
the

in

at

powers

of Moxon.

"

few

letters I

what

in

that attitude
if I

assume

I asked.

Minister

deep

is;but it

asked

were

to

play

an

interest all the time.

swift

when

So much
it was
toward

movement

him, barkingloudly. It
I could

of emotion
After

Prime

pitchin fact,that

rushed

"

then?

me

world.
It impressed
advertising
felt that his mind was
working at a
a
good two minutes.
Dandy and I

Minister

It lasted

task.

to

of

should

fancyI

immensely.

me

to

say that I know

cannot

attitude

the

the attitude I

Dandy

again.

his head

shook

He

was

"

In Ireland."

He
"

it,sir?

have

says much

made

some

we

were

all

and

over

my

desk,

for the histrionic


similar

hibition
ex-

reserved.
myself,but I am more
moments'
huntingabout among
ence
my correspondhave kept over
three years which I need
two
or
219

THE

220

to

refer

FORUM

again he produced an envelopeand, in

to

silence,
gave it into my hands.
I opened it. Then, when
top of the note-paper, it all

Ballysheen.
Why, Townshend!
"

'

My
all our

and

we've

ever

Come

and

H.,"

A.

dear

flogthe

Rosary
"

"

letter, The

floods

shall have

We

are

week

hanging here
at once.
onlycome

"

all over

the best

rod tired of

for

water

The

me.

like a conjurerwho
dignity,
hair of a ladyin the audience.

the

ran

There's

to

the

on

with

stocked.

pools are
had.

back

stamped

said I.

produced the card from the


"

the address

saw

came

inclined his head

Moxon
has

"

triumphof

"

season

for you.
Yours

F. H. Townshend."

"

"

"

That

April

two

"

years

ago," said I.

I have

forgottenBallysheen
and I
to Algiers,

didn't go, sir."

You

Of

the 18th of

was

I had

course

if I had?

not

That

Should

gone.

the time

was

went

we

glanced at Dandy.
"

You

down

Good

"

Good
My

it was

and

pulledout

years

My

ago,

may

years ago,

I made

"

come

up my

Are there

two

to

dippedmy

say

I sat

happened on
force your

to
so.

fishingis anythinglike
a

change and I

in the ink.

pen

and hold

over

mind

old maiden

If the

when
accordingly,

inconvenient don't hesitate


P.S.

"

I want

doctor tellsme

I, and therewith

clean sheet of note-paper.

F. H.," I wrote,

believe him;

two

said

bed, Moxon,"

to

night,sir."
night,"I answered, and
dear

two

honor?
to

desk

at my

"

"

go

can

rod in your

am

your

beginning
letter of

If
hospitality.

Yours, A. H. Bellairs.

"

ladies in

of
Ballysheen

the

name

any

man

of Fennell?"
When
guess

I had

from

I read it through. Could


finished,

that innocent

littlepostscript,
the mad

errand

I had

such
are
why women
form of letter writing.
past-masters in the use of that particular
there is nothingto touch it. What
of diplomacy,
As a method
have no possiblesignificance
to the
can
you say in a postscript
it a matter
of dignity
who reads it. Were
alone, no one
man
in

contemplation?I

would admit

to

think I know

themselves

that you

now

had

treated them

with such

No

courtesy.

scant

in my letter,and
I came
When
at
on

that

"

the

to

leapingantics of the
hearthrugand put one

the
the

"You

can

blinked

Dandy
"

that

see

Dandy
flame.
canary-colored
there
fire,

"

was

round

arm

satin gown,

his eyes.
"

bright spot

one

I sealed it up.

therewith
back

the

was
postscript

And

down

sat

his neck.

too,

do

stillstaring

think

you

said

you?"

can

she'll be

I.

ful?
grate-

is
reallyimagine that any woman
It will break
to a rank outsider for breakingher heart?
grateful
She's breaking it now,
her heart,you know.
longing for her
blue skies and her palm trees
but if we
send her back there
without him, it'llbreak her heart altogether.Yet that's what
shall have to do.
We
shall have to send her back again.
we
I

went

on.

Do

you

"

What

do you

think about

"

it all?

Dandy yawned toward the fire,and the yellowflame danced


At moments
itlooked as though it were
higherthan ever.
going
back into
to leapup the chimney out of sight,
yet always it came
the heart of the fire once
nace.
like a spirit
chained to the furmore
Three
"

days later

There's

not

all the

same,

come

there

came

fish in the
never

you

reply from

Ballysheen.

water," wrote

Townshend.

know.

company

Your

is

"

But

good

as

"

What, is he
twenty-pounderin the slackest of seasons."
too?
I thought.
There
Miss Fennells here," the
lonely,
are

as

any

"

"

letter continued," but for God's


maiden

ladies
"

Miss

Teresa

sake, don't talk of them

wears

an

they say in Ballysheen and she would


is in her prime.
thirty-seven
a
woman
"

from
And

them

"

but

as

old

orange-coloredwig,

so

have

at

you

I don't

know

that

promise you

tertainment
en-

anyway."

come

going. I have justrung the bell for Moxon, and


ture
Dandy alreadyis beginningto lifthis nose to the scent of advenam

in the wind.
CHAPTER

When

I woke

up this

morning my firstin Ballysheen the


sun
ablaze upon everything.Last eveningI had driven over
was
the nine miles from Youghal
Quin's car.
Quin is the local
upon
baker,doing odd jobs as a jobbing-master
besides.
the
Then
"

"

THE

222

sky had been

sullen gray, no lightor


far as your eyes could see.

"

between

gap

should

the dense

trees

"

the horse's
"

reach.

never

where

to

pass

to

be

ted
long,lone,rutfrom the bridge

I asked
lonelyas this over here?
dreamilybefore him, as though in

set

were

eyes

Those

we

there

was

tunnel

villageof Ballysheen.

wee

Is it alwaysas

whose

soul did

all the way

into the

entrance

an

Not

empty.

were

the Blackwater

over

hope

found in it as
roads

FORUM

he

ears

there

Are

visions of

saw
never

of Quin,
the little

country

peopleabout

any

we

the

on

"

roads?

With

jerk he brought himself back into the present.


Shure there are plentyof people in these parts,"said he,
onlythey'rein their cottages, the way 'tismisting."
I gathered that he meant
raining. But it was not raining,
a

"

"

wherefore
"

Ah

them

I said

well it will,"said he, in

"

clouds

coming

up

there

over

from

yet !
"

"

God!

But, my

see

"

said I.

It's six o'clock and it isn't wet

"

Wait

"

while,"he replied,
equably, it will,"and he put

up the collar of his coat

That
Here

the way the cattle have got


Yirra,don't I know a wet day when I

D'ye

ut?

to

"

of

fatality. Ye see
'tisalways wet when theybe
tone

"

wan!
"

the west,

to

there.

their backs turned


see

much.

as

was

first,
my

my

this morning there

it.

to prove

very
not

was

first,impressionof Ireland.
cloud in the

sky,the

sun

was

flamingtorch in the heavens,there had not been a drop of rain


of James Quin there
all night,yet in the heart,in the very spirit
had

poured down
Ireland who
I think

women.

journeybefore

stand
deluge. And they would underand
nation of light-hearted
men

veritable

talk of

we

driven three

have

must

I said another

word

miles of

more

after that.

our

Speakingtruth,

and
the grayness of it,the endlessness of those walls of mud
sightof a roofless cottage, the very soul of its
stone, the passing

past habitation starved and


to

close about

I will admit, that


Clarissa.

I could

see

in

me

was

her

dead
a

within it,they had

all

bined
com-

spair,
dull,impenetrabledespair. De-

not

of my

gazingforth

own.

from

was

thinkingof

the window

of her

prison,with

those

dark, Southern

limitless mist of gray


my

mind
set

felt

word, I should have


how

"

was

about the liberation of


chains that bind her?

very

those

were

who

aunts

that obstacle

not

face.

to

to

It

her heart the


there

only,but

then I turned

was

my

of Heaven,

name

hugs

to

once

Quin.

to

more

maiden

two

in the

How,

And

wonder

the sudden

came

woman

cried,upon

Banshee

surprise.

no

thought of her
I to help her?

from

Then

which, had

of

out

hers, gazing into that

of

eyes

"Who

the Miss

are

who

Fennells

Ballysheen?" I

live in

asked.
"

Is it Miss

"

Are

11

There

there others?

havin' thim
to go

was

are

"

inquired.
he, 'tisenough
"

drive thim

I wouldn't
on

sister,
livingat Janemount?

"

not," said

two.

down

for
this

on

to be
village
carr, not if they

one

their four knees bended."

not?"

"Why
'

and her

Mary

Faith,they'dowe

for the

me

job of

for the

ut

rest

of their

lives."
"

"

Are

they very poor?


"Is ut poor?" he exclaimed.
Shure, they haven't got
what 'ud cover
the palm of me
hand with silver,
an' they
wan
dhrive to Lady O'Shea's at the house on the cliffover, the way
ye'dthink the money was dhropping out av a sack with a hole in
"

ut."
"

Is it a crime
'

can

to

It is not," said

be ashamed
To

meet

be poor,

he;

"

then?

and

I asked.

but 'tisa crime

of others who
fatalism

"

hide ut, the way

to

ye

are."

philosophyall

in

one

day!

I had

not

done

has

givenyou the one, a divine Providence invests you with


other. My friend Townshend, whom
I have not met
since
days together at Oxford, I find is a philosopherto his

the
our

as

much

in London

in

year.

But in

Ireland,if Nature

not

But his is a philosophyof the beauty of Nature,


finger-tips.
wherebyhe closes Her hand that she may not present him with
the

giftof fatalism
It

this

too.

morning when, findingthe sun


windows,shaming my laziness,
I jumped out
was

laughingin

at my

of bed, dressed and

THE

224

down

went

into the

garden. There

his
visiting

me,

FORUM

with

trees

rose

Townshend

was

fore
alreadybepruningknife in his

open

an

hand.
"

He
"

"

thought March

began.

laughed.

You're

all the

of the year

rest

I stole

"

quiteright,"said he.

March

for

pruning
"

but

for love."

glance at him as he moved to another tree. This


the firstswift insightI had received into his philosophy.

was

he

Had

the

really
got

of it

secret

circle of contentment?
in

they are

If in the

breath.

One

sailable
Dandy'sunas-

asks one's self these questions

breath

next

in the next

Now,

gone.

had he found

"

they are

breath, the

answered,

not

of

name

Dandy

mind, I lost sightof the spirit


of his philosophyand began wondering where he was
in the
flesh. From wondering, I asked.
On a morning like this,"said Townshend,
where else

having but recentlycome

into my

"

"

"

would

expect?

you

I shook
"

Out

"

In the

"

My

the cliffswith Bellwattle."

on

I stared

him.

at

of God," said I, " who's

name

wife.

of exuberant

For

Why?

head.

my

My

of Bellwattle.
for

me.

can

tell you.

What

made

way

to

That

at

least was

Cruikshank

fit in with the

swung

They
up

heels,and her step


known

is

pliment
comname

than I

more

and Bellwattle.

It

seems

in

some

quaintnessof their philosophy this


"

in return

for what

Nature

has

to

stow
be-

them.

Bellwattle.
She

Cruikshank.

as

suggestedby her

her think of Cruikshank

Dandy dancing attendance

Just before breakfast,then, came


on

me

moment

I returned her the

For less reason

livingto give to Nature


on

addressed

herself."
She hasn't the faintest conception

So I call them
odd

day, she

reason.

In

for her is Bellwattle.

name

one
spirits
no

"

that?

until the

Dandy, seeingme

the
was

had

walked

four miles.

path from the gate with Dandy at her


even
as lightas the morning. I had not

night before

that my

host

for the firsttime that

was

married; yet

as

day, leaptthrice and

THE

226

The

maid

in and

came

porridge! Such

"

"

I'll ask them


"

it

and
I

mere,

to

let

not

for years

eaten

firstday, 'twere better

For

years.
to

self.
my-

to take

manners

I looked

through breakfast,Cruikshank

directed his gaze

What

me

nothing." Therefore, I took it; and what

say

way

He

and

off this to-morrow," I said

me

glad I said nothing. When


again,that basin was
empty.

Half

"

I had

am

window

up.

placed a basin of porridgebefore

as

But this beingmy

now

FORUM

suddenlylooked

at me.
"

Fennells?

that about the Miss

was

of the

out

up

is

said he.

stant
I felt confusion in my cheeks. The barest init lasted,and then was
gone;
yet in that very instant Bellmoment

wattle's eyes had sought my face. When


and when has she not?
her heart has

warned

are

presupposedconfusion in both
her eyes were
readyto
were

he had waited but


u

That

"

Of

course

find it. I would

babe,
helpless

said

me,"

for when

began again.

he

answer,

swear

"

he.

When

you

"

I wanted
postscript

in the

and

to

here."

an

your

effort to let him


eggs

Yes; he won't let

chickens

the

"

that.

at

the farm, I

suppose?"

keep chickens;they tear

me
"

leave it

Bless their hearts

to

What
he

keep them
was

the garden,"

up

The

thought of

her.

failed,
as they often did with her.

Words

arded.
I haz-

I think those little

"

"

tiny littleyellow things

overwhelmed

allowed

from

come

said Bellwattle.

"

to

fused,
con-

was

That's it."

"All

them

face

my

wrote

I know

"

theylived

I made

"

wherefore, while I

"

if

know

us,

second for my

letter you

asked
"

of

ignorantof it as

as

eyes

had
abruptnessof her husband's question

of it. The

Cruikshank

"

long before her

seen

"

has instinct

woman

next

it you

asked.

year; but Cruikshank

wanted
His

She

mind

to

find
had

out

about

begged

shook

to

be,

his head.
nells?"
Fen-

the Miss

clung tenaciouslyto

its

subject.
"

heard

Merely that I wanted


them

mentioned."

to

know

if

they lived

here.

I had

"

"

They

live

at

VI

CHAPTER
In

affairof this kind it is best

an

I find it necessary
been that

that Bellwattle
breakfast.

that she has

in her

child of Nature

of

over,
more-

at

say; but

it,of that I

am

have instinctalive

her

finger-tips.
Doubtless,she imaginesI
to

ever

confusion

my

about

she is must

as

know,

to
impossible

be

her mind

up

counsel.

own

me.

of

already curious

is

made
finally

certain. Such

easy prey in

an

she thinks it would

What

keep one's

to

this fashion,for it has

myselfin

to warn

have found

women

Bellwattle.

after breakfast."

it to you

I'llshow

227

Janemount," said

called

house

RESURRECTION

OF

GARDEN

THE

doubt,she believes

For here it is that

think
to

be in

to

woman

women

nearer
and,therefore,

nothingthat

Without

in love.

am

some

the shadow
concerned.

way

simply

more
elementally,

more

There

the truth than their brothers.

lonelyman

therein the influence of her

can

do, but what

sex.

And

woman

it is damnable

will
to

is

trace

have

to

admit

it,but she is right.


with Cruikshank, whose
Now

mind

is forever

working

in

theories about the grafting


of roses
and who, in his
complicated
day at Oxford, was thoughtwell of as a mathematician,with
him and his highlyelaborated intelligence,
I know
that I could
trust myselfall day. I might lead him a thousand
times in the
direction of Clarissa's prison,and he would never
adjustthe
factsto a definite assumptionof my behavior.
It would not be
so

with Bellwattle.
As

I left them

after breakfast

in the

shank
morning-room,Cruiksaid to me,
You know, I'm glad you thoughtof coming
for the fishing.From
over
lieve
somethingI heard yesterdayI bewe're goingto have some
fish up the stream
after all."
I echoed most
that I was
heartily
glad of it,and I left the
But outside the door I stopped. There was
room.
broad
a
passage leadingdown to the hall door which stood wide open,
and througha break in the trees, where stretched in the distance
"

sea

of

emerald,there stood the blood brown

I stopped to watch
fishing-boat.

sail of

its wings in
it,flapping

Kerry
an

idle

THE

228

like

breeze

FORUM

tortoise-shellbutterfly
in

I suppose, thinkingI had


wattle's voice within the room.
as

"

I like him

meadow.

green

I
departedaltogether,

Then,

heard

Bell-

I
much," said she, for which silently
thanked her from the bottom of my heart.
But," she added,
very

"

"

what

pityhe's

if there be those who

Now,

that she had

knew

ugly."

so

mystery of

some

do.

To

It is far

I walked

that.

neatlywritten

at

me

follow from

not

in her mind

once

give it words

to

were

with the

sand
tangleit a thou-

garden, wandering

there

Everywhere

were

marking the spots where

on,

that.

into the

out

this how

efit
for the benleave it unexplained

must

daintyfor

too

then

on

path, down

woman,

of those who
times.

connected

do

this

up

those

little sticks,

seeds

were

in the

earth.
And

then it suddenlyoccurred
all humanityclingto

dearlydoes

the littleslipsof wood

buried,it is not

mark

with

so

of
tinyslips

wood

to

while; hidden,only to

the

"

rush

into my

There

are

The
as

all seeds do.

would
to

of

body
say

own,

layitin the

the spot where

come

forth and blossom

Then, when

earth

the

sun

has

ness.
happi-

came

with

Blue

Bird,

that,there
it all.

Through

seed.

CHAPTER

life it

ripens,

parched it dry and


comes

the hand

flower

you

of God

again.
.

VII

tucked in between
of those littlevillages,

is one

Ballysheen

saw

that it may

more

as

for his

in Maeterlinck's

life in it "; then

once

lie

for

life is hidden

mark

holds

there is no

the dead

with such
wThich,
will plant
his garden, a man

the words

man

Acre

In that littleacre

dead," and suddenlyI

no

"

mind

how

in God's

placeswhere

When, then,I had thought so far


a

strange it was,

life;for whereas

out

man.

simple vanity,he calls his


his

how

to me

high headlands,that lie along the south coast of Ireland. A


Protestant
shepherdthe
rector, a parishpriestand his curate
three hundred souls of which it is composed.
two
or
There

is

one

street

"

so

pink-washedcottages,all one

called

"

lined with

storey in

those white

which
height,

are

or

peculiar

to

that

OF

GARDEN

THE

For the

of the world.

corner

RESURRECTION
most

by fishermen;though here,there is Quin


merchant and, distributed
the provision

229

theyare occupied
baker, there,Foley

part
the

in other cottages down

cobbler,Tierney the town


the butcher,and last of
councillor and plumber,O'Shaughnessey
will find Linehan

the street, you

the

fice
edithe two-storeyed
distinction by its proportions,
all,achieving

Royal Irish Constabulary.


there
Besides,and beyond the centre of this hive of activity,
three lanes,all combiningto meet
toward that road which
are
has been built up the side of the cliffand which, when at length
dwindles into a winding cliff
for it to continue,
ceases
necessity
path that leads on and away to the wild headlands.
The few better-class houses,occupiedby summer
residents,
those who of necessity
are
or
compelledto live there the whole
to be found
variouslysituated. There is no
year round, are
fashionable quarter in Ballysheen.If you were
to divide it up
into quarters you might lose sightof it altogether.
My friend
belongingto

Cruikshank

the

lives in

cluster round

house

hidden

away

the Protestant church.

in

nest

of

Janemount,on

trees

that

the other

hand, belongingto the Miss Fennells,is away on the very brow


of the cliffroad,justat that pointwhere it tires of magnificence
and becomes

Apart
there

littleramblingpath.

then

from

the Roman

are

the cottages and houses of better class,


Catholic chapel,
the Protestant church,the

which is an ordinarycottage with two


schools,the post-office
holes in it,one where you buy stamps, the other where you post
"

letters there is the lifeboat house


"

and the

court

ter
house, the lat-

used

mostlyby the butcher,and last of all,there is that record


of fortyyears'stern and persistent
the pier. Like a
agitation,
it runs out some
ing
breakwater,
thirty
yardsor so into the sea, lockin a littlestrip
of water
where the fishing-boats
lie at rest.
For fortyyears they agitatedfor its construction and when,
after a year's
men
labor,the last block of cement
was
laid,the fisherturned and looked
'

Shure,what in the

theysaid.
But
the

no

"

If

one

sinse."

into each other's faces.


name

they'dhad
yet who

of God

the sinse to

has

Sense in fact

do

we

want

pierfor?
"

'

buy us a few boats !


providedfor Ireland has ever had
is not the quality
that is required.

THE

230
One

FORUM

of heart would

ounce

bushel load of
Is

woman!

And

sense.

that

not

do

more

the

one

the

ever

for Ireland than


who. had

man

walked
able

absorb

it

nothing whatever
It is

dischargeda duty in

the Miss

all,to realize

at

minutes

Fennells'

the

as

house, I

was

time that I knew

same

about it.

the

people one must know; seldom the place. I


the acquaintanceof three of them that morning. It was

made
as

it,lost it to

In the first ten

poorly.

with Bellwattle towards

to

whole

way?

This then is Ballysheen.I feel I have

describingit,however

we

that

ever

took the broad

leading to

guishableto
Let's

that
cliff,

but

me,

we

the

saw

Bellwattle knew

figureof
have

him

at

road with
a

been

man

proaching
ap-

undistin-

once.
"

and go the other way

turn

the church

connects

such distance he would

At

us.

"

the

lane which

through the village,said

she.
I asked
"

Here

he
Directly
introduced.
"

As

you

her

why.

sees

I'm with

He'll force

he has with him?

bore
"

If that black Aberdeen

I heard

us,

no

about

more

terrible bore.

most

he'llwant

stranger
"

I was
disappointed.

was

I added.

"

to

be

stop and speak to him."


"

there.

me

"

come

to

He's
a

"

us

only chance.
Is Pepper with him?
"

visitor

like,"said I,but I

anybody could

that

Ffrench.

General

comes

It

What

was

of

sort

not

dog is that

hazard, but it was

sure

my

said she.
is Pepper

"

said I.

"

justtold

She

turningback.

me

to

As we
decreased the distance between
along and I went.
of his ears.
Dandy began a-pricking
I pointedto him as his tail set erect.
"

I don't expect

we

shall be bored," said I.

stooped down to take hold of Dandy's collar.


fight."
P'rapsthey'll

She
"

I shook

my

This

head.

brood

her

or

insects are

of chickens.

the first I

to

was

Where

concerned, she becomes

like

Cruikshank

abroad, she shuddered

and

tellsme
winced

that when
at

every

wattle
of Bell-

see

fussiness.

of maternal

in her moments

birds

was

any
a

mals,
ani-

hen with

firsthe took
animal

in the

VJ

on

for

A\.

"

"

she

Whenever

streets.
sore

JL

'

'

V-'

You

"

I can't

"

I suppose

mustn't

look

-1.X

/l"^

*_/

X\JLJ

"_"

whose

horse

saw

its back, she bit her

"

JL

JU

V^

J.

chafed

harness

clutched his

lipand

JL

arm.

them," said he.

at

"

help it,"she replied. I find myselflookingout


there."
them because I know they're
At last he gave it up in despair. There
was
no
curingher.

the littleincident
"

If

"

who

told

"

men," said I.
"

Ffrench?

asked,as

walked

we

"

regimentsdid he command?
said she.
Oh
he was
only a Surgeon-General,"
Then
why not give him his proper title?
of us has the courage, besides you forgetthe
Not one
that we
whatever-you-call-it
get out of it. It's not only

along to
"

that of

is this General
him.

he

me.

might only say

one

And

to

suffer,"he concluded,as

must

women

meet

What

"

"

"

"

"

the

what he calls himself,it'swhat


be very

unhappy

I bent my
in her eye.
"

Am

"

if

head

couldn't say

we

in

want

we

to

call him.

General

"

Ffrench."

comprehension,justcatchingthe

beginto understand Ireland from that?


wouldn't begin,if I were
you," said she.
I

And

should

We

to

then she told

me

about

more

him, how

"

twinkle

I asked.

he lived with

his widowed

income
sister,
combininghis pensionwith the fragile
her husband had left to her; how she,too, cultivated a garden,
but

whose

producewas designedto bringthem in a steady,


but scarce-appreciable
months.
profit
through the summer
She sends round a littlegirl,"
said Bellwattle, who has
of flowers in one
hand which she holds
a bunch
conscupiously
one

"

"

"

do you

call it? "

I nodded

Languagewas
use

what

"

does

word

matter

one

way

or

when

the few knew

in
conscupiously

front of her.

preciousthingonce

another?
how

to

In

the

it.
'

Which

she holds

other,behind her back, she carries

and

door, and

so

on.

She

she thrusts forward


she
ley,'

to

comes

the back

the flowers.

says, and then

from behind her back."

comes

'

basket

These

the hand

are

of

vegetables,
peas
when it is opened
from Mrs. Quig-

with the basket of peas

23

THE

"

Therefore

FORUM
the flowers,"said I

taken

having

said Bellwattle;"I wouldn't mind if I


naturally,"
her for her peas, because they're
to praise
reallysplendid.
dare not mention them.
one
They've been paid for. So I
to thank her for the flowers which
are
given,and they're

"Well
had
But
have

nothing to what Cruikshank


"

Cruikshank

grows."

the

grows

beautiful flowers in the world,"

most

said I.
She looked

at me

of the

out

habit,always fearingthat
she

ever

word

were

And

not

that

only,but

The

next

her

in

the

hope to regainher

to

what

us.

you

lifta lid from

head, he

If

of

use

confidence then?

forgive,where

should

would

left for

there be

that

be?

we
women

Ffrench

raised his

bearing down

was

hat,in much

the

upon

fashion

same

as

off a saucepan and, holding it there above his


forward with the other hand stretched out and

came

weather

General

moment,

Already he had

to

is her

do?

to

no

unable

women

misled

have

"

eye, which

one

has contrived to deceive her.

one

conspicuouslycan

"

But

finds that

of

corner

Bellwattle knew

me.

eye upon

her

There

man.

was

gettingaway from this.


I was
she turned her attentions
introduced,
But, the moment

Pepper. Out of the corner


Dandy.
Pepper," I heard her

of my
"

"

both
"

say,

eye, I

her

saw

this is

troducin
formallyin-

Dandy,"

glared at each other like two nations at war.


You'll find this a quietlittlespot,"the General
"

they

and

was

saying

It sounded to me
quiet eh after London."
I find mylike comparing Chicago to an oasis in the desert.
self,"
he went
that it'stoo quietsometimes
justa bit too
on,
that's what
eh
quiet. I like the hum of the traffic the hum

to me,

bit too

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

it

was

like when

in London

was

"

thirtyyears

ago

"

sounded

justlike a hum."
"

"

It has been called


It has?

Well

"

that,"said I.
I'm not surprised.I

go

to

Dublin

myself

wagging. It's a
Mrs. Quigley you
change after this. I alwayssay to my sister,
I alwayssay to her that the danger
down and see us
must
come

occasionallyjust to
"

how

see

the

world's

"

"

THE

234

FORUM

ing their coffee. His barkinglaugh shouted suddenlyat


of the past; but last of all,Clarissa,in her gown
of
then

And

real.

how, until that moment,

these

now

costumes

sightof them had

made

into

Bellwattle

and
reality,

been

have

must

truly

never

then; it had only been

about the business

out

set

ever

I think

mere

it had

in
prim figures,

two

the dream

turned

I had

it all until

dreamed

describe,the

true, had

why

I knew

I had

story. But
to

canary-

satin.

colored

been

out

me

gant
extrava-

too

the story come

began a-wondering
all.

at

for suddenly

watchingme,

she said

"

"

my

Would

rather

you

How

do

mind

before my

had

she

them?

to

things? She had

these

know

women

taken

"

it from

thoughts had found it. In another instant,

spoken, it would

not

should have

didn't stop and talk

we

preferrednot

to

have

been

conscious

have been introduced

idea.
them

to

that

morning. Then she put her questionand, human nature being


it is,I said, Oh no
as
by all means, let us stop. I want to
"

"

them."

meet

Whereupon, in
stage in my
to

Miss

erratic

journey. I

introduced

was

the second

made

was

in all

solemnity

Fennell.

distressing
fact,when

there

moment,

and Miss Teresa

Mary

It is

the next

come

you

describe

to

woman,

find that you know nothingwhatever of the character of those


garments which go to make her what she is. A hat or a bonnet

to

net
The bonunless you can trim them.
but little but little,
then which was
worn
by Miss Mary, the hat by Miss Teresa,

mean

"

remain

must

beyond me.
to

mind

as

Mary

was

my

Miss

for to trim them is absolutely


description,
only tell of the littlethought that occurred

without
can

I noticed them

"

the

thought that the bonnet of

gentleconcession of years
is hope left in a hat, even

to

Teresa.

There

the mind

of the head

hopes lie buried

that

beneath

it. God

wears

bonnet;

no

the hat of Miss

if it

alone
I

man,

only exists in
tell what

can

could

swear,

ever

know.
The
Miss

Miss

Teresa

allusions

to

Fennells, therefore, must


with her wealth
the

age

at

of

which

describe

ruddy brown
a

woman

is

themselves.

hair,her discreet
at

her

best, her

of the past, all of which

littlememories
pathetic
she

be

cannot

these
notwithstanding
thirty-seven,

than

more

eludes

Miss Teresa
characteristics,
the

Miss

describe

more

to Clarissa,and
cruelty

It is as well then

all-comprehensive
eye

met

them.

in my

I any

can

from

leave it alone.
I

judge.

can

I think of their

way.

judge them

can

to

and

other

no

point.
stand-

Only the far-reaching


prejudicedbefore I

was

Mary, whose words hurry from


lipsand remind me, in their simple anxietyto get out of
I listened
as
mouth, of children tumbling out of school,it was

It
her
her

was

is your

"

Teresa

Much

"

are

have

Poor

child

Is the doctor

"

Well

and

languid reply

With

"

house?

proper

pathy,
sym-

said I.
"

indeed," repliedshe.

in
directly
With

here is

'Tis her eyes

"

her

are

way

She's after

not.

'tishis instructions

In what

that

now
"

weak?

eyes

seeinga doctor
she's following."

asked, and I looked

her face.
intention

women

are

depreciatehuman
nature, I say
liars,and with one strikingdifference

Women

are

successful.

no

world, Miss
nephew

that.

at

attendingher?

the doctor

"

in London

and

the

Mary.

have

we

"

Teresa

weak."

very

men

let it go

to

invalid in your

an

"

Miss

same," she answered.

inquiredof Miss

You

"

the

content

not

to

say

"

invalid

about

was

Bellwattle

to-day?
alert,but
hearing was
my
did not satisfy
me.

moment

of Miss

Miss

to

her that I heard

How

In

I listened

as

to
"

was

to

Mary told
engaged to

be confined

to

be married.

the house

cared for her and

tended

With

of this

me

imaginationshe described how

to

Neither

me.

vious
ob-

Mary.

It is personalbias that stands

to

that

go to prove

the

With

"

the

most

Clarissa's ailment

well," it is

How
not

to

tween.
be-

in the

ease

lovelychild

in semi-darkness.
her

utmost

all

whom

her

dexterous

compelled her
lovinglythey

difficultfor you

suppose,"said she.
"

bad

It is not," said I.
for her

to

have

no

"

But

surely,"I added,

exercise."

"

it

must

be

THE

236
Oh
out

there

"

justfor

"

evenings,of course, when they took her


littlewalk along the cliffs. Even then theyhad

were
a

"

The

protect her eyes.

to

FORUM

in London

doctor

had

said she could

stand the

not

light.
What, lightat night? said I.

"

"

Miss Teresa

touched Miss

"Have

got the letters?" she asked.

you

Mary's arm.
There

was

no

but it served its purhurry about it. It was said quitegently;


pose.
answered.
The next
moment
My questionwas never
Bellwattle
continuingtheir way to the post-office.
they were
I

and

Do

want

you

"

them?
"

left alone

were

"

to

might

She nodded
I knew

to

be.

out

In

littleplotof land

was

house

were

no

stoppedand pointedit out

of

it must

Ballysheen.The
be like

bent with the south-west wind.

stared and

lookingout
was

the

the walls.

upon

imaginedit

I had

the cliff's
edge it stood,looking

on

what

cage

on

was

sun

lightless
day.

garden,and the shrubs that partlysurrounded the

stoopingin

windows

on.

lonelybay

I knew

to

"

justthe
justthe prison,

then,but
shining

witches

walked

we

the wide and

There

way," I replied. It leads

doesn't it?
cliffs,

and

was

across

water

you'vemet
"

that

the house,long before she

It

grew

destination.

our

they live,now

where

see

well go

as

the walk round the

me.

pursuitof

she asked.

We

to

the

to

to
not

It

blue.

looked like old

gather simples. No

creeper

cold gray stone, and the


a
though they ached with endless
all

was

stared

Even

sea.

to

grass

They

as

with that

sun

the

sky,the

must

stillbe

in
burning,

thought of the colors which

living,
burning in the eyes of that littleprisonerbehind those
walls,and with an effort I kept my exclamation to myself.
"Shall
I

we

go

on?"

said Bellwattle.

but justas
acquiesced,

the curtains in

an

upper

we

about

were

window

move.

to

For

turn

away,

one

I saw,

instant

they

with itspaleness
pulledaside and a face that surprised
me
peeped out.
I stopped,waitingto see more,
hoping that I should really
were

behold

Clarissa for the firsttime and

togetheragain,I turned

watchingme.

to

look

at

then, as the curtains fell


Bellwattle and

found

her

i tin,

u/iJ\ur,r\

kjv

kjidukkii^i

CHAPTER

iuin

237

VIII

hedge of
best to formulate a plan of
nut trees this afternoon and did my
the ground before me, staringup into
action. Dandy sat on
thinking
deeplyand, though he would
my face. He knew I was
that he was
for the world, I saw
not have disturbed me
offering
garden,I

his assistance. It consists of

me

while I

speak aloud

"

This

let my

shank

attention

comes

eyes wander

up

Cruik-

garden to where

the

seeingto his raspberrycanes.


reallyshould have been called

was

He
no

rapt and undivided

said I, whereupon
concentration,"

strenuous
requires

began to

the

under

out

sat

firstinto my head.
There
it then.
I refuse his offer. I accepted

whatever

but few occasions when

are

of the

the bottom

At

proper

have

reason

in

woman

for him.

name

been

For

its high stone

that matter, she

called Eve.

garden and, so

Cruikshank

Adam.

far

They
I

as

are

might with
just a man

know, there is no

walls,the fruit of which they may

would have saved

deal of trouble had the

is
ter
betand

within

tree

touch.

not

garden of

Eden

It

been

like this.
As I looked
me

that I

reminding

was

was

concentration.
mind

to

I know

so

well the

are

an

"what's
effort,

we

meet

her

on

the cliffsat

There

escort.

seeingher in the house. But last of


down, lookingDandy squarelyin the

Now

interfere when
up

to

night,there

of

makes

set

of
prettiest

be done?

His

mind

to

alone,

of hers with its drab white muslin

Fennells guardingher with their

to

as

thousand difficulties.First of all,


she is never

except in that littlecage


If

sure

ears.

'Well, then," said I, with


There

of it. So

tune

definite contemplation,
it playsthe

some

fanciesin my

we

It

That
concentration go with the wind.
letting
of
alwayssprings
up when I attempt anythingin the nature

wind

my

back, I caughtDandy's eye.

the God
break

of

"

eyes

"

what

of

possibility
righthave

Circumstances

heart?
God

the Miss

and here I bent

Thousand

woman's

Dandy knows nothingof the


The onlyGod he honors

is no
"

all

are

tains.
cur-

"

Thousand

cumstance
Cir-

is that of Chance, where-

THE

23 8

fore and
could.
nut
to

that

on

There

answered

questionas

my

best he

sudden

trees, whereat

The

instant

next

bushes, and Dandy

after him.

was

catches them.

never

he

score

in the long grass under the


rustling
he prickedhis ears
and all his body stiffened

was

the sound.

FORUM

For

large rat crept

objection.He
rushes wildlyin many

I made

few minutes he

of the

out

no

ever
thingsthat have nothing whatto do with it,and behaves generally
a
as
though life were
force.
whirlwind, of which he is the centre and all-important

directions,
digs up innumerable

After

that, he

down
"

says

back

comes

quietlyonce

to

more

"

I don't often
I got very near.
too clever for him; that's how
really

might have caught him.

miss them
he got

like that.

was

away."

Then

scarlet tongue

lips. It
alwaysdoes;

he licks his

and

out

comes

he did get. He
how near
to me
conclusively
is why I raise no objections.
It puts him in excellent mood,

proves

that

and, I imagine,has

qualitynever
back

came

So

the God
It

and told

teachingthe

that fitness is

rat

this world.

Then Dandy
quiteover.
all about it,rightthrough,without any
of the lips.
licking

to

me

the

truck with
that's your answer," said I. " Have
no
of Circumstance.
Follow the God of Chance."
the best advice he could have

was

makes

of

way

this occasion tillit was

on

variation,
even
"

despisedin

be

to

I waited

no

ting
sit-

and

me,

of

man

in

sense

one.

I had

set

forth upon

turningback because I had

Adventure

given me.

and there

mine
to

come

was

at

passage

journey. Here
this child,friendless,
of two gaolersin whose
at the mercy
was
wherewith to keep her
all the bolts of prejudice
were
possession
locked away.
There was
no
appealingto the kindlier nature of
the two Miss Fennells. There was
them the truth of
telling
no
with

arms

that
to

in the
difficulty

nephew

prove

to

on

whom

to

hopes

fortress,ready

help, ready

relentless consequences
to prove

all their

firststage of the

centred.

were

this littleprisoner
that she had

the walls of her


but accept

very

to

save

her

was

how

side
waitingout-

help her, if she would

from

of the step she

her that she had need of

to

friend

Then

herself and
about

friend

at

to

all?

all the

take?

Would

How
she

Would

believe it?

she

the

knowledge of

all.

at

women

to

her," I

nightson

"

went

on.

the cliffs

giveher

"

her alone and tellher

Contrive
the

tellher

"

Not

lost

or
won
plainknowledgenever
said I,and Dandy looked up with a vast
into my face. He entirely
agreed with

utter

an

she loved?

man

But

write

239

of

take the word

ever

againstthe promisesof
"

RESURRECTION

OF

GARDEN

THE

an

"

there.
her

make
letter,

any

yet,"
appreciation

of

meet

to

if I had

adventure

amount
me

stranger

We

must

of these

one

effort to

some

everything tellher
"

to

see

go back

bury those
black grave cloths,
the garments of a civilized community,and
more."
satin once
of canary-colored
take out her gown
Having made up our minds to this,we went into the house
and began the inditing
of a letter to Clarissa. It was
at this
pointthat Dandy lost interest. He will giveme the full of his
attention so long as I talk to him; but it is more
than he can
of it on
stand when I take up a pen and, except for the scratching
the paper, sitin silence at my table. The sound of scratching,
to
beginwith, annoys him; then, again,althoughhe has tried,he
to

her blue skies and

understand

cannot

he wanders

sunshine

her

of what

word

one

where

she

I write.

these

On

sions,
occa-

coming back at
intervalsto my chair to try and catch my eye. Failingmany
times in this,
he at last throws himself in despair
the hearthrug
upon
he daywhere,lyingwith his nose between his two fore-paws,
dreams
dreams of past adventures in which he figures
the
as
hero,and I, if indeed I appear in them at all,am justa super
over-crowded stage. He behaved no differently
an
on
this morning,
except that as I sat down and dippedmy pen in the ink,he
round
aimlessly

the

can

room,

"

yawned. He
wrote

my
1

had

done that before.

never

letter. Here

Clarissa,
"

about it. I have

something.Can

is what

I know
seen

you

your

him

cliffs? Try and think how

you

meet
can

bad.

not

are

eyes

to

notice.

no

I said :

in London

manage

I took

and
me

one

arrange

I know

want

to

tell you

eveninground
it. I

must

all

see

the
you

alone."
I did
to

not

signit

be delivered at

because

all,it must

I had

determined

be with my
It had all the difficulties
attached to it

own
as

that if it

hands.
I remember

were

But how ?

having

THE

24o

experiencedwhen
went

girls. It was

theyheld

be

Again

I looked

from

true.

how

smile.

tore

She smiled
and

also

where

we

neighboringschool of

should catch my

eye.

glances continued,till at
I could

at me.

hardlybelieve

again she smiled.

hymn-book that

my

church

At

of them

one

those

Sunday

to

school.

at

attended

fortune that

my

Sunday

boy

was

Sunday,there

every

From

FORUM

Then

last
itto

ber
remem-

containingthe

page

hymn:
"

Can

Cease

woman's
toward

Yes_,she
Yet

far better than


I marked

it her

the

care

child she

bare?

be^
forgetful

may

will I remember

in the fulness of my

And

tender

thee."

it to convey
heart,believing
I could

the last line

ever

have

all my

timents
sen-

expressedthem

self,
my-

deeply with pencil,


meaning to give

I have never
the very first opportunity.But how?
found out to this day. Shall I ever
find out the way
to give
this letter to Clarissa?
at

CHAPTER

comedy

little

garden
"

in

was

garden. I

our

IX

here in the
played here yesterday,
call it ours
for,as the days go by in

of Cruikshank and his Bellwattle,


there grows
the company
more
into my mind the belief that theirs is the onlyway of
and more

living. Wherefore, in my vainest imaginings,I share the garden


it ours
with them, calling
to the
to give a flavor of reality
conceit.
I

this little play was

enacted,nor

perceivedthe full comedy of


round
Bellwattle,
Dandy and I were
away
I have

should
there.

present when

not

was

of the cliffswhere

the

it had

deed
in-

I been

the first head

wheeling,forever wheeling,up

gullswere

againstthe wind.
told

Cruikshank
it appears,
so

much

in the

for

us

about

He

was

when, indeed, is he not?

garden

gardener

it afterwards.

"

to

be

doing

at

working,
There

is

this time of the year;

FORUM

THE

242

bed-chamber.

He

it were,

fingerto his lips,as


though he feared the faintest disturbance to the sleep of his
he consents
to
princesses.When
comfortably
speech it is abrupt, and unever,
discouraging.The General, I can imagine,howis not

as

moves,

built of that fine fibre which

"Oh, yes! Bellairs!"


stillserved him

memory

with him.
was

He

He's

when

old.

But he knows

My

own

are

infinite. No

father is one

But

men

father and

my

To

be

gentleman one
that

mattered

Ffrench

but littleto him

had

For
from

how

all

pointto
entirely
by his own

who

"

were

they

the old

move

He

me.
men

out

was

pursue.

besides all

And
to

It

fore,
where-

see;

the other, he

the

weight of the conversation

to

even

there

began

He

to

have

must

conceive the

can

sort

of

been

help

ever,
brought it at last,howspoke of the forcingof

spoke quiteeloquently,

strain of

gardener, my

my

constrained

was

It

know.

not

give him.

I felt,"said Cruikshank

coming."

such

foot

I do

exertions.

us, but

said which

household, was

one

subjecthe desired. He
plantsand then the forcingof fruits. He
that he

find

he wanted

reallywhom

another

would

told

With

to

his victim.

was

the

Cruikshank

am

score.

one

to

me.

given careful

be

to

garrulous old

long he dragged

that Cruikshank

wasting time

waste.

power

no

journeyto

his positionfrom
altering

again on another

or

well.

so

their sin is that

out,

was

was,

the

step upon

Cruikshank

the type
for

time I

end

an

beings,young

resources

own

the

round

of others.

war-path which

that,it was

make

could be said of

same

General

where

to

hearing that I

You'll find him

His

told,then, that I
as

in

day

that that would

least it is my

time
precious

instructions

upon

at

talk

to

I know
differently.

the

doubt

have

his

up

nothingof human

of them.

lazy devil.
the

justcame

"

hoped

I could have told him

waste

out," said Cruikshank.

matter.

as

"

can

received the old Queen."

we

cliffswith my wife."
Doubtless Cruikshank
of the

it.
appreciate
he, overjoyedto find that

said

well.

interested the other

was

in Dublin

up
"

with

nervousness

in all

comptrollerof the

notice.
to us

"

afterwards,

as

if

something

He

was

of his side

RESURRECTION

OF

GARDEN

THE

243

Out of the depths


quiteright.Somethingdid come.
pocketsthe old gentlemanproduced four partially

ripetomatoes.
"

said he;
Well, you don't believe in forcing,"
think of these?

you

Quite

"

"

be able

them

to eat

Now, there

in less than

was

in one
vegetables
tomatoes

them?

week."
insinuation about all this,far

subtle than the littlegirlwith the basket of

hand

and

flowers in the other.

giftof

Those

Quigley. Was this a present


he meant
and ripenand eat
to keep them
buy them, givingthe money for their purchase

the property of Mrs.

were

from

of
delicacy

delicate and

more

her?

Was

Was
he

then and

to

there?

What, in the

of

name

Heaven,

he

was

do?
Cruikshank

is no

stood,so he told

then he

as
quickly

these delicate situations. He

with his hands


he

was

full of tomatoes,

as

just

much

at

for words.

good," said he, at last, but isn't it a


pickedthem before they were
quiteripe?" And
for handing them back, for gettingrid of them as

seem

have
was

as

at

"

They

pityto

hand

us,

loss for action


"

very

he could.

But the old


a

lot into

the whole

ripe?
why did you pickthem before they were
Oh, they'll
ripen,"said he, easily; you put them in a
You'll
catch the sun.
in the window where they'll
room

warm

he handed

And

do

littlegreen-house.

But

"

to

our

but what

hands.

Cruikshank's
"

of them."

number

forced these in

We

"

gentleman was

step backwards.

He

even

far
went

too
so

wary

far

as

for that.
to

He

took

thrust his hands

deep into his pockets.


No, no, you keep them," said he, put 'em in a window,
they'll
ripen. But don't say anythingto my sister about them.
She agrees with you.
She doesn't like 'em pickedbefore they're
ripe.Don't say anythingto her. I onlysaw them this morning,
and knowing you'd
got a visitor I thoughttheymight be justa
little you know
dainty. You don't get tomatoes, not fresh
like those,at this time of the year."
And then,standingback yet another step, his head on one
side regarding
the magnificence
of his gift,
he paused.
1

"

"

"

THE

244
'

much

How

he had

told

us

did you

He'd

said

payment."
I picked up
was

as

gift. I

What

"

glad

you

run

asked,when

we

didn't

him

give

Is he
'

give him

poor

"

that you

anything. Now

that?

as

"

his last cartridgefor

days."

I expect that's

You've

"

But

was

called
"

'

saved

"

it,then," said I.

Bellwattle put her

"

I'm

very

the

he can't shoot

I asked.

Cruikshank.

"

studyhuman

don't

field."

Lord, yes," said

"

the table.

lyingon

was

bullet.

in Power's

as

that

that

on

if I'd offered him

stillmore

tomatoes

thing.
any-

he'd stolen them

suppose

badly in need of some


money."
said Bellwattle.
out of cartridges,"

didn't

rabbits down
"

as

was

He's

of the

pityit is," said I,

He

nature.

have offended him

one

hard

as

"

he

"I

Cruikshank.

brought them

It would

score.

up

"

them?

of his sister'shot-house,but I couldn't refuse them

out

It

give him for

far.

so

God!"

"My

FORUM

round

arm

"

He's

haven't," he replied.

"

out

run

save

of

ridges."
cart-

neck.

Cruikshank's

twelve littlebunny

him

I've known

rabbits,"said she.
can

it

see

When

now.

going, he stopped just before he got to the gate and


out that he was
going to the post.
Can you lend me
a shilling?he said; I've forgotten
my
'

'

purse.
"

And

lent it to him!

you

Cruikshank
"

You'd

nodded

"

cried Bellwattle.

his head.

better count

that

given,"said

I.

"

It

was

the

price

of the tomatoes."

CHAPTER

Clarissa

has got my

it myself. I have

passedthat
ago

I would

letter!

met

Oh, but you

But that is

not

ered
all. I deliv-

Clarissa,have talked with her, have

journey which an odd week


have credited as possible.
will laugh when you hear the littlethat

third stage in my
not

or

so

I said

GARDEN

THE
her

to

OF

RESURRECTION

the littleindeed that she said

"

to

245

it is the beginning.

Yet

me.

I find myselfgazing
She stillhas my letter to read.
into distances which I never
knew of, seekingfor the answer
she will
It

give.

the

matter

the

more

she

about much

came

of that.
confident

speak

The

more

and

never

hope

word

that is because

to

depthsin

be

Whether

of that.

quitesure
know

that be the

the

all. It has been


has

He

actor

ever

sibly
Pos-

be.

may

gardeners. There
I have

may

fathomed.

never

I
Bellwattle guesses.
times I have been so eager
no,

I have

guessingthat

am

to

told her
well-nigh
sudden timidity
a

less. It is more.

Three
in

which

is he

the end of my tongue when


the timidity
And now
that I have met Clarissa,

on

caughtitback.
is no

thousand

of her

nature

or

Yet

himself?

of these

mind
case

more

on

told him.

nature

Cruikshank's

not.

solemnlyin his garden


haps
questioning
why I remain. Per-

me

she has

the

know

not

I think

Somehow

works

to
enough to keep it so stubbornly

I do

all about it. Does

of fish in the river becomes

Cruikshank

remote.

says

the

more
expected;
longer I keep my

I that Bellwattle knows

The

too, for
easily,
secret to myself,

I had

husband, I wonder?

days go by.

and

And

am

her

to

as

nightsin succession,Bellwattle and I have been

out

fruitlesssearch upon the cliffs. Not a soul have we seen.


I
have even
begun to wonder whether the Miss Fennells were
a

made

I had asked, for on


suspicious
by the questions
and not
a
lightwas shiningin Clarissa's room

movement
11

came

from

each
a

sion
occa-

sign of

within the house.


"

thought,"said Bellwattle,on the third evening,


thoughtthe Miss Fennells said theytook their invalid out for
walk when
I did
II

"

it was

So

her.

at

say in the

"What
Oh

I knew

she

lookingat

was

me.

they said,"I replied.

I'm rather curious

dark."

look

not

"

to

see

that

here that she's


village
then? "I
all sorts

Tierneyis our

she
invalid,"

not

invalid

an

went
at

"

on;

they

all."

asked.

of stories.

town-councillor

Tierneytold me the other day


and plumber. As a human
being

he lets the drains get into disorder

"

"

as

town-councillor

he

the contract

giveshimself
partlyputs
that she

me

FORUM

THE

246

"

them

ought

black from

was

know

how

to

words

as

plumber he

him.

meet

the West

that?"

and

them,

to

see

right. You

did he

How

to

he

But

told

Indies."

I asked,

the

and
quickly,

next

imply knowledge to her.


He doesn't know
it,"said she.
Why should he? Isn't
it when people don't know thingsthat theytalk about them?
I laughed. If she applies
that littlepieceof wisdom
to me

moment

saw

my

must

"

"

"

who

there be any

nothing,can

say

doubt but that she guesses

at

the truth?
"

But what

extravagant

as

as

Fennells have

America, and if
no

you'vegot enough
far

the West

Indies?"

in

make

to

what

pressive
ex-

comes

always

wears

Ballysheenhas ever seen her face,


people in a small Irish villagesay
Mind

I shouldn't be

Tierney says.

justas

given it out that she

extravagant thingsthan that.

more

is

think of the veil she

you

one

anythingso

I asked.

in its way,
shrugging one's shoulders.

the fact that

and

Tierney suppose

eyebrows,which,

I think the Miss

from

friend

your

black from

raised her

She

"

makes

bit

I don't believe

you,

find

to
surprised

that she is beautiful."

That
beautiful.
I

dim

that type

picturewhich

into my

with

Her

takes

its net

eyes

and

and

caged
clear

for it.
time

creeps in

outline.

has

olive

an

that

suns

grasp,

moulds

her

of
He

skin,so

ivory might
a

lipsto His

own

"

though it once

had

caught a

the

it.

match

stances
Circum-

drops of
making.

is black; but in the blackness of it I


as

see

tenderly

Thousand

lets fall two

for nothing,

I thank him

knows

the God

in His

woman

lightof brown

More
me.

southern

her hair I know

Then
see

in her

sorrow

She

is sad, for when

mouth

word

eyes set in that faint blue-white

for that.

those

she is

thoughts,there

of
description

white of old china he called it. God

touched

man's

know

nearlyalways is. Every

eludes all

deep dark

unless it be

quite. I

not

that young

I have

because

vision of

but

me;

Clarissa finds its way

name

with it
a

Not

her beautiful,as

see

the

nearlydrew

very

sun

can

ray

in

it there forever.

I shall know

vision than
her

no

of Clarissa denies
this,the picture
better

when

see

her

face than

alreadynow;

her

know

when

firstmoment
I shall

OF

GARDEN

THE

her.

see

Is it from
I

such

face

not

to

of his

being,and

see

dread

is not

that

me.

take advice?

women

listen to me,

that she will

times
Somenever

go

was

where her lover has the substance

there will be

stilldeeper sorrow,

before,which she will never

trouble than
It

think of that

that she will let herself be taken into


islands;

her sunny
the heart of that underworld
back

to

maid's eyes, in
into my mind
quickly

well,comes

as

I that

as

men

afraid she will

am

247

look in that littlenursery

The

it is the dread that she will

and I know

me

her veil. The

removes

another woman's

many

somethingdreads

yet

she

RESURRECTION

temptationthen

sore

Clarissa

I knew

be.

to

to

bringto

greater

me.

tell Bellwattle how

But I resisted

it,and

tiful
beau-

returned

we

eveningwithout reward. It was the very next night,


bore fruit.
however, that our patience
Are you two alwaysgoingto go out in the evening? asked
to givehim a friendly
Cruikshank,when we looked into the room
that third

"

"

nod of the head.


"

Come

with us," said Bellwattle.

and I thought for the moment,


I
negative,
could not tell you why, that he was
not happy; that somewhere
in his philosophy,
loosened that made the whole chain
a link was
He

shook

us

weak.
"

Do

come," I said.

But he shook
"

his head

I've got this book


in the manger.
of his stall;he

dog

Out you
And

back

to

He's
wants

"

A man's

more

than

contented with the sole tion


occupaother dogs to sit by and envy him.
not

go."
out

get

we
a

his face
1

read,"said he.

to

went,

There

but it was

shawl for

break in the curtains.


and

again.

was

is no

cold that

I saw
Bellwattle,
His

hidden

book

was

nightand, coming
Cruikshank
througha

laid down

the table

upon

in his hands.

in

when he's like that,"


a man
disturbing
I said to myself,but it fell heavilyon
my mind and I wondered
whether any man's philosophy
were
complete.
When
I came
back to Bellwattle I said nothing. A man's
wife knows

more

sense

of him

than does any

and
outsider,

to

ask her

248

THE

questionsis onlyto put

oneself further from

the Miss

to

came

then, when

Fennells'

in silence. It

walked

house,we

Until

the truth.

we
was

lightin Clarissa's window, that I felt the


be accomplishedin the progwhat might soon
ress
no

saw

firstintimation of
of my
the letter

FORUM

journey,and

hand

my

went

to

pocket to

my

that

see

there.

was

"

They've gone to bed earlythis evening,"said Bellwattle,


thought had crossed her mind as
whereby I knew that the same
well.
"

How

"

The

time.

lightin that

my

draw

me

It's usuallylit

window.

upper

further,wherefore,

at

this

for their walk."

out

but I said
possible,
then, no doubt, that it was

manner

as

longer interested her.

She

more.

useless

to

saw

try and

will,she shot away


ter
might think the mat-

woman

She

no

asked

I did with

what

me

days.
I could
"

Ask

masters,

help but laugh


what the days do

not

me

You

"

Nothing that

nothing?

do

supportedby

I am,

"

on

he can, when

so

many

which

to

they are

my

is situated

man

profession,

no

be generous

needs

it

were

is situated like

man

the

exhausting

most

are

count

may

the

"

said she.
you'vesucceeded?
It's the onlypride I have," said I.

And

hundred

"

failures that you


the fingers
hand."
of your one

in London

men

brought up

support would

art

an

anything.When

been

having

father whose

study,in which
"

question.

with me," said I;

be called

can

that, to do nothing is

successes

her

"

givesas littleas

that he

at

I theirs."

not

"

in life as

the

I asked.

tangent and talked of London, that I

no

not

"

agreed that it was

from

my

that?

know

P'raps they'vegone

at

do you

who

can

year."
you'veno

"

And

"

There's

only

do

nothing so well

ambition

What's

"

To

do

as

can

not
on

that?"

something for

someone

many

fifteen

"

do

"

one

are

anythingelse?
ambition," I replied, only one
to

having."
"

There

else."

worth

EDITORIAL

Americans, conscious

WE

of the

all

of

to

where

nations

are

they differ

that the

more

from

less

or
our

them, that

should be

we

with

as

Yet

in the best
institutions

and

ludicrous,

even

littlequiet reflection

lessons which

are

shall have

we

have

customs,

best

customs

that there

frankness

is

we

learn; amongst

to

frank with ourselves

people. And

other

the

or
regrettable,

own.

yet learnt,but which

not

stand, and inalienably

we

assuming that all is for

comparison might show

have

achievements,proud

our

republicaninstitutions and

possiblecountries,and

of other

and

of

habit

of

for which
principles

attached
rather

NOTES

as

we

ually
habit-

are

incompatible

not

ing
instance,it is rightto pointout the increastendency here, with the phenomenal increase in wealth,

with courtesy.

For

toward

ostentation

sillyto

assume,

assumed
"

snobs

is

no

several

as

and

that the

the

Coronation

and

the desire

valid

London,

in London
to

why

reason

or

fawn

on

an

example of bad

told that
that

mediaeval
near

by

royaltyand its retinue.


should

whether

There

be present

not

it be

phancy
syco-

Coronation

at

in

York.

of these

unpropitious;but

was

and

there

celebration in New

Hudson-Fulton

be present

to

but unfortunately
of great ability,
a
man
journalists,
in his outlook, took advantage
limited and provincial
the opportunity
and without provocato sneer
patronizingly,
tion,
of a friendly
State. The moment,
at the Head
at the best,

One

as

chose
drawn

we're

American

an

of

who

large number

historical pageant,

great

any

luxury; but it is merely


of our
so-called leadingjournalists
are
majorityof wealthy Americans

extravagant

recently,that the
";

during

and

they are

the incident

to

conditions, destined
But

to

emperors
pass

European would

criticism;for it ill becomes


doctrines upon

other

do

value, if only

not

an

survivals

peacefullyaway
naturallysmile at

American

countries before
250

as

need

to

he

to

be

institutions,

believe in democratic

they regard kings and

future.

without

Americans

manners.

supposed

not

was

thrust

has

from
in the

the

plied
im-

lican
repub-

established

EDITORIAL
them
is

not

though Americans

And

home.

at

Republic. It

the outward

NOTES

251

America
republicans,
the possibilities,
one,

are

has the forms

of

everythingexcept the fact. But


governed by the people: it is misgovernedby

appearance:

country is not

the
the

And until we
house in order, it would
set our
own
parasites.
tions,
more
to other nato refrain from
seem
appropriate
dictating
is directly
to
where, at least,the Government
responsible
the people;where laws are made
to be obeyed,not
ignoredor
scandal as has lately
been
evaded; and where such a legislative
for example,at Albany,would provoke a revolution,
exhibited,
and not a shrugof the shoulders.
*

time for affectationis over.

The
now

believe in truth and

who

the continuance

of such

presentedto all who

"

that

States has

logically.
Ignorant
placedin power, partly

interests of the country.

true

citizens

think

have been
bosses
self-seeking
throughthe influence of the largealien
with the

many

the United

as

clearlyand

see

too

are

in public
to permit
affairs,
integrity

travesty

"

and

There

vote

not

The

yet identified

standard

of dishonesty

publicsentiment and
caused
to be regardedas almost inseparable
It is inconceivable that the people,who have the absoterms.
lute
hands, will remain so stupidor so
remedy in their own
degradedthat they will permit this disgraceto continue. If
theydo, it will be necessary to pointout to them that power
of the
abused should be forfeited. The
persistently
principle
recall can be appliedto the incompetent
dishonest official.
or
But what principle
honest
be appliedto the incompetentor discan
they have set
and
politics
graft
"

'

up

has vitiated

"

"

voter, who

all the

and unmakes

makes

who
officials;

is

for all the misgovernmentand shameless exploiting


responsible

that no

exposure

able

seems

to

The
of the

the

nation is to be
"

safe and

reduction
significant

reform

was

appear

so

on
congratulated

"

sane

affect?

movement

the further extension

for the Fourth

in the listsof deaths and

of those obvious and

of

July,with
The
injuries.

simpleones which at first


until publicopinion is guided and focussed
difficult,
one

25

THE

FORUM

clear

thinker,unafraid of temporary obstacles. Yet


there is still one
which is always
type of dangerous stupidity
the stupidity
with us
which finds delightin firing unloaded
by

some

"

"

"

with fatal effects. It is

guns

pitythat those who are afflicted


be taught to verifythe fact of the gun
cannot
by takingthe simpleand satisfactory
tion
precau-

with this mania

being

"

"

unloaded

of

experimentingon

service

themselves

Personality

seems

valuable record
of them

so

double

their

of service

the country.
"

beyond the

moment;

built up

publicmen

our

who

the

At

have

best,the

jority
ma-

merely kept thingsgoing "; theyhave carried


and party leaders,and
bargainswith the bosses

any

have

to

have

have made

permanent

of

many

"

fulfilledthe main

and

important here than achievement.

more

possibleto pointto

out

perform

so

the State.

to

It is not

and

"

of their election. But few of them

purpose

attempt
to

do

to

"

thingsworth while; to

conduct

an

administration

see

little

for the real

people. Yet several of these men


reputationsby merely assertingfrom

benefit of the
considerable

successful and practical.Analyze


they were
these statements, and they resolve themselves into insignificance.
To temporize
But self-complacency
continues in the ascendant.

time

time that

to

is ever

the

plan of

the weak

comprehends human

that he

concessions.
the crime

And

and shame

and destitution that

To

take

and

nature

reasonable

laries.
its inevitable corol-

raised before in

question,but one pressingeverywhere


for strong and unhypocritical
handling: In all the cities
"

not

an

easy

North

of the United

States,from

is called the

social evil continues

to

South, East

to

flagrantlyand

West, what
unchecked.

specialplacesdevoted to its service low-class cafes


houses and hotels openly conducted
dance halls,disorderly
tion
investigaimmoral purposes, and requiringbut the slightest

There

for

are

that has been


definite question

one

columns

these

and

make

must

continues,with
policyof laissez-faire

the

so

imaginesthat he is strong,

who

man

are

on

These

"

the part of the


resorts

are

not

policeto
hidden

secure*

incontrovertible evidence.

shamefacedly in gloomy and

se-

EDITORIAL
eluded districts;
they do

NOTES

253

lightbeneath a bushel;
but theyflaunt it,red and unmistakable,in frequented
highways.
do not know these places,
that the police
It is nonsense
to assert
But
and know
thoroughlywell their meaning and illegality.
instructions have evidently
been issued by those in authority.
Why? Who is gettingthe money which is paid for protection
traffic? The various
by the scoundrels engaged in this pitiable
that there always has been,
and authorities may
assert
mayors
and alwayswill be, a social evil. Undoubtedly there will be, if
for suppressing
those responsible
it are willing
to take bribes
for a tacit permit." And those who
honest among
are
more
and
them might at least have the courage
of their convictions,
what they think and desire,instead of glozing
state clearly
their sentiments with euphemisms. Let all who
believe
over
in the inevitability
of the trafficsay so; let them assume
bility
responsifor it,and regulateit. At any rate, they will save
tens
of thousands of the unguiltyfrom contamination
tion,
and destrucuntil a finer generation
shall see that the whole ghastly
thingis intolerable and inexcusable. In the meantime, there
remains the definite fact that these peopleare illegally
protected
in every city,
because they pay for protection. Is there no
the demand,
publicopinioncapableof demanding,and enforcing
that the hypocrites
who grow
wealthy on these bribes shall be
not

hide their

"

exposedand punished? It would


of each

citywere

oughtto know, what

one

cannot

cavil

or

British Constitution is beingremodelled

and
ideas,

tive
execu-

either knows,
He
responsible.
is beingdone by his subordinates.
held

The

trouble if the chief

save

at progress,

to

suit modern

though the revolutionary

methods

adopted by Mr. Asquith may


in the future. It does
disorganization

lead
not

and
reprisals

to

say

much

for the

patriotismand intelligence
of the leaders,either of the Government
or

to come

and

of the
to

that they should


Opposition,

reasonable

agreement

far-reaching
importance.They

on

have

have

matter

been

unable

of such grave

degraded an Imperial
questioninto an affair of partisanship
and prejudice.The
eral
genof the publichas been unquestionably
sense
in favor of

THE

254

reform, and
it

it should have

wiser

was

bounds

to

FORUM
been

occasion

obvious

take

of freedom.

by the hand, and

It should

the Liberals that,though


the conditions which

the Unionists

to

have

enlarge the

equallyobvious to
in opposing
entirely
justified

theywere

been

handicapped their programmes


restricted their legislation,
in
scarcelyjustified
they were

maintain
the

had

precedentof

It would

coercion.

mere

that the creation of five hundred

of
spirit

that

the Constitution.

To

obtain

within

comes

majorityby

lishing
estab-

difficultto

be

Peers

and

almost

doublingthe membership of the Upper House is not a permissible


and should be frankly
It is a revolution,
party manoeuvre.
recognizedand treated as a revolution. The end, of course, is

merelydesirable;it is necessary.

not

The

of Lords

House

must

brought into closer touch with the will of the people. But

be

the

means

ill-advised.

are

by coups d'etat is

Government

dangerous procedureand rarelyleads

stable and

to

beneficial

results.
?P

*F

*l*

In this connection it is difficultnot

complexityof
which

is a

British administrative

notice the trend toward


The

measures.

signof geniusis rarelydiscoverable.

different Governments
new

to

new

areas,

authorities.

have

vied with

units for local

Law

other
and

new
affairs,

and

borough
County councils,

Poor
districts,
sanitary

each

For

simplicity
generations
in

creating

over-lapping
councils,rural

town

of Education, parliamentary

Boards, Boards

and
districts,
divisions,
policeand judicial
have presenteda jumble of patchwork arrangements,
on,
sidered
needs of each moment
and each new
being conmeasure
electoral

so

the

tions.
lately with little reference to existingcondiness,
tendencyto bungle,to compromise,to avoid clear-

until

"

This

"

directness and symmetry,


the House
be

of Lords

to

reform

to

with

specialqualifications,
were
to

House

of Commons.

itself. Stillmore

to

And

numerical

areas

from

by

were

each district

the whole peerage;

by the Government,
state

in the whole

to

representatives,

Other

be elected

be nominated

proportionsrepresentingthe

in the belated attempt of

of Peers.

elect a certain number

were

were

seen

of Parliament

defined,and the members

stillothers

is

of

partiesin

feeble scheme

in

the

there

NOTES

EDITORIAL

signof

no

was

effectiveness. One

would

such men
as
containing
sufficientforesight
to
would

have

enabled

have

Lord
seize

thought that

Rosebery there would have been


vital opportunitywhich
the one
to

of

some

recover

tion;
dignityfrom a criticalsituabeing remoulded, the operation
Imperial,and some
degree of

with

emerge

if the Constitution

and
simplicity
in an
assembly

of

note

the discredited House

prestigeand

its lost

no
principle,

permanent

255

were

might have been made more


Dominions.
But the
allotted to the Over-Seas
representation
has been lost. Indeed, the incompetenceof the
opportunity
demonstrated
than in
House of Lords was
never
more
clearly
itsfinal floundering
attempts to avert the results of its previous
misuse of its powers and great opportunities.

The

here, caused
shippingstrike,
perceptible
scarcely
of the Continental ports.
grave disturbances in England and some
It is not necessary to discuss now
the merits of a disputethat
is ended; but, though there are many
changesin a generation,
the following
passage, written nearlytwenty-eight
years ago by
Francis Adams, is still interesting
as
showing the conditions
recent

from which
"

one

The

have tried

men

of
spectacle

of the

most

to emerge

the life of the London

dock

laborers is

of the
outcome
logical
docks over
metropolitan

terrible examplesof the

present social system.

In the six great

employed,the great bulk of whom are married


and have families. By the elaborate system of sub-contracts
their wages have been driven down to 4d.,3d.,and even
2d.,for
the few hours they are
employed,making the average weekly
of a man
amount
to seven,
a
earnings
six,and even five shillings
100,000

week.

men

are

Hundreds

by

the

and thousands

of lives are

lost or

ruined every

without
absolutely
that men
compensation. Yet so fierceis the competition
not
are
maimed
killed in the desperatestruggles
or
unfrequently
even
at the gates for the ticketsof employment,
a
guaranteeing
pay
year

nature
perilous

of the work, and

"

which often does


streets and

lowest kind

not

amount

houses inhabited
"

to

by

more

than

few

this unfortunate

haunts of vice,disease and death

"

"

pence !

class

are

The

of the

and the monop-

256

THE

olistic companies

wholesale
the

able to make
profitof their
directly
by ruthlessly
crushingout, through

demoralization

all efforts

contractors,

To

men.

thus

are

immense

FORUM

these immense

see

machine, British

the

organizationon

at

docks, the home

part of the

of that

crowded

more

with

huge and
ships and steamers, and to watch with intelligent
stately
eyes
the colossal work of loadingand unloadingthem
by what means
is carried out; this is

commerce,

face

to

childhood,youth, manhood,
that makes

misery and

them

curse

of human

and

womanhood,

far

"

appallingthan

more

holocausts that

"

thing
every-

merelya

not

Juggernaut

any

offered up

were

life

with

age,

beautiful and ennobling,and

of the human

process

sacrificialorgy

cian
Phoeni-

to

"

Moloch.

growing tendencyamongst the magistratesof the


different large citiesto discouragethe rowdiness so often associated
There

is a

with the

street

and

cars

trains

It is a littledifficult
to understand

desire

to

others

annoy

classes of

general

too

in disputes
that
interfering

tragedy;and

the boisterous

kept in

by

of

check

the revolver
of the

the

children

his business

one

may

discover that
the

to

why
they were

non-legalmind,

it was

the

the

wonder

mere

do, and

suddenly that the


the vicious

or

he

methods
it

is therefore

elimination
the

citizen

pleasure,and for

his

constant

not

tinuance
con-

being adopted by

now

for
possible

or

serious

to

go

women

Incidentally,

menace.

magistrateshave taken so long to


a
positionto enforce the law. To

it would

duty of
that

in

possible

as

suddenlyresult in

may

make

soon

be freed from

to

far

as

social intercourse,and

to

sense

will
magistrates,

and

custom

vicious element

or

aid

an

common

about
peacefully

dangerous
especially
of carryingconcealed

normal, sensible majority.The

the
as

habit with certain

citizen to refrain

has led the average

weapons

from

the

become
It is an

undevelopedAmericans.

habit, because

until the morbid


ineffective,

so

wantonly has

of order

the enforcement

why

in this connection should have been

Sundays and holidays.

on

have

seemed

magistrateto

is entitled

reasonable

stupidrowdy.

to

rather obvious

do what

he

was

little credit for

citizen should

be

that

appointed
discovering

protectedfrom

THE

258

peoplein

American

FORUM

result: English,
yieldedthe following

1900

German, 18,400,000; Irish and Scotch,13,900,000;


all other nationalities,
These figuresdemonstrate
14,290,000.
that of a total white populationof 66,990,000 the Germans
20,400,000;

ranked

second, and that they constituted about 27.5

the total white

of
population

the latest census

are

the United

cent

per

States. The

of

of
figures

but in view of the immigration


yet available,

not

and allowingfor the natural increase of the


statistics,
home
the

the percentage justgivenprobablyrepresents


population,
correctly.
present proportions

As

the Germans

known

are

the entire world

over

for their

and intelligence,
in expecting
that such
enterprise
we
are
justified
individuals would have made a strong
largenumbers of German
impressionupon American
culture,and that they would also
have

produced some

histories.
And

so

But

of Americans

being mentioned

the pages of these books


of the fact that the
explanation

an

know
than

of

that

they brought
stores

the

are

inclined

to treat

them

and that

Limited
for many
upon the

as

learn that

to

rocky shores
soldiers

Central

long before
of

1528

1538

were

America
to

of
possession

active

an

of Americans

masses

with doubtful

on
rights

German

World.

Mendoza,

Many

was

Cortes
German

already

had

went

hundreds
to

and

South

Pizarro.

colony in

the

family Welser of Augsburg.


printer,
Johann Cromberger, established a
cityof Mexico. Soon after Henry Hudson

the Hudson

of Kleve, became

by

with

landed

PilgrimFathers

the armies that

among

surprise

the rich merchant

discovered

Attracted

the

Massachusetts,Germans

1546 Venezuela

officein the
printing'
had

taken

this article is,it will nevertheless be

as

of German

In

the very

among

they have

newcomers

appeared in other parts of the New

From

were

soil.

American

and

low-citize
fel-

sauerkraut,
lagerbeer,

and publiclife,
political
great

our

majority

into this country with them.

Ignorant of the fact that the Germans


firstimmigrantsin America

our

in vain.

of their German-American

littlemore

frankfurters and delicatessen

part in

in

search

we

have

we

worthy

men

River, a German, Hendrick

tiansen
Chris-

explorerof that noble


grandeur,Christiansen made

river.

the

its beautyand

true

eleven

"

ELEMENT

GERMAN

regardedby

was
a

his

contemporaries
may

in the Historish

passage

lightChristiansen

In what

and Fort Nassau.

Amsterdam

best be learned from


chronicler

of the Dutch

Verhael

259

of the stations

and laid the foundations

to itsshores
expeditions

New

STATES

UNITED

IN

Netherland
"New
Jean de Wassenaer, who wrote:
Christiansen of
first exploredby the honorable Hendrick
was
also
Kleve
Hudson, the famous
navigator,was
Nicolas

"

there

few years after Christiansen had been killed by an Indian,


another German, Peter Minnewit, or Minuit,a native of Wesel,
A

he
It was
Netherlands.
of the New
director-general
who closed that memorable
bargainwith.the Manhattee Indians,
in 1 62 1, by which, in exchangefor some
trinkets amountingto
60 guilders
Island became the property of
or
$24, Manhattan
became

the Dutch.

Minnewit

southern

point of

Later

he became

on

also,erected

the island and

the Delaware.

Sweden,

made

the

became

his

Sweden

the aggressive
Dutch
against

With

successor.

After the annexation

German

strong hands

of New

from

Sweden

he

most

success.
as

the

the mouth

of

as

colonyat
perishedin a

Buchau,

von

the

colony a

Swedish

Minnewit

When

hurricane,Johann Printz

by

fortificationupon

of the chief promoters

one

firstdirector of New

well

West

Indian

nobleman,

defended

New

1643 to 1654.
and New

Netherlands

the

English,Jacob Leisler,a native of Frankfurt-on-theMain, became most


prominent during that stormy period in
which the crown
of England passed from the Catholic King
James II

to

the Protestant William

III.

In the turmoil caused

in the colonies

for

elected as a temporary
by this change,Leisler was
by the peopleof New York, to hold the colony
governor
the new
he called togetherthe first
king. In this capacity

congress

of American

French.

With

of

common

this

act

colonies
he awoke

to

resist the

among

assaults of the

the colonists that

sense

which increased with time and culminated


interests,

in the Continental

Congressof 1776. A fearless defender of


the people's
rightsagainstthe impudenceof the aristocrats and
the oppressions
of the Government, he was
broughtto trial as a
demagogue and hanged by his enemies in 1691, the firstmartyr
in the longstruggle
of the American
peoplefor liberty.

260

THE
Nine

after Leisler's death, a young German


Palatine,
arrived in New
York.
After having served as

years

Peter
an

FORUM

Zenger,
apprenticeand assistant to Bradford, the famous

for
printer,

several years, Zenger established a printingoffice of his own,


and began in 1733 to publishThe New
York
Weekly Journal,
which very soon
itself offensive to the authorities,
made
all
as

questionableacts of the Government


For

severelycriticised.

were

of the

warning several numbers

confiscated
journalwere
and publiclyburned
by the hangman. But Zenger fearlessly
continued his criticisms. When
thrown into prison,he became
a

the hero

of

trial by which

nation, the freedom

our

"

of the

one

of

the press,

highestprivilegesof
"

established in

was

America.
That

the Germans

theyalso proved
founders

were

opposed to oppressionin

in 1688, when

small band

any

form,

of Mennonites, the

monument
Germantown, established an everlasting
the firstwritten protest against
to themselves by issuing
slavery.
most
convincing
Although the language of this document was

and

of

in the strongest terms,

whom

it was
until

matter

years

addressed, did

not

slaverybecame

dare

to

abolished

of

to
Pennsylvania,

action in this

take any

in

Pennsylvaniamany

afterwards.

The

Germans

the selfish acts


and

the Quakers

when

the firstto

of the British Government

the

many

also among

were

war

acts

protest against

toward

the colonies;

plished
independencebroke forth, they accomand noble bravery.
of the highestpatriotism

for

In front of the

the Hall

of Fame

of Peter

of

in
as well as
CityHall in Philadelphia,
the Capitolin Washington, we find statues

Muhlenberg, a Lutheran minister,who, when the war-clouds


began to form, preached to his community on the duties of a
a
good citizen toward his country. Explainingthat there was
he raised
time for prayingand preachingas well as for fighting,
has come."
his voice and exclaimed:
time for fighting
"The
And

therewith he threw off his

priestly
garment

and stood in the

by
pulpitin the uniform of an American army officer. Inspired
soldiers.
of his community registered
his example,300 men
as
By gallantservice Muhlenberg became generaland one of the
confidential friends of

Washington.

IN

ELEMENT

GERMAN

261

STATES

UNITED

Valleytwo imposingstone obelisks mark the


(Herkimer) and his Palatines,
graves of Nicolas Rercheimer
murderous
who foughtthe battle of Oriskanyin 1777, the most
for independence.Of the 700 Palatines
skirmish of the whole war
In the Mohawk

than

more

200

were

killed.

But this battle shattered the

campaign plansof the British completelyand in time brought


about Burgoyne'ssurrender at Saratoga. Washington himself
the first glimpse of daylightin the
stated that Oriskany was
times of darkness.
when Washington,with
deepest,
had taken refuge
onlya few thousand naked and starving
men,
in the dreadful winter quarters at ValleyForge,there appeared
who proved to be the most
valuable help the colonies
a
man
This man
for freedom.
Baron
received in their struggle
was
Prussian officer,
Friedrich Wilhelm
von
Steuben,a distinguished
the former personal
of Frederick the Great.
The letter
adjutant
in which Steuben offers his services to Congresswithout asking
And

when

the distress

for any pay, is one


Appointedas the

was

of the noblest documents

of these great times.

of the army, he transformed


inspector-general
the undisciplined
American
efficient fighting
soldiers into an
machine.
In fact,Steuben became
of the
the true originator
American army, and if history
honors Washington as the leading
of the war
for independence,
then Steuben was
the strong
spirit
that enabled him to strike,
and thus led him to victory.
arm
If we
study the part the German-Americans
played in the
for independence
it seems
and in all its details,
war
closely
very
doubtful whether this war
would have become
such a glorious
without the patriotic
success
element.
support of the German
And there is good reason
for doubtingthat,without the help of
the 200,000
Germans
who foughtunder the colors of the North
from 1 86 1 to 1865, the preservation
of the Union might have
been possible.Large numbers of these Germans, especially
the
had received practical
academies
officers,
trainingin the war
and in the armies of their fatherland.
The participation
of so
officersand soldiers was
of the greatest importance
many efficient
to

the

North, for, at the outbreak


had

Point.

far the greater number

of the

war,

erates
the Confed-

of officerstrained

at

West

THE

262

Many of the
positions.There
Schurz.

One

the hero

of

ancestor

of the

officers reached
than

the

highestmilitary

generals and 9 majorPeter Osterhaus,Franz Sigel and Karl

were

more

them

generals,among

of the heroes of the

33

Spanishwar.

Admiral

Santiago de Cuba, is also of German

his home

made

German

FORUM

Schleyswas

German

Schley,

stock,as the

schoolmaster,who

had

in this country in 1735.

Germans

themselves in politics.
Frieddistinguished
rich August Muhlenberg, a son of the above-mentioned
minister,

Many

was,

the

and

in

1798, Speakerof the House


first session of Congress. He
again from

1795.

them

birth,among

of the Interior under


the strongest advocates

Karl

Hayes.

for the

forests and other natural

our

In several
the

It

In i860

cabinet

was

officers of

served

he who

abolition of

tary
Secre-

as

one

of

slavery,for

the

finance and the

was

preservation

resources.

elections the
presidential

decidingfactor.

Lincoln

and

Schurz, who

institutionof civil service,


of sound
of

Representatives
through

held this office until 1791,


There
able
also many
were

representatives,
governors

senators,

German

to

1793

of

German-Americans

theystood

almost

as

were
man

for

the opponent of slavery. In 1892 they supported


Cleveland,as they believed with him that a prohibitive
high
as

tariffwould

not

theydeclared

be

for

to

the interests of the

gold standard

people. And

and honorable

But the great services the German-Americans


this country in

and

war

with the

enormous

in

in

1896

finance.
have

rendered

as
parison
politics
appear
very littlein comgood they have accomplishedin the

culture. Shoulder to shoulder with


development of American
their Anglo-American fellow-citizens,
they marched in hundreds
of thousands into the virginwildernesses of the New
World,
everywhere transforming the former abodes of beasts and
Indians into fruitful lands and

homesteads.
Numerous
pleasant
New
York, Maryland, New
States, especially
Pennsylvania,

souri,
Nebraska, MisJersey,the Virginias,Ohio, Indiana,Illinois,
their
Kansas, California,Oregon, and Washington owe
As agriculturists
to the Germans.
they
substantially
prosperity
won

neighbors. The comparative


of the soil of their fatherland taught them to take

the admiration

meagreness

of all their

ELEMENT

GERMAN
care

of their farms

in

IN

UNITED

STATES

wise and economical

They

way.

abusingthe soil,which, as

fell into the habit of

263

is

never

in the

seen

and in other parts of the country, results,


of farms.
in time,in soil-exhaustion and the abandonment
ever
Who-

England States

New

visitsthe beautiful counties of


must

those which

have

to

never

agree

seen

exist there.

farms

New

York

in better condition than

these farms

are

stillinhabited

who became
settlers,
earlyGerman
and rational management.
throughtheir diligence
prosperous
made themselves apparGerman
skill,
geniusand enterprise
ent
also in the many
i
n
and
handicrafts, commerce
industry.
established the first type-foundries,
Germans
glass and iron
leather and chemical industries.
works, powder mills,gun factories,
of
and Anton Klomann
the true originators
Andreas
are
the Carnegieworks and the present United States Steel Corporation,

by

the descendants

And

and
Pennsylvania

of the

with which
connected.

became

Henry

The

name

connected with the


Heinrich
Steel Works

Wehrum

C. Frick and
of F.

historyof

Charles

Schwab

Augustus Heinze
the American

copper

created the great Lackawanna

Buffalo and

Seneca,New

is

also

arably
inseptry.
indus-

Iron and

York.

Johann August
at Trenton,
Roeblingis the father of the cable wire spinneries
New Jersey. Martin Brill in Philadelphia
and J. H. Kobusch
in St. Louis established the two largest
car-factories in America.
Peter Paulyorganizedthe Pauly JailBuildingCompany in St.
Louis;F. Niedringhausthe National Enameling and Stamping
Company at the same place.Johann Jacob Astor organizedthe
famous American
The
Fur
Company.
Havemeyers and
made
themselves the chief factors in the American
Spreckels
known
sugar industry.Friedrich Weyerhaeuser is universally
as the
lumber king of the United States." John Wanamaker,
the inventor of the departmentstore, and John D. Rockefeller,
the master
of the Standard Oil Company, also claim derivation
at

"

from German
In the
the

ancestors.

productionof beveragesthe German-Americans

take

in the brewing industry,


which grew
to
lead, especially
Beer had been
astonishing
proportionsthrough their energy.
"

brewed in America
and

teenth
by the Dutch and Englishduringthe sevencenturies. In 18 10
the whole
eighteenth
output

THE

264

FORUM

increased to 740,182,000 barrels. This quantity


barrels in 1850. Up to that time the brewers, exclusively

amounted
000

to

beer
Anglo-Americans,
produced a heavy,very intoxicating

English ale. Instead of this the Germans

the

to

lagerbeer,which

the

suited

is more

reason

contains much

introduced

less alcohol and


climate.

the American

to

ilar
sim-

for this

In time it displaced

Besides this,
it helpedgreatly
to
entirely.
lessen the consumptionof whiskey and other liquors,
in which
America
indulged very heavilyin former times. And so the
the ale almost

of

claim

German-American

our

brewers, that the introduction


the

lagerbeerhad a benevolent temperate effect upon


of America, is,to some
population
extent, justified.
of the

what

To
been

proportionsthe brewing industryhas

enormous

developedby

present the output of beer


This

year.

is

the Germans

seen

amounts

to

industryemploys hundreds

from

the fact that

at

million barrels per


of thousands of men,

60

the

Government, and yields


millions in annual incomes to the farmers for their malt, hops
and barley. Many of the largebreweries,
the
as, for instance,
in St. Louis,the Pabst and Schlitz breweries in
Anheuser-Busch

providesvery large

to

revenues

Milwaukee, rank among the industrial wonders of America.


In the productionof other food-stuffs the German-Americans
are

in the field also.

The

H.

J. Heinz

throughout America

is known

find others in the

We

of
production

oatmeal

for

in

Company

preserved fruits

business
meat-packing

Pittsburgh
and

tables.
vege-

and in the

and other cereals.

ous
engineeringJohann August Roeblingmade. himself famthe Niagara, the
by his daring suspensionbridges across

In

Ohio, and the East


Gindele

constructed the

with fresh
which
famous

River

water

from

between

Michigan. He

the lake with the

connects

tunnels in the Comstock

Schneider

the cantilever

Brooklyn.
providesChicago

also made

mines of Nevada

the

the canal

Hermann

Karl Konrad

Niagara, and the


Schussler the great

of San Francisco.
electricians the

Silesian Karl

electricianof the General

Electric Works

Among

and

Sutro plannedthe
Mississippi.

bridgesacross

Fraser River in British Columbia


water-works

York

tunnel that

enormous

Lake

New

our

sulting
Steinmetz, con-

in

Schenectady,

THE

266
enthusiasm.

FORUM

Following the example

of

the German

countless Anglo-American societies exist in


societies,
which

now,

mention

to

masters

of the
appreciation

our

its many

350,080

these is the

has, during the


their

to

persons

institutions. There

are

ous
numer-

protectionand welfare of immigrants.The

noteworthyof

York, which

try
coun-

positions
tryingto reproducethe comin their highest
perfection.
German
element we must not forget

benevolent

societiesfor the
most

our

rival each other in

of the great
In

singing

35

Legal

years

Aid

of its

Societyof

New

existence,
helped

without considering
their nationalities.
rights,

It collected for
On

236.

them, free of cost, the sum of $1,633,of the great amount


of good accomplished

account

it became
by this society

in America

the model

well

as

as

of the

enormous

in the United

Germans

very

been

small fraction
done

States. Its magnitudeis the

formed

century, never

only a

that has

German-Americans,

the

as

indicate

of work

mass

similar institutions

numerous

abroad.

facts outlined above

The

for

unit

to

up

by

the

ishing,
aston-

more

of the nineteenth

the end

having in view

mutual

aims.

of splendidsoldiers,
but without officers.
an
They were
army
The beginning
of this century, however, broughtgreat changes.
The

great advantage of centralization had become

everywhereto
and

so

the attention of

escape

States assembled

in

American

on

League

the States,
but

to

of several
Germans
representative
and organizedthe GermanPhiladelphia

October

6, 1901,

consolidate the

that is good in German

not

to

form

State within

forces of the German-

enormous

of promoting everything
the purpose
character and culture and that might be

the benefit and welfare of the whole

this was

German-Americans,

our

populationfor

American

to

apparent

of

small number

too

rightdirection

step in the

endorsement

American

and that it found the

German-American

of the whole

nation.

That

hearty

population,
may

rapidincrease of the league. Within the nine


of
under the able leadership
years of its existence it has spread,
of Philadelphia,
Dr. Charles J. Hexamer
over
its president,
be

seen

from

the

and
almost all States,

The
of this

has

now

than

more

powerfulimpulsecaused by
league gave

birth

to

many

the

two

million members.

foundingand growth

movements

of similar char-

with

accordance

In

acter.

of

knowledge

of

the purpose

University established
in

has

everything that Germany


science

and

made

propositionswas
He

suggested
and

of

This

universities

thoughts

innovation

other

and

later

brief

sketch

America

shows

that

only the

achievements

the

to

be

not

nation

our

of

Jews,

races,

the

historyof

Such

so

was

they

the American

Just

as

of American

also

to

about

German

do

Africans

well

better

in

element
consider

to

not

citizens,but also

and

the

Mongolians.

to

nation

will

of
in

common

the

whole

still be

only

the

the

if it

credit,then the
interest

great

father
to

part

of the American

gain greatly in
to

system,

written; and

their due

to

their

Ohio, and

History

contributed

memory

omitted

considers

"

be

and
of

history that

nationalities

contribute

history.

character

history must

all nations

erected
may

justlyclaim

cannot

countries.

professors of

Mississippi river, which


and

vastness

gives the above-mentioned

that

would

stronger

Irish,Scotch, French, Scandinavians, the

complete, so

Nation."

color.

the

Anglo-American

our

can
Ameri-

of the world.

its principalbranches, the Missouri

importance
of

historians

descriptionof

describe

would

Slavic

history of

the

our

Germans,

and

As

of

great

bring

to

all

of Harvard.

include

to

the different nations

Our

Romanic

extended

two

art,

of

greatest

establish

these

between

was

of

works

Francke

to

vard
Har-

will show

professors between

in order

ideas

on

understanding among

of the

of

for

reproductions

the

Kuno

also, and will do much

nationalities

those

Professor

by

that

in great
But

past.

regular exchange

German

contact

the

during

science.

and

culture,

Societies

facsimile

produced

gained

German

museum,

and

paintings, photographs

casts,

poetry,

Germanic

can
Ameri-

there

Germanistic

literature

German

promoting

of

beauty

founded

universities

and

Germany

and

magnitude

the

American

several

in

267

renowned

suggestions of

the

studied

had

professors who

STATES

UNITED

IN

ELEMENT

GERMAN

the

of

our

Hall

and

monument

country,
of

Fame

BERGSON:

HENRI

THE

PHILOSOPHER

OF

ACTUALITY

Edwin

the

TO

his
For

vice

philosophyhas

sake," and

this

"

written about

is

an

here

more

see

as

seen

of

as

for its

freelythat

James

connection

too

called

once

which

or

turn,

scheme

Foremost

be mentioned

dust

this restoration of
of facts and

the world

between

brought

man
practical
philosophyof

our

of

sort

in the back

imagines the world

he

change. The

professors.Philosophy is

has, and needs, a

plan

of life. And

handmaid

he
or
unconsciously,
consciously

of his head,

be run,

to

and

to

his
cording
ac-

which,

on

his

dailyconduct.
of those who have helped to produce this new
derstanding
unof philosophyas, essentially,
basis for action,
must
a
chester
the late William
James. But speakingat Man-

College, Oxford,
veteran
"

"

exist

so

William

of the

thought has, in

kind of

some

to

rightto

there has been

the minds

that he himself

own:

what

speculation.

dusty-mindedprofessorshave
previous professorshave thought."

elsewhere

all but severed

the world

grounds for

abstract

right it has exercised

other

what

clearingfrom

once

toward

philosophy

reiteration of what

mere

But

is he without

claimed

often, in the past, it has been


it:

far cry from

Nor

versa.

indifferent attitude

like art,

own

it seems

practical
man,

life,or

to

Bjorkman

not

long before his death, this

leader of American

said: "Without

the

Bergson's authoritygives me,

to

urge

views
particular

I should

of mine

"

challenged
un-

and philosophy
psychology,

confidence which

on

these

bases

being able

upon

lean

ventured

have

never

to

this ultra-critical

audience."
The
not

make

word
or

of any one
maintain

man,
a

for the greatest

even

though he

be

world-reputation. But
livingFrench

James,

the

same

thinker has been

does
(

thusiasm
en-

evinced

hardlyless capable of givingjudgment. To-day


the sworn
adherents of what is alreadybeginning to call itself
tracting
the civilized world, atBergsonism are legion,spread all over
and taking their strengthfrom the
recruits daily,
new

by

other

men,

268

PHILOSOPHER

BERGSON:

OF

ACTUALITY

269

manhood.
The youth of
intelligent,
progressive
of
his own
country have arrayedthemselves under the leadership
to
Bergson with such fervencythat those in power have come
fear a generaldesertion from all the acceptedideals and idols
of orthodox, materialistic science. At Jena and Oxford, at
less than the students
and Stockholm, the professors
Rome
no
of a new
touched by the same
are
sense
dispensation.Such
if not actually
Anarchistic
as
diverging,
opposed,movements
proclaim in this quiet,
Syndicalismand Catholic Modernism
prophet.
keen-eyedParisian professortheir chosen and inspired
Here in America, three of his principal
works have been brought
with
at once
out
by two different publishers.Such a figure,
all the marks of leadership
him, must
surelyfall within
upon
the class indicated by Bernard Shaw when he wrote
that, the
is ignorance
of the few great men
most
sort of ignorance
pitiful

very

flower of

"

who

men

are

of

our

time."

own

Henri

Bergson is stilla young man, born


In him the cosmopolitan
character of modern
striking
symbol,for while we know him to be
from a familythat probablylived in
sprung

in

1859

at

Paris.

thought finds a
of Jewishorigin,
Poland

once,

his

gerous
though it is danto ascribe an
exaggeratedimportanceto the influence
of
time and race
in him
and place, one
cannot
help detecting
both of Celtic mysticism
and of Jewishlove for clear-cut
traces

parents

came

to

France

from

"

Ireland.

And

"

dialecticdistinctions. He

himself has risen above

and creed

race

and

which' seems
toward that universalism of spirit
to
nationality
be the common
goal of all civilized mankind nowadays.
He was
educated in the publicschools of France, obtaining
his naturalization as a French citizen only after he had entered
them.
At firstmathematics
cast a spell
him, and while still
on
he won
a
a
boy of eighteen,
prizeby an essay deemed good
enough for publicationin a prominent mathematical journal.
from
drawn
Through the readingof Herbert Spencerhe was
that firstlove and

moved

after he had become


of

to

enter

student of

the "cole

Normalc, but

philosophyhe

had

no

even

thought

givinghis life to it. Only when he tried to lay down


essential principles
of mechanics and found that time was
allowed to play any part at all in this science,
did his common

the
not

THE

27o

revolt,causinghim

sense

to

itself. And

consciousness

stands based
and knowable

his attention

turn

to-dayhis

entire

the

to

problem of

philosophical
system

known
time,or duration,as the chief reality

on

to

FORUM

man.

Graduating in 1881, he taught in various high schools and


collegesuntil,in 1900, he was given the chair of modern philosophy
in the ancient

dating back

In

the sixteenth century.

to

Parisian

Collegede France, a

1889 he

university
his doctor's

won

degree by a thesis that did much toward the foundingof


his reputationas a highlyoriginaland daring thinker. And in
1

90

he

of Moral
of

elected

was

so

Political Sciences.

and

which

career

far

the Institute as

to

James described
outward

as

have all taken


his vivid

facts

place in

imaginationand his

have led him

member

Such

are

of the

the few

Academy

landmarks

"

most,
commonplace to the utventures
go." Professor Bergson'sadthe realm of thought,but there

utter

as

fearlessness of consequences

after another.
encounter
startling
He is not a prolific
writer,being mainlyeager to make each
of the conclusions prompting it.
work an adequate expression
on

to

one

of his briefest works

one
Thus, for instance,

had

been twenty

before at last it appearedin print. So far


preparation
sis,
he has published
only four volumes outside of his doctor's thetogetherwith a score of articles and essays. The books of
his that have justbeen brought out here in Englishtranslation
and Memory
Time and Free Will (Macmillan); Matter
are:
(Macmillan); Creative Evolution (Holt " Company). The
last mentioned
is his main work, embodying all the ideas that
tend to set his philosophy
apart from the systems it threatens to
the
all his books, including
versions,
supersede. In their original
years

one

in

not

Laughter, have
yet translated,

editions. And

one

into almost

or

the other of them

every

reached
has

six

more

or

alreadybeen
civilized language. But to get

lated
transa

full

yond
within his own
understandingof his influence,
country and beman
it,we must always bear in mind that,as one of his Gernot merely
admirers has expressedit," he is a personality,

the head
The

of

school."

magnetic qualitythat

and from his writings,


making

his person
whom
old-fashioned professors,

emanates
"

both

from

his ideas

OF

PHILOSOPHER

BERGSON:

ACTUALITY

271

nevertheless speak of his


quitefail to satisfy,

with bated breath," stands in intimate relation

almost

fundamental

of
conceptions

natural that

man

who

his

philosophy.And
from

has turned

talent
the

to

it seems

quite

the intellectto intuition

solution of life'sriddlesshould have

styleas flexible
that of any poet. In fact,Bergson is a
and as picturesque
as
poet, no less than a thinker,and to find proof of it one might
for

of his pages.
Thus
only a poet could describe the past
againstthe portalsof consciousness that would

turn

at

random

outside." And
"

to any

one

poet it is that tells us of our


from the unconscious remind

these messengers
are
dragging behind

"

as

pressing

fain leave
memories
us

it

that

of what

"

we

namely,the past. And


I want
the splendid
to quote, in this connection,
finally
passage
of
nessed,
Harthe basis and purpose
:
our
reason
by which he explains
like yoked oxen, to a heavy task,we feel the playof our
muscles and joints,
the weightof the plow and the resistance of
into
the soil. To act and to know that we
to come
are
acting,
touch with reality
and even
to live it,but only in the measure
in which it concerns
the work that is being accomplishedand
the furrow that is beingplowed,such is the function of human
intelligence."
to Bergson it holds the
Form, however, is merely a means
relation to his thoughtas matter
ible
to life,
same
renderingit visand tangible.His chief power lies not in the charm exerted
by his words, but in the fact that,while readinghim, he makes
life and its various processes are growing more
and
us feelhow
It is as a philosopher
in the highestsense
of
more
intelligible.
that term, as an interpreter
of life who enables us to live more
that he wins a lasting
hold on our attention. Like all
effectively,
he stands to a largeextent
alone. His world-conception
innovators,
is not to be easily
miliar
fadisposedof by reference to some
ism." Of course, he continues the best thought of the
from it are
past, but to us as well as to the future his departures
of more
than his debt to it.
significance
The older philosophers
made reason
king. To them it was
with consciousness.
edged
It offered the only acknowlsynonymous
road to knowledge,and knowledge gainedby any other
us

unawares

"

"

"

"

THE

272

FORUM

worth

having. This master


instrument,which
to prove
theyidentifiedwith the soul itself,
theyused principally
route

not

was

of
unreality

the

Out of the

play,and
and

senses

whatever

palpablyreal to ordinarymen.
shadow
vast surroundingworld theymade
an
illusory
of ourselves mere
out
dupes at the mercy of our
that very reason
which they had enthroned so high
seemed

above the

flow of time and space. To those thinkers of


spectral
a
bygone day only the type was real,not its uniqueindividual
embodiment, and the most real thing of all was a paleabsolute
created

of the stagnant air of their

out

The

idealistic philosophy,
againstthis rationalistic,

revolt

with its equalcontempt for facts and

Bergson

born, but it was

was

climax.

and

had begun before


feelings,

left for him

Continuingthe

Schopenhauer,Comte, Mill and


from, and as liberally
givento, men
troux

studies.

own

Tarde, Wundt

and

to

it on

carry

to

umphant
tri-

started by
gloriously
Spencer,he has taken liberally
work

so

like James and


But

Ostwald.

Dewey, Bouhe has

as

stripped
out-

the Utilitarianism and the Positivism of the past, so


has

also gone

beyond parallelforms of modern


While placinghimself firmlyon the new
ground
he has
science,
enclosingunknown by present-day
those vague

to

ear

lured man's

the siren song

practicalism.
from

won

dared

to

the

give

often have

so

sober, uninspiredthinkinginto Utopian

soul from

But

dreaming.
apocalyptic

or

to

but insistentvoices within that

he

unlike

of intuition,
he has

so

other listeners

many

kept his mind

from

losing

fogs of purelyemotional mysticism.And thus he


has reached both the courage
and the insightneeded to create a
itselfin the

demand
our
own
century's
metaphysics,
capableof satisfying
in itsdreams of the unknowable!
even
actuality

new

for

Bergson's system must be sought


in his definition of intellectas " an appendage to the facultyof
acting." We think in terms of action and for the sake of actingThe

Pure

of

corner-stone

very

like
speculation,

"

art

necessity.And
rounding world as an objectfor

while action is

outgoing toward

the

has been lured

to an

that itcould

on

never

matter

sake," is

for art's
we
our

see

action.

to

solve unaided*

luxury,

mere

conceive the

'

sur-

But in its constant

that fillsthis world,

into what
inquiry

hope

and

intellect

our

lifeitselfis"

problem

THE

274
in space, and as seen
But this is
of
inability
form

of

it seems
tinuous.
disconby our intellect,
essentially
merely an appearance, growing out of the

intellectto grasp the flow of life except in the


series of snapshots,
each of which givesus an impression
our

of immobile
the other

FORUM

The
discontinuity.

essential quality
of

hand, is duration,and duration

means

life,
on
flow, change,

but also

the underlying
continuity,
unityof all existence. For
duration,"says Bergson, is the continuous progress of the

"

"

past, which
This

into the future and

gnaws

is the

which
on
reality

one

and
conception;

time

be held

must

we

which

may

swells

build

it advances."

as

world-

our

versible,
real,both because it is irre-

pulsingchangesthat mark its passing


in living
be lost again. Memory is the presbeingscan never
ence
forward for admission,
within us of the whole past, ever pressing
but it is revealed to us in fragmentaryform only because
the intellectrefuses to pickout from the host of memories
that is not needed for impending action.
anything.
Each new
of our lives is seen by Bergson as a commoment
plex
The element of
derived but unforeseeable.
state, logically
contained in each such state springsfrom the choice
uniqueness
which our intellectmakes between reactions that are equally
possible.
and because the

"

"

every

of

Each

human

voluntaryact

work

he says,
in which there is invention,"

in which there is freedom, every

movement

organism that manifests spontaneity,


bringssomething
into the world."
new
Thus, like James, he resists and resents
the categorical
which declared
alternative of the old philosophies,
an

that

man

must

be either the

predestinedslave.

To

him

completemaster

of his fate

life is free within limits


"

it and Ibsen,among
Schopenhauerexpressed
free under necessity."

or

or,

its
as

others,acceptedit:

"

At the bottom

of life itself,
this movement

that opposes

and

upholds matter, Bergson sees a vast, universal,


gropingforce,an
the elan vital the Lifeall-embracingimpetus,that he names
"

Urge.

Under

the pressure

of this

impetus,existence

is

stantly
con-

Each
from the common
root.
sheaf-like,
diverging,
directions for some
added divergenceimpliesa search in new
the cleavThus appear
facultyessential to further progress.

PHILOSOPHER

BERGSON:

OF

ACTUALITY

275

mals,
designedto store energy, and anivegetables,
designedto expend it,and later between animals,moved
and men,
guidedby intellect. Existence,viewed in
by instinct,
ages, firstbetween

this manner,

is neither

modern
as
accidental,

science would

have

shaped accordingto some


preconceived
plan,as
believed.
It is,instead,experimental.
the older philosophies
what it needs only when
it has
The Life-Urgeseems
to know
and blind
obtained it,and thus life is led into many
side-paths
alleys,
though along its main path there is unbroken progress.
The action of this vital force and our
to it,as
own
relationship
well as to the rest of the universe,are summed
up by Bergson
lucid and striking
in this more
than usually
passage :
entire
As the smallest grainof dust is bound up with our
solar system, drawn along with it in that undivided movement
of descent which is materiality
all organizedbeings,
itself,
so
of life to
from the humblest to the highest,
from the firstorigins
the time in which we are, and in all placesas in all times,do but
evidence a single
of matthe inverse of the movement
ter,
impulsion,
and
and in itselfindivisible. All the living
hold together,
all yieldto the same
tremendous
push. The animal takes its
stand on the plant,
bestrides animality,
and the whole of
man
humanity,in space and in time,is one immense army galloping
beside and before and behind each of us in an overwhelming
chargeable to beat down every resistance and clear the most
formidable obstacles,
perhaps even death."
I have here tried to giveonly a few salient pointsof Bergson's comprehensive
these I have barely
world-view,and even
indicated. Concerningthe revolutionary
bearingof his ideas
future thought that is,of their most
on
importantaspect I
shall have no chance to speakhere. He himself refers time and
again,not to his own
philosophyin this connection,but to one
that he expects the future to bringus.
Of this coming and more
elucidation of lifehe says:
Unlike the philosophdeep-reaching
ical
the individual
systems properlyso called,each of which was
work of a man
of geniusand sprung up as a whole, to be taken
it will onlybe built up by the collective and progressive
or
left,
effortof many thinkers,
of many
observers also,completing,
recting
corand improvingone
another."

us

nor
believe,

"

"

"

"

THE

276

other

In
the

only

thus

was

look

we

the

that

ahead

future

shall

shall

leave
of

less

these

ever

at

And

it

not

only

is

of

life's

for

reverence

in
the

bibles

spirit
sake

but,

of

less

no

sacred

secrets

that
of
this
above

it

position,

than

into
book

be

like

work
all

that

the

else,

and

is

and

James

in

on

that
life

that
and

by
It

as

"

hearts

attention.

man.

past;

conceived

we,

in

destined

heads

humanity
the

Bergson

ing
mak-

are

consecration.

reverential

complete,

great

modern

seems

the

by

revealed"

by

undiscovered.

men

"

produced

were

revelations

new

will

evolved

however

accepted

mankind

bibles

its

each

future

work

its

pour

that

and

men;

shall

to

of

present

our

have

be

can

be

mind,
it

that

means

bibles

the

will

individual

any

revelation

from

continue

by

This
that

sense

world-conception

new

not

comprehensive.

the

of

itself,

race-mind

and

It

the

words,

FORUM

turn,

owe

them

POET

LOST

Monahan

Michael

TO

almost every

man

or

cursed with the instinctof

in

so

far

blessed
self-expression
"

cursed in
there

blessed

comes

so

far

the instinctis gratified,

as

it is balked

as

frustrated

and

"

time, the heyday of youth beingpast, when

the

his hope presses upon him with a cruel insistence. Even


the successful artistis not exempt from this trial we know how
of
vanity

"

itembittered the last daysof Robert

Louis

of
Stevenson,in spite

of recognition
that an
of esteem, every suffrage
testimony
world could shower upon him. How
then,
grievous,
applauding
itbe in the case of a man
who has but merelydemonstrated
must
the artistictemperament by such slight
works as are commonly
acceptedonly as an earnest of riperand better performance!
It is then that such a man,
havingneither secured nor deserved
from the world that sustaining
grace of publicapprovalwhich
is called success, beginsto see with fatal clearness the via dolorosa
of the artisticspirit
stretching
away before his lamentable
and ever
of age.
vision,
droppinglower unto the sad twilight
every

Oh, the bitterness of that firstforetaste of inevitable defeat!


No sentence
of the world,however severe, could affecthis courage
like this,for, alas! this comes
from within
the man
is
"

judgedby that
Not

so

had he

inner self from

chief honor

decrees there is no

appeal.

promisedhimself in his firstsanguineelation

hearingthe poet'svoice
look forward

whose

to

and

an

within his breast;nor

old age

lackingwhat

can

must

at

he endure

to

be for him

its

garland:
Latoe dones et
Cum

precor

"

mente

nee

"

integra

turpem

senectam

cithara carentem!

Degere nee
Alas! what

with
hope is there for him of an old age rejoiced
the lyre,
since now,
ere
youth be yet entirely
past, he is tasting
that death of the spirit
which foretokens decay and eternal

silence? This,in truth,is the supreme


worse, far worse,

than

hundred
277

agony

deaths of the

of such

mind

body:yea,

"

worse

THE

278
than

"

the

second

in the

away

death
of

course

FORUM

"

of Christian

nature

reprobation.To

nothing;a thousand

were

pass

tions
genera-

preachthe tritemoral

of flesh that is.reapedlike grass


fool's grinningskull will make
a
jest of this brief-lived

any

humanity. But

to

"

feel now,

when

it is

late,that

too

he had

speak; that he forfeited the most precious


that he was
of all birthrights;
and yet
a
poet yes, by God!
and must
failed to make good his divine title,
remain forever
now
of those who
silent,
losinghis place in the immortal company
of men
die from out the gratefulmemory
cannot
oh, what a
thoughtis this for a man to bear with him to his grave I
But the world, incredulous of such a soul,is ready to cry
out
Why, if he had a true voice,did he not
upon the recreant:
there to
was
speak nay, how could he helpspeaking? Who
bid him be silent? Of marvellous worth, truly,
this poem
was
of his,alwaysseekingform and melody in his brain,which could
and

voice

did

not

"

"

"

"

this message
to his lips,
alwaysrising
which could never
get itselfspoken!
Let all the accidents of time and fate pleadfor him. Think

get itselfwritten

never

you that

none

deemed

was

barelysnatched

who

"

worthyin the Olympicstrifesave

the victor'swreath?

nameless
of the many agonists,
his
the prize,yet made the victor earn
What

less than his

triumph dear?

well be that in all thingstheystood

it may

strumpet

stern

they stood
moment.

turned the scale. Even

Fortune

for the

Hail

forever,who lost

now

Only

their strength,
their endurance
their skill,

was

with labor and


trial,

in their
to

him

the

equalto
as

sweat

"

nay,

him, but the

he, had theyprepared


tors
and vigil;
and vic-

high hope until the last decisive

own

vanquished!

Deeper, less remediable griefthan

theirs who

was

lost the

portionof the disfranchised poet. And


render themselves to
though most illsof body and soul now freely
the probe of the psychologist,
of the surgeon
the scalpel
or
noft
this
the
wounded
stricken
of
shall
spirit,
easily
you approach
olive crown,

is the

gods themselves for the sin of

recreancy

to

their

high gift.

and
by a strange privilege;
without the least treason, I am
permittedto write his fateful
for the
story here. In doing so I betrayno livingconfidence,
though he stillbreathes the vital air,is as no longerof
man,
Yet have

I known

such

poet,

POET

LOST

this earth,
havinglost that which
of his

279

the

was

enoughI
being.Reluctantly

true

look into the soul

to

venture

and motive

essence

of this unfortunate.

god in his bosom is dead. The burninghopes of his


all too short for itsdreams of
when the nightwas
ardent youth,
glory,have fallen back upon his heart in cold and bitter ashes.
Alas, how have the years cheated himl
Always he was putting
The

off the clamant voice within his breast until he should have

knowledgeof

gatheredmore

art

"

should have become

Life detained him

stronger, purer.
with its manifold

yet know

his

"

from
"

surprises. Wait!
well enough to write of

me

his

it said:

appointedtask
"

thou dost

Abide

me.

wiser,
not

stilla little

Then was
he
poet will have learned so much."
and his nightswere
taken in the sweet
coil of young passion,

and
longer,
turned
of

no

ecstasy,his

to

white

woman's

and the

the heaven

daysto waking dreams; so that the beauty


body seemed to him the onlypoem betwixt
earth. And this happened in the firstCity

of Desire.

Long

was

he held

the accusation of
and
'

But

againfree.

was

Alas!

but at last,
shamed by
by this strong coil,
his pure earlydream, he broke the guilty
fetter

I have

be restored I

done hurt

soul and until her peace


of poet."
unworthy the sacred name

am

Then, after

yet to write;not yet. For he said,

not
to

my

of

long season

self-torment,
resisting
bravely

in
phantoms of his late evil experience
yet knowing himself the weaker for
lengthset himself to write. But not yet was
the

Love

the firstCityof Desire,


every

it to

and took the pen from his hand,


hast learned all too dearly
what is evil in love.
came

learn what

shall

he
victory,

be, for

at

better

saying: "Thou
Now

is good; and then indeed mayst thou prove

shalt thou
a
thyself

poet."
So he married

this better

Love,

in the way of
though not, if he had wiser known, in the way of poets.
much

joy,for

fell away
when

he

Love

was

at me!"

of

season,

and ceased

to

even

men,

And

his,and the ghostsof bad delights

was

reproachor

entice him.

But

ere

long,

take up the pen, he found that this better


sought
of the poet in his breast. " Look
implacably
jealous
to

she cried.

thybrain?

"Am

not

Is it for this I

am

desirable than any fiction


beautiful nay, is it for this I

more

"

THE

280

myselfto thee,that thou

gave
or

FORUM

that

when

even

shouldst leave

present, thou shouldst

me

for

not

thythoughts,

see

for the

me

"

working of thy fancy?


And
would

then

would

take her

till the poor, distracted poet


his heart,learning
how much easier it is to

to

she weep

than to write an immortal poem.


lovingwoman
Thus, again,the pen was laid aside,and the unhappy poet
of other poets to his
to read the poems
content
was, perforce,
wife
which she graciously
permitted instead of writingany
of his own.
And the neighbors
called him a model husband, for
all the time wondering when he would produce
a literary
man;
comfort

"

"

his great work.


So the years passed,each in its flight
him;
vainlychallenging
and children came, addingto his burden of care, and forcing
him
to

double-lock the door of that

he stillkept his white dream


he

in there

went

lest
precaution,
often he
But

it

or

that

marry

to

poet

long ago,

and

he get works

made

of his mind

a
as

bolts with fearful

should

him; and

hear

him

and

their

was

why

peased,
ap-

children;so

in shrill reproach: "Did

not

nothingof thy

hast thou made

Cannot
poet and yet love his wife?
well as lawful children of his body? "

the lost poet, whom

only looking at

answer,

no

be

man

which

To

him

she cried

gifts? Cannot

ever,
howlong intervals,

of his wife's love for him

ardor

day

one

of his soul where

weeping.

divided between

was

At

of his bosom

thence

lengththe

at

of poesy.

stealthily,
drawing the

the wife

from

came

chamber

secret

she had

so

well trained,

her with lamentable

eyes.

she bustled about and found the pen so long laid aside,
"
and put it in his hand, saying: Come, thou art not so young
when I married and reclaimed thee from evil;but
as thou wast
Then

there is yet time.


The

Write !

poet

poor

was

"

stricken with wonder

and

even

doubted

that a moment
he stood gazing at her in
so
aright,
Then he saw
that this woman
he
to whom
uncertainty.
pitiful
had yielded
up the gloryof his youth and the hope of his genius,
if he heard

was

in

And

earnest.

"What
I
epitaph

shall I

now

"
.

he said :

write,an

it

pleasethee?

"

mine

own

THE

282
"

"

That

is right,"
Teacha

pencilin
There
"

was

do you live?

"

Another

Fourteen,East Broadway."

"

And

friends,here," and

no

in the child'ssmile

was

Teacha

did

face,so she said in


make

them

each others'

of the older
luncheon

so

Teacha

glanced

of
subtlety

half-veiled

the

glancedover

too

rows

this

on
expression

Stralla's
"

with admonition:

But you
Stralla. All the children here are
friends,

Rachel

"

girls, will
them,

"

littlecountenances.

friends;and friends

with

she

as

seasoned

tone

your

it is recess,

Now,

pause.

the

exactlyendorse

not

"

"

doubt?

no

room;

open-mouthed and curious

must

"

name?

your

said, Stralla Bialsky."

littlefriend here?

some

"

the

derision

have

you

No,

Now, tellme

child

the
finally

pause;

"

"

"

said.

hand.

Where

around

of

FORUM

are

and

you

one

needs, you know.

Carrie,"she beckoned

talk with

and

what

and

you,

eat

can

you

to

two

your

will find

friends,dear. You
glanced at the empty hands,

"

Teacha
fetched your luncheon?
and the limp pocketsof Stralla's jacket.
"

She

No, Teacha.
shook

her

Make

head

breakfast

angrilyas

of their luncheon.

some

my

"

Rachel

No,"

justwhen
and

Carrie

she cried

out.

offered her
"

hungry. We eat good, my people,all of us." Her


and
nose
expressed a haughty disdain as she went
alone

by the

away."

come

am

not

aquiline
sat

down

stove.

undismayed; indeed they were


plunged in admiring awe of any one who was not ready to eat;
the rest of the children,and presently
so
were
they all gathered
the new
around
scholar,tentative,eager, sidelong,questioning;
She
but from Stralla Bialskythey obtained no encouragement.
with the place,and
in acquiring
seemed immersed
acquaintance
later excursion. In fifteen minutes she
left the peoplefor some
Rachel

and

Carrie

were

and
quittedthem altogether,
she
where, with tremblingfingers,
even

kissed the

went

over

stroked

to

Teacha's

the books

desk,

carefully,

largerones.
She proved a marvellouslyclever student and the zeal of
to
her thirst was
Gradually she came
as
a fever in her veins.
know the other children,but alwayswith a peculiarreservation,
and

even

THE

speciesof

LIFE

DOUBLE
"

far and

so

STRALLA

farther

no

puzzledTeacha

their efforts and

Bialskystarted

OF

for

home,

no

very

BIALSKY

"

defied

which

manner,

much.

283

Stralla

When

companion ventured, with

arms

to follow her, nor


her, or even
yet
could
when
it
her.
at recess
to mock
was
How, indeed,
they,
fetched luncheon;never
Stralla never
she who so amused them?
to
interlocked,

accompany

partook of any bite that was offered her; always,as


first,
superciliously
sayingthat she and her peopleate
late !

But while the other children devoured

related
where
mother

to

her
wore

her second
uncle who

them

the

father

splendorof

sat

on

her

their

from

the

breakfast

food, Stralla

home; the red velvet chair

the Sabbath; the woollen

shawl her

holidays
; the silk,
yes trulyalso,silk sacque of
of her third; her
and the pink stone earrings
sister,
sailed to Europe in his own
ship;her cousins who
on

herds; her mother's


country-part, and owned
who likewise hired an organ with a pony and
brother-in-law,

lived in the

cart, and

West

drove

up

Side, making

and
opera

down

the

music 1

streets
magnificent

Also,

as

Teacha

of the

listened,

ited
she vismuch-poor familywhom
and boysgive
to, and tried to help; and would not the girls
the rags they might throw
to her for these much-poorpeople,
without
to the streets,or the old worthless shoes,or any stockings
all of a great charity,
feet,or hats? She was sure theywere
and would helpher poor family,
much-poorand needy.
Of course
they did: it is the poor who help the poor first,
always.
Teacha
also she saw:
that Stralla covertly
listened;
picked
littlestubs of pencils;
up every stray bit of stringor paper;
piecesof orange peel,apple-cores,
crusts, scraps of any and
and carried
unseen,
every thingthat she could lay hands upon
these all off in her jacketpockets. So one
day Teacha, who
her pockets,
and
was
judicious,
arrangedto find Stralla filling
half remonstratingly
asked the meaning of it.
The
child was
neither non-plussednor
ashamed.
She
shrugged her littleshoulders in a mildlyself-disdainful way.
Oh! it is my poor family,
Teacha; I try to gatherthe bits for
of

Stralla told them

poor,

11

yes, to

I will stoop, even


reach somethingfor them.
Ach Gott ! "

them, you see?

am

humble.

to

the gutters,

She lifted her

with

eyes
"

FORUM

THE

284
the

it is

What

atiord

superiorair

to

of

those persons

see

accustomed

an

who

benefactress.

need

can

But,Stralla,
you tellthe children that
and grand."
"

Stralla raised her thin shoulders.


"

not

poor,

pockets;"but

poor

so

No, Teacha,

She

touched

the

You

should

but

grand,oh, yesl

rich

peopleare

your

rich;

not

bulgingjacket
see

father

my

in his

to read
long beard and coat on the Sabbath, sitting
in his red velvet chair. That is a fine thing."
Scriptures
"

You
be

I
Stralla,
know

coming

am

I go to see
have me? "

glad to

Stralla
"

not

father and mother

your

looked

soon.

Will you

down, then she spoke quickly:

My

come.

children.

the

brother is sick;my

your

I will tellthem

heart.

how

Do

good

you

peopleare

not
are

to

come

to

me,

but

come."

not

However, Teacha
Stralla
name

see

They might-be,hurt

them, I pray you.


do

to

all the families of my

Bialskynow

No, Teacha, do

proud.

can

givethem."

to

"

poor,

what

went, but she did

not

find the

did anyone
of
there know
in fact,such would be unlikely,
as it was
a
nor
Bialsky,

Therefore, Teacha, whose

heart

and

head

were

familyof
people by that
business place.
both deeply

interested in Stralla

all about that neighborhood


went
Bialsky,
less,
and unwholesome
in and out of despicable
holes; fearinquiring;
persistent.She was justgivingup, when her eyes caught
sight of flappinggarments strung on a pieceof rope at the
all its width ; those
to a shop so tinythat its door was
entrance
flappinggarments Teacha had seen before; she had seen her

pupilsgive them
this

doubtless
bearded

man,

Stralla.

to

no!

heard
"

the

School!

wherever
"

he knew
name

"

to

Stralla:

one

from

named

in his life.
was

him, was

of

the father

course

Bialsky;indeed
he

Yes:

had

he

never

children, five;

the look-out for recruits

alwayson

footstepstrod.

her

School

no

for Teacha

"

clue

Stralla's poor
family,and this voluble,
with great defiant gaunt eyes, persuading
greasy, filthy,

to buy
passers-by
Stralla's familyhimself.

But

was

the

of

Here, then,was

"

his children?

Never.

"

Learning!

"

Of

what

LIFE

DOUBLE

THE

Who

Yes, but he did know.

use?

and write in

speak six tongues

BIALSKY

STRALLA

OF

better?

He

285

himself could
the work

them, and understood

and what of it? Was he not


engines;
here,watchingrags swingingin the wind, while he starved,body
his children?
School
and soul? No one bought.
vah,
By Jeho! They were
no
beggars beggars. Those garments
You see?
there!
My daughterbringsthem in every day; so
if she does not bringI beat her.
she begs from the richer;
many
Yes ! That is life. You throw away to your littlelap-dogs.I
Schools ! No ! Begone !
starve.
Teacha
had caught a glimpse;
would not go.
But Teacha
the bearded man
as
harangued and walked forth on the pavement,
Teacha had gradually
entered the tinyshop; she had seen
the woman
who pressedout with one child in her arms, four at
ing
hoverher heels;she had seen another figure
that she recognized,
of

of mines and the work

"

"

"

"

"

in the

she had

rear;

seen

the littleoil stove, with its

on

peelsstewing;a cupfulof
apple cores cookingtoo; crusts soakingin a can; pencilstubs
in the children's hands ; the strings
all sorted on a nail,readyto

horrible odor, the pan

tie up the bundles


with
too

with,for

pleasantword
far,onlyinto the

that Stralla would


to

out

discover

to go

why

all this,
and

saw

she then

went

away;

shop to buy matches; she

grocery

come

Teacha

customers.

the woman,

to

determined

of orange

to

her

the child

own

was

so

not
sure

was

home, and she was


since even
secretive,

her poor

familydid not know her name.


Stralla came
Presently
along,and Teacha
Yes, that is my poor family.Yes, now

"

my

lessons

learn,Teacha,

to

joinedher.

I go home.
and this is the day when

I have
the red

velvet chair of my father must


be beaten and brushed clean for
the Sabbath; and the lace frillsof my sistersand my mother to
be ironed.
"

They

Teacha

has been

She turned wide


did

know

to

eyes at

of my

my

house

in the East

way?
Broad-

Teacha, wide but quieteyes.

any? Yes." She hung her


head, then raised it proudly,somethingof the racial defiance of
the father of her poor familyshowing in the fixed
of
purpose
itsuplifting. Stralla Bialskyis not my name,
Teacha.
I am
too proud to tell
with what an
My people
my real name.
not

name,

"

"

"

inflection
of
as

"

some

young

prophetess!
"

would

not

let to

me

THE

286
We

do that.
I

proud people,not rich. The

are

proud

too

not

am

Then, when

FORUM

take

to

school

school is charity.

for
charity,

I must

learn.

learned,I will be like you, and I can earn


bills! To earn, that is all,for it carries
nickels,silver,
pennies,
am

I will be great

all. Then

peoplewill call me
squalidmiseryof
other

saw

And

the earth and

blessed also !
the crowded

"

Her

honorable, and

under her

street

fixed upon

was

gaze

my

the

feet,but her soul

matters.

Teacha

inskychildren
"

on

That,

"Bring those Ros-

being wise,merely said:

school with you, Stralla."


I not: he is an iron man;
who

to

can

goes

againsthim

tender,she can dissemble : it is


dissemble the husband, but I have seen

dies : the wife of him, she is


hard

for the wife

to

it. Once I
it is the necessary to do so.
Once I saw
the finest splendor. I found a dime.
I buy a ticket for the

sometimes
saw

theatre.

I go !

I see!

I hear!

Oh, such knowledge.

I learn!

"

in their wonderful aspiraher eyes were


divine now
tion
that is the meaning of all in the world, that is why one

Teacha

"

"
"

'

lives,
knowledge. You say to us, It is love.' No ! no ! If I
love,maybe I am struck in the face for that; if I know things,
then I

woman."
grand, powerful,splendid
Teacha
said gently, listen,
dear; yes, knowledge
Stralla,"
is magnificentand powerful. So is love. But something else is
am

"

"

better,and that is truth. Stralla,


why did you telluntruths about
"

name?

your

The
but

child looked
succeed

to

between

us

it is: one

to

and the sun,

embroiders

us,

we

the

fearlessly. The truth is great, yes ;


dissimulate,
justas the clouds pass
the lamp is shaded by the paper, so
or

us,

tread upon
like

would

"

makes

cloth,one

people are

it. Teacha

sentence:

of

scorn

be what

become

must

one

the truth because


spurn

"

up

to

not

fine stitches;
one

necks; we

our

be, and then

But Stralla

the clatter of five pairsof

lungs,the shrieks likewise,of

hear

ready to

many

must
so

we

Bialskydid

hides

it;they would
make

believe

learn how
not

to

finishthat

feet,the wails of five pairs,


more,

stoppedher speech

short.
"

Lea!

Even

Lea!
then

her

Lea

"

Rosinsky!

self-containment did

not

desert

her; she

LIFE

DOUBLE

THE

BIALSKY

STRALLA

OF

287

shrugged her shoulders, pulledTeacha's dress and quickened


her steps.
They call their sister who begs by day and sorts
the garments by night. Come."
"

"

Lea, Lea, Lea; Sister Lea!


her

at

she tried

as

to

"

shouted

clutching
children,

the

run.
"

Lea Rosinsky! yelledthe neighbors;and


And, "Lea!
"
with the
Lea, Lea, my daughter!" wailed the wife of the man
beard," your father dies."
Then

Bialskyturned

Stralla
her

bay, and

in her
"

arms

own

wild

sisters' hands, and

and hushed

its crying;
and said

shall ride in the

creature

at

I shall get

on
trolley

the

the

with
tottering

dropped the

matter, if he dies.

No

you

she

swelled,and her big eyes were


aside,and took a child by either

slender throat

veiled,as she pushed Teacha


hand; then she beheld her mother

weight,and

like

around

took
to

learningand

baby's
the baby

the mother:
be

rich,and

Sabbath,and have other than

rags to wear."

reached the narrow


the procession
shop; and
presently
the fallen ladder layon the sidewalk;and the rotten rope where
Solomon
Rosinsky had been hanging up the garments that
Stralla Bialskyhad fetched home
the rusty
that day, swung
on
And

nail above

it,the

door; and the ambulance was at the curb: within


of iron,who died before he reached the hospital.

his

man

Teacha

had

with her

pupil. Stralla Bialsky,when


ing
enfoldaround,her thin littlearms

come

theygot to the shop,turned


the baby.
You see, Teacha, sometimes
"

up the

truth;if my

would

have

added

to

father had known

was

it is well
at

the

to

hide

schools,he

unhappy for it. He thoughtI was begging;


that was
his pleasure.Now
he is gone
he has less to
away,
for him than truth would have givenhim.
Come," she
worry
down

been

the mother

and

"

children,

we

will go inside and let

and mourn
and wail;but we
hair,and sit on the floor,
will arise,after six days,to praiseJehovah that there is one
lessmouth to feed; and next week I will go back to school, and
at

So

our

the afternoon

narrow

eveningI

will ask the

will

we

head

and

to

customers

to

buy.

She inclined her


live,until I have learned more."
Teacha, and drew her peoplein with her, and closed the

door upon

the

neighbors.

WOMAN

Phillips

Stephen

in

high walled

SHE

garden walks,

Drenching each flower;

After

each shower.
trouble in that brow,

There

seems

Those

quiet eyes;

no

buds her silent children are,

The

roof the skies.

Their
Was

Lived

she

as
a

for

now

then be

Signs upon
Where

the

cold

ever

tear?

! in the locked

May

lips,.

her ear?

at

Without

those

kiss upon

ever

Voice

Ah

her favorite beds

above

bends

And

in the

room

night,

seen

her, as
sea

on

hath

some

been.

288

shore,

THE

290

Mohan

broke

Roy

FORUM

from

away

orthodox

Hinduism

part of the last century and founded

the famous

life in India
religious

low

the Hindu

both

speak of

them

and

at a

was

Mohammedan

leaders of the force and

the

earlier reformers

of

were

followers would

earnest

to

of the Indian world

to

The

ebb.

lapseinto

Samaj,

tendencyof

barren

to

formalism,

of

Kabir, Chaitanyaand
lacking. It was
conspicuously
power

Christians that Ram

many

Brahmo

early

churches,if it is proper

churches,was

as

and

thought by

very

in the

Mohan

Roy and his band

succeed in

accept his

that after that reconciliation with

winningover a largepart
broad and simplecreed and
would be comparatively
Christianity

easy.

It is
been.

to
interesting

note

different the

how

now

has

outcome

versal
Samaj failed completelyto become a unichurch or a proselytising
On
agent for Christianity.
the other hand, it proved to be the first of a series of most
Since its origin
a century ago,
importantreforming movements.
the Prarthana
jab
Samaj in Bombay, the Arya Samaj in the Punand United Provinces and the Ramakrishna
to name
Society,
but three organizations,
have secured a large followingand,
each in itsdifferent way, have made a profoundimpression
upon
ity
activthe religious
life of India. Stimulated by this wholesome
The

Brahmo

from within and

with

contact

western

ideas from

without, the

fer
body of orthodox Hindu thought has begun to sufof
change. The two other great established religions

conservative
a

Southern

Asia, Mohammedanism

equal signsof

and

Buddhism, have

of social reform

Movements
vitality.

new

shown
are

before.
than ever
Among the lower classes
conspicuous
Christian missionary
made unexpected
work has lately
headway.
It is hardlytoo much to say that the whole Indian world, which
in this sense
and Ceylon, is religiously
include Burma
must

more

awake,

it has

as

Like

most

not

been

activitiesin

before

for

of centuries.

number

complex India, the

movement

new

being a unit. The rival sects of recent originard


opposed to one another in importantpointsof doctrine.
radically

is far from

The

average

Mohammedan,

Hindu
and

within its own

is stillat swords'
what

the

unityof

confines may

pointswith

the average

the Mohammedan

be the

recent

munity
com-

Shia-Sunni riots

in

Bombay
may

INDIA

testify.Nevertheless
eloquently

most

in

periodas uniquein
than passing
moment

certain similarities

which mark
direction,

common

291

certain broad

be traced in allthe movements,

of progress

cies
tenden-

the present

historyof Indian thoughtand of


observers in the West.
sympathetic

the
to

this idea in mind

With

OF

CONQUEST

ETHICAL

THE

let

us

for

examine

minute

more

some

of

and revivals which are


importantsectarian movements
working this change. Of all the Hindu reforming sects the
So much
Brahmo
Samaj is beyond questionthe best known.

the

has

more

been

Pratab

written about

this church

leaders

Mohan

Ram

"

Chunder

Mozumder

"

and

its succession of

Roy, Keshub

Chunder

that littleneed be said

markable
re-

Sen and

here, perhaps,

beyond the fact that it was founded as a broad theistic


from both
but not authority
movement,
derivingits inspiration
Indian and Christian scriptures,
and that it became
and
more
eclectic and free-thinking.
Somewhat
more
artificial,
perhaps,
and never
it yet exerted a strong influence
a popularmovement,
and pointedthe way to an
the more
intellectualBrahmans
among
of the rigorsof the caste system, without a
escape from some
sacrificeof essential Hindu

tradition.

It

counts

among

its members

leadingfamilies of Calcutta,but is no longer


schism and disruption
a united church,havingsuffered from
over
the very question
of caste observance and the peculiar
spiritual
claims of Keshub
Chunder
The
Prarthana
Sen.
Samaj is a
somewhat
similar theistic body in the west of India.
The Arya Samaj, on the other hand, is at once
recent
more
and more
trulyIndian in itscharacter. It is the creation of one
who, in years of religious
wandering
man, Dayanand Saraswati,
and meditation,
of the
arrived at the conviction that in the purity
Vedic revelation alone liesthe salvation of mankind.
The myths
and ritesand restrictionsof later Hinduism
he boldlydenounced
some

as

of the

bay
superstitious
invention,and in 1875 he established in Bomthe firstbranch

of

cardinal doctrine of which

the
society,

belief in the

unityof God, as revealed by the Vedas. The


society
a
rapidlyin numbers and now counts over
grew
quarter
of a million members, chiefly
inces.
in the Punjab and United ProvIt maintains a collegeat Lahore
and a boys'training

was

school near

Hardwar

and has been

powerfulforce

for social

THE

292

FORUM

reform, settingits face resolutely


against idol worship, the
seclusion of

the

women,

system and

caste

priesthood. It has divided into

the

and to all intents


hardlyessential,
Samaj is a strong and united body. It might

The

of modern

Ramakrishna

universal than

the

the

ences
branches, but the differ-

two

are

Protestantism

of
authority

and

the

purposes

well be called the

India.

Societyin its doctrines and


Arya Samaj, while its marked

aims is

more

of
spirit

ligious
re-

if one may call it that,distinguishes


it clearly
patriotism,
from the Brahmo
Samaj. Like the latter,it had its birth in
Bengal, and grew up about the person of an inspiredteacher,
whose

the

name

of

country, however, through the work


Swami

Vivekananda, who

It is better known

bears.

now
society

of his

one

preached and founded

in this

the
disciples,
of

branches

the order

both in Europe
(commonly called Vedanta Societies),
and America.
From itsearliest days,not many
decades ago, the
ideal of the society
has been in a large sense
monastic,and its

members, have devoted themselves

they admit
and

and

or

the Sanskrit

on

but
scriptures,

restrictionsof modern

ism
Hindu-

phases of western
sympathy with many
ity
sphereof charArya Samaj. In the practical
in

more

thought than the

they have

stress

of the claims

none

are

lay great

ence
life of meditation,obedi-

form
They professa philosophical

and service to mankind.


of Hinduism

to

shown

great earnestness,

effortsto relieve distress in

often heroism, in their

in recurringtimes of
India,especially

plague and famine.


The

three

that

movements

we

have

justexamined

developed outside

the

strict confines of the

Church.

turn

to

other

When

we

most

orthodox

recent

and

all

Hindu

community,on

the Mohammedan

hand, itwill be found that the

have

the

significant

general rather than sectarian. Within the


last few years there has been a marked
awakening of feeling
Shias and Sunnis alike and a tendencyto bringthe Church
among
more
closelyin touch with modern life and its problems. The*
has
activity

been

founding of Aligarh College in 1875


direction.
had

been
was

Before

was

that time Mohammedan

radical step in this


education in India

neglected,and what trainingyoung


seriously
To-day the leaders of
theological.
largely

men

the

ceived
re-

com-

OF

CONQUEST

ETHICAL

THE

INDIA

293

combattingthis tendencyof the Church to waste its


discussion,as they regard it,and
energy in barren theological
attention to the practical
and ethical
are
moving it to pay more
of its members.
training
Sir Syed Ahmad
Khan, the founder of Aligarh,devoted his
munity are

life to this cause.


use

of

One

funds, in

of his

most

characteristic actions

time of financial stress, for the

the

was

completion

rather than of the Aligarhmosque,


for,he
buildings
college
else my countrymen may
leave unsaid shrewdly, Whatever
finished,
finishthe mosque." Sir Syed Ahmad
theywill certainly
of Islam,
of the new
Khan may be regardedas the embodiment
spirit
The signs
of this
but in an altered sense.
militant once
more,
of Faith,but no longerat the
visiblein a strengthening
are
spirit
Mohammedans
Intelligent
speak less than
expense of Works.
of their religion
(however deep
theywere wont of the authority
of itsethics. Even among
of the nobility
their belief)
and more
of

"

the orthodox

many

Maulvies

who

undertake

to

and poproffers
any real sanction of slavery
lygamy
of unbelievers. This is all sufficiently
the killing
olutionary.
revor
The greatest change,however, is undoubtedlythe
the community in India takes of the responsibilconception
ity

deny that

"new

will be found

the Koran

of the Church

for the moral

and

material

welfare

of its

members.
Even

played
disvitality
by the Buddhist Church in Burma and Ceylon. In Ceylon
the religion
almost dead fifty
was
To-day it is
years ago.
has won
back many
converts
distinctly
vigorous and progressive,
from Christianity,
counts
a
growing membership and has very
checked further Christian advance.
This revival
materially
beganin the 8o's and was from the firstalmost whollya layman's
movement.
of an
Curiouslyenough it was the encouragement
but
American, Colonel Olcott, which firststarted the activity,
the

more

are
striking

the

signsof

growth has been spontaneous and


of the Mohammedan

not

renewed

artificial. As

in the

community,the Buddhists to-daylay


have in Ceylon an extensive
great stress on education.
They now
schools,supplemented
system of religious
by Sunday schools,
and an active Young Men's Buddhist Association,
elled
franklymodafter the Young Men's Christian Association.
There
is
case

THE

294
also

Buddhist

Woman's

FORUM
Educational

and a missionary
Society,
which has started propaSociety,
ganda

the Mahabodhi
organization,
in
less

Bengal

and

of the
marked, but is noticeably
The

various creeds

hurriedlyin

review

fundamental

matters

The

bitter

of the

most

and

of

character.

to

have

we

justpassed so
in the

another

one

most

doctrine,authorityand

antagonism of

the three

organization.
forms one
great religions

importantchaptersof Indian history.There

is no

less

are

has lived in India

who

the revival has been

same

which

sects

opposed

are

evidence that the lines


one

In Burma

elsewhere.

sharplydrawn to-day. Yet no


fail to realize that they
can
recently

all exhibit in their several ways


interest.
extreme

certain

tendencies of

common

ing
theythat one is tempted,at the risk of seemthem
under five main heads.
In the
to
classify
arbitrary,
firstplacethere is an obvious tendencyamong
medans
Hindus, Moham-

So

are
striking

and

Buddhists

alike

to

do away

with much

unessential

dogma which has developedduring the centuries and


fundamental
to
turn
to the earlier and
teaching of
spiritual
attention
their respective
creeds. In the second place far more
is beingpaidto ethics and humanitarianism,
and less to theology.

myth

and

In the third

placegreat efforts are beingmade


social abuses, even
when, as in the case

to

many

of the

or

the

treatment

put

an

end

caste

tem,
sys-

in the heart

of women,

they are rooted


the evils of ignorancehave
Fourthly,

of

to

tradition.
religious
last been fullyrecognizedand education of the

most

at

advanced

the
sanction and support. Finally,
religious
in*
of the religions
to have become
more
seems
animatingspirit
modern.
tolerant
in a word, more
telligent,
more
mation
It is in a sense, perhaps,the beginningof an Indian Reforthat we are now
witnessing,
although no Luther has yet
arisen or can well arise. Still the real moving force in all this

type has received

"

from the laity


rather than from
change and readjustmentcomes
One finds,too, as in Renaissance Europe,*
priestsand monks.
the
sudden growth of materialism and free-thinking
a
among
in their traditional form do not
educated. The Eastern religions
seem

adequate to hold modern

of form

chiefly
appears

evident

men.

from

That

the trouble

the remarkable

is
way

one

in

ETHICAL

THE

OF

CONQUEST

INDIA

295

to change their front and face the new


theyare beginning
problems. To the most earnest Indians,of whatever creed, and
to their English rulers as well, the easy loss of faith among

which

students
is no

seems

calls for

fact which

attention.

earnest

instruction to-dayin the Government

moral

schools.

There
Half-

of science are working as a ferment


smattering
in Indian minds, as theyhave so often before in other parts of
the world, and unstable youths,with no ethical standards,are
bay.
turned out yearlyby the great universities at Calcutta and Bomis a cryingneed for sound ethics, and India, in
There
turningto meet that need, finds but two courses
open to her: a
revival of the purest form of her own
such as has
religions,
been attemptedin the movements
alreadynoticed,or the acceptance
of Christianity.

learningand

If the Indian
and

ways

of

were

not

tions
Indian,with his different tradi-

an

thought,it would

seem

almost inevitable that

ity.
problems in ChristianBut the results of Christian missionary
work in India have
been, at first glance at least,singularly
disappointing.The
latest census
figuresshow that barelyone per cent, of the population
are
professedChristians and this includes the foreign
residents as well as the natives. If one
judgesprogress by the
simpletest of conversions,this is a discouraging
showing for
not
fullyfour hundred years of Catholic and Protestant effort,
established in the early
to speak of the SyrianChurch, which was
centuries of this era.
the only success
Furthermore, practically
he should find the

his present

to

answer

has been with the lowest


great

body
to

of Hindus

and

castes

Mohammedans

conversion that has


"

of the Madras

missionaries have
last

ten

lower
of

of

years;

have

offered

Nagpur, among

the
sistance
re-

come.
over-

the Tele-

Presidencyand in Assam, for example


reportedmore
encouragingresults duringthe
"

but in each

who
classes,

the outcasts, and

to
proved almost impossible

In certain localities in Chota


gus

and

have

case

the work

has been

among

the

abandonment
to gain by an
everything
the caste system. The new
for 191 1 will uncensus
doubtedly
figures
show largenumerical gains,but the relative position
the great religions
is likely
to be littledisturbed.
in the face of all the apparent facts,the inNevertheless,

296

THE

lluence of Christian

FORUM

of Christian ethics,
teaching,and especially

in India has been incalculable. It has worked


minds
a

of thousands

conscious

Hinduism

of its bitterest opponents.

unconscious

or

as

and Buddhism

standard

leaven in the

It has served

by which

the

and Mohammedanism

as

practicesof

have been

ured
meas-

and

of the most
judged. It has directly
inspiredsome
Indian of all the Hindu
reformers,from Kabir and
essentially
Tulsi Das to Keshub
Sen.
Chunder
The purityof Christian
ethics in particular
members
has appealed to the broad-minded
of such movements
as the Ramakrishna
Societyand the Brahmo

Samaj.
I suppose
to

that this is the greatest

criticsof the work

in India and

to

that

answer

who

persons

be made

can
are

not

in

sympathy with missionarywork in any foreign country. It is


safe to say that in India,certainly,
the whole policy
and pointof
view of the importantmissions has radically
changed in the last
of this fact. Conversion, though
two
generationsin recognition
stilldesired,is no longerthe sole aim, and efforts are
made
to
affectthe lives of natives rather by education and example. The
growth of educational and medical work
is
enterprise

well known

too

sionary
adjunctto misIn
requiremention.

as

to

an

high development. Primary schools and


are
colleges,industrial schools,medical service and hospitals
India it has reached

supportedby funds from Europe and America which once were


devoted solelyto the preachingof the gospel. Through all
these new
channels the Indian of to-daybecomes
acquainted
with Christian

The
we

watch

above all with Christian


thought and belief,

results of this influence become


the

Looked
to

be

at

from

when

justment
this readscientific
standpoint,

leadingto something like

fittestin the field of ethics


The

apparent

once

ern
itselfto modto adjust
strugglesof Indian society

conditions.
seems

at

tice.
prac-

problem resolves

as

well

itselfinto

as

in

more

survival of the
material affairs.

of competition.
Just*
question

proved unable to defeat the better trained and


institutions
equippedtroops of the English,justas her political
of modern
the demands
found inadequateto meet
were
ernment,
govsocial
and
her ancient,complex
rigid
just as, finally,
as

India's armies

THE

298
will have

been

cases

He

served.

chooses

to

turn

FORUM

his

to

find it somewhere

must

religions.He

own

and

he

rally
natu-

finds in

considerable

body of noble ethical teaching,much


overlaid by contradictory
and tradition.
custom

and
of
spirit

most

lected
neg-

The

the hour

herited
of incompels him to choose from this mass
trine,
approximation to Christian ethical docprecept some

be it for better

or

In

worse.

cases

of direct conflictthe

has
religionis obliged to yield,as Mohammedanism
for example, on the question
and Hinduism
of slavery,
yielded,
eastern

in the

effect

The
It amounts
is

thuggee and the immolation


of such a readjustmentcannot

of

matter

to

an

ethical conquest

as
transformingreligion,
even

when
strikingly

more

life of the various Indian


in contact

with

we

seen,

turn

to

communities

affairs. Here

western

but be

of India,if you

have

we

of widows.

and
the

see

will,which

which

shows

self
it-

publicand private

which
we

profound.

are

closely

most

signsinnumerable

that the old social fabric is

of new
crumbling under the access
ideas. The cultivated BengaliBrahman
looks at lifemuch more
point of view than many persons would
nearlyfrom our own
have

us

tends

think.

to

Buenos

much

act

Ayres

of

or

of his walk

men

as

New

In his

York.

and affairshe

men

in life act in London


own

home, it may

or

be, he

precedentand tradition and forced


organism
play his part as a singleunit in the vast and ramifying
ern
in a sense, modnative society,
so that he leads a double life,

is stillbound
to

In his essential dealings


with

and

world

more

than
are

sees

is

by

not

"

but the

new

life that the

of that insincere.

reason

There

is

hypocrisyin the earnest protest which high-minded


cide
infantimaking everywhereagainstchild-marriage,

and other
the

of

ancient,European and Indian

outer

Indians

the wheel

to

customs

which

splendidexample which

can

many

longer be sanctioned,or in
to
of these men
setting,
are

no

helptheir countrymen up the difficultpath of moral and material


day
witness of conditions in India toAny unprejudiced
progress.
will testify
to the countless signsof vital change,which are*
hard to put into words or tabulate in dry bluebook form, but
sham.
be explained
which are very real and cannot
as
away
It is

true

that this article treats

accomplishedfacts.

It

must

not

be

of tendencies rather than

forgottenthat the great

ETHICAL

THE

India's millions

majorityof
of

CONQUEST
are

yet

OF
to

INDIA

be touched

by

299
this

spirit

awakening. This is largelybecause England has failed


with

providethem

publicschools.

But schools

to

coming. They
inevitable as the revolution of thoughtand feeling
which
are
as
theyeverywhereproduce. Once efficientprimary education has
been made
universal in every province,
the long-neglected
ryot,
methods that date from King Asoka
with his agricultural
and his
cherished conservatism

of

will become
inertia,

active factor of progress.

Once

are

to

extent

some

the wives and mothers

an

of India

can
we
given the rudiments of modern training,
begin to
speakof an Indian nation and call the Aryan Motherland
truly
are

awake.

Meanwhile, what
various

which

movements
religious

The

gradual transformation?
done

its most

monastic order than

limited.
makes

playingtheir part in the


Samaj apparentlyhas

Broader

The
a

outlook for the

than

any

of the

rest

time weaker, and has shown

same

increase in numbers.

trulya

are

Brahmo

importantwork.

in its doctrines,
it is at the
marked

be the immediate

to

seems

Ramakrishna

no

is more
Society

church and itsinfluence is necessarily

The

Arya Samaj
appealand seems

alone of the Hindu

movements

be

what
growing. Though someof Vedic
artificialin its efforts to return
to the simplicity
to
worship,it is at least trulyIndian and it will be interesting
Other sects
what gainsare credited to it in the next census.
see
than these will probablyarise,but the real future of India, in
and the establieswith Christianity
lished
a spiritual
sense, undoubtedly
Buddhism
and Mohammedanism
to grow
seem
religions.
dailystronger and, whether for better or worse, their aims are
Hinduism
has shown
than theyonce
more
now
were.
practical
and assimilation in the past that is an
of adaptation
a power
a

augury

wide

for

the future.

to

Buddhist

influence is

at

present

fined
con-

Ceylon,but it may there become a liberating


force again,as in its earlydays,and it is or all the eastern
the most
religions
supremelyethical.
What
will play,as an organizedreligion,
part Christianity
to

Burma

and

is problematical.As

has been

and the work

seen,

its progress

appointin
thus far is dis-

of the missions has tended

not

strengthenthe bonds of the other religions


by inducinga

littleto
sort

of

reaction

patriotic

being

infused
is

tolerance

of

likely
may

such

be.

the

ethical

than

articles

the

whatever

modern
her

of

belief

greater
it

and

The

necessity
future

are

ganda,
propa-

before
be.

any

great

however,

development,
of

almost

whole

ever

house
store-

vast

Christian

will

outcome

considerations
unshaken

On

work
the

the
to

of

pressure

meaning.

what

growing

remain

to

neglected

missionary

to

broad

under

In

counterpart

such

new

foresee

to

India's

on

again

ideas.

and

found

many

with

shown

impossible

based
is

forth

set

and

fact

and

beliefs
be

can

doctrine

Christian

now

Indian

to

Hinduism

of

is

FORUM

THE

3oo

seems

that

religious

it
tory
his-

HELMET

GREEN

THE

W.

The

B. Yeats

Persons

of

the

Play

Laegaire

Conall's

conall

laegaire's

Cuchulain

Laeg, Cuchulain's chariot-driver

Red

Man,

Spirit

Emer
Scene:
the back

A
and

house made

Through

Boys

Black

Men,

the

misty,moon-lit

but the

it

the

the

oppositeside

table with cups and

the

rocks

ing
noth-

see

can

one

at

make

beyond the

the windows
at

of

corners

rocks which

low

see

windows

two

are

of

one

There is a great chair

sea.

etc.

it is within,and

Through

sea.

door, and in frontof


Here

can

Scullions

and

There

of

cuts

door, one
the ground outside higherthan

room.

wlfe

Horse

of logs.

which

door

Wife

to

the

flagonof ale.

Abbey Theatre the house is


red and the chairs and tables and flagonsblack,with a
orange
slight
purple tingewhich is not clearly
distinguishable
from the
and there

black.

The

is green

stools.

are

rocks

At the

black with

are

few

green

touches.

The

and luminous and all the characters except the Red

and the Black Men

dressed in various shades

are

of green,

sea

Man
one

of purple which looks nearly black. The


Black Men
all wear
dark purpleand have eared caps, and at the
end their eyes should look green from the reflected
lightof the
or

sea.

two

with

The

touches

Red

Man

is altogether
in red.

heightis increased by
is intentionally
violent

horns
and

He

the Green

on

is very

Helmet.

and his
tall,
The effect

startling.
Laegaire

WHAT
A

is that?

I had

in the wink of

cat-headed

man

thought that I

an

out

spitting
by;
But that could

not

be,
301

saw,

though hut

eye,

of

Connaught go pacingand

THE

302

FORUM
CONALL

You
I killed them

have

it

dreamed

all before

there's

"

nothing out there.


them

I hoked

daybreak
"

out

of their

lair;
I

cut

And

off a hundred
then

I danced

heads with

singlestroke of
and carried away

their graves

on

sword,

my

their hoard.

Laegaire
Does

the sea?

anythingstir on

CONALL
Not
I

can

see

for

mile

or

two,

even

that the moon's

now

fish or
at

gull.

the full.

[A distant shouf\
Laegaire
Ah

"

there

there is some

"

one

calls us.

who

CONALL
But
have

nothingto fear that has

And

we

The

rocks and the bushes

But the land will do

us

no

from

not

come

made

whoever

cover

the landward
up from

side,

the tide;

that noise,

harm.

Laegaire
It

like Cuchulain's voice.

was

CONALL
But

that's

an

impossiblething.
Laegaire
An

thing indeed.
impossible

CONALL
For

he

In that

never

will

come

home, he has all that he could need

highwindy Scotland

"

good luck

in all that he does.

HELMET

GREEN

THE

303

knows,
neighborwars on neighborand why there is no man
is luckyall wish his luck away,
if a man
take his good name
from him between a day and a day.

Here
And
And

Laegaire
I would

he'd

for all that,and make

come

though she

That

may

wife know

his young

be his wife, she has

rightto

no

go

Before your wife and my wife,as she would have gone last night
Had theynot caughtat her dress,and pulledher as was
right;
she makes

And
She

lightof

spreadsher

us

taillike

though our wives do all that theycan.


but her man.
none
peacockand praises
CONALL

in

him up
long green cloak that covers
down throughthe rocks and hazels,

man

Comes

to

the chin

Laegaire

Cry

that he

out

cannot

come

in.

CONALL
He

look for his dinner elsewhere,for

must

Where

shame

must

alighton

two

us

no

one

alive shall stop

before the dawn

is up.

Laegaire
No

man

on

the

ridgeof

the world

must

know

ever

that but

us

two.

CONALL

[Outsidethe door] Go

go away,

away,

Young

And

go away.

Man

[Outsidethe door] I will go


have eaten and slept
and drunk

when
to my

the

nightis through
heart's delight.

Conall
A law has been made

that

none

shall sleepin this house

to-night.

THE

3"H

FORUM

Young
Who

Man

that law?

made

CONALL
We
Who

else has

to

keep

it,and who

made

from

the house

has

so

good

right,

the

Shape-Changerstill

out

of the way.

day?
Man

Young
Then

I will unmake

the lav/,so

[He pushes past Conall

and

get

you

housed

into the

goes

CONALL
I

thought that

Nor

could have pushed me


from the door
livingman
do it but for the dip in the floor;
livingman

no

And

could any
had I been

Dip

or

rightly
readythere's

no

man

livingcould do it,

dip.

no

Laegaire
Go

out

if you

"

stone's throw

further

Our

wives will

give you

For

it's a luckier house.

have your wits,go out,


you will find a big house where

on

supper,

and

you'llsleepsounder there,

Man

Young

I'lleat

and

sleepwhere

I will.

Laegaire
Go

out

or

I will make

you.

Man

Young

[Forcing up Laegaire'sarm, passing him and puttinghis shield


till I have drunk my
fill,
the chair~\ Not
the wall over
on
But may

some

dog defend

Laegaire and Conall


And

are

me

for

cat

of wonders

up.

here, the flagonfull to the top,

the cups.
Laegaire

It is Cuchulain.

THE

3o6

FORUM
Laegaire
Not

even

fish

or

gull.

CONALL
You

When
With
And

half drunk

were
a

littlewhile.

We

there and the ale-

were

full.

cup

We

but

gone

were

wide

high

half-shut

and merry,
came

man

and

foxy eyes

he said when

midnight on the stroke


in with a red foxy cloak,
and

drink,that he had

bid him

we

great laughing mouth,

so

great

drouth
He

could drink

the

sea.

CUCHULAIN
I
Out

of

loved

so

for

come

of you

one

lap up mail and

Connaught rath, and would

some

But if he

thought he had

mew.

I have the tale awry.

water

CONALL
You

would

For when
He
And

we

promised
when

be

not

had
to

so

had

we

danced

or

sung

show

if he

merry

us

game,

asked what

standingby,

were
as

he

were

our

the best that had


game,

of kin

next

ever

he answered,

"

been;

Why

whip

off my head,
Then one
of you two stoop down, and Til whip off his,"he said.
"
A head for a head," he said," that is the game
that I play."

Cuchulain
How

could he

whip off a head when

his

own

had

been

whipped

away?
CONALL
We

told him

it over

and

and that ale had

over,

fuddled

his wit,
i

But he stood and

laughed at

us

there,as though his sides would

split,
Till I could stand it no

blow,

longer,and whipped off his head

at

GREEN

THE
that he did

Being mad
And there

on

the

not

HELMET
and

answer,

307
at

more

it fell it went

ground where

his

laughingso,
laughingat me.

on

Laegaire
Till he took

it up in his hands.
CONALL

splashedhimself

And

into the

sea.

CUCHULAIN
I have

when

imaginedas good

I have

been

deep

as

in the cup.

Laegaire
You

did.

never

Cuchulain
And

believed it.

Conall
will you stop
with us two,
Boastingof your great deeds,and weighingyourself
And cryingout to the world whatever we say or do,

Cuchulain,when

That you have said

or

done

better?

Nor

"

Though we said to ourselves at firstthat


And thinking
that if we told it we should
Swore we should keep it secret.

is it a drunkard's
it all
be

came

out

tale,

of ale,

laughingstock

Laegaire
But

twelve months

upon

the clock

"

Conall
A twelve month

from

the firsttime

"

Laegaire

jug full up to the brim,


drinkingby the very thoughtof

And
For

we

had been
him

"

put from

our

the

THE

308

FORUM

CONALL
We

stood

we're

as

standingnow

"

Laegaire
The

horns

were

empty

as

"

CONALL
When
He

ran

of the

out

up

with his head

sea

his shoulders

on

again.

Cuchulain
this is

Why,

tale worth

telling
"

CONALL
And
And

said that the land


that

If

did

we

he called for his debt and his

disgraced,because of

was

us

right
from

two

night,

not

him

pay

his debt.

Laegaire
is there

What
When

with

man

rightto get it has

to

come

to

be said

ask for your

head?
Conall
If you

had

been

there
sitting

you

had

been

silent like

us.

Laegaire
He

said that in twelve months

he would

more

come

again to this

house
And

ask his debt

again. Twelve

months

are

up

to-day.

Conall
He

would

have

followed

after if

we

had

run

away.

THE

GREEN

HELMET

309

Laegaire
Will he tell every mother's

that

son

have

we

broken

our

word?

Cuchulain
Whether

he does

does

or

bargainif he

take his life in the

And

we'll drive him

not

with the

out

but dare

to

sword,

scoff.

CONALL
How

can

with
fight

you

head that

laughswhen you'vewhipped

it off?

Laegaire
Or

man

that

pickit up

can

and carry it out

in his hand?

CONALL
He

is coming now,

As

when he

there's

splashand

rumble

alongthe

strand

last.

came

Cuchulain

Come, and put all your backs


red-cloaked man
[A tally
red-headed,
againstthe mistygreen of the sea;
than within the
He

leans upon

him

house, makes

great two-handled

stands upon
the

to

the door.

the threshold

ground,higherwithout
taller

seem

than he is.

even

sword]

Laegaire
It is too late to shut
And

laughslike the

it,for

there he stands

once

more

sea.

Cuchulain
Old

Whip
Or

off your

else go

herring
"

own,

down

You

for it seems

in the

sea,

go

Find that old


Or the Red
Or if the

whip
you

down

can

off heads?

clapit on

in the

and whip
jugglerManannan
Man of the Boynes,for theyare

waves

have vexed you

Why then
again.

I say,
his head away;
sea

of your
and you would find

own
a

sort,

sport

THE

310
Irish

fashion,go fightwithout a rest


the winds of the
caterwaulingphantom among

Of

more

But what

are

If there's

no

old

An
I

sword

harm

can

the

you, I've

trick to tumble
five-fingered

Sualtim's

am

waitingfor,into

you

Cuchulain

son

So you, too, think


A

FORUM

in

me

drinkingjoke and

Red

Man

earnest

in

gibe and

The
The

best of all tipsycompanions,and

make

layit there on
[He layshis Helmet

And

wear

his

upon

the

the drinker's

own

here
I

now

to

face?

my

friend,

the world's

bringyou

ground for the best of

you

all to

end,

gift,
lift,

ground]

the

on

place;

laugh in

you

"

I will

of the

play,

wagering pollfor poll,


juggler's
feat,that is all,

the time go quickly for I am


kindest of all Shape-Changers from

To

out

you

say!

older trick to

an

what, do

"

water

west.

the
head, and choose for yourselves

afraid
Laegaireand Conall are brave, but they were
jest.
Well, maybe I jesttoo grimlywhen the ale is in the cup.
solemn voice
There, I'm forgivennow
[thenin a more
goes out]
O!

"

best.

of my

as

he

Let the bravest take it up.

[Conalltakes

up the Helmet

and gazes

at

it with

delight]

Laegaire
with
[Singing,

swaggering stride]

Laegaire is best;
Between

and

water

hill,

fought in the west


With cat heads, until

He

At the break of
All fell by his

day

sword,

he carried away
Their hidden hoard.
And

[He seizes

the

Helmet]

Conall
Give it me,

for what

did you find in the

bag

But the
You'd

and the broken

straw

for

taken

HELMET

GREEN

THE

311

delf and the bits of

dirtyrag

good money?
Cuchulain

No,

giveit me.

but

no,

[He

takes the

Helmet]

CONALL
Helmet's

The

mine

Laegaire's you

or

the youngest of

are

"

us

three.
Cuchulain
the
[Filling
I did not

take it to

But I shall

keep it

the Red

"

giveit to

all

all of

to

"

Helmet

ale]

Man

gave

three

it for
to

or

none

is as

And

you

look upon

"

we

Stroke into peace this cat that has come


Now
it is purringagainand now
I drink
And

I drink

to

Emer,

one,
;

fro,

will pass it to and


time and time about, drink out of it and so

That

it

us

with

lives.

to

take

our

to

your

wives,

wife

my

[A great

Why

what

noise without and

in God's

shouting]

is that noise?

name

Conall
What

else but the charioteers and the kitchen and stable

boys

Shoutingagainsteach other,and the worst of all is your own,


That chariot-driver,
Laeg, and they'll
keep it up tillthe dawn,
And

there's

not

man

to-night,
Or be able to keep them from it,
or
[A noise of horns without]
There do you hear them

They

have

taken

the

that will close his eyes

in the house

now?

know

what

them

set

to

fight.

such hatred has each for each,

hunting horns

to

drown

one

another's

speech
For

fear the truth may

prevail
"

here's your

long life,
And, though she be quarrelsome,good
wife.

good

health

to

health and

Emer,

your

THE

312

FORUM

stable boys and kitchen boys


[The charioteers,
They carry great horns,ladles and the like}

running in.

come

Laeg
I

Laeg, Cuchulain's driver,and

am

my

master's cock of the

yard.

Another
Conall would

his feathers.

scatter

[Confusedmurmurs}

Laegaire

[To Cuchulain\ No

use,

theywon't

hear

word.

Conall

They'llkeep

it up tillthe dawn.
Another
It is Laegairethat is the best,

For

he

And

foughtwith

cats

in

Connaught while

Conall took his

rest

drained his ale pot.


Another

Laegaire
"

Care

for the like of us?

He

what

does

did it for his

own

of his

man

sort

sport.

Another
It

was

all mere

luck

at

the best.

Another

But

Conall, I

say.

Another
Let

me

speak.

Laeg
You'd

be dumb

if the cock of the

yard would

but open

his beak.

THE

314

FORUM
Stable

Boy

No, Conall is the best

here.

man

Another
Give it to

Laegairethat

made

the murderous

cats

pay

dear.

CUCHULAIN
It has been
We

have

I drank

givento

none

that

"

turned that murderous

cat

into

of peace,

cup

giveit to Laegaire now


[Conallgives horn to Laegaire]

the first; and then Conall

That

it may

That

since the ale

purr

in his hand

well

and

all of

our

went

out

servants

of

know

sight.

Servant

shouting.

I will stop my

"

in itsclaws

went

A
That's

rivalry
might cease,

our

Another
Cuchulain
I

am

tired of this

big horn

that has made

me

is in the

hoarse

as

right
;
rook.

Laeg

Cuchulain,you drank the first.


Another

By drinkingthe
The

whole

firsthe took

himself.

of the honors

Laeg

Cuchulain,you drank the first.


Another
If

Laegairedrinks

from

it now

he claims

Another

Cuchulain and

Conall

have

drunk.

to

be last and worst.

GREEN

THE

HELMET

315

Another
He

is lost if he

taste

drop.

Laegaire

Did you claim

to

be better

[Layinghorn on the table]


than us by drinking
firstfrom

the

cup?

CUCHULAIN

[His words

are

partlydrowned by the murmurs


though he speaksvery loud]

of

the crowd

herringit is
for this.
he broughtthe Helmet
Who
has set us all by the ears
And because we would not quarrelhe ran
elsewhere to shout
That Conall and Laegairewronged me, tillall had fallen out.
[The murmur
grows less so that his words are heard]
Who
he is spurringto fight?
knows where he is now
whom
or
So get you gone, and whatever may cry aloud in the night,
That

the sea, that old red

jugglerfrom

"

Or show itselfin the

air,be silent until morn.


Servant

A
Cuchulain is in the

right
"

tired of this

am

big horn.

Cuchulain
Go.

[The servants turn


voices of women

the door

toward

is the better

to

Conall's

look

at.

Wife

Emer
man

hearingthe

Wife

[Without] But

[Without]My

on

outside]

Laegaire's

[Without]Mine

but stop

is the

man.
pithier

mine

is better born.

THE

316

FORUM

CUCHULAIN
Old
You've

wives

the game
that
kill each other that you may

set our

We

are

Ah,

now,

to

house.

[The

theymay

to

they'vebegun

wrestle

to

women

egg

sport with

us

on;

us.

who'll be first at the

to

as

the door

to

come

well done,
hurricane,

struggling]

Emer

No, I have the rightof placefor I married the better


Conali/s
Emer
[Pulling

Wife

Laegaire's

husband

shoulder.

Wife
And

My

neck and

nails in your

back] My

man.

go

before

me

if you

can.

fought in the West.


Con all's Wife

[Kneelingin

the door

so

as

keep

to

out

the

others,who pullat

her]
did he

But what
But

and
sidelongand spitting

And

what

did he carry away

fightwith there
shadows
helpless

but

straw

Laegaire's
Your

own

man

Drowning

his

made

up

of the dim

and broken

air?

delf ?

Wife

that tale

tremblingalone by himself,

terror.

Emer

[Forcingherselfto

the

front]I

am

Emer, itis I go firstthrough

the door.

No

one

shall walk

before me,

My

man

has been

praised.

or

praiseany

man

before

GREEN

THE

HELMET

317

CUCHULAIN

[Spreadinghis

Come, put
One

is

Break

as

fair

down

theycome
[Laegaireand

That

to

their

each

one

it~\
quarrelling;
the wife of a king.
so

as

to

close

paintedboards between the silland the floor


each one
in together,
door.
at her own
Conall begin to break out the bottoms
of the

windows; then their wives


where

end

an

the other and

as

the

the door

across

arms

her husband

while the boards

go

the

to

Emer

is.

windows, each

stands

the door

at

the window

to

and

sings

beingbroken out]

are

Emer

Nothing that

he has

His

mind

His

body

Have

set

Than

all the world's wives.

Himself
Is the

that is

done,

that is

When

higher

the wind

on

giftthat

Therefore

sun,

head

my

fire,

he

gives,
kind,

women

their eyes have


cold and grow hot

Grow

Troubled

as

mine,

met

with wine

By a secret thought,
Preyed upon, fed upon
By jealousyand desire,
For
I

[The

windows

am

are

am

moon

to

steel

to

now

broken

takes his spear from the


the same
moment"]

that

sun,

that fire.
down

door, and

to

the

the three

floor. Cuchulain
women

come

in

at

Emer

Cuchulain,put off your


I will

singtillI've
would

A share of

stiffened your

take
our

honor.

sloth and

awake,

lipagainstevery

knave

that

FORUM

THE

318

Laegaire's
You

lie,for

Wife

Conall's

take from

would

man

your

my

man.

Wife

[To Laegaire's
wife] You say that,you double face,and
husband began.
own

your

CUCHULAIN

[Taking up
Town

land may

the Helmet

rail at

town

from

table]

the

land tillall have

gone

to

wrack,

The

very

straws

The

very

door-postsbicker tillthey'vepulledin the door,

The

jarsjostletillthe ale is on
this shall help no
further.
[He
the sea]

But

may

wrangle tillthey'vethrown

very ale

Laegaire's

the

so

you would

let none

shall

answer

for

floor,
the Helmet

throws

into

for your head,


itbut flingit away instead.

wear

Conall's
But you

the stack,

Wife
It

And

down

was

not

Wife

it,for you'verobbed

my

man

by

this.

CONALL
You