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Name:_________________

SBI 4U1 Biology 12 - Biochemistry Test


Buddy must be trypsin

Part A: Multiple Choice- Circle the best answer of the options provided. (13 marks)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

1) Isomers are molecules that


react readily with one another
have the same molecular formula
have different molecular masses
differ in the number of unsaturated bonds
must contain the same functional group

2) Of the following biological compounds, which one contains the element nitrogen?
a. fatty acids
d. starch
b. sugar
e. protein
c. glycerol
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

3) The paired bases of a DNA molecule are best described as


covalently linked across the width of the double helix
identical
mirror images
complementary
single-stranded

4) Of the following, which is not considered to be a polymer?


a. cellulose
d. protein
b. RNA
e. fat
c. Starch
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

5) Which is most correct with respect to enzymes?


A denatured enzyme is more specific in its action.
Denaturation of proteins always involves enzymes.
Catalysts prevent chemical reactions.
All catalysts are enzymes.
All enzymes are catalysts.

6) From the following list, which is an example of a disaccharide?


a. chitin
d. glucose
b. glycogen
e. sucrose
c. cellulose
7) Which of the following is not a component of DNA?

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

deoxyribose
uracil
phosphate
adenine
thymine
8) Which of the following best describes deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)?

a.
b
.
c.

It consists of a linear backbone of the sugar deoxyribose and phosphates, with


nitrogenous bases attached to the sugar residues.
It consists of a linear backbone of sugar and bases, with a phosphate group
attached to each base.
It consists of a linear backbone of phosphates and bases, with a sugar group
attached to each end.
It is a double helix when present in single-stranded form.

d
.
e It consists of a linear backbone of the deoxyribose sugar.
.
9) Saturated fatty acids have
a. no double bonds in their chemical structures
b. as many hydrogen atoms as their structure allows
c. water mixed in with the functional groups
d. several double bonds in their structure
e. both A and B are correct
a.
b.
c.
d.

10) In order to digest a lipid


three molecules of water are removed
three molecules of water are added
one molecule of water is removed
a double bond is needed

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

11) DNA contains the following four nitrogen bases


adenine , purine, cytosine , guanine
adenine, pyrimidine, purine , cytosine
adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine
uracil, adenine, guanine, cytosine
uracil, adenine, thymine, guanine

12) The alpha-helix in protein structure would be found as part of the:


a. polypeptide chain
d. tertiary structure
b. primary structure
e. quaternary structure
c. secondary structure
13) Amino acids all contain the following functional groups:
a. carboxyl and amino
c. amino and thiol
c. none of the above
b. carboxyl and alcohol
d. ketone and amino

Part B: Mix and Match: Match the term on the right with the definition on the left. Each term can be used
only once. Write the letter of the best answer in the box to the left of the definition. (1/4 mark each -- total
of 10 marks for this section)

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
15)
16)
17)
18)
19)
20)
21)
22)
23)
24)
25)
26)
27)
28)
29)
30)
31)
32)
33)
34)
35)
36)
37)
38)
39)
40)

water-"loving"
water-"fearing"
two or more polypeptide chains coming together and bonding with each other
to permanently change the 3 dimensional structure of a protein
the subunit that makes up nucleic acids - 4 types in DNA are A C G T
the smallest unit of matter that cannot normally be broken into smaller particles
the process of breaking down large fat droplets into smaller fat droplets
the loose association of amino acids in a polypeptide chain with each other,
usually through H-bonds. e.g. alpha helix, beta pleated sheet
the linear sequence of amino acids in a protein, which ultimately determines its
shape
the building block of protein -- there are 20 different kinds normally found in
nature
the bond that forms between two amino acids joined by dehydration synthesis
the 3-D shape of a polypeptide chain due to it folding back on itself and forming
bonds.
molecules with identical empirical formulas but different structural arrangements
of atoms
elements with identical atomic numbers, but different number of neutrons
creating a bond between two atoms by taking OH from one atom and H from the
other
breaking a bond between two atoms by adding OH to one atom and H to the
other
biological catalysts, composed of protein, that speed up chemical reactions
ATP - the molecule that carries energy in the cell
any molecule with the molecular formula C n(H2O)n
an important component of cell membranes, has a hydrophilic head,
hydrophobic tail
an enzyme that breaks down maltose to two glucose molecules
an atom or molecule that has either lost or gained electrons
a weak bond due to the attraction between partial charges on hydrogen, oxygen,
and nitrogen atoms
a polymer of glucose, used as a structural component of plant cell walls
a polymer of glucose, used as a storage form for glucose in animals
a polymer of glucose, used as a storage form for glucose in plants
a loss of Hydrogen atoms (or electrons)
a lipid that is an important component of cell membranes and from which steroid
hormones are made
a lipid composed of glycerol joined to 3 fatty acids
a large organic molecule formed from a chain or chains of amino acids
a large molecule made by joining together smaller identical (or similar) molecules
a gain of Hydrogen atoms (or electrons)
a fatty acid whose carbons are all joined to the maximum number of hydrogens
a fatty acid that has a "kink" in it due to a double bond between carbon atoms
a disaccharide consisting of two glucose molecules
a class of molecules that includes neutral fats and steroids
a chemical that resists changes in pH
a 6 carbon sugar that forms a 6-membered ring -- used as energy source by cells
three carbon that joins with fatty acids to produce triglycerides
molecules that store genetic information (e.g. DNA and RNA)

Part C - Short Answers (122 marks)

A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
F)
G)
H)

adenosine triphosphate
amino acid
atom
buffer
carbohydrate
cellulose
cholesterol
dehydration synthesis

I)

denature

J)

emulsification

K)
L)

enzymes
glucose

M)

glycogen

N)
O)

hydrogen bond
hydrolysis

P)

hydrophobic

Q)
R)
S)

hydrophilic
ion
isomers

T)

isotopes

U)
V)
W)

lipid
maltase
maltose

X)
Y)
Z)
AA)
BB)

neutral fat
nucleotide
oxidation
peptide bond
phospholipid

CC)
DD)
EE)
FF)
GG)
HH)
II)
JJ)
KK)
LL)
MM)
NN)

polymer
primary structure
protein
quarternary structure
reduction
saturated fatty acid
secondary structure
starch
tertiary structure
unsaturated fatty acid
nucleic acids
glycerol

At a pH of 7, [H+] = [OH-]. Below pH 7, which of these is greater? ___


Bases have a pH that is _____________ than 7.
The primary structure of a protein is a polymer of __________________ ; the secondary structure is
characterized by the alpha _________, the tertiary structure is its _____ shape, and the quarternary
structure is the association of more than ______ polypeptide chains.
The molecule that cells "burn" during respiration to produce ATP is _______________.
An unsaturated fatty acid contains less ___________________ than a saturated one.
Both DNA and RNA are polymers of ______________ , each of which contains a __________________, a
5-carbon_____________, and a ______________ group.
The molecule on the right is what type of molecule? __________________ . What is the molecular
formula of the "R" group? _______________ . Which side, left or right is the amino group? _________
Which side, left or right is the carboxyl group? ___________
H
H
O
What are the four most common atoms in organic molecules? ______________,

1.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.

7.

___________, ___________, _______________

HO

H
H C H
S H

8. What are the four classes of organic compounds? ? ______________, ___________, ___________,

_______________
9. The molecule below belongs to what class of molecule? _______________ The hydrolysis of this
molecule would produce what molecule? ______________
O

O
O

O
O

10. Of the classes listed in question 8, which is:


a) most concerned with energy transformations _________________
b) the class that forms enzymes ______________
c) makes up genes_______________
d) the class that is capable of storing the most energy per gram _____________
11. What type of molecule is the molecule to the right? _______________________. Molecules
made of these molecules joined to glycerol would be at what state at room temperature?

___________

NH2
N

H
O
O-

5'

CH2

12. The molecule at left is what type of molecule? __________ Label the parts
of this molecules:

O-

H
H C H
H C H
C H
H C H
H C H
H C H
H C H
H C H
H

H
3'

OH H

A=
B=
C=
13. Nucleotides are connected together by bonds that form between the _______________ of one nucleotide
and the __________ of the other nucleotide.
14. Three molecules composed of nucleotides are ______________________

15. ____________________ are lipids containing phosphorous that are particularly important in the
formation of cell membranes.
16. ___________________ Is an example of a carbohydrate that we cannot digest..
17. Inorganic compounds are compound that do not contain ______________ atoms.
18. List a specific example of each of the 5 functions of proteins:
FUNCTION
EXAMPLE
TRANSPORT
ENZYMES
IMMUNE SYSTEM COMPONENTS
STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS
MOVEMENT
19. There are a total of ___ amino acids that the human body can't manufacture, and so must be obtained
from food. These are called ___________________ amino acids.
20. Use the following words to describe the making of a protein (an expression may be used more than once):
tertiary structure, hydrophobic interactions, water,carboxyl groups, polypeptide chain, Dehydration
synthesis, amino groups, secondary structure, hydrogen bonding, covalent bonds, helix, primary structure,
peptide bonds
______________________ between amino acids joins ________ groups to ________ groups (in the
process ________ molecules are removed) to form a _________________ . The bonds are called
_________________. The sequence of amino acids is called the _____________________ . The
___________________ is often in the form of an alpha helix, which is due to _____________________
between amino acids in the chain. The _______________ is the three dimensional shape of the protein
as it folds back on itself. This structure is held together by _____________________,
________________ and _________________ between R groups. The shape of the protein is
determined by its ______________________ . The function of the protein is determined by its

________________________
21. A protein that has lost its precise three dimensional shape has become __________________ . Three
things that can cause a protein to become denatured are 1)____________________

2)__________________ AND 3) ______________________


22. Two main functions of carbohydrates in living systems are for __________________, and for structure. Two
examples of carbohydrates for structure are __________________ and ________________
23. _______________ has few side branches of glucose chains, and is the storage form of glucose in plants.
Since it contains many glucose molecules joined together, it is called a ___________________ .
24. ________________ has many side branches of glucose chains, and is the storage form of glucose in
animals. The __________ is the main organ that produces, breaks down, and stores this polysaccharide.
25. "Roughage" or "Fibre" in our diet is actually due to the presence of ________________, another polymer of
glucose found only in _________________.
26. Table sugar is a _________________ made of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of the
pentose _______________.
27. An organic molecule that helps an enzyme catalyze a biochemical reaction is called a
__________________. An inorganic molecule that does the same thing is called a ___________________.
28. An _________________ slows down an enzymes action. If it is bound to the _______________ ________
it is considered competitive, and if it is bound to the ______________ _______ it is considered noncompetitive.
29. An inorganic molecule that speeds up chemical reactions is called a __________________.
30. Describe 3 ways that an enzyme can speed up a biochemical reaction:
a) ___________________________________________________________________________
b)____________________________________________________________________________
c)____________________________________________________________________________
31. An enzyme bound to a reactant is called an ______________ _______________ complex.
32. Saturated fatty acids have no ____________ bonds between carbon atoms, and tend to be solid at room
temperature. Unsaturated fatty acids are most often found in vegetable oils, and account for the fact that
they are liquid at room temperature.
33. The 4 classes of lipids are: 1)_________________ 2)___________________ 3)____________________
and 4)_____________________________.

34. A ______________________ is a lipid made of glycerol, 2 fatty acids, and a phosphate group. It is the
primary component of membranes. The phosphate "head" is _______________, the tail is

_______________.
35. ________________ are lipids containing four joined carbon rings. Three examples are
________________, ________________, and ________________
36. Place the following terms in order of increasing size: DNA, nucleus, RNA, cell, nucleotide, gene,
chromosome: _____________________________________________________________
37. List three differences between DNA and RNA:
a) ___________________________________________________________________________
b)____________________________________________________________________________
c)____________________________________________________________________________

38. What type of molecule is the molecule drawn below? __________________________


O
CH3
CH2

CH2

CH2
CH2

CH2 CH2
CH2

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH

CH2
CH

CH2
CH2

CH2
CH2

CH2
CH2

CH2
CH2

CH2 CH2 CH2


CH2

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH

C
H2

O
O

CH2

CH2

CH3
N+ CH3

O-

CH3

39. The bonds between polysaccharides are called ________________________. The bonds between fatty
acids and glycerols are called ____________________, and the bonds between nucleotides are called
_______________________

H H O H H
O
H N C C N C C
O H
R
R

40. a) To what class of molecules does the molecule on the right belong to? ________________
b) What is the molecule below?_____________________________

HO
41. What type of molecule is the one below? ___________________ What is its full name?
_______________________.
N
N
N
N

42. Classify the following reactions into one of the following: acid-base neutralization, redox, hydrolysis or
dehydration synthesis (4 marks):

a)_____________________

b)_______________________
HCl + NaOH

H20 + NaCl
c)________________________

d)_________________________
43. What is the name of the reaction below?
__________________________________________

Explain its importance to living organisms (2 marks):


__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
44. Label the catalytic cycle below using the following terms : enzyme, substrate,
active site, enzyme-substrate complex.

/145 marks