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DOCUMENT FOR FOUNDATION MEETING


NO. 4
WHY SOCIALISM IS NECESSARY FOR PAKISTAN

PPP IDEOLOGICAL REVIVAL


(This document is composed by Moazzam Ali Bhatti from Founding Document of PPP, 1967)

WHY SOCIALISM IS NECESSARY FOR PAKISTAN


To put it one sentence, the aim of the party is the transformation of Pakistan into a socialist
society.
The same objective can be stated as the attainment of egalitarian democracy, whether in all
members of the nation enjoy equal rights in every sphere of activity. Formal equality before the
eyes of law is a necessary part of democracy, but insufficient without the prevalence of economic
and social justice. Only socialism which creates equal opportunities for all protects from
exploitation, removes the barriers of class distinction and privileges can establish economic and
social justice. Socialism is the highest expression of democracy and its logical fulfillment.
The theories and doctrine of modern socialism are derived from the experience of about two
centuries of the capitalist system of economy and form scientific investigation into its nature and
effects. The knowledge acquired from the working of capitalist mode of production is being
continually augmented by the experience gained in countries where socialist ideas are being
translated in to practice under the most varied condition, in some form or other. The range is as
wide as conceivable. Apart from those that have undergone the process of revolution, there are
many countries, among them even constitutional monarchies, where socialist reforms have been
realized without violent changes in the political or social structure. The evolution towards
socialism is not confined to any one continent or any one people.
The universality of the precepts of socialism is due to reasons,
Firstly, the basis of modern socialism is objective. In other words, its tenets are neither the
reflection of utopistic desires, however noble they might be, nor means to attempt the create of
an arbitrary of things springing from the imagination; but the result of scientific inquiry into the
conditions of mankind in relation to the economic processes which determine it. They are,
furthermore in accord with the general opinion as to what constitute the highest material good
attainable in this earthly existence, towards which human efforts should be directed.
Secondly socialist thinking is relevant to all countries in every part of the world in their actual
economic and political condition. They are all classifiable in three categories: those possessing
the highly developed capitalist structure; those that have found in socialism their road to

PPP IDEOLOGICAL REVIVAL


(This document is composed by Moazzam Ali Bhatti from Founding Document of PPP, 1967)

progress: and those have known generically as the under-developed countries, which are the
victims of capitalist imperialism. To the under-developed countries socialism offers both the
weapon for resisting exploitation and the means of evaluating the condition of the masses to a
higher level of civilized existence within the shortest possible time.
Socialism is therefore of direct interest to Pakistan, which is an under-developed country marked
by the internal and external capitalist exploitation. In the scale of national wealth Pakistan stands
at the lowest rung, and there is nowhere else to be found aggregate mass of human misery in
similar areas as that of Pakistan with its population of 120 million. The region of the earth with
highest concentration of poverty is Pakistan.
Can socialism be applied to an under-developed country? We know that it can from the history
of our time. The argument that every under-developed country must pass through the same stage
of economic evolution undergone by the highly industrialized nation of the West is palpably
false. If it were valid, then all roads to progress would be barred to country like Pakistan whose
past history has followed a course different from that of Christian Countries of the West. It has
been maintained by some eminent Western theoreticians of capitalism that the Judeo-Christian
culture, within the sphere of which modern capitalism was engendered, is an absolute condition
for progress, along capitalist lines, comparable with that of Western Countries. They may be
right: if they are, it all the more incumbent upon us who are Muslims to seek a path of progress
other than that of classical growth of Western capitalism. The true fact however that is in
Pakistan the capitalist economic system prevails internally and, in addition, the country is
submissive to the predatory forces of international capitalism. Whereas the highly industrialized
countries of Western Europe have carried out far-reaching reforms aimed at greater social and
economic justice, and some have even advanced a good distance on the way to the formation of a
socialist society, the people of Pakistan are exposed to all the rigorous of unchecked exploitation.
The advanced Western Countries exhibits a number of features that deserve our admiration and
which we do well to imitate. Our local apologist of capitalist exploitation (they prefer to call
themselves advocates of private enterprise) direct their attention solely to one feature of those
country- the predominance of private ownership over a large sector of their economy. However,
in none of those countries capitalism is permitted to regain uncontrolled, and in several public
sector is very intensive indeed. Apart from that, they ignore what makes the Western countries

PPP IDEOLOGICAL REVIVAL


(This document is composed by Moazzam Ali Bhatti from Founding Document of PPP, 1967)

attractive to the unbiased mind, which is the immense freedom enjoyed by the individual. The
civil liberties are the true measure of the greatness of the Western countries; for such plenitude of
freedom has probably never existed in a previous epoch- the freedom of conscience, the freedom
of speech, the freedom of expression, the right of free association- in short the kind of freedom
of individual possible in a free democracy, indeed without such freedom capitalist state becomes
terribly oppressive to its own subject and enormously destructive in its relations with other
countries. One has only to think of two recent examples to appreciate the correctness of this
view- Hitlers Germany and Tajos Japan. The predatory brand of capitalism, which is waging
war upon freedom movements all over the world, is still held in USA within certain bounds by
the great freedom of expression enjoyed by its own citizens. A restriction of individual freedom
there might well precipitate a catastrophe vastly greater than the Second World War, since the
USA is in possession of unparallel resources of destruction. For capitalism to be tolerable, the
individual has to be allowed the largest possible measure of civil liberty.
The socialist society cannot come about tomorrow by enactment of a law, the promulgation of an
ordinance, or the fiat of a director. It can be reached only at the end of a long road of changes
and evolution, divided into stages that the practical socialist will take as his proximate goals.
A stage reached will not be for him a resting place but a point of departure for his journey to the
next and so on.
Employing another metaphor, we may liken the march of socialism to the re-conquest of a
territory that has fallen into enemy hands. The enemy has built his fortresses all over the land,
whereby he has consolidated his power. The socialist forces must reduce these fortresses one by
one and be on the guard that they are not re-captured by hostile armies of reaction. The further,
the advance the more the territory librated from the bastions of vested interests, ignorance,
corruption and exploitation the easier becomes the subsequent task, since the enemys forces
dwindled and those of socialism acquire new adherents. There may be a setback, as in every
campaign but the ultimate victory can only be on the side of socialism. Though we have our eyes
on the ultimate victory, we must not forget that it can only arrive as a consequence of winning a
large number of battles, of which each one will have to be fought in its due time.

PPP IDEOLOGICAL REVIVAL


(This document is composed by Moazzam Ali Bhatti from Founding Document of PPP, 1967)

When a traveler sets out on journey he must know in which direction to go, especially if he has
to travel trough a country where no roads have been laid. He must rely upon the description of
others who have made such a journey before while trusting to his own acumen in discerning to
landmarks.
The socialist army on the march, to employ again the military metaphor, will successively attack
those strongholds, which hinders his further advance, and its generals will conduct the
campaigns in accordance with a plan based on the experience of the similar campaigns.
The policy adopted by the party has the purpose of showing the path towards Socialism and of
guiding the conduct of the campaign for its attainment. A correct policy must not only be based
on correct principles, but take into consideration the particular situation of the country. Whereas
socialism may be universally relevant, the ways to socialism are many; for they have to be in
relation to the religious faith, economic and social evolution of the country, its immediate
political situation and its historical backgrounds.
We have said earlier that all countries fall into three categories:
1) The advanced capitalist countries;
2) Those that have adopted socialism (without regard to their stage of evolution);
3) The under-developed countries
Since Pakistan belongs to the class of under-developed countries the policy of our party must be
fully adapted to the situation termed under-development and to the special case of Pakistan itself,
since no two countries, whatever their common traits of misery, are exactly alike.
The under-developed countries exhibit a number of characteristics features that are symptomatic
of their condition. The principle ones that concern us in this place are:
1) Low standard of living and low national income
2) Under-nourishment of a large section of the population
3) An inefficient agriculture
4) Low level of industrialization
5) Backward social structures

PPP IDEOLOGICAL REVIVAL


(This document is composed by Moazzam Ali Bhatti from Founding Document of PPP, 1967)

6) Low standard of Education and in many under-developed countries, particularly in


Pakistan, a large percentage of illiteracy
7) Large scale under-employment, especially in the rural areas
8) Very high birth rate
9) Dependence upon the economy of industrialist capitalist countries
All the above mentioned problems of under-development in Pakistan will have to be tackled
simultaneously whatever be the established order of government. It can however be asserted that
the introduction of socialist reforms is the only method conducive to rapid progress. The time
factor is extremely important in view of high rate of population increase, which is estimated to
be in the neighbor-hood of 3.4 per annum. The actual growth of national income is inadequate
and is moreover inequitable, since a large proportion of the national wealth is possessed by a
very small number of families. There is no indication that the standard of living of the masses
has risen in these many years. Unhampered capitalist methods have tried and must be adjudged
to have failed to improve the lot of the people of Pakistan.
Because the transformation of the present system into a socialist society will take years to
complete, we must not fall into the error that little effective can be done to improve the condition
of the nation until the transformation is well underway. The party rejects the kind of philosophy
which maintains that things must be allowed to get worse in order that they might get better. On
the contrary, its policy is to aim at certain proximate objectives, the attainment of which will
both open the way to rapid progress and confer, more or less immediately benefits upon the
nation.
Civil Liberties: The very first objective must be established on an unshakeable basis the rights
that an individual ought to enjoy un-curtailed in a democratic country.
1. The freedom of conscience
2. The freedom of expression, which includes the freedom of speech and the freedom of
print and publish ones views.
3. The freedom of press
4. The right of free association
5. The right of assembly are essential for the progress and well-being of the nation

PPP IDEOLOGICAL REVIVAL


(This document is composed by Moazzam Ali Bhatti from Founding Document of PPP, 1967)

They are fundamental rights the denial of which amounts to the imposition of practice of
dictatorship, whether of a class of an individual. The capitalist system cannot function efficiently
in their absence, and it is no accident that in all progressive capitalist countries they prevail to the
fullest extent possible.
Restriction on civil liberties always acts as obstacles to progress in a non-socialist economy and
become positively dangerous to the established order if they are severe. They ultimately create
the condition for violent upheavals by making impossible the carrying through of social and
economic reforms against the interest of dominant classes.
In order that they may have the guarantee of durability, the civil liberties need institutional
anchorage, the most important being, of course, in the constitution itself and in the independence
of judiciary. The amendment of the present constitution, or if necessary the framing of another
one truly democratic in substance, and capable therefore of rendering effective the will of people,
in a step that must be undertaken at the earliest possible moment. In task such as these- the
establishment of civil liberties and the making of a democratic constitution, all progressively
orientated political parties have common ground for fruitful collaboration.
SOCIALIST POLICY IN REGARD TO THE MEANS OF PRODUCTION
Because of the fact that Pakistan is an under-developed country, the task of promoting progress
may be appeared twofold: first, the overcoming of condition of under-development and second,
the creation of just economic and social order. It would be a mistake to view the problem as one
of priority between two separate processes, as if the one could be taken without the other that is
to put a stop to economic exploitation and social injustice. Both have to be undertaken
simultaneously, which would be possible only by the application of socialist policy. Laisser-faire
capitalism with its high protective traffic walls, behind the shelter of which monopolies grow and
thrive, has failed in Pakistan even to provide an adequate basis for rapid industrialization, which
was the excuse given for its adoption, and it has made profounder the contradictions inherent in a
class system of inequalities. It has moreover placed countrys economy at the mercy of
neocolonialism.

PPP IDEOLOGICAL REVIVAL


(This document is composed by Moazzam Ali Bhatti from Founding Document of PPP, 1967)

The economic exploitation of masses is possible where the means of production are in the
ownerships of persons who are not themselves are producers. In the rural areas, in relation to
agriculture, the cultivator may suffer under a feudal system of land tenure and be exploited
through the process by which his produce is brought to the market or the consumer. It is,
however, in the industrial sector of production, which is principally urban, that the problem of
capitalist exploitation presents itself in its typical form, Since industry is the motor of progress,
certain structural reforms need to be carried out as early as possible in order to ameliorate the
general economic condition and lay open the way out of the prison of under-development.
The general principles to be observed in applying the necessary socialist reforms are, firstly, that
those means of production that are generators of industrial advance or from which depend other
industries must not be allowed to be vested in private hands; secondly, that all enterprises that
constitute the infra-structure of the national economy must be in public ownership; thirdly, the
institution dealing with the medium of exchange (in other words money), that is banking and
insurance must be nationalized.
Briefly enumerated, the sector of nationalization must cover:
1. Banking
2. Insurance
All key industries such as:
3. Iron and Steel production
4. Non-ferrous metal production
5. Heavy engineering
6. Machine tools for industry use
7. Chemical industry including petro-chemical
8. Ship building
9. Arms, ammunition and all armament for defence
10. Motor car assembly and manufacture
11. Essential electrical equipment for power production, distribution and use
All sources of supply of energy

PPP IDEOLOGICAL REVIVAL


(This document is composed by Moazzam Ali Bhatti from Founding Document of PPP, 1967)

12. Electricity
13. Gas
14. Oil
15. Coal
All major means of public transport
16. Railways
17. Shipping
18. Airways
19. Road Transport
Finally
20. All exploitation of mineral wealth, both mining and core processing
The private sector will play its own useful role in the kind of mixed economy envisaged, but will
not be able to create monopolistic preserves. It must flourish under conditions proper to private
enterprise, namely those of competition, and not under the shelter of state protection such as is
the cause of present. The socialization of the key sector of industry will give the chance to be
able men in the field of technique and management to put forward their bust. Nationalization will
not destroy individual initiative; it should on the contrary act as stimulus by releasing the
suppressed energies of the working class, and other wage-earner as well as the qualified
technicians.
Public owner will not be allowed to degenerate into state capitalism. The workers will be
encouraged to participate in the effective running of the factories by appropriate incentives and
will by law have the rights to share in the profits of the companies in the private sector. Along
with the nationalization will be undertaken directly to improve the lot of the wage-earners in the
factories by caring for proper housing, recreation and health of the worker and his family,
education of the children, supplementary training for the worker himself to improve his skill and
thereby his earning power, and in other ways that may help to raise his cultural level.
The objective must be first to integrate the worker in the community in the civic sense and then
to proceed to remove the class barriers which keep them and their children remote from the

PPP IDEOLOGICAL REVIVAL


(This document is composed by Moazzam Ali Bhatti from Founding Document of PPP, 1967)

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possibilities of leading a better life. Within the factory itself the economic program of the party
fuses with its social.

PPP IDEOLOGICAL REVIVAL


(This document is composed by Moazzam Ali Bhatti from Founding Document of PPP, 1967)