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Protective Effect of Caffeine, Chloroggenic Acid and Magnesium in

Coffee on Risk of Adult Onset Type 2 Diabetes Melitus


Jovy Yudha Tamba, Dea Athaya Budiman, Selly Oktaviana Wulandari
Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Jenderal
Achmad Yani, Kota Cimahi, Jawa Barat, Indonesia
Abstract
Introduction: Diabetes melitus (DM) killing 100.4 thousand people in 2012 and
become the third leading cause of death in Indonesia. Approximately 87% to 91% of
all people with diabetes are estimated to have type 2 DM (T2DM). Coffee
component may prevented T2DM and the delayed the progresivity. Therefore we do
a review about potential and biomechanism substance of coffee components to
prevent T2DM
Methods: The methodology was used in this paper is a literature review.
Result: Type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of genetic factors related to
impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance and environmental factors such as
obesitas, overeeating, lack of exercise, and stress, as well as aging.
There are various ways to prevent the occurrence of diseases of T2DM. Coffee
components such as Caffeine that has a detrimental impact on glucose regulation,
stimulating of pancreatic beta cells and antioxidant effect. Chlorogenic acid that has
been shown to affect glucose metabolism, neutralizes deleterious effect of free fatty
acids and also protective against oxidative stress. And magnesium that can improve
insulin resistance, glycemic control. consumption may prevent the onset of T2DM..
Conclusions: Coffee constituents such as caffeine, phenol chlorogenic acid and
magnesium can prevents the process of developing type 2 diabetes.
Keyword:
coffee, type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Caffein, magnesium, antioxidant and phenol
chlorognic acid

1 diabetes and 1% to 3% to have other

Introduction
Recently there is

changed of the

types of diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes

pattern of incidence of a disease that is

melitus (T2DM) is the most common

characterized by the transition of

type of diabetes. It usually occurs in

epidemiology.

Epidemiologic

adults, but is increasingly seen in

transition is generally characterized by

children and adolescents. This increase

a change in the pattern of illness and

of T2DM is associated with unballance

death that was originally dominated by

lifestyles, characterized by unhealthy

infectious

diets,

infectious

disease

switch

disease

to

or

non
non-

physical

increasing obesity.

inactivity,

and

3,4,5

communicable disease.1,2

T2DM is a heterogeneous group of

Diabetes melitus (DM) is one of non

disorders characterized by variable

communicable disease resulting in

degrees of insulin resistance, impaired

increase of global morbidity and

insulin

mortality

of

glucose production. Both the insulin

diabetes is increasing every year.

resistance, impaired secretion, and

Globally, there are 108 milion adults

increased glucose production lead to

living with diabetes in 1980 and

high blood glucose levels. High blood

increased to 422 milion in 2014.

glucose levels can produce long-term

Diabetes caused 1,5 milion death

complications such as cardiovascular

worldwide in 2012. Diabetes killing

and renal disorders, retinopathy, and

100.4 thousand people in 2012 and

poor blood flow. Its development can

become the third leading cause of

be prevented or delayed in people with

death in Indonesia. Approximately

impaired

87% to 91% of all people with diabetes

implementing lifestyle changes or the

are estimated to have type 2 diabetes,

use of therapeutic agents.3,6,7

rate.

The

incidence

7% to 12% are estimated to have type

secretion,

glucose

and

increased

tolerance

by

There are various ways to prevent the

prevent the occurrence of desease and

occurrence of diseases of T2DM and

delay T2DMs progresivity.

delay progresivity. Current research

Methods

shows that coffe consumption may


prevent the onset of T2DM and delay

The methodology was used in this


paper is a literature review, using data

progresivity.7,8

and information from the open book of


Coffee is one of the most widely
consumed beverages around the world.

medicine, as well as online articles


related

to

the

group

and

its

At 2013, the coffe plantation area in

components, together with the coffee

Indonesia reached 1.241.712 Ha, and

biomechanism

coffe

T2DM

produced

reached

675.881

in

prevent

occure

and

prevent

disease

9,10

Ton.

progresivity disease. The literature are

Coffee is a complex mixture of more

not accessible in full and literature is

than a thousand substances, including

not relevant in not used this way in this

caffeine,

work. The author does the exposition,

phenolic

compounds

(chlorogenic acid, trigonelline and

making

quinides),

analysed

minerals

and

vitamins

correlation
and

between

presents

data

arguments

(magnesium, potassium, manganese,

through logical thinking. The author

chromium, niacin) and fibers. Several

used search engine to find references

of these coffee constituents such as

such as Google and Google Scholar,

phenol chlorogenic acid, magnesium,

PubMed, NCBI. Keyword that is used

and caffeine have been proposed to be

is coffee, type 2 Diabetes Mellitus,

involved in glucose metabolism and

Caffein, magnesium, antioxidant and

can prevents the process of developing

phenol chlorognic acid.

type 2 diabetes.

11,12,13

Result and Discussion

We therefore, interested to making a

Diabetes is a group of metabolic

paper

disorders characterized by a chronic

about

potential

and

biomechanism substances in coffee to

hyperglycemic

condition

resulting

from insufcient action of insulin.


Diabetes is a chronic condition that
occurs when the body cannot produce
enough insulin or cannot use insulin1,
and is diagnosed by observing raised
levels of glucose in the blood. 14,15
Type 2 diabetes is the most common

Fig. 1. Etiology and Patophysiologi of

type of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a

Diabetes Mellitus

chronic disease with high rates of

Type 2 DM is characterized by

morbidity and mortality. The risk of

impaired insulin secretion, insulin

blindness,

resistance, excessive hepatic glucose

renal

disease,

and

amputation among those with type 2

production,

diabetes is 20 to 40 times higher than

metabolism. Insulin resistance is a

that of people without diabetes. 15,16

condition in which insulin in the body

Type 2 diabetes is caused by a


combination of genetic factors related
to impaired insulin secretion and
insulin resistance and environmental
factors such as obesitas, overeeating,
lack of exercise, and stress, as well as
aging. 6,14

does

not

and

exert

abnormal

sufcient

fat

action

proportional to its blood concentration.


Most condition caused by obesitas.
The increased production of free fatty
acids and some adipokines may cause
insulin resistance in skeletal muscle
and liver. The impairment of insulin
action in major target organs such as
liver and muscles is a common
pathophysiological feature of type 2
diabetes. Insulin is produced in the
beta cells of the pancreatic islets. 6,14

Coffee is a very popular beverage


consumed by many societies around
the word and coffee is a commodity
which is quite abundant. At 2013, the
coffe plantation area in Indonesia
reached 1.241.712 Ha, and coffe
There are a number of medications for
type 2 diabetes. Metformin is wellestablished and one of the most
effective. Different remedies and drugs
have been used to treat T2DM. Several
of

these

compounds

have

been

obtained from plants or from microbes.


14,17

produced reached 675.881 Ton.9,10,19


Coffee is the dried seed of the fruit
originated from a tree of the Coffea
genus, Rubiaceae family. Coffee is a
rich

source

control complications, and improve


prognosis

have

demonstrated

the

following facts: lifestyle improvement


by the way changing patterns of eating
and physical activity, reducing energy
intake and control of foods

with high

amounts of added sugars, fats or


alcohol and consume anti-diabetic
drugs. Current research suggest that

non-enzymatic,

bioactive constituents. Coffee contains


more than a thousand substances,
including

To prevent the onset of diabetes,

of

caffeine,

trigonelline,

phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid


and quinides), minerals and vitamins
(magnesium, potassium, manganese,
chromium, niacin) and fibers. Several
of these coffee constituents such as
caffeine, phenol chlorogenic acid and
magnesium, have been proposed to be
involved in glucose metabolism and
can prevents the process of developing
type 2 diabetes. 11,19,20

coffee consumption can prevent the


occurrence

of

T2DM

and

progresivity of this disease. 14,18

delay

Caffeine
Caffeine is a heat stable alkaloid
methylxanthine,

caffeine

can

be

completely absorbed by the stomach

and small intestine within 45 minutes

intestine

and reaches maximum concentration in

anorexigenic peptides as well as

the bloodstream in 15-120 minutes.

inhibiting orexigenic peptides. Another

Caffeine stimulates the central nervous

suggested mechanism is the direct

system and inhibits the release of

stimulation of pancreatic beta cells by

numerous neurotransmitters such as

caffeine. Caffeine also increasing of

glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine and

basal energy expenditure, stimulating

monoamines and is more efficient at

fat oxidation and mobilization of

the level of excitatory than inhibitory

glycogen in muscle and weight loss.

neurotransmission. Therefore caffeine

11,12,22

intake is generally associated with

and

activating

central

Chlorogenic acid

increased alertness, learning capacity,


exercise
mood.

performance,
Caffeine

and

better

metabolites

have

exhibited antioxidant activity in vitro,


and increased in vivo iron-reducing
capacity that may be a pathogenic
mechanism linking insulin resistance
with dysfunction of both beta cells and
11,19,21

endothelium..
Caffeine

consumption

detrimental

impact

has

on

glucose

regulation in patients with T2DM.


Caffeine influences the secretion of
gastrointestinalpeptides

such

glucagon-like peptide-1

and gastric

inhibitory
glucose

polypeptide,
absorption

in

as

lowering
the

small

Chlorogenic acid (CGA), one of the


phenols in coffee. Like caffeine, CGA
has a protective against oxidative
stress. Other pharmacologic CGA
include

antiviral

activity,

hepatoprotective

activity,

immunostimulatory activity and inhibit


HIV-1 replication in cells.13,20,21
CGA has been shown to affect glucose
metabolism

by

increasing

insulin

sensivity, delay glucose absorption in


the intestine through inhibition of
glucose-6-phosphate

translocase

1,

inhibiting the action of -glucosidase


and reduction of the sodium gradientdriven apical glucose transport, leading
to

reduced

plasma

glucose

concentration. Moreover, this acid

to

neutralizes the deleterious effects of

neutralizes deleterious effect of free

free fatty acids over the function of

fatty acids and also protective against

beta

oxidative stress. And magnesium that

cells

in

insulin-resistant

affect

improve

glucose

metabolism,

overweight individuals, reducing the

can

insulin

resistance,

risk of T2DM.11,13

glycemic control. Have been proposed

Magnesium

to be involved in glucose metabolism


and can prevents the process of

Magnesium, an abundant mineral, is a

developing type 2 diabetes.

component of coffee, and a cofactor in


more than 300 enzyme system that

To be able to maximize the potential of

regulate diverse biochemical reaction

coffee other research to find effective

in

protein

dose and the benefits of other coffee

synthesis, muscle and nerve function,

component. The proper education of

the

body,

including

blood glucose control and blood


pressure

regulation..

Higher

Coffe consumption benefits for health


also needed to be done to the

magnesium intake can improve insulin

community.

resistance,

Reference

glycemic

control

and

reduce the risk of T2DM.11,23,24


Conclution and Suggestion
Coffee consumption can prevent the
occurrence

of

T2DM

and

delay

progresivity of this disease. Coffee


constituents such as Caffeine that has a
detrimental

impact

on

glucose

regulation, stimulating of pancreatic


beta cells and antioxidant effect.
Chlorogenic acid that has been shown

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