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AcuSolve Introductory Training

Innovation Intelligence

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Table of Contents

Sec. No.

Description

Slide No.

Introduction

A.5

AcuSolve Overview

A.9

AcuSolve Features

A.15

AcuConsole Overview

A.25

Demo Problem Pipe Flow

A.31

Acusim Programs

A.45

Workshop1 Conjugate Heat Transfer

A.57

Solver Commands

A.89

Workshop2 Blower (Using Reference Frame)

A.117

10

Input File Review (Workshop2)

A.135

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Table of Contents (Continued)

Sec. No.

Description

Slide No.

11

Workshop3 Blower2 (Using Sliding Mesh)

A.145

12

Post Processing

A.171

13

Program Options

A.183

14

Workshop4 Compressible Nozzle

A.191

15

AcuSolve Mesh Files

A.209

16

Boundary Conditions

A.215

17

Workshop5 Rigid Body Motion

A.225

18

Solution Strategy

A.243

19

Workshop6 Flexible Ring (P-FSI)

A.257

20

Restarting Simulations

A.293

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Table of Contents (Continued)

Sec. No.

Description

Slide No.

21

Heat Transfer Modeling

A.303

22

Workshop7 Natural Convection

A.325

23

Turbulence Modeling

A.353

24

Workshop8 Honey in Tea (Species Concentration)

A.365

25

Working with Expressions and Units

A.381

26

Setting User Preferences

A.389

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Introduction

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Introduction
ACUSIM Software, Inc. acquired by Altair Engineering, Inc. January 2011
AcuSolve development mission:

Develop a fast, robust, and accurate finite element based Computational Fluid Dynamics
(CFD) solver

First AcuSolve customer established in 1997

Current AcuSolve customers in the United States, Canada, Mexico, India, Japan,
England, France, Germany, Brazil, Singapore, China
AcuConsole - The Pre-Processor for AcuSolve
Support

E-Mail

support@acusim.com
Phone (USA based, country code +1)

650-988-9700 - ext 2

A.6

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Altair HyperWorks : Licensing System


HWU Pool

Licensing system based on HyperWorks Units (HWU) not per product


The use of units is spread out
All HyperWorks software shares the pool of HWUs
A.7

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

AcuSolve Overview

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

AcuSolve Overview
A general-purpose incompressible and weakly compressible flow solver

Uses a finite element formulation

Good to Mach number 0.7-0.8

Enables rapid, quality solutions without iterating on solution procedures

Robustness, Speed, Accuracy, Functionality

Provides engineers and scientists with seamless integration into design and
analysis applications

A.10

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

AcuSolve Overview
Flow solver
CAD Package
Third Party Mesh
Generator and/or
Input File Writer

Pre-Processor

AcuConsole
Analysis

AcuSolve

Acoustic
Analysis

CAA
Output

Direct Coupling
Fluid/Structure
Interaction

Translators /
Direct Readers

Structural
Solver

Third Party
Post-Processor

A.11

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AcuSolve Overview
Markets currently using AcuSolve:

Automotive

Electronic cooling

Chemical mixing

Home Appliances

Medical and medical equipment

Oil/Gas and offshore platforms

Boat design

Train aerodynamics

Universities

National labs

Renewable Energy

Etc. . .

Particle Paths from AcuTrace

A.12

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AcuSolve Overview
Why choose AcuSolve?
AcuSolves differentiation via Finite Elements:

Robustness
Relatively insensitive to element topology and mesh quality
Superior performance on anisotropic tetrahedral meshes
Most problems solved on first attempt

Speed
Scalable parallel on shared and distributed memory parallel machines
Customers have solved 2,000,000 elements on a 2 GB memory Windows PC and over
400,000,000 on large Linux clusters

A.13

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

AcuSolve Overview
AcuSolves differentiation via Finite Elements:

Accuracy
Highly accurate in space and time while globally and locally conservative
All variables, including turbulence properties are discretized to second order accuracy
AcuSolve has demonstrated up to fourth order accuracy on some specific cases (turbulent
channel flow)

Functionality
Rich set of features

Robustness, Speed, Accuracy, Functionality

Better Technology.Better Results!

A. 14

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AcuSolve Features

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

AcuSolve Features
Conservation equation systems in 3D

Incompressible Stokes and Incompressible / Weakly-Compressible Navier-Stokes


equations

Thermal analysis and conjugate heat transfer

Multi-layered thermal shell

Multi-species transport equations

Radiation

Gray body enclosure radiation

View factor computation

Solar radiation

Computational Aero-Acoustic (CAA)

Pseudo-compressibility

CAA output/interface support

Vehicle Cabin Heating / Cooling


A.16

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AcuSolve Features
Turbulence Models

One-equation Spalart-Allmaras RANS model


Standard Wall Function no lowerbound y+ limit
Low-Re formulation

Shear Stress Transport (SST) model

k-w model

Smagorinsky and dynamic subgrid LES models

Hybrid RANS/LES models

Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian (ALE) Mesh Motion

Flexible mesh movement

Free surface modeling

Sliding mesh

Rigid body motion

Fluid/Structure Interaction (FSI)


Modal Analysis P-FSI
External Code DC-FSI

Rigid Body Motion


with Free Surface
A.17

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AcuSolve Features
Rotating Flows

Multiple frames of reference

Rotating/Sliding mesh

Component Technology

Fan component

Heat exchanger component

Rich Set of Material Options

Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids

Porous media

Melting and heat of formation

User-defined function

Sliding Mesh - Train Passing


Fixed Railcar

A.18

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AcuSolve Features
Full Set of Boundary Conditions

Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions

Periodic and axisymmetric conditions

Thermal periodic condition

Integrated surface boundary condition

General two-point constraint

Experimental data imposition

Dynamic BC activation

Non-reflecting Boundary Conditions

User-defined function

External Code Surface

A.19

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AcuSolve Features
Highly Effective Solver Technology

Fast and robust iterative linear solvers


A novel and highly efficient iterative solver for the fully coupled pressure/velocity equation
system
A companion fully coupled temperature/flow iterative equation solver

Fully parallel on shared/distributed memory machines, transparent to user

Solution Strategy

Fast steady state solver

Second-order time-accurate transient analysis


No CFL based stability limit

Automatic time-stepping algorithms

A.20

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AcuSolve Features
Advanced finite element technology

Galerkin/Least-Squares finite element method

Equal-order (nodal) interpolation for all solution fields, including pressure

Unstructured mesh:

4-node tetrahedron
5-node pyramid
6-node wedge
8-node brick
10-node tetrahedron

Particle Tracer

Laminar

Turbulent diffusion

Parallel computation

A.21

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AcuSolve Features

Supported Platforms

Platform

OS

LINUX

Kernal version: 2.6.32-37 and newer

LINUX64

Kernal version: 2.6.9-67 and newer

WIN

Windows 2000/XP/Vista/7 (IA32)

WIN64

Windows XP/Vista/7/HPC (x64)

A.22

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

AcuSolve Features
All links below are password protected, so you need an account via
www.acusim.com - Client Login link at upper-right!!!
Software Distribution

http://www.acusim.com/webapps/document/release/

Documentation and Training

http://www.acusim.com/webapps/document/documentation/

Tutorials

AcuSolve
http://www.acusim.com/webapps/document/as_tutorials/

AcuConsole
http://www.acusim.com/webapps/document/ac_tutorials/

A.23

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

AcuConsole Overview

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

AcuConsole Overview
A GUI-based pre-processor for AcuSolve

Visualization Area - mesh and geometry display

Data tree

Data tree Manager

View Manager

Information Area

Panel Area

Geometry Reader

No Geometry clean-up

Mesh Generator
AcuSolve launcher
AcuSolve process monitor

A.26

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AcuConsole Overview
Import ( water-tight models)

CAD: Parasolid, Pro-E, ACIS, Discrete (STL, Surf Mesh, etc.), Catia reader

Raw mesh (from ICEM-CFD, Harpoon, etc.)

AcuSolve input file (.inp)

Third party formats: Fluent .cas/.msh file, Patran Neutral file, etc.

Mesh Generation

Generates mesh directly on the CAD model

Auto Tet mesh with boundary layer, Extrusion, Periodicity

AcuSolve

Problem set-up : Global parameters, Boundary conditions, etc.

Generate AcuSolve input files

Launch AcuSolve : Directly or via PBS/LSF

Monitor solution via AcuProbe

Launch visualizers : AcuFieldView, FieldView, EnSight, ParaView etc.


A.27

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AcuConsole Overview

AcuMeshSim

AcuSolve

AcuPrep

AcuView

AcuProbe

AcuConsole
AcuImport

PYTHON INTERFACE

Database, Graphics, GUI Engine,


CAD Reader, AcuSolve Utilities
A.28

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AcuConsole Overview
AcuMeshSim, AcuSolve and other executables can be run on a different machine /
OS from that running AcuConsole.
Python interface simplifies AcuConsole customization.

Ideal for CAE Automation

Modular architecture allows us to substitute different components without major

changes in the code.


Database uses HDF5 format, which is efficient for storing large amounts of data.

A.29

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

AcuConsole Demo

Pipe Flow

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

AcuConsole Demo - Pipe Flow


Objectives

Learn the basic interaction with AcuConsole

Import geometry into AcuConsole

Set-up the problem to solve a laminar pipe-flow

Launch and Monitor AcuSolve

Post-Process using AcuProbe and AcuFieldView

Given

CAD model of a simple pipe

A.32

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AcuConsole Demo - Pipe Flow


Launch AcuConsole

For Windows users, go to


Start programs Acusim Software AcuConsole V1.8b

For Linux users, type


acuConsole

Create a new database

In the menu bar click on


File New

New database dialog opens

Navigate to the folder in which the simulation files are to be stored

Type demo as the File name and click Save

The File name (demo.acs) will be seen in the title bar

Visible entity is set to None as there is no Geometry/Mesh

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AcuConsole Demo - Pipe Flow


Data tree

Global
Mesh/geometry
independent

Model
Mesh/geometry
dependent

A.34

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AcuConsole Demo - Pipe Flow


Problem Description

Double-click or right-click open on Problem Description beneath Global in the Data


tree

In the Panels area, set problem parameters

Title: pipe flow

Sub Title: Re about 1000

Turbulence equation: laminar

Mesh type: Fixed

A.35

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AcuConsole Demo - Pipe Flow


Auto Solution Strategy

Use the defaults


Steady state analysis
Max time steps: 100
Flow only

A.36

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AcuConsole Demo - Pipe Flow


Import CAD

In the menu bar click on File Import

Choose a file to open dialog opens. Change the Files of Type to Acis File or Parasolid
File.

Navigate to the directory in which the CAD model is present and select pipe.sat or

pipe.x_t. Click Open

Import Geometry dialog opens.

If Acis file is loaded, change the Geometry units


from 1000 mm to 1 m. Click Ok to load the geometry.

Visible entity changes to Geometry

A.37

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AcuConsole Demo - Pipe Flow


The region is in default Volume group and 3 faces in default Surface.
Rename default volume to Fluid.
Surface Grouping

Surfaces New to create two


groups, inflow and outflow

Rename default to wall

Right-click on inflow Add To and


pick inflow face.

Repeat with outflow and wall

A.38

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AcuConsole Demo - Pipe Flow


Global Mesh Attributes

Click MSH in Datatree Manager

Mesh size type: Relative

Relative mesh size: 0.05

Tools Generate Mesh


Click Ok in Launch AcuMeshSim dialog

A.39

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AcuConsole Demo - Pipe Flow


Monitor the mesh generation process in AcuTail window
Check the mesh statistics in AcuTail window
To view the mesh on CAD model

Right click on Surfaces and select


display type as solid & wire

A.40

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AcuConsole Demo - Pipe Flow


Fluid

Water

Inflow

Mass flux: 0.5 kg/sec

Outflow

Outflow

Wall

Wall

A.41

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AcuConsole Demo - Pipe Flow


Launch AcuSolve

Click Tools > AcuSolve

Problem name: demo

Generate AcuSolve input files On

Launch AcuSolve On

Click Ok

A.42

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AcuConsole Demo - Pipe Flow


Progress monitor

AcuSolve log data

Tools AcuProbe

A.43

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AcuConsole Demo - Pipe Flow


Post process in AcuFieldView

Tools AcuFieldView

Ok to specify demo.1.Log file

Surface pressure contours are displayed

Refer to AcuFieldView help section for more details

A.44

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Acusim Programs

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Acusim Programs
Simulation process consists of running multiple programs:

acuConsole - construct models, write input files

acuMakeLib/acuMakeDll - compile user functions

acuRun - script to run preparatory and solver programs


acuPrep - read input files and prepare data for solver run
acuView - compute view factor for radiation problems
acuSolve - perform the CFD simulation

acuTrans - translate the output of acuSolve

Refer to the Programs Reference Manual downloadable via Client Login

A.46

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Acusim Programs
AcuConsole

Construct models using two main modes of operation


Import geometry, generate mesh, set up CFD simulation
Import existing mesh/input file, set up CFD simulation

Data tree

Data tree Manager

Panels
Area

Visualization
Area
Information
Area
CPU Usage
Monitor
A.47

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Acusim Programs
acuMakeLib/acuMakeDll

Compile User Defined Functions (UDF)


acuMakeLib - Unix and Linux platforms
acuMakeDll Windows
These scripts compile user coding, then create a dynamic shared library (Linux/Unix) or a dynamic
linked library (Windows) that is loaded by AcuSolve at runtime and executed when necessary.

Example:
To compile user functions that are in a file named usrFunction.c, execute the following
command:
Linux/Unix: acuMakeLib -src usrFunction.c
Windows: acuMakeDll -src usrFunction.c

A.48

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Acusim Programs
acuRun

Script that runs appropriate programs to launch simulations on single processor or


parallel computer systems.

acuRun has various different functions that will be executed depending on the type of physics
being solved:
prep: prepare the input data for acuSolve

view: perform the view factor computation

solve: launch the solver

prep,solve: prepare the input data for acuSolve, then launch the solver

all: run all necessary modules for the simulation (prep, view, solve)

A.49

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Acusim Programs
acuRun

To execute from within acuConsole, point to the icon in the Tools menu or on the main
toolbar:

The following panel appears:

Equivalent command line argument:


acuRun -do all -pb demo -np
2
Both methods run a problem named demo, write
the results to the directory ACUSIM.DIR, run
all necessary solver modules (acuPrep, acuView,
acuSolve), and utilize a single processor.
A.50

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Acusim Programs
acuRun
We could also accomplish the same results by executing each command in
succession without using acuRun:

Equivalent series of command line arguments:


Prepare the input:
acuPrep -pb demo -nsd 1

Compute the view factors:


acuView -pb demo -np 1
Launch the solver:
acuSolve -pb demo -np 1
Remember: There are many options for each of the programs.. -h option lists them all.
A.51

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Acusim Programs
acuSig

Signal a running AcuSolve job

Stop job at end of current time step (clean stop)


acuSig -stop

Stop job as soon as possible


acuSig -halt

Stop job after a certain time step is completed


acuSig sts 200

Signal job to output results at end of current time step


acuSig -out

Many more options


acuSig -h

A.52

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Acusim Programs
acuTrans / acuOut

Programs to translate solution data for post processing

To execute from within acuConsole, point to the icon in the Tools menu or
on the main toolbar:

The following panel appears:


Equivalent command line argument:
acuTrans out to table
acuTrans out to stats
acuTrans out to info

A.53

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Acusim Programs
Additional acuTrans Examples

Get statistics on nodal velocity at steps 5 through 15


acuTrans out outv velocity to stats ts 5:15

Translate mass flux at inflow to a raw table


acuTrans osi osiv mass osis "inflow" to table

Translate heat flux at nodes of the wall to a raw table


acuTrans osf osfv heat osfs "wall surface" to table

Translate heat fluxes of all surface output nodes to a raw table


acuTrans out extout -outv surface_heat_flux to table
**Note that internal nodes will have a value of zero

Visualize all nodal and surface node data with AcuFieldView


acuTrans out extout to fieldview

A.54

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Acusim Programs
There are many more utility programs

Some available through AcuConsole, some not

See MANIFEST.txt in the distribution for complete list

bin (supported programs):


===========================================================================
| File
| Type
| Description
|
===========================================================================
|+acuDmg
| Python | Directory management tool
|
| acuDplace
| Perl
| Determine optimum dplace value for Altix
|
| acuEnSight6To5 | Script | Convert an EnSight6 file to EnSight5
|
| acuFmt
| Exec
| ASCII/binary conversion of AcuSolve files
|
| acuGetData
| Exec
| Get AcuSolve results data
|
| acuImport
| Exec
| Import CFD files to AcuSolve
|
...
bin (unsupported programs):
===========================================================================
| File
| Type
| Description
|
===========================================================================
| acuCheckBadTets | Script | Check for tets with internal no-slip BC
|
| acuCheckTets
| Script | Check/correct node ordering of tet mesh
|
| acuCp
| Perl
| Copy an input file(s) in a new directory
|
| acuCpi
| Exec
| Standard MPI PI (3.1415) test
|

A.55

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Workshop 1
Conjugate Heat Transfer

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Workshop 1 - Conjugate Heat Transfer


Create the database

File New

Browse to Workshop1 directory


Enter name as conj_pipe
Select Save

Import the geometry

File Import

Set type to Acis File or Parasolid

Select cht_pipe.SAT or cht_pipe.x_t

If Acis file is selected, change Geometry units from


1000 mm to 1 m

Volume and Surface Group Option = By part name

Separate internal faces = On

Ok to import

Visible entity set to Geometry


A.58

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Workshop 1 - Conjugate Heat Transfer


Click PRB from the Data tree Manager
Expand the Global branch
Double-click Problem Description

Set Title to pipe flow

Set Sub title to conjugate heat transfer

Set Temperature equation to Advective


diffusive

Set Turbulence equation to Spalart-Allmaras

Double-click Auto Solution Strategy

Review the default settings to be used

A.59

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Workshop 1 - Conjugate Heat Transfer


Click MAT from the Data tree Manager
Right-click Material Model and select New

Right-click Material Model 1, select Rename and


type Steel
Enter on keyboard to accept

Double-click Steel

Set Medium to Solid

Set Density to 7865 kg/m3

Set Specific Heat to 460 J/kg-K

Set Conductivity to 61 W/m-K

A.60

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Workshop 1 - Conjugate Heat Transfer


Click MSH on the Data tree Manager
Double-click Global Mesh Attributes

Set Relative mesh size to 0.03


3% of bounding box largest edge

Minimize the Global branch


File Save
Expand Model and Volumes branches
Right-click Surfaces and select Display off
Right-click Volumes and select Purge
Right-click Volumes and select Volume Manager
Set Display to on for both volumes
Change name of inner_pipe to water and
outer_pipe to steel

A.61

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Workshop 1 - Conjugate Heat Transfer


Click on Columns to see those available for Volume Manager

Make sure Medium and Material Model are active - then Ok

For the water volume, set Medium to Fluid and Element Set Material Model to
Water

For the steel volume, set Element Set Medium to Solid and Element Set Material
Model to Steel

Click Close when finished

Minimize Volumes
Set display of Volumes off and Surfaces on

A.62

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Workshop 1 - Conjugate Heat Transfer


Expand Surfaces
Surfaces are based on their original parent Volume

The surfaces between the two volumes are separated into two different groups

Right-click surfaces and select Purge


Right-click Surfaces and select Surface Manager

Select New twice to create two new groups

Click on Columns and enable Simple BC Type

A.63

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Workshop 1 - Conjugate Heat Transfer


In the Surface Manager, rename Surface 1 to Inlet and click Add to

Select the circular surface at the minimum X end and hit Done

Set Display for Inlet to off

Set Simple BC Type to Inflow

A.64

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Workshop 1 - Conjugate Heat Transfer

Rename Surface 2 to Solid_Outer and click Add to


Select the outermost cylinder surface and click Done

Set Display for Solid_Outer to Off

Rename inner_pipe to Outlet - a single surface at the maximum Y end

Set Simple BC Type to Outflow - set Display to off

Rename outer_pipe to Solid_Ends - the two end surfaces of the solid pipe volume - set

Display to off

A.65

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Workshop 1 - Conjugate Heat Transfer

In the Surface Manager, rename inner_pipe_int to Fluid_int - the surface between solid
and fluid, but attached to the fluid volume

Rename outer_pipe_int to Solid_int - the matching surface, but attached to the solid
volume

Click Close to close the Surface Manager

A.66

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Workshop 1 - Conjugate Heat Transfer


Click BC from the Data tree Manager
Expand Inlet under Surfaces
Double-click Simple Boundary Condition

Set Inflow type to Mass flux


Set Mass flux to 5 kg/sec
Set Temperature to 273 K

Expand Solid_Outer

Double-click Simple Boundary Condition


Set Temperature BC type to Value
Set Temperature to 300 K

A.67

Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Workshop 1 - Conjugate Heat Transfer


Define boundary layer elements growing from
Fluid wall
Click MSH in the Data tree Manager
Expand Fluid_Int

Click in the box next to Surface Mesh

Attributes

Set Mesh size type to None


No additional control on size

Set Boundary layer flag to On

Set Resolve to Total layer height


Calculated from other settings

Set First element height to 0.02m

Set Growth rate to 1.3

Set Number of layers to 5


A.68

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Workshop 1 - Conjugate Heat Transfer


Launch the mesh generator

Tools Generate Mesh or use the


icon

Accept the defaults

Click Ok

NOTE: The mesh generator works


directly on the CAD model stored in
the database, rather than a faceted

representation.

A.69

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Workshop 1 - Conjugate Heat Transfer


Monitor the mesh generation process in the AcuTail window
Check the mesh statistics in the AcuTail window

~12000 Nodes

~66000 volume elements


By default the boundary layer prisms are
split to tets

A.70

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Workshop 1 - Conjugate Heat Transfer


Notice that Visible entity is now set to Mesh
Right-click Surfaces and select Display On
Change the display type

Right-click Surfaces

Select Display type

Select solid & wire

Boundary Layers

A.71

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Workshop 1 - Conjugate Heat Transfer


Cut-Plane Visualization

Right-click Model and select Cut Plane

Set Clip to on

Set Clip to Down to reverse clip

Set Display to mesh

Set Color to volumes

Hold Ctrl key to change view while


moving mouse

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Workshop 1 - Conjugate Heat Transfer


Explore the features in Cut-plane dialog to visualize the mesh at various locations
and with different settings.

Hold the Ctrl key and use the mouse to maneuver the geometry without changing the
cut plane

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Workshop 1 - Conjugate Heat Transfer


Scale the mesh from L/D = 5 to L/D = 15 for the
simulation

Simulate 3X length with the same mesh count

MeshOp Transform Coordinates


Set the Scaling factors in X/Y/Z to 3.0, 1.0, 1.0

Click Apply to perform the scaling


Click Close to close the dialog

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Workshop 1 - Conjugate Heat Transfer


Launch AcuSolve

Tools AcuSolve

Or, click on the red arrow icon in the toolbar.

Click Ok with defaults

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Monitor dialog provides two options

Stop run - stop: Signals AcuSolve to stop the


analysis at end of current time step

Output results - output: Signals AcuSolve to


output results at end of current time step

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Monitor the residuals in acuProbe

Click Tools AcuProbe

Expand Residual ratio

Right-click Final and select Plot All

Review other options for plotting surface integrations, etc.

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Workshop 1 - Conjugate Heat Transfer


Post process in AcuFieldView

FieldView is a premium post-processor designed specifically for CFD applications

AcuFieldView is the HyperWorks OEM version of FieldView 13 from Intelligent Light.

AcuFieldView is shipped as an integral part of AcuSolve within the HyperWorks 11.0


software suite and can be accessed through AcuConsole

AcuFieldView offers the interactive review of transient data with sweep caching, along
with CFD data management capabilities

It can handle steady and unsteady data of any size with high speed, enabling engineers to
interrogate and visualize complex flow simulations within AcuSolve

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Workshop 1 - Conjugate Heat Transfer


AcuFieldView GUI
Menu Bar
Menu Toolbar
Side Toolbar

Transform Controls Toolbar


Viewer Toolbar

Visualization
Panel options
Visualization area

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Workshop 1 - Conjugate Heat Transfer


Launch AcuFieldView from AcuConsole

Click Tools AcuFieldView or click on the AcuFieldView icon in Toolbar

In the Launch AcuFieldView dialog make sure path to the log file(conj_pipe.1.Log) is
provided.

Click Ok to accept it.

AcuFieldView GUI opens with the model loaded


displaying all the boundary surfaces.

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AcuFieldView

AcuFieldView opens with all boundary surfaces displayed.

To change background color, click on View > Background color


in the menu bar

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Boundary Surfaces

Turn off the display of Surface ID 1 by unchecking


Visibility in the Boundary Surface Panel

Boundary Surface Panel can be opened by clicking on


Boundary Surface in the toolbar of by clicking
Visualization Panels > Boundary Surface.. from the
menubar dropdown list

Click Create for creating a new surface ID

Check the Visibility to On

Under BOUNDARY TYPES, select the surfaces to be


displayed. In this model, select Solid_int and click OK.
The inner surface of the pipe will be displayed.

Change the COLORING to Scalar.

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Boundary Surfaces (Contd)

Under Scalar Function, click on Select. In the Function Selection panel select
pressure and click Calculate. The boundary surface is colored by pressure.

Change the DISPLAY TYPE to Smooth

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Iso-surface

Turn off the display of Boundary Surfaces by unchecking


Visibility in the Boundary Surface Panel

Open Iso-Surface Panel by clicking on Iso in the toolbar or


by clicking Visualization Panels > Iso-Surface.. from the
menubar dropdown list

Click Create for creating a new Iso-Surface.

Iso-Surface Create dialop opens. Click on Define Iso


Function. Function Selection dialog opens. Select
temperature and click Calculate.

Below Iso Function the Min, Current and Max


temperatures are shown. Set the Current to 285 and hit
enter.

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Workshop 1 - Conjugate Heat Transfer


Iso-surface (Contd)

Change the COLORING to Scalar

Under Scalar Function, click on Select. In the Function Selection panel select
pressure and click Calculate. The Iso-Surface is colored by pressure.

Change the DISPLAY TYPE to Smooth

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Coordinate Surfaces

Turn off the display of Iso-Surface by unchecking


Visibility in the Iso-Surface Panel

Open Coordinate Surface Panel by clicking on


Coordinate Surface in the toolbar or by clicking
Visualization Panels > Coordinate Surface.. from
the menubar dropdown list

Click Create for creating a new coordinate surface.

By default, X coordinate plane is selected. Set it to Z


plane by selecting Z in COORD PLANE

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Workshop 1 - Conjugate Heat Transfer


Coordinate Surfaces (Contd)

Change the COLORING to Scalar

Under Scalar Function, click on Select. In the Function Selection panel select
pressure and click Calculate. The coordinate plane is colored by pressure.

Change the DISPLAY TYPE to Smooth

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Velocity vectors

In the Coordinate Surface panel, under DISPLAY TYPE select Vectors.

Velocity vectors are displayed on the coordinate plane.

For additional control over the vectors click on Options button next to Vectors. Vector
Options panel pops up.

Play with the options like VECTOR HEAD, Vector Scale and TYPE etc.

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Solver Commands

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Solver Commands
All solver commands are read by acuPrep from an ASCII text file (input file)

This file may be generated in a number of ways:


Using AcuConsole
Using mesh generators that support AcuSolve as an export format
Manually

We will discuss the format of the input file and show some examples of commands, but

the main focus of the training, as you have seen, is on generating the file using
AcuConsole

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Solver Commands
Commands have the following general syntax:
COMMAND ( qualifier ) {
parameter1

= value1

...
parameterN

= valueN

COMMAND is the name of the command, such as ANALYSIS

qualifier (including the parentheses) is a mandatory qualifier

parameter1 to parameterN are optional parameters.

Commands are format free and case insensitive, except in double quoted strings.
All text after a hash mark, #, is a comment; except in double-quoted strings.
ANALYSIS {
mode = static # Run as static for now
}
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Solver Commands
There are two types of commands: Functional & Declarative

Functional commands perform operations at the time they are read:


AUTO_SOLUTION_STRATEGY
RESTART
RUN
INCLUDE
ASSIGN
QUIT

Placement of functional commands is important.


Declarative commands define the problem parameters.
They are order independent.
NODAL_BOUNDARY_CONDITION commands may be specified before or after the COORDINATE
command; even though the former depend on the latter.

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Solver Commands
Some commands require a qualifier
Qualifiers distinguish one use of the command from another:
MATERIAL_MODEL( "air" ) {
density_model

= "air at std. atm."

viscosity_model

= "air"

}
MATERIAL_MODEL( "aluminum" ) {
density_model

= "aluminum"

conductivity_model

= "aluminum"

If a command accepts a qualifier, one must be given.


If a command does not require a qualifier, there must be none.

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Solver Commands
There are two types of qualifiers:

User-given name:
Any double-quoted string: air, my #1 BC.
Used to reference a command by another command

DENSITY_MODEL( "air at std. atm." ) {


density

= 1.225

}
MATERIAL_MODEL( "air" ) {
density_model

= "air at std. atm."

viscosity_model

= "air"

Enumerated:
Select from a specific list of values:

NODAL_INITIAL_CONDITION( velocity ) {
default_values

= { 1, 0, 0 }

}
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Solver Commands
Commands have zero or more parameters
Most parameters have default values
Parameters are persistent; they change only if the command is reissued with that
parameter:
DENSITY_MODEL( "air with bouyancy" ) {

density

= 1.225

}
DENSITY_MODEL( "air with bouyancy" ) {
density

= 1.2

Seven types of parameters:

String, Enumerated, Boolean, Integer, Real, List and Array

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Solver Commands
String is any user-given value enclosed in a pair of double-quotes.

Typically used to refer to a particular issuance of another command

May contain up to 1023 characters

SIMPLE_BOUNDARY_CONDITION( "inflow" ){
element_set

= "channel"

Enumerated is a set of options available for a given parameter.

Parameter shape of ELEMENT_SET command accepts: four_node_tet,


five_node_pyramid, six_node_wedge, eight_node_brick and ten_node_tet

ELEMENT_SET( "channel" ) {
shape

= eight_node_brick

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Solver Commands
Boolean turns an option on or off.

Values on, yes and true are equivalent; so are off, no and false.
TIME_INCREMENT {
auto_time_increment

= on

Integer is an integer value.

An integer parameter may have a valid range.

Some integer values may have special meaning.


NODAL_OUTPUT {

output_frequency

= 10

Real is a floating point value.

A real parameter may have a valid range.


NODAL_OUTPUT {
output_time_interval
}

= 0.3
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Solver Commands
List is a set of strings providing a list of user-specified commands:

Order of strings in the list is important


TIME_SEQUENCE {
Staggers
}

= { "flow stagger", "turb stagger" }

Array is a set of integers, floating point numbers, or both:

The array may be specified directly in the input file:


PERIODIC_BOUNDARY_CONDITION( "axisymmetric PBC" ) {
rotation_axis
= { 0, 0, 0 ; 0, 0, 1 }
}

The array may be read from an external file:


COORDINATE {
coordinates
}

= Read( "channel.crd" )

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Solver Commands
Arithmetic expressions may be used in integer, real and array parameters:
ASSIGN {
variable
= SHIFT
value
= Sin( PI/8 + Asin(.3) )
}
MULTIPLIER_FUNCTION( "shifted half sin" ) {
type
= cubic_spline
curve_fit_variable
= time
curve_fit_values
= { 0.0, SHIFT + Sin(0.0*PI) ;
0.1, SHIFT + Sin(0.1*PI) ;
1.0, SHIFT + Sin(1.0*PI) ; }
}

Operations +, -, *, /, ^ (for power) and parentheses are available.


Standard C math functions, Abs(x), Acos(x), ..., Tanh(x), plus Max(x,y) and
Min(x,y) are available.
Variables E, PI and EPS (machine precision) are predefined.
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Solver Commands
Values may be read from an environment variable:
SIMPLE_BOUNDARY_CONDITION( "inflow" ) {
x_velocity
= Env( "INLET_VELOCITY" )
}

In UNIX cshell the variable is set as


cshell-prompt> setenv INLET_VELOCITY 20

This is particularly useful for parametric studies


foreach vel ( 5 10 15 20 )
echo "Processing velocity " $vel " "
setenv INLET_VELOCITY $vel
acuRun
acuTrans out to stats > STATS.$vel
end

Strings may also be imported


COORDINATES {
coordinates
}

= Read(Env("PROBLEM") . ".crd")

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Solver Commands
The solver commands are specified entirely through the Data
tree in AcuConsole:
Data tree

Each branch
houses different
commands

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Solver Commands
The commands are organized into the Global and Model branches

Global commands are mesh independent (problem name, physical models to use,
material models, etc.)

Model commands involve information about the mesh (boundary values for specific
faces, nodes, etc.)

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Solver Commands
Double clicking on a node in the tree shows the options for specific commands:

For example, double clicking on Problem Description brings up the following options

Global Problem Description

The current settings will cause the following


lines to be written to the input file:

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Solver Commands
Common Global Commands

Auto Solution Strategy


Automatically determine the appropriate linear solver settings and time stepping strategy based
on the equations present
Global Auto Solution Strategy

Equivalent input file command:

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Solver Commands
Common Global Commands

Multiplier Function
Multiplier Function is visible only when All or PB* is selected from Data tree Manager.
Right-click on Multiplier Function and select New. Multiplier Function 1 is generated.
Rename to Linear Ramp. Double click on Multiplier Function 1 to view the properties in
Panels Area.
Time varying scale factor that can be applied to boundary conditions, time step size, etc.

Equivalent input file command:

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Solver Commands
Equivalent input file commands:
Common Global Commands

Material Model
Specify material properties
Global Material Model Water

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Solver Commands
Common Global Commands

Body Force
Define momentum, species, and thermal body forces
Global Body Force Gravity

Equivalent input file commands:

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Solver Commands
Common Global Commands

Nodal Output
Define the frequency at which to write nodal results to disk
Global Output Nodal Output

Equivalent input file command:

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Solver Commands
Common Global Commands

Nodal Initial Condition


Specify the initial conditions for the simulation
Global Nodal Initial Condition

Equivalent input file commands:

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Solver Commands
Overview of Modeling Commands

Modeling commands apply to 1 of 4 types of entities

Volume Elements (Volumes)


Surface Elements (Surfaces)
Periodic node pairs (Periodics)
Nodes (Nodes)

Each entry can be expanded to show the available sets and options for this type of entity:

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Solver Commands
Common Modeling Commands

Element Set
Define a group of volume elements and assign attributes
Model Volumes Name Element Set

Equivalent input file command:

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Solver Commands
Common Modeling Commands

Simple Boundary Condition


Apply boundary conditions to a set of surface faces
Model Surfaces Name Simple Boundary Condition

Equivalent input file command:


SIMPLE_BOUNDARY_CONDITION( Inlet ){
surfaces
= Read(...)
shape
= tri3
element_set
= Fluid
type
= inflow
inflow_type
= mass_flux
mass_flux
= 20
temperature_type
= value
temperature
= 422.04
}

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Solver Commands
Common Modeling Commands

Periodic Boundary Condition


Apply periodic conditions to a set of node pairs
Model Periodics Name Periodic Boundary Condition

Equivalent input file command:


PERIODIC_BOUNDARY_CONDITION( Periodicity ){
variable
= all
type
= periodic
nodal_pairs
= Read( ... )
}

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Solver Commands
Common Modeling Commands

Nodal Boundary Condition


Apply boundary conditions to a set of nodes for a specific variable
Model Nodes Name Variable Name

Equivalent input file command:


NODAL_BOUNDARY_CONDITION( Test Data x-vel ){
nodes
= Read( ... )
variable
= x_velocity
type
= scattered_data
scattered_data
= Read( ... )
active_type
= always
precedence
= 1
reference_frame
= none
multiplier_function = none
}

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Solver Commands
Many more commands exist

Most are available within AcuConsole


Expand the branches in the model tree to see what is there

For a complete list, see AcuSolve Command Reference Manual

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Workshop 2 Blower

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Workshop 2 - Blower
Purposes of the Workshop

Import geometry and create Surface and Volume sets

Build Reference Frame and discuss rotating problems

Define Global and Surface mesh parameters

Define Boundary Conditions

Apply the Reference Frame to Volumes and Surfaces

Generate an all-tet mesh

View a mesh cut plane

Run AcuSolve

Monitor solution with AcuProbe and create a UDF

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Workshop 2 - Blower
Create the database

File New

Browse to Workshop2 directory


Enter name as blower1
Select Save

Import the geometry

File Import

Set type to Acis File or Parasolid

Select blower_asm.SAT or blower_asm.x_t

If Acis file is selected, change the Geometry units from


1000 mm to 1 m

Set Volume and Surface Group Option to By part name

Toggle Separate internal faces On

Ok to import

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Workshop 2 - Blower
Click PRB from the Data tree Manager
Expand the Global branch
Double-click Problem Description

Set Title to Blower CFD

Set Sub title to reference frame

Set Turbulence equation to Spalart-Allmaras

Double-click Nodal Initial Condition

Set Eddy viscosity to 1.e-5

**Note: The turbulent eddy viscosity (t) is typically

set to 10-20 x laminar kinematic viscosity

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Workshop 2 - Blower
The analysis will first be done with a rotating
reference frame
Click PB* from the Data tree Manager
Right-click Reference Frame and select New
Right-click the created Reference Frame 1 and
select Rename

Change the name to Impeller_RF and press Enter on


keyboard

Double-click Impeller_RF
Select Open Array for Angular velocity

Set Z-component to 10.47 rad/sec


Angular velocity is 10.47 rad/sec (or 100 RPM) about Zaxis

Click OK
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Workshop 2 - Blower
Build a coarse mesh to shorten the workshop solution time
Click MSH from the Data tree Manager
Double-click Global Mesh Attributes

Set Relative mesh size to 0.04

Minimize the Global branch

Right-click Model and select Purge to delete empty


groups
File Save

For a reference frame analysis, the reference frame is


applied to the volume close to the impeller. Nothing needs to
be done to the boundary between the stationary volume and
the reference frame volume.

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Workshop 2 - Blower
Expand Model and Volumes branches

blower_main is the bulk volume

blower_imp is the volume near the impeller

Right-click Volumes and select Volume Manager


Click on Columns and activate Reference Frame

Rename blower_main to Fluid_Main


Rename blower_imp to Fluid_Impeller
Set Material Model to Water for both volumes
Set Reference Frame to Impeller_RF for Fluid_Impeller
Close the panel

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Workshop 2 - Blower
Expand Surfaces
Right-click Surfaces and select Surface Manager

Click on Columns to make sure Simple BC Type is enabled

Click New twice to create two new surfaces

Rename Surface 1 to Inlet

Click Add to for Inlet, pick the circular surface at the


maximum Z-location, and middle-click

Set Simple BC Type for Inlet to Inflow

Set Display to off for Inlet

Rename Surface 2 to Outlet

Click Add to for Outlet, pick the circular surface at the


maximum Y-location, and middle-click

Set Simple BC Type for Outlet to Outflow

Set Display to off for Outlet

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Workshop 2 - Blower
The remaining surfaces in blower_main are the outer walls of the blower
Rename blower_main to Walls and turn off its display
The surfaces in blower_imp_int and blower_main_int are between the two volumes. In
this case they can be in the same group.
Rename blower_main_int to Interface and turn off its display
Select Add to for Interface, select the 3 surfaces of the disk (currently in
blower_imp_int) and middle-click
Click on blower_imp_int (now empty) and hit Delete
Set Simple BC Active for Interface to off

No boundary condition needed between the volumes

The remaining surfaces are the blower impeller

Rename blower_imp to Impeller

Click Close to close the surface manager

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Workshop 2 - Blower
Expand Interface

Activate Surface Mesh Attributes

Set Absolute mesh size to 0.01 m

Expand Walls

Activate Surface Mesh Attributes

Set Absolute mesh size to 0.025 m

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Workshop 2 - Blower
Click BC from the Data tree Manager
Expand Inlet

Double-click Simple Boundary Condition

Set Inflow type to Mass flux

Set Mass flux to 2.0 kg/sec

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Workshop 2 - Blower
Expand Impeller

Double-click Simple Boundary Condition

The impeller is a no-slip wall in the rotating


reference frame

Set Reference frame to Impeller_RF

Click MSH from the Data tree Manager

Activate Surface Mesh Attributes

Set Absolute mesh size to 0.005 m

With the meshing parameters defined, the

model is ready to be meshed


Save the database

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Workshop 2 - Blower
Select Tools Generate Mesh
Items to check

.ams file name


This is the meshing control file written by AcuConsole

Mesh output directory


The location of the mesh files to be written by
AcuConsole

Click Ok to start the meshing process


Monitor the process via the AcuTail window that
opens

Mesh has ~27,000 nodes

Watch for notification that meshing is complete

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Workshop 2 - Blower
Right-click Surfaces, select Display On
Right-click Surfaces, select Display type, and solid & wire to see surface
mesh
Turn on/off display of various surfaces

Right-click on surface name

Display on / Display off

Experiment with Transparency

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Workshop 2 - Blower
View a mesh cut plane

Right-click Model and select Cut Plane

Select Mid Z to position plane

Use the wheel to move the position to approximately Z = 0

Turn Clip to on with the radio button

Set Display to mesh via the pull-down

Set Color to volumes

To modify the position of the model (rotate, pan, etc.) hold


the Ctrl key on the keyboard while performing mouse
operations

Set Cut Plane Visible to false

Close

A.131

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Workshop 2 - Blower
The model is ready to solve
Tools AcuSolve

Verify:
Problem name
Problem and Working directories
Generate AcuSolve input files and Launch
AcuSolve set to On

Click Ok to start the solver

AcuTail starts with the .Log file history

The AcuSolve Controller opens

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Workshop 2 - Blower
The .Log file shows residual and solution ratios
for each equation

Residual Ratio - measure how well the solution


matches the governing equations

Solution Ratio - measure how the answers


change from iteration to iteration (also time step
to time step for a steady state problem)

AcuSolve controller

stop - stops the run and writes requested output

at end of current time step

output - writes requested output at end of


current time step

About 25 time steps to converge

A.133

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Workshop 2 - Blower
Tools -> AcuProbe to track pressures

Expand Surface Output

Expand Inlet
Right-click pressure and hit Plot

Expand Outlet
Right-click pressure and hit Plot

The pressure rise is about 475 Pa

Build a UDF to monitor pressure rise

Click the User Function icon

Enter Name as Press_Rise

Define Function as shown


Right-click appropriate quantity and Copy Name,
then Paste in Function

Apply when complete

Expand User function and plot Press_Rise


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Input File Review

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Input File Review


Open input file from Workshop 2 - blower1.inp
Problem Description panel

Writes ANALYSIS and EQUATION commands

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Input File Review


Auto Solution Strategy panel

Writes AUTO_SOLUTION_STRATEGY command

Advanced Solution Strategy branch controls the following commands:

TIME_SEQUENCE

Individual STAGGER commands

TIME_INCREMENT

TIME_INTEGRATION

LINEAR_SOLVER_PARAMETERS

CONVERGENCE_CHECK_PARAMETERS

These are not written unless needed!

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Input File Review


Reference Frame panel

Called Impeller_RF

Writes REFERENCE_FRAME command

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Input File Review


Material model panel for Water

Predefined in AcuConsole

Writes MATERIAL_MODEL command

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Input File Review


Nodal Output panel

Defaults for AcuConsole

Writes NODAL_OUTPUT command

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Input File Review


Element Set panel

Writes ELEMENT_SET command

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Input File Review


Inlet Simple Boundary Condition panel

Writes SIMPLE_BOUNDARY_CONDITION command (truncated here)

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Input File Review


Surface Output panel

Activated by default in AcuConsole (can be turned off by default in the preferences if you
like)

Writes SURFACE_OUTPUT command

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Input File Review


Other important commands handled automatically in AcuConsole

COORDINATE command

RUN command

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Workshop 3 Blower 2

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Workshop 3 - Blower2
Purposes of the Workshop

Modify the previous blower database to run as a sliding mesh case

Open and modify an existing database

Build Mesh Motion

Define Boundary Conditions

Apply the Mesh Motion to Volumes and Surfaces

Write AcuSolve input files

Project solution from Workshop2 to mesh of Workshop3

Import Nodal Initial Condition files

Run AcuSolve

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Workshop 3 - Blower2
Open existing database

File -> Open

Browse to Workshop3 directory


Select the blower2 database

NOTE: Could also continue from existing database


File -> Save As to change name to blower2.acs in the Workshop3 directory

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Workshop 3 - Blower2
Click PRB from the Data tree Manager
Expand the Global branch
Double-click Problem Description

Set Sub title to sliding mesh

Set Analysis type to Transient

Set Mesh type to Fully specified

Double-click Auto Solution Strategy

Verify Analysis type set to Transient

Set Initial time increment to 0.002 sec

Set Max stagger iterations to 3


Gives better convergence at each time step

Verify Flow and Turbulence On

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Workshop 3 - Blower2
Click ALE from the Data tree Manager to
define the mesh motion
Right-click Mesh Motion and select New
Right-click Mesh Motion 1 and Rename

Rename to Impeller_Rot and press Enter

Double-click Impeller_Rot to open the panel

Set Type to Rotation

Select Open Array for Angular velocity


Set Z-component to 10.47 rad/sec
Click OK

NOTE: Simulation set to run for 0.2 sec = 1/3


revolution. Usually take meaningful data after
running 1 or 2 full revolutions.

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Workshop 3 - Blower2
Click OUT from the Data tree Manager
Expand Output
Double-click Nodal Output

Set Time step frequency to 2


Writes nodal output every 2 time steps

Set Output initial condition to On


Writes initial condition file

Right-click Time History Output and select New

Rename Time History Output 1 to monitor

Double-click new name monitor

Set Type to Coordinates via pull-down

Click on Open Array for Coordinates

Set coordinate to ( 0.095, 0.105, 0.0 )


Center of outlet nozzle entry region

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Workshop 3 - Blower2
Click PRB from the Data tree Manager
Expand Model and Volumes
Expand Fluid_Impeller and double-click
Element Set

Set Mesh motion to Impeller_Rot


Rotate the entire element set

Set Reference frame to None

Minimize Volumes
Fluid_Main remains as in Workshop 2
Click BC from the Data tree Manager

Expand Surfaces and Impeller

Double-click Simple Boundary Condition

Set Reference frame to None

Set Mesh motion to Impeller_Rot


Rotate the impeller surfaces
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Workshop 3 - Blower2
Click ALE from the Data tree Manager
Expand Interface

For the moving mesh problem, this is the sliding


boundary

Activate Interface Surface

Set Gap factor to 0


Values of 0 for Gap factor and/or Gap yield no
limit on match search distance

Surface must be split to yield two sets of nodes


and surfaces
Right-click Interface, select Mesh Op. and
Split Internal Faces

Splits nodes with one set attached to Fluid_Main

and one attached to Fluid_Impeller

~ 27,000 nodes >> ~30,000 nodes


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Workshop 3 - Blower2
Tools -> AcuSolve
Verify:

Problem name blower2

Problem and Working directories

Generate AcuSolve input files set to On and


Launch AcuSolve set to Off

Click Ok to generate the input files

blower2.inp and MESH.DIR directory

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Workshop 3 - Blower2
Project Workshop 2 solution to Workshop 3 mesh to use as initial conditions
Open AcuSolve Command Prompt and use cd to change to Workshop 2 directory

acuProj -crd ../Workshop3/MESH.DIR/blower2.crd

Creates blower1.eddy.nic, blower1.pres.nic, blower1.vel.nic in Workshop2 directory


Multi-column nodal-initial-condition files with node number and quantity or quantities

Import Nodal Initial Condition files to Workshop 3

Return to AcuConsole GUI for Workshop 3 with BAS selected in tree manager

Expand Global and double-click Nodal Initial Condition

Set Pressure initial condition type to Nodal Values

Click Open Array for Nodal Values under Pressure

Click Read from Array Editor window

Set Files of type to All files (*.*) and browse to Workshop2 directory

Select blower1.pres.nic and select Open

Repeat for Velocity (use blower1.vel.nic) and Eddy viscosity (use blower1.eddy.nic)
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Workshop 3 - Blower2
The model is ready to solve
Tools -> AcuSolve
Verify:

Problem name blower2

Problem and Working directories

Generate AcuSolve input files and Launch


AcuSolve set to On

Click Ok to start the solver

AcuTail starts with the .Log file history

The AcuSolve Controller opens

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Workshop 3 - Blower2
Advanced Boundary Conditions
Rather than define the mass flow at the inlet, let
AcuSolve calculate the mass flow and pressure rise
based on the impeller rotation
Click BC from the Data tree Manager
Expand Inlet

Double-click Simple Boundary Condition

Set Inflow type = Stagnation pressure

Set Stagnation pressure to 0.0

Set Eddy viscosity to 1.e-6

Run the problem as before

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Workshop 3 - Blower2
Tools -> AcuProbe to plot time history point

Expand Time History

Expand node 1
Right-click x-velocity and select Plot

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Workshop 3 - Blower2
Tools -> AcuFieldView

Launch AcuFieldView dialog opens. Click Ok to launch AcuFieldView with model loaded.

Model can also be loaded manually by separately launching AcuFieldView. In this


workshop, model is loaded using the direct reader option.

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Workshop 3 - Blower2
Reading data to AcuFieldView

Launch AcuFieldView
Read Data : Open File Data Input AcuSolve[Direct Reader]. The
AcuFieldView direct reader will open. Replace mode is set by default for
replacing current dataset. The Append mode will append the dataset, and is
used for comparing the results. Read Grids & Result Data option is default and
will read complete mesh and results. Read Boundary Data Only option can be
used to read surface data only.

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Workshop 3 - Blower2

Reading data to AcuFieldView

Select the Replace mode and Read Grids & Result Data option. This will open the file
browser window. Select blower2.1.Log from problem directory.
Choose the functions needed or Select All (default) from Function Subset Selection
dialog box and select OK. Choose the time step from the Time Step Selection dialog box,
and select OK.
Change the background and remove the outline of the model. Select View Background
Color, and choose white from the Background Color dialog box. Select View Outline
to turn off the outline of the model.

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Workshop 3 - Blower2
Boundary Surfaces Surface mesh Visualization
Go to Visualization Panels Boundary Surface. This will
open Boundary Surface dialog box.
Select Create to create new boundary surface. Select
SBC: Impeller from BOUNDARY TYPES, and click OK.
Change DISPLAY TYPE to Mesh. Choose Geometric for
COLORING, and change the Geometric Color to Black.
Select Thin for Line Type.
Repeat Steps 2 and 3 for remaining SBC surfaces,
SBC: Walls, SBC: Inlet and SBC: Outlet.

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Workshop 3 - Blower2
Boundary Surfaces Color by Pressure
Select Boundary Surface 1, click on the
surface or change Surface ID to 1 in
Boundary Surface dialog box.
Change DISPLAY TYPE to Smooth.
Choose Scalar for COLORING.
Select pressure from the Scalar Function
dialog box.
Select other boundary surfaces and
perform steps 2 and 3. Change the
Transparency of Boundary Surface 2 to
37.5 %.
Change Colormap to NASA-1 for all
boundary surfaces and select Show
legend for Boundary Surface 4.
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Workshop 3 - Blower2
Coordinate Surface Colored by velocity
Turn off visibility for all boundary surfaces.
From menu bar, select View Defined Views, and select +Z
for VIEWING DIRECTION.
Click Coord icon from Tool bar on left side. Select Create to
create new Coordinate Surface.
Change DISPLAY TYPE to Smooth, COLORING to Scalar,
and select velocity_magnitude for Scalar Function.
Change COORD PLANE to Z and current to 0.015625.
Change Colormap to NASA-1, select Local and click on
Show legend

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Workshop 3 - Blower2
Animation to visualize transient data.
Go to Tools Flipbook Build Mode. Click OK to close the
warning window
Go to Tools Transient Data. Move the slider back to 0 and click
Apply in Transient Data Controls panel.
Select Build to build the animation with all available time steps.
The Flipbook Controls are available after the build is complete.
Change the Frame Rate to 0.10.
Pause the animation and click Save to save the animation.

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Workshop 3 - Blower2
Streamlines
Turn off Visibility for the Coordinate surface.
Turn on Visibility and change Scalar Function to
velocity_magnitude for all Boundary Surfaces.
For Boundary Surface 2,
change COLORING to Geometric,
select Grey color from Geometry color panel
Change Transparency to 87.5%.
Turn off Visibility.
Turn off legend for Boundary surface 4.
Go to Visualization Panels Streamlines.
Select Create, change Mode to Seed a Surface
Increase Seeds to Add to 100.
Click CTRL-M1 to select Boundary Surface 1
(Impeller) and click OK,
Unselect Show Seeds.
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Workshop 3 - Blower2

Streamlines (Continued)

Under Calculation Parameters change Step to 9 and Direction to Both.


Click Calculate.
Change COLORING to Scalar, DISPLAY TYPE to Filament & Arrows,
Change Colormap to NASA-1 and select Show Legend.
Open Boundary Surface panel and turn On Visibility for Boundary Surface 2
Again open Streamlines panel and click Animate to see streamlines

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Workshop 3 - Blower2

Streaklines

Go to Tools Flipbook Build Mode. Click OK to skip the warning

Select Build and click Yes in popped up Streakline Export panel.


Save the .fvp export file. The export file will save streaklines to a
particle path file, and simplifies future import and display.

The Flipbook Controls panel is available after the build is complete.

Go to Tools Transient Data. Move the slider back to 0 and click


Apply in Transient Data Controls panel.

Change the Frame Rate to 0.10.


Pause the animation and click Save to save the animation

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Workshop 3 - Blower2
Particle Paths

Turn off Visibility for the Streamlines.

Change COLORING to Scalar, Scalar Variable to


Emission Time, DISPLAY TYPE to Spheres, Colormap to
NASA-1 and select Show Legend.

Go to Tools Transient Data. Move the Slider to


Maximum Time Step and click Apply.

Go to Visualization Panels Particle Paths. Select Import,


browse to previously saved .fvp file and select the file.

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Workshop 3 - Blower2
Animate streak lines to visualize the Emission Time

Go to Tools Flipbook Build Mode. Click OK to skip the warning

Select Build to build the animation.

Pause the animation and click Save to save the animation.

Go to Tools Transient Data. Move the slider back to 0 and click Apply in
Transient Data Controls panel.
The Flipbook Controls are available after the build is complete. Change the
Frame Rate to 0.10.

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Post Processing

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Post Processing
AcuSolve generates four types of output data

Nodal, such as nodal output at a certain time step

Time Series, such as integrated mass flux at inlet as a function of time/time step or the
solution at a specific location

Surface Nodes, such as heat flux at each node of a wall surface at a certain time step

CAA sample data, such as divergence of Lighthill stress

acuTrans (or acuOut for a GUI) may be used to translate from internal format to
the desired format

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Post Processing
All internal files are stored in ACUSIM.DIR directory

They are accesses through ADB (libadb.a) C-callable API &


Python through import acudb
Perl through use Acudb ;
Shell through acuGetData program

All programs (e.g., acuTrans, acuOut) are written on top of ADB

Vast majority of the files are in binary


ADB handles all cross platform binary compatibilities
Files written on one platform may be read on any platform

All supported programs can read ASCII files generated on Windows

The Windows end-of-line carriage return (Ctrl-M) character is properly handled on all
platforms

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Post Processing
Many Options for Processing AcuSolve Results

Export data to files using acuTrans & acuTrace


Nodal results, surface integrals, volume integrals, statistical quantities, streamlines, etc.

Import nodal results into visualization packages


Display boundary surfaces, iso-surfaces, coordinate surfaces, vectors, etc.

Plot various solution quantities using acuProbe


Time history of integrated surface and volume quantities, values at specified nodes,
convergence measures, etc.

Write custom scripts to extract data from the AcuSolve database


API exists for C, Python, Perl, C-Shell

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Post Processing
Translating data using AcuTrans
Export data to tables, visualization packages, compute statistics, etc
Refer to the Programs Reference Manual
Examples (command line):

Translate surface integrated velocity to table format:


acuTrans -osi -osiv step,velocity -to table

Translate time history data to table format:


acuTrans -oth -othv step,velocity,temperature -to table

Compute statistics of the nodal pressure and velocity fields:


acuTrans -out -to stats -outv pressure,velocity

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Post Processing
Translating data using AcuOut

GUI wrapper for acuTrans available through acuConsole or Command-Line acuOut

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Post Processing
Particle tracing using AcuTrace

Computes the trajectory of massless particles through the simulation domain


Particles do not affect the flow

Operates on steady and transient flow solutions

Tracing performed in the downstream direction only

Also able to perform interpolation of the results to specific points without doing any
tracing

Examples:

Trace the trajectory of particles whose coordinates are defined in the file
seed_coordinates.dat
acuTrace -seed seed_coordinates.dat -to table

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Post Processing
Visualization within AcuFieldView

Launch AcuFieldView from AcuConsole and automatically read results from solution
database (no additional files written):

Translate to FieldView format using AcuTrans


Regions, split grid/results files supported
acuTrans out to fieldview

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Post Processing
Visualization within ParaView

Launch ParaView from AcuConsole and automatically read results from solution database
(no additional files written):

Translate to EnSight using AcuTrans, then import into ParaView:


acuTrans out to ensight

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Post Processing
Visualization within EnSight

Launch EnSight from AcuConsole and automatically read results from solution database
(no additional files written):

Translate to EnSight using AcuTrans


EnSight gold and EnSight 6 formats supported
acuTrans out to ensight

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Post Processing
Plotting with AcuProbe

Launch AcuProbe from the command line using:


acuProbe

Launch from AcuConsole by clicking the following icon:

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Program Options

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Program Options
Each program requires zero or more options
Options may be given on the command line:
acuRun -pb channel -np 2

Options may be placed in the configuration file, Acusim.cnf:


problem= channel

num_processors= 2

and the program invoked as:


acuRun

Command line options take precedence over configuration files and defaults.

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Program Options
Each option has a (long) descriptive and a (short) abbreviated name:

Following are equivalent:

acuRun -pb channel


acuRun -problem channel

Following configuration options are equivalent:

pb= channel
problem= channel

Short names are typically used for command line option and long names for the
configuration file.

Most options also have default values

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Program Options
Environment variable ACUSIM_CNF_FILES is used to specify multiple configuration
files.

By default, it is set to four files:


./Acusim.cnf
Typically contains current problem configuration
~/Acusim.cnf
Typically contains users most used configurations
$ACUSIM_HOME/$ACUSIM_MACHINE/$ACUSIM_VERSION /script/Acusim.cnf
Typically contains system and installation configurations
$ACUSIM_HOME/Acusim.cnf
Typically contains site specific configurations

These configuration files are searched in sequence

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Program Options
To get a list of options and values, issue the command with -h:
acuRun h

This produces results such as:


acuRun: Usage:
acuRun:

acuRun [options]

acuRun: Options:
acuRun:

-h

acuRun:
acuRun:

help= TRUE [command-line]


-pb <str> problem name

acuRun:
acuRun:
acuRun:

print usage and exit

problem= channel [./Acusim.cnf]


-v <int>

verbose level
verbose= 1 [default]

acuRun: Configuration Files:


acuRun:
/Acusim.cnf:~/Acusim.cnf:/acusim/LINUX64/V1.8b/script/Acusim.cnf
acuRun: Release: 1.8b
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Program Options
Options may be:

String

acuRun -pb channel


problem= channel

Enumerated (from a list of available options)

acuTrans -to ideas


translate_to= ideas

Boolean

acuRun -echo
acuRun -no_echo
echo_input=TRUE
echo_input=FALSE

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Program Options

Integer

acuRun -np 2

num_processors= 2

Real

acuSurf -angle 89.9


max_angle= 89.9

To specialize an option for a program and/or a machine


prepend them to the option:

SGI64.host_lists= eagle,hawk,falcon

acuSurf.verbose= 2
SGI64.acuSurf.verbose= 3

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A.190

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Workshop 4

Compressible Nozzle

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Workshop 4 - Compressible Nozzle


Purposes of the Workshop

Use Ideal Gas density relation and discuss absolute temperature and pressure offset

Import mesh using arm file

Use Surface Manager to create surface sets

Examine mesh using cut plane

Define boundary conditions and material properties

Run AcuSolve

Monitor solution with AcuProbe

Perform solution checks with AcuProbe

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Workshop 4 - Compressible Nozzle


Ideal Gas Background

When using Ideal Gas relation to model density, we need to know the absolute
temperature and pressure of the gas
Two options for specifying temperature values
Work in absolute units (Kelvin, or Rankine)
Work in Fahrenheit or Celsius, then have AcuSolve add a constant internally to convert to
absolute units (absolute temperature offset)
Pressure may be specified as relative or absolute
When relative pressures are specified at boundaries, then absolute pressure offset should
be used to enable AcuSolve to compute the absolute pressure.

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Workshop 4 - Compressible Nozzle


Create the database

File New

Browse to Workshop4 directory


Enter name as Nozzle
Select Save

Import the mesh

File Import

Select file type to load as ACUSIM Raw Mesh (*.arm)

Navigate to: Workshop4\MESHIN.DIR and open


acusolve.arm

Mesh will be loaded

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Workshop 4 - Compressible Nozzle


Set the Data tree Manager to BAS
Set the surface display settings

Expand Model in the tree

Right-click on Surfaces
Select Display type
Select solid & wire

Set the volume display settings

Right-click on Volumes
Select Display type
Select wireframe
Select Display on

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Workshop 4 - Compressible Nozzle


Examine the mesh

Zoom in/out

Rotate model

Create cut plane


Right click on Model
Select Cut Plane
Experiment with settings, rotations, etc.

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Workshop 4 - Compressible Nozzle


Set up global parameters

Expand Global branch

Double-click Problem Description

Enter the Title and Sub title

Enter 101325 Pa as Abs. pressure offset

Set Temperature equation' to Advective diffusive

Verify turbulence is set to Laminar and Analysis type is


Steady State

Set solution strategy

Double-click Auto Solution Strategy

Set the Convergence tolerance to 1.0e-04

Verify that Flow and Temperature are set to On

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Workshop 4 - Compressible Nozzle


Specify material properties

Expand Material Model branch

Double-click Air

Select Density tab

Set Type to Ideal Gas

Specify initial conditions

Double-click Nodal Initial Condition branch

Set Pressure to 0 N/m2

Set X velocity to 40 m/s

Set Temperature to 300 K

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Workshop 4 - Compressible Nozzle


Rename the volume element set

Collapse the Global branch

Expand the Model branch

Expand the Volumes branch


Rename the volume set to Fluid

Modify settings for the volume elements

Expand the Fluid branch

Double-click on Element Set

Ensure that Material Model is set to Air

Toggle Compression Heating On

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Workshop 4 - Compressible Nozzle


Create surface sets

Expand the Surfaces branch

Right click on Surfaces and select Surface


Manager

Click on New 4 times to create 4 new surfaces

Rename the surfaces according to the following


list by double-clicking on the name in the Surface
Name column then entering the new name:

default inlet
Surface 1 upstream walls
Surface 2 contraction walls
Surface 3 downstream walls
Surface 4 outlet

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Workshop 4 - Compressible Nozzle


Assign elements to surface sets

Select the Add to button in the row of the surface set that you want to operate on

Assign all surfaces according to the adjacent figure

outlet (+x face)


contraction walls
upstream
walls

downstream walls

inlet (-x face)

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Workshop 4 - Compressible Nozzle


Assign simple boundary condition types through
the surface manager
Click on Columns and verify Simple BC Type
is active
Select the Simple BC Type button in the row

of the surface set that you want to operate on


Set the boundary condition types according to
the following list:

contraction walls Slip


downstream walls Slip
inlet Inflow
outlet Outflow
upstream walls Slip

Experiment with the Columns button to see


what you can assign via the Surface Manager
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Workshop 4 - Compressible Nozzle


Close the Surface Manager
Set the inlet boundary condition

Expand the inlet branch in the model tree under


ModelSurfacesinlet

Double-click on Simple Boundary Condition


Set Inflow type to Stagnation pressure
Set Stagnation pressure to 1500 N/m2
Set Temperature to 300 K

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Workshop 4 - Compressible Nozzle


Set the Outlet Pressure

Expand the outlet branch in the model tree


under ModelSurfacesoutlet

Double Click on Simple Boundary Condition


Ensure that the Pressure is set to 0.0 N/m2

Remember that we are setting relative pressure.


The absolute pressure at the outlet is equal to
the value set at the boundary plus the absolute
pressure offset (101325 Pa).

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Workshop 4 - Compressible Nozzle


Create a time history output point in the center
of the contraction

Determine the dimensions of the contraction by


right clicking on the contraction walls entry in
the model tree and selecting Info

Examine the max and min coordinates that are


displayed in the message window
We will create a time history output point at 0,0,0

Expand the Global branch of the model tree

Expand the Output branch

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Workshop 4 - Compressible Nozzle


Right click on Time History Output and select
New
Rename Time History Output 1 to
Contraction center point
Double-click Contraction center point

Change Type to Coordinates

Click on Open Array

Enter 0,0,0 as the coordinates, then close the


array editor by selecting OK

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Workshop 4 - Compressible Nozzle


Save the model

Click on the save icon in the toolbar,


or type Ctrl+S

Run the model

Click on the solve icon in the toolbar,


or type Ctrl+Shift+S

Ensure that Problem name is Nozzle

Problem directory is set to


path\Workshop4 directory

Working directory is set to


path\Workshop4\ACUSIM.DIR

Select Ok to launch AcuSolve

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Workshop 4 - Compressible Nozzle


Inspect the solution using acuProbe

Plot the residuals using acuProbe


ToolsAcuProbe
Expand Residual ratio
Right-click on Final, select Plot All

Plot the Mach Number at the time history output

node using a UDF:

Mach =
Number

u
RT
M

u = flow velocity (m/s)


= adiabatic constant = 1.4
R = gas constant = 8.314
(J/mol K)
T = absolute temperature (K)
M = molecular weight = .02895
(kg/mol)

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AcuSolve Mesh Files

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AcuSolve Mesh Files


The coordinates file (typically *.crd) is referenced by the COORDINATE command

Four columns: nodeID, x, y, z


55 2.665469971e+00 -1.166600037e-01 5.348399658e-01
56 2.706250000e+00 -5.883300171e-01 5.315200195e-01
57 3.203280029e+00 -6.015100098e-01 4.880200195e-01

The element connectivity file (typically *.cnn) is referenced by the ELEMENT_SET


command

Multi-columns: elementId, node1, ..., nodeN (e.g., 4-node tet):


121 85 102 86 90
122 85 102 90 89
123 102 90 89 178
124 85 101 102 89

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AcuSolve Mesh Files


The surface connectivity file (typically *.ebc) is referenced by the following
commands:

ELEMENT_BOUNDARY_CONDITION

FAN_COMPONENT

FREE_SURFACE

GUIDE_SURFACE

HEAT_EXCHANGER_COMPONENT

INTERFACE_SURFACE

PARTICLE_SURFACE

RADIATION_SURFACE

SIMPLE_BOUNDARY_CONDITION

SOLAR_RADIATION_SURFACE

SURFACE_INTEGRATED_CONDITION

SURFACE_OUTPUT

TURBULENCE_WALL

EXTERNAL_CODE_SURFACE

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AcuSolve Mesh Files


Surface connectivity file

Multi-columns: elementID, surfaceID, node1, ..., nodeN (e.g., 3-node triangle):


121
122
123
124

1 85 102 86
2 85 102 90
3 102 90 89
4 85 101 102

Program acuSurf may be used to extract and/or convert into this format

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AcuSolve Mesh Files


The periodic boundary condition file (typically *.pbc) is referenced by the
PERIODIC_BOUNDARY_CONDITION command

Three columns: pairId, node1, node2:


1 55 155
2 65 165
3 75 175

The parent surfaces for the first and second node for each pair must be consistent
throughout
Each node from the first column of nodes must be from one surface
Each node from the second column of nodes must be from the other surface

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Boundary Conditions

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Boundary Conditions
AcuSolve supports three different types of boundary conditions

Nodal Specifies the value at nodes

Element Specifies the flux at element faces

Periodic Enforces a relationship between pairs of nodes

Using Finite Element terminology, Nodal and Element boundary conditions can
also be referred to by the names in the following table:

Nodal BC

Element BC

Dirichlet

Neumann

Strong

Weak

Essential

Natural

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Boundary Conditions
Nodal Boundary Conditions

Used to fix the solution at a desired value

Values are assigned on sets of nodes in AcuConsole


Model Nodes Set Name
Model Surfaces Set Name Advanced Options Nodal Boundary Conditions

The solution will always satisfy these nodal constraints exactly!

Equivalent input file command

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Boundary Conditions
Element Boundary Conditions

Element boundary conditions are used to fix the flux of a variable on a surface

These values are assigned on sets of surface faces in AcuConsole


Model Surfaces Set Name Advanced Options Element Boundary Conditions

Nodal values adjust naturally to satisfy these conditions across the surface face

Equivalent input file command

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Boundary Conditions
Periodic Boundary Conditions

Enforce a relation between pairs of nodes (equal, ratio, transformation, etc.)

Applied to periodic sets (pairs of nodes) in AcuConsole


Model Periodics Set Name

Typically used to model infinite domains with a finite model (i.e. fully developed
pipe flow)
Can also be used to model axisymmetry
Equivalent input file command

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Boundary Conditions
Simple Boundary Conditions

Knowing what type of condition (nodal BC, element BC) to specify at different types of
boundaries can be challenging

Simple Boundary Condition was introduced to automatically specify the appropriate


conditions for common scenarios (inlet, outlet, wall, symmetry)

Simple boundary conditions are applied to surfaces in AcuConsole


Model Surfaces Set Name Simple Boundary Condition

Equivalent input file command

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Boundary Conditions
Simple Boundary Conditions (contd)

The simple boundary condition command actually applies a mixture of nodal and element
boundary conditions based on which type of condition is specified.

For example, consider the outflow boundary condition that was prescribed on the
previous slide
Behind the scenes, a number of element boundary conditions were generated
Pressure set to 0.0 via Element B.C.
Mass flux set to a special case of free via Element B.C.
Tangential traction set to free via Element B.C.
Turbulence flux set to free via Element B.C.
Heat flux set to free via Element B.C.
Species flux set to free via Element B.C.

Note: free means


the value is extracted
from the solution

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Boundary Conditions
Simple Boundary Conditions (contd)

Consider another example that sets a surface to an inflow via simple boundary
condition
The following element boundary conditions are created
Mass flux set to a special case of free
Tangential traction set to free
Pressure set to free
The following nodal boundary conditions are created
x,y,z components of velocity are set
Eddy viscosity is set
Temperature is set
Species values are set

Specified individually, many variables would need to be set


Simple boundary conditions simplify this to a single specification

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Boundary Conditions
Precedence

It is possible to over-specify a boundary condition (specify it twice) by using combinations


of Element, Nodal, and Simple B.C.s

The following table is used to resolve these conflicts

Nodal boundary conditions may also be favored over another by setting the precedence
parameter to a higher value
Nodal BC

Element BC

Specified

Specified

Specified

Not specified

Not specified

Specified

Not specified

Not specified

Consequence
Nodal BC is satisfied; Element BC is ignored
Nodal BC is satisfied
Element BC is satisfied
Element BC with zero/free value is assumed and satisfied

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Boundary Conditions
Summary

AcuSolve contains a rich set of boundary conditions

Combinations of Nodal, Element and Periodic boundary conditions can be used to model
extremely complex scenarios.

Simple boundary conditions are intended to automate the application of standard


conditions such as walls, inlets, outlets, symmetry planes, etc.

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Workshop 5
Rigid Body Motion

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Workshop 5 - Rigid Body Motion


Purposes of the Workshop

Open and modify an existing database

Review Mesh Motion - Rigid Body Dynamics

Define Boundary Conditions

Use Nodal Boundary Conditions to scale mesh motion

Run AcuSolve

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Workshop 5 - Rigid Body Motion


Open existing database

File Open

Browse to Workshop5 directory


Select the rigid1 database

Loads the existing 2-D mesh

The cylinder is 0.01 m diameter, centered at ( 0.05, 0.05, 0.00125 )


Z-depth is 0.0025 m

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Workshop 5 - Rigid Body Motion


Click on BAS in the Data tree Manager
Expand the Global branch
Double-click on Problem Description

Set Title to Vibration at Re = 100

Set Sub title to Rigid Body Motion

Set Analysis type to Transient

Set Mesh type to Fully specified

Expand the Solution Strategy branch


Double-click Auto Solution Strategy
Verify and Set attributes

Analysis type set to Transient

Flow is On

Max time steps to 1000

Initial time increment to 0.002 sec

Max stagger iterations to 4


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Workshop 5 - Rigid Body Motion


Create a Material Model
Right-click Material Model and select New
Right-click the created Material Model 1 and
select Rename

Change the name to Fluid

Double-click Fluid to open the panel

Verify Medium is Fluid

Set Density to 1.0 kg/m3

Set Viscosity to 0.0001kg/m-sec

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Workshop 5 - Rigid Body Motion


Click on ALE in the Data tree Manager to gain
access to the mesh motion options
Expand Mesh Motion

vibrating cylinder has been pre-defined

Double-click to open and review

Type is Rigid body dynamic

Items not default:

Look at inactive displacement/rotation


Center array
Mass
Dyadic array
Stiffness array
Surface outputs list
BODY is the cylinder surface

See AcuSolve Command Reference Manual for more


details
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Workshop 5 - Rigid Body Motion


Set the Data tree Manager back to basic mode
by clicking on BAS
Expand Output
Double-click Nodal Output

Set Time step frequency to 3

Set Output initial condition to On

Double-click Restart Output

Set Time step frequency to 20

Set Number of saved states to 2


Only 2 restart sets will remain on disk

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Workshop 5 - Rigid Body Motion


Right-click Time History Output - select New

Rename Time History Output 1 to monitor points

Double-click monitor points to open panel


Set Type to Coordinates
Click Open Array to define Coordinates

Click Add Row to yield a total of 5 rows


Enter values as shown - OK when finished

5
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Workshop 5 - Rigid Body Motion


Double-click Nodal Initial Condition

Set X velocity to 1.0 m/sec

Expand Model and Volumes


Expand FLUID and double-click Element Set

Set Material model to Fluid

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Workshop 5 - Rigid Body Motion


Expand Surfaces branch
Expand BODY

Verify Surface Output is active

Double-click Simple Boundary Condition

Set Mesh motion to vibrating cylinder

Expand BOTTOM

Double-click Simple Boundary Condition

Set Type to Symmetry

Set Mesh displacement BC type to Slip


Nodes will move in original plane

IMPORTANT - Repeat the above steps for BOTTOM


for TOP, SYMM1, and SYMM2.

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Workshop 5 - Rigid Body Motion


Expand INFLOW

Double-click Simple Boundary Condition

Set Type to Inflow

Set X velocity to 1.0 m/sec

Set Mesh displacement BC type to Slip

Expand OUTFLOW

Double-click Simple Boundary Condition

Set Type to Outflow

Set Mesh displacement BC type to Slip

Essentially, all the boundary mesh is allowed to move


in its original plane

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Workshop 5 - Rigid Body Motion


Select BC* in the Data tree Manager to view all
boundary condition settings in the data tree
IMPORTANT - The following steps need to be followed
for SYMM1 and SYMM2 - or use Propagate

Described for SYMM1 - but need to be repeated for

SYMM2

Expand SYMM1, Advanced Options, and Nodal


Boundary Conditions
Activate Z-Velocity

Accept default Type of zero


No out-of-plane flow in the 2D problem

Activate Mesh Z-Displacement

Accept default Type of zero


No mesh motion out of plane
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Workshop 5 - Rigid Body Motion


Activate Mesh X-Displacement

Set Type to linear

Set Mesh motion to vibrating cylinder

Set Curve fit variable to x reference coordinate


The original nodal x coordinate

Click Open Array to define the Curve fit values

Click Add to yield 4 rows


Enter values as shown
Click Plot to see curve fit line plot
OK to close panel

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Workshop 5 - Rigid Body Motion


Mesh X-Displacement curve fit

Inlet is at X = 0 (X-value = 0 in curve fit) >> boundary is fixed in


the X-direction (Y-value = 0 in curve fit)

X = 0.03 is 2 diameters upstream of cylinder >> mesh displaces in


X-direction with the rigid body motion (Y-value = 1.0 in curve fit matches motion)
X-displacement ramps linearly from fixed at X = 0 to matching rigid
body at X = 0.03

X = 0.07 is 2 diameters downstream of cylinder >> mesh displaces


in X-direction with rigid body
Mesh from X = 0.03 to X = 0.07 moves exactly with rigid body in
X-direction

Outlet is at X = 0.2 >> boundary is fixed in the X-direction


X-displacement ramps linearly from matching rigid body at X = 0.07
to fixed at X = 0.2

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Workshop 5 - Rigid Body Motion


Activate Mesh Y-Displacement

Set Type to linear

Set Mesh motion to vibrating cylinder

Set Curve fit variable to y reference coordinate


The original nodal y coordinate

Click Open Array to define the Curve fit values

Click Add to yield 4 rows


Enter values as shown
Click Plot to see curve fit line plot
OK to close panel

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Workshop 5 - Rigid Body Motion


Mesh Y-Displacement curve fit

Bottom is at Y = -0.04 (X-value = -0.04 in curve fit) >>


boundary is fixed in Y-direction (Y-value = 0 in curve fit)

Y = 0.03 (X-value = 0.03 in curve fit) is 2 diameters below


cylinder >> mesh displaces in Y-direction with the rigid body
motion (Y-value = 1.0 in curve fit - matches motion)
Y-displacement ramps linearly from fixed at Y = -0.04 to
matching rigid body at Y = 0.03

Y = 0.07 (X-value = 0.07 in curve fit) is 2 diameters above


cylinder >> mesh displaces in Y-direction with rigid body
Mesh from Y = 0.03 to Y = 0.07 moves exactly with rigid body in
Y-direction

Top is at Y = 0.14 (X-value = 0.14 in curve fit) >> boundary is


fixed in Y-direction
Y-displacement ramps linearly from matching rigid body at Y =
0.07 to fixed at Y = 0.14

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Workshop 5 - Rigid Body Motion


IMPORTANT - Make sure the Nodal Boundary Conditions described above have
been applied to both SYMM1 and SYMM2
Save the database
The model is ready to run
Tools -> AcuSolve

Verify settings and click Ok

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Workshop 5 - Rigid Body Motion


Monitor X- and Y- mesh displacements in AcuProbe

X-Displacement of first monitor point

Y-Displacement of first monitor point

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Solution Strategy

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Solution Strategy
AcuSolve provides users with complete control over the solution process

Equations that are solved


Number of times that they are solved per step
Order in which they are solved
Linear solver to use for each equation
Convergence tolerance for each equation
Etc.

Solution strategy can be set using a combination of commands

Can also be set using a single input file command


AUTO_SOLUTION_STRATEGY

Well look at this command in detail, then talk about how it works in AcuConsole

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Solution Strategy
Simplest way to set a strategy is via AUTO_SOLUTION_STRATEGY
ANALYSIS {
type
}
EQUATION {
flow
temperature
radiation
turbulence
}
AUTO_SOLUTION_STRATEGY {
max_time_steps
initial_time_increment
}

= transient

=
=
=
=

navier_stokes
advective_diffusive
enclosure
spalart_allmaras

= 100
= 1

AUTO_SOLUTION_STRATEGY is a functional command

Its position in the file is important

Reads parameters of ANALYSIS and EQUATION commands

Devises a solution strategy, writes it in file <problem>.ss.inc

It includes the file in its place


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Solution Strategy
The <problem>.ss.inc file includes several commands:

TIME_SEQUENCE

STAGGER for each equation

TIME_INCREMENT

TIME_INTEGRATION

LINEAR_SOLVER_PARAMETERS

CONVERGENCE_CHECK_PARAMETERS

ALGEBRAIC_MULTIGRID_PARAMETERS

Each of these commands sets a different aspect of the solution strategy

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Solution Strategy

TIME_SEQUENCE
TIME_SEQUENCE {
min_time_steps
max_time_steps
final_time
convergence_tolerance
termination_delay
lhs_update_initial_times
lhs_update_frequency
min_stagger_iterations
max_stagger_iterations
stagger_convergence_tolerance
stagger_lhs_update_frequency
staggers

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

1
100
0
0
0
1
1
2
2
0.001
1
{ "flow",
"turbulence }

convergence_tolerance - steady-state convergence

min/max_stagger_iterations - passes through equations per time step

stagger_convergence_tolerance convergence of each equation at each step

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Solution Strategy
TIME_INCREMENT
TIME_INCREMENT {
initial_time_increment
auto_time_increment
local_time_increment
min_time_increment
max_time_increment
cfl_control
cfl_number
initial_cfl_number
min_cfl_number
time_increment_decrease_factor
time_increment_increase_factor
time_increment_increase_delay
min_time_increment_ratio
multiplier_function
}

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

1
off
off
0
0
off
1000
1
0
0.25
1.25
4
0.1
"none"

Use auto_time_increment to vary time increment automatically during a transient run

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Solution Strategy
Although AUTO_SOLUTION_STRATEGY is sufficient for most problems, you can
create custom strategies using many techniques
For example, the parameters AUTO_SOLUTION_STRATEGY generates may be
overwritten by other commands:
AUTO_SOLUTION_STRATEGY {
max_time_steps
initial_time_increment
min_stagger_iterations
max_stagger_iterations
}
TIME_SEQUENCE {
min_stagger_iterations
max_stagger_iterations
}

=
=
=
=

100
1
2
2

= 1
= 4

For a transient problem the default min/max stagger_iterations is 2 / 2

The above settings would allow 1-4 iterations at each time step before proceeding to the
next time step.
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Solution Strategy
Example: Steady-state problem
ANALYSIS {
type
}
AUTO_SOLUTION_STRATEGY {
max_time_steps
initial_time_increment
convergence_tolerance
num_krylov_vectors
relaxation_factor
flow
}

= steady

=
=
=
=
=
=

100
1.e+10
1.e-3
10
0
on

Take large time steps to reach steady-state solution

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Solution Strategy
Example: Transient problem
ANALYSIS {
type
}
AUTO_SOLUTION_STRATEGY {
max_time_steps
initial_time_increment
final_time
auto_time_increment
min_time_increment
max_time_increment
convergence_tolerance
min_stagger_iterations
max_stagger_iterations
num_krylov_vectors
temperature_flow
relaxation_factor
}

= transient

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

100
1
0
off
0
0
1.e-3
2
2
10
off
0

Additional transient parameters in bold


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Solution Strategy
Time stepping process
Loop over time steps
Predict all active solution fields
Loop over staggers
Stagger 1:
Loop over nonlinear iterations
Form stagger residual and if needed LHS matrix
Solve linear equation system
Update stagger solution field(s)
Check nonlinear convergence
End nonlinear loop
...
Stagger N:
Loop over nonlinear iterations
Form stagger residual and if needed LHS matrix
Solve linear equation system
Update stagger solution field(s)
Check nonlinear convergence
End nonlinear loop
Check stagger convergence
End stagger loop
Check time step convergence
Optionally compute and output results
Determine time increment of the next time step
End time step loop

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Solution Strategy
Setting solution strategy in AcuConsole

Auto Solution Strategy branch contains the settings from the


AUTO_SOLUTION_STRATEGY command

This writes the AUTO_SOLUTION_STRATEGY command to the input file

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Solution Strategy
Every time the Auto Solution Strategy panel is exited, the Advanced Solution
Strategy branches are updated

For this example, the appropriate solution staggers were created

By default, the Advanced Solution Strategy commands are NOT written to the input file

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Solution Strategy
Modifying the Advanced Solution Strategy Settings

All changes made after leaving the Auto Solution Strategy panel will be written to the
input file

By default, all changes will be lost the next time you visit the Auto Solution Strategy
This panel updates the settings every time it is exited!

To prevent this, use Protect Parameters

Only available under Advanced Solution Strategy


Forces command to be written to input file
Prevents Auto Solution Strategy from updating
Will override settings from the Auto Solution Strategy
Be very careful when using this!

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Workshop 6 Flexible Ring

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring


Purposes of the Workshop

Learn the different types of Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) that AcuSolve supports

Set up a Practical FSI simulation (P-FSI)

Set up a Direct Coupled FSI simulation (DC-FSI)

Gain experience using ALE mesh motion

Use Surface Manager to assign boundary condition types

Use the Propagate feature to copy settings from one group to another

Run AcuSolve

Monitor solution with AcuProbe

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring


Fluid Structure Interaction Background

ACUSIM defines FSI as follows:


FSI is the simulation of the bi-directional interaction (coupling) between fluid flow and a
deforming solid/structural model.
This definition of FSI does not include:
Fluid and thermal solid/structure analysis (ie., Conjugate heat transfer)
Fluid coupling with rigid body dynamics
These simulation types are supported by AcuSolve, but we classify them differently

AcuSolve supports two different types of FSI


Practical FSI (P-FSI)
Direct Coupled FSI (DC-FSI)

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring


Practical Fluid Structure Interaction

The fluid and solid codes are run independently and separately

The solid code is used for a modal or frequency analysis


No run time coupling is required
Each may be run with a different time increment and duration
No fluid mesh size limitation imposed by FSI

Significantly more stable than alternative approaches


Eliminates high wave number modes, yields smooth solution

Very efficient
Problem setup
CPU time

Applicable only for linear structural problems

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring


Direct Coupled Fluid Structure Interaction

The fluid and solid codes are run in tandem


Data is passed between the codes on wetted surfaces
AcuSolve provides forces and/or heat fluxes to structural code
Structural code returns displacements and/or temperatures to AcuSolve

No third party software involved


AcuSolve performs all interpolation between dissimilar meshes

Applicable for linear and nonlinear deformations

Current application of this technique is for direct coupling with Radioss, Abaqus and
MD Nastran

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring


Flexible Ring Problem Description

In this workshop, we begin by performing a P-FSI simulation of a thin flexible ring


suspended in cross flow. Note that this is a contrived configuration used for training
purposes only.

The following diagram illustrates the problem set up and the constraints that are placed
on the ring.
OD= .01 m
ID= .009 m

Flow Direction

Youngs Modulus = 24000 Pa


Density = 500 kg/m3
Poissons Ratio = 0.3

This point is constrained in all


directions to have zero displacement
This point is constrained in the
and zero rotation
vertical direction, but is free to move
in the stream wise direction
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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring


Steps in Performing P-FSI

Background on P-FSI
AcuSolve requires the mass, stiffness, and damping array for each mode of the flexible body as
input for P-FSI analyses. It also requires an array describing the eigenvectors of each mode.
This information can be obtained from a modal analysis in a structural solver, or derived
analytically for simple problems.
For this analysis, a structural model of the ring was built in RADIOSS and ABAQUS. The resulting
model from RADIOSS is exported into an .op2 file and the result from ABAQUS is exported into
an .odb file. Any of these files can be used for the CFD simulation.
We will read the .op2 or .odb file using AcuConsole then project the modes onto the fluids
model for the P-FSI simulation.
With this background info, we can begin constructing the model

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring


Open the database

File Open

Browse to Workshop6 directory


Choose the file named flexibleRing.acs
Select Open

Model should appear similar to what is


shown to the right

Same geometry and mesh as Workshop 5,


but we will modify the problem setup
significantly.

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring


Set the data tree to Basic

Ensure that the BAS button is selected in the Data


tree Manager

Set the surface display settings

Expand Model in the tree

Right-click on Surfaces
Select Display type
Select solid & wire

Set the volume display settings

Right-click on Volumes
Select Display off

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring


Set up global parameters

Expand Global branch

Double-click Problem Description

Enter the problem title and subtitle

Set Analysis Type' to Transient

Set Mesh Type' to Arbitrary mesh movement


(ALE)

Verify turbulence is set to laminar

Set solution strategy

Double-click Auto Solution Strategy

Set Max time steps to 1000

Set Initial time increment to .002 sec.

Verify that Flow and Mesh are set to On

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring


Create a material model

Right-click on Material Model branch and select New

Right click on Material Model 1 and select Rename and


rename it to Fluid

Set the material properties

Double click Fluid

Set the material properties as follows:


Density = 1 kg/m3
Viscosity = .0001 kg/m-sec

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring


Create some monitor points

Expand the Output branch

Right click on Time History Output and select New

Rename Time History Output 1 to Monitor Points

Double-click Monitor Points

Change Type to Coordinates


Click Open Array to define Coordinates
Click Add Row to yield 2 rows total
Enter values as shown:
Min X and Max Y of cylinder

2
1

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring


Set the nodal output frequency

Double-click on Nodal Output

Set Time step frequency to 2

Set Output initial condition to On

Double-click Nodal Initial Condition

Set X velocity to 1.0

Leave all other values at 0.0

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring


Set the data tree to FSI mode

Ensure that the FSI button is selected in the


Data tree Manager

This only shows settings associated with set-up


of FSI models

Create a Flexible Body

Right-click on Flexible Body and select New

Right-click on Flexible Body 1 and select


Rename rename to Flexible Walls

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring

Double-click on Flexible Walls to open it

In the panel, click on the Open Refs button

next to Surface outputs

This opens the list editor to specify the name


of the surface outputs that AcuSolve will use
to determine the forces on the flexible body:
Select Add Row, then select BODY from the
pull-down

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring


Set the data tree back to Basic

Click on the BAS button in the Data tree Manager

Set the element set properties

Collapse the Global branch

Expand the Model branch

Expand the Volumes and Surfaces branches

Expand the FLUID branch under Volumes

Double-click Element Set

Set Material Model to Fluid

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring


Set the boundary condition types

Right click on Surfaces, then Surface Manager

Click Columns and make sure Simple BC Type is


enabled

Set the boundary conditions using the Simple BC Type


column according to the following:

BODY Wall
BOTTOM Slip
INFLOW Inflow
OUTFLOW Outflow
SYMM1 Symmetry
SYMM2 Symmetry
TOP Slip

Close surface manager

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring


Set the boundary condition details

Expand the surface named BODY

Ensure that the Surface Output box is toggled


on

Double click on Simple Boundary Condition


Ensure that Wall Velocity Type is set to Match
Mesh Velocity
Set the Mesh displacement BC Type to Flexible
Body
Set the Flexible Body to Flexible Walls

These settings tell the mesh on the BODY walls to


move based on the Flexible Body parameters
that we will define later

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring

Expand the surface named SYMM1

Double click on Simple Boundary Condition


Set Mesh displacement BC Type to Slip

These settings allow the mesh on the SYMM1


surface to slip tangentially along the surface.
Since this is a 2-d problem, it is required.

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SYMM1 and SYMM2 are both symmetry planes


that will need to have the same boundary

conditions

Instead of opening the SYMM2 surface and setting


the mesh displacement type to slip, we will simply
copy the settings from SYMM1:
Right-click on the Simple Boundary Condition
entry under SYMM1 and select Propagate
In the panel that opens, highlight SYMM2, then
press Propagate.
This will copy the boundary conditions settings to
SYMM2

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Expand the surface named INFLOW

Double click on Simple Boundary Condition


Set X velocity to 1.0

The remainder of the simple boundary


conditions do not need to be changed and the
case can be run with the default values
However, it is a good idea to review all of the
settings to familiarize yourself with them.
Note the mesh displacement options could be
changed from fixed to slip on INFLOW,
OUTFLOW, TOP and BOTTOM.experiment
with this if you have time.

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring


We will now create a set of nodes surrounding the
ring that we will force to move in conjunction with the
body

Right-click on Nodes and select New

Rename the node set to 25 Layers

Right-click on 25 Layers and select Define

When the Node Define dialog box opens, set the type
to Surface, then select BODY as the surface, and set
Number of Layers to 25.

Select OK
This creates a node set containing 25 layers of nodes
starting from the surface named BODY

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring

Right-click on the eye-ball icon in front of the node set to


toggle its visibility on

Right-click on the 25 Layers node set and set the display


color to black in the color chooser dialog

Your visualization area should now show the nodes of the


set

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring


The next step is to import the structural model and project the eigenvectors onto
the CFD mesh
Well project the eigenvectors onto the surface of the ring as well as the node set that was just
created.
This projection step tells AcuSolve to move the nodes according to the solution of the flexible
body
The Eigenmode Manager will be used to perform this projection and update the boundary
conditions with the appropriate data.

Note that this projection step relies on nodal coordinates and ids
If the mesh is changed, this step needs to be performed again!

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Open the Eigenvalue manager by clicking on the


appropriate icon in the main toolbar

Click on Add, then type Modes for the name.

Click on Open next to Import, then navigate to the


Radioss or Abaqus directory within Workshop 6 and
select the structural data file (Ring.op2 or Modal
Analysis.odb)
Make sure the file filter is set according to the type of
results file to be loaded
Click on Open to load the file

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring

Click on the Show tab in the Eigenmode


Manager, then toggle the animation button on

to visualize the modes of the structure.

Experiment with the Animation mode id slider


to look at the different modes of the structure.

You can also change the amplitude, speed, and


visualization properties of the animation using
this panel.

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring

Click on the Transfer tab in the Eigenmode Manager.

Select Transfer next to the Flexible Body label.


Ensure that Flexible Walls is selected, then click on OK
This will transfer the mass, stiffness, and damping arrays
from the structural model over to the Flexible Walls
flexible body that was created earlier.

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring

Select Transfer next to the Simple BC label.


Select the simple boundary condition named
BODY from the Reference Editor, then click on
OK.
This will project the eigenvectors of the structure
onto the nodes of the surface named BODY.

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring

Select Transfer next to the Nodal BC label.


Select the node set named 25 Layers, then click on
OK.
This will project the eigenvectors of the structure
onto the nodes of the set named 25 Layers and
activate the appropriate boundary conditions.
This projection step causes the nodes of this set to
move directly with the structure
Note that there is an option to scale the
eigenvectors for more complex applications.
Close the Eigenmode Manager

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring


Save the model

Click on the save icon in the toolbar, or type


Ctrl+S

Write the AcuSolve input files and launch the


solver:

Click on the solve icon in the toolbar, or type


Ctrl+Shift+S

Ensure that Problem name is set to flexibleRing

Ensure Problem directory is set to

path\Workshop6

Ensure Working directory is set to


path\Workshop6\ACUSIM.DIR

Select OK.

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring


Inspect the solution using acuProbe and AcuFieldView

Plot the mesh displacements at the time history output points to get an idea of how
much the ring is deforming
Expand Time History
Expand Node 1 and Node 2
Plot the displacements

Animate the solution using AcuFieldView

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring


Perform DC-FSI calculation with Abaqus (if
available on your system)

File > Save As and enter flexDC as the new database


name

Expand Global and double-click Problem


Descripton
Modify Title and Sub title and set External Code to
On

Select All in the Data tree Manager

Right-click Multiplier Function and select New

Set Type to Piecewise linear and Curve fit variable


to Time step

Click Open Array for Curve fit values and enter as

shown
Forces passed to Abaqus will be ramped over 10 time
steps
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Workshop 6 - Flexible Ring


Double-click External Code Parameters

Set Socket Initiate to Off

Enter name of machine running Abaqus in Socket


host

Select a Socket Port to use - 10000 in this example

Set Multipler function to Multiplier Function 1


that was just created

Double-click Auto Solution Strategy

Set Max stagger iterations to 4


This allows for better convergence of flow and mesh
equations

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Body


Expand Model, Surfaces, and BODY

Disable Simple Boundary Condition by clicking in


the check-box

Enable External Code Surface by clicking in the


check-box
Set Gap factor to 0
This is the surface used for information exchange
with Abaqus

Expand Model, Nodes, 25 Layers

Scroll down to the Mesh X-Displacement variable

Change the type to external code

Repeat this process for the Mesh Y-Displacement


and Mesh Z-Displacement variables.

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Body


Launch AcuSolve

Tools -> AcuSolve


Set Launch AcuSolve to On
Set Generate Input Files to On
Hit Ok to start the solver

Launch Abaqus

Open the Abaqus command prompt and/or


browse to the Abaqus directory under
Workshop6

Issue the abaqus command:


abaqus -job Ring_FSI -port 10000
(Use appropriate abaqus command and port
number)

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Workshop 6 - Flexible Body


Convert AcuSolve results to Abaqus .odb format

acuOdb -ts a

Converts all available time steps to the .odb file

acuOdb -h

Gives options for the acuOdb command (similar to acuTrans)

The figure shows contours of fluid pressure from AcuSolve and maximum principal
stress from Abaqus

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Restarting Simulations

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Restarting Simulations
Simulations can be restarted in two different ways.

From AcuConsole GUI

From the command line

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Restarting Simulations
From AcuConsole GUI

For restarting from previous run with available


restart data, open the acuConsole database and
click on Tools > AcuSolve to open the Launch
AcuSolve dialog.

In the Launch AcuSolve dialog under Main tab


set the Restart option to On.

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Restarting Simulations

Click on the Restart tab to customize the


parameters of the restart.
Any modifications that were made to the database
since the first run will be taken into account.
The name of the problem and the working
directory from which the simulation will restart is
shown in the boxes next to From Problem and
From directory.
Type the run number and time step in the boxes
next to From run and From time step. Click Ok
to start the solver.
In the image shown, simulation restarts from time
step 3 in run 2.

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Restarting Simulations

In the Launch AcuSolve dialog if the Reset time step option is On, then the restarted
simulation resets the initial time and starts from time step 1.

Reset time increment option should be On if the user changes the Initial time
increment for the restart run. If this option is Off, then the updated Initial time
increment value will not be used by the solver.

If a steady state simulation needs to be restarted as a transient, change the Analysis


type to Transient in Problem Description and Change the Initial time increment in
Auto Solution Strategy. In the launch AcuSolve dialog turn On the Reset time step
and Reset time increment options and run the solver.

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Restarting Simulations
For restarting a simulation in command mode, type

acuRun -rst

Writes and runs a file called <problem>.rst


Includes two commands
RESTART { }
RUN { }

Nothing is changed from original problem setup

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Restarting Simulations
Restart with modifications

Create a restart input file <problem>.rst

Specify that input file at run time


acuRun -inp <problem>.rst

The restart file starts with RESTART { } and ends with RUN { }
Any changes/additions to the problem setup are between these commands
Number of nodes in the problem cannot change
The reason we cannot use RESTART for Workshop 3
Run resumes from the latest available restart data
Can add parameters to the RESTART command

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Restarting Simulations
A problem may be restarted from any available run and time step with available
restart data
RESTART {
from_problem
from_run
from_time_step
}

= "channel"
= 2
= 40

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Restarting Simulations
Example: run a steady-state thermal problem in two steps

Run 1
Write input file with all flow and thermal conditions defined
Modify input file so as not to solve temperature equation
AUTO_SOLUTION_STRATEGY {
...
flow
= on
temperature
= off
}
Run acuRun with this input file

Run 2
Write the restart file, such as
RESTART { }
AUTO_SOLUTION_STRATEGY {
flow
= off
temperature
= on
}
RUN { }
Run acuRun and specify this restart file
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Heat Transfer Modeling

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Heat Transfer Modeling


AcuSolve supports many features for the modeling of heat transfer phenomena

Conjugate heat transfer


Heat transfer between solids and fluids.

Radiant heat transfer


Surface to surface radiation supported for applications having high temperature differences

Solar Radiation
AcuSolve supports solar radiation modeling on surfaces such as automotive windshields

Many, many more


Convective heat transfer from surfaces, thermal shells, etc.

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Heat Transfer Modeling


AcuSolve Heat Transfer Methodology

AcuSolve uses an advective-diffusive equation governing the transport of enthalpy:

h
u h q s
t
Where: h = enthalpy, q = heat flux, and s = thermal source terms
This approach permits conservation of energy within the GLS formulation

Temperature is derived from h = Cp T

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Heat Transfer Modeling


Solution Approaches

Two commonly-used approaches for the solution of thermal problems in AcuSolve


Solving the enthalpy equation in a sequential manner after solving the coupled flow equations
This approach is appropriate for cases where the flow is not significantly affected by the
temperature field.
Coupling the enthalpy equation into the global system and solving it in conjunction with the
flow equations
This approach is more efficient for flows exhibiting a large degree of coupling between
the temperature and flow fields (i.e. buoyancy driven flows).

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Heat Transfer Modeling


Overview of Enclosure Radiation approach

AcuSolve simulates surface-to-surface radiation using a 2 step approach


Compute the view factors for each facet defining the radiation enclosure as a preprocessing
step.
Add the radiative heat fluxes (based on the view factors) to the enthalpy transport equation
during the solver run

Enclosure radiation is only supported on fluid mediums (i.e. the fluid side of fluid/solid
interfaces)

View factors are not recomputed during the simulation


This needs to be considered when performing moving mesh simulations

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Heat Transfer Modeling


View Factor Computation

View factor determines the amount of radiosity emitted from one surface that is received
by another surface.

View factor computed using hemicube algorithm that is implemented in acuView


acuView is fully parallel application (distributed or shared)

Two surface facets of enclosure

Hemicube used to determine projection of facets


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Heat Transfer Modeling


Setting up Radiation Simulations in AcuConsole

Turn on the temperature equation and radiation


equation in the problem description

Click RAD from the Data tree Manager

Define the parameters for the view factor and


flux computation using the Radiation Parameters
panel
Note that symmetry can be modeled using the
Num Symmetry planes settings

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Heat Transfer Modeling


Setting up Enclosure Radiation in AcuConsole

Define emissivity models for the different


materials/surfaces in the simulation
Emissivity models can be constant, or varied using
curve fits or user defined functions
This enables modeling of complex temperature
dependant properties

Identify surfaces of the radiation enclosure using


Radiation Surface
This associates an emissivity model to the surface
and also permits the user to specify agglomeration
of facets for the view factor computation.

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Heat Transfer Modeling


Setting up Enclosure Radiation in AcuConsole

The radiation surfaces must define an enclosed volume


Open volumes will cause warning messages from acuView and problems with the simulation
Display the radiation surfaces by right-clicking on the Surfaces entry in the model tree, then
selecting Show
Click wall to show all radiation walls

AcuView will automatically be run as part of the solution process

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Heat Transfer Modeling


Overview of Thermal Shell Capabilities

AcuSolve permits the definition of thermal shells to simulate heat transfer in solid
mediums. This is useful when:
The thickness of the component makes it inconvenient to resolve.

Thermal shells are infinitely thin elements


Must utilize 8 node brick or 6 node prism elements (parallel faces must be of the same
topology)

Any number of layers/materials may be modeled within the thermal shells


Shells can contain layers of varying thickness and material properties

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Heat Transfer Modeling


Thermal Shells

Shell elements have different node numbers on opposing faces


This permits variations of pressure and temperature across the elements for shells that are
completely surrounded by fluid.

One-dimensional conduction equation is solved within the shell elements to determine


the temperature of each layer
This enforces constant heat flux within the layers of an element

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Heat Transfer Modeling


Using Thermal Shells

Thermal shells are defined in the ELEMENT_SET command:


ELEMENT_SET( Shells ) {
elements
= Read ( shells.cnn )
shape
= eight_node_brick
quadrature
= full
medium
= shell
num_shell_layers
= 2
shell_thicknesses
= { 5.0e-3, 2.0e-3 }
shell_material_models = { steel, aluminum }
}

The faces of the thermal shell elements may have boundary conditions applied to them
just as standard solid elements would

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Heat Transfer Modeling


Overview of Variable Property Support

Many thermal simulations require the specification of temperature-varying properties

AcuSolve supports different approaches to define varying properties:


Standard physical models or approximations (i.e. Bingham Viscosity model or Ideal Gas Law)
Cubic spline or piecewise linear curve fit of some independent variable
User defined function
Written in C, compiled into a library, then loaded at runtime by AcuSolve

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Heat Transfer Modeling


Variable Density Options

Many variable density options available


with AcuSolve:
Boussinesq and Ideal Gas law typically
used for heat transfer applications.
Boussinesq accounts for density
variation only in the body force
terms
Ideal Gas accounts for variable
density in all terms of the
momentum equations
User Function and Curve fit options
enable users to define custom variable
property functions.

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Heat Transfer Modeling


Variable Specific Heat Options

For constant properties:


AcuSolve requires input of a specific heat value

For variable properties:


AcuSolve requires input of the enthalpy
Piecewise linear and Cubic Spline options enable
temperature dependency
User Function enables more complex behaviors to be
modeled (functions of other/multiple independent
variables)

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Heat Transfer Modeling


Variable Viscosity Options

Many options available for viscosity models


Piecewise Linear and Cubic Spline options enable
dependence on a single variable (temperature, species
concentration, and strain rate)
User Function enables more complex behaviors to be
modeled (functions of other/multiple independent
variables)
Power Law, Bingham, and Carreau are used to model
Non-Newtonian fluds.

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Heat Transfer Modeling


Variable Conductivity Options

Available conductivity models:


Piecewise Linear and Cubic Spline options
enable dependence on a single variable
(temperature as well as species
concentration)
User Function enables more complex
behaviors to be modeled (functions of
other/multiple independent variables)
Constant Prandtl Number model computes
the conductivity based on the turbulent
Prandtl Number as well as the specific heat
and molecular viscosity.

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Heat Transfer Modeling


Thermal Boundary Condition Options

Simple Boundary Condition options permit


setting of two types of wall condition

Fixed temperature (Value)


Fixed heat flux (Flux)
Heat flux option enables specification
of a constant heat flux through the
surface
Enables specification of added
convective flux based on a heat
transfer coefficient and sink
temperature

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Heat Transfer Modeling


Thermal Boundary Condition Options

Element Boundary Conditions options permit


more advanced settings for surface conditions:
Different types of heat flux can be modeled
separately
Radiation and Convective are functions of
a reference temperature
Element Boundary Condition allows specification
of these different fluxes as a function of a single
variable via cubic spline and piecewise linear
curve fits or many variables via user function.

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Heat Transfer Modeling


Thermal Boundary Condition Options

Nodal Boundary Conditions options permit


more advanced settings for nodal temperature
values:
Functions of a single variable can be specified via
the cubic spline and piecewise linear options
Functions of multiple variables can be
implemented using user functions
Experimental data (or other tabulated data) can
be interpolated onto the boundary using scattered
data and scattered data time series.

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Heat Transfer Modeling


Thermal Boundary Condition Options

Periodic Boundary Condition options permit


specification of periodic nodal temperature:
Single unknown offset and single unknown ratio
can be used to model periodic flows with heat
addition
Typically used with Integrated Boundary
Condition to set a bulk temperature value
on a plane
User defined periodicity also available for
temperature field to model more complex
behaviors

A.323

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Heat Transfer Modeling


Heat Source Options

Heat sources can be specified for both fluid and


solid elements sets

Two different types of source can be specified


Applied per unit mass
Applied per unit volume

The sources can be constant, functions of a single


variable via curve fit or cubic spline, or functions of
multiple variables via a user function.

A.324

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Workshop 7 Natural Convection

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Workshop 7 Natural Convection


Purposes of the Workshop

Gain experience with the different heat transfer mechanisms simulated by AcuSolve

Gain experience with simulations involving no inlet or outlet boundary conditions.

Set up a heat transfer problem involving natural convection

Load mesh by importing arm file

Use the coupled Temperature/Flow solver

Use Surface Manager to assign boundary condition types

Monitor solution with AcuProbe

Create an analysis template and use it to perform a mesh sensitivity study

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Workshop 7 Natural Convection


Supported Heat Transfer Functionality

Conjugate Heat Transfer

Solid Conduction

Forced and Natural convection

Enclosure radiation

Solar radiation

Thermal shell elements

Volumetric heat generation

Surface convection

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Workshop 7 Natural Convection


Natural Convection Problem Description

In this workshop, we will perform a steady state simulation of buoyancy driven laminar
flow caused by an internally heated cylinder contained within an air-filled cylinder. Both
cylinders are assumed to be infinitely long and the system will be modeled using half
symmetry.

The following diagram illustrates the problem set up and the boundary conditions for the
simulation.

Cylinder filled
with air

Solid cylinder
producing heat at
a rate of 10,000 W/m3

T =353 K

No-slip
Walls

Symmetry plane
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Workshop 7 Natural Convection


Relevant Physics

Let's review the different types of heat transfer and assumptions that are present in this
simulation before getting started:

Heat Transfer Mechanisms:

Assumptions:

Convective heat transfer between

Conjugate heat transfer


between solid/fluid

outer cylinder and surroundings


is being neglected
Conduction within the outer cylinder
walls is being neglected.
Radiation effects are negligible
All of these mechanisms could be
simulated using AcuSolve if desired!

Conduction within
the solid

Natural convection
within the fluid

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Workshop 7 Natural Convection


Create a new database

Launch AcuConsole, then select


File--> New

Navigate to the Workshop 7


directory, and name the case
NaturalConvection

Save the case

Import the mesh into the database

Click on 'File' 'Import' from the

main toolbar

Select ACUSIM Raw Mesh (*.arm)'


from the File Type selection box

Select the file named 'Mesh_1.arm'

Click on 'Open'

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Set the Data tree Manager to BAS
Set the display properties of model

Expand the 'Model' branch of the model tree

Right-click on 'Volumes' and select 'Display off'

Right-click on 'Surfaces' and select 'Display type',


select 'solid & wire'

Inspect the model

Click and drag in the graphics window to rotate the


model into an isometric viewing position

Model should appear as a simple half circle as shown


Note: Group color schemes will vary

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Set up the global model parameters

Expand the 'Global' branch in the Data tree

Double-click 'Problem Description'

Set the Title and Subtitle

Ensure that the 'Analysis type' is set to Steady


state

Set the 'Temperature equation' to Advective


diffusive to enable thermal computation

This simulation is below the transition Rayleigh


Number for concentric cylinders, so leave the
'Turbulence equation' set to Laminar

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Set the solution strategy

Double-click 'Auto Solution Strategy'

Ensure that the 'Analysis type' is set to 'Steady


state'

Set the convergence tolerance to 1.0E-4

Set the 'Num Krylov vectors' to 40

Set the 'Relaxation factor' to 0.25

Toggle the 'Temperature flow' button to 'on'


This specifies that we are going to use the fullycoupled flow/temperature solution approach

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Workshop 7 Natural Convection


Define the material models

Expand 'Material Model'


Double-click 'Air'
Set Density 'Type' to 'Boussinesq'
This will create a temperature varying density
that will drive the natural convection flow

Create a new Material Model by right-clicking


'Aluminum', then selecting 'Duplicate'.
Right click on the new model and choose
'Rename' to change the name to 'Stainless
Steel'
Double-click 'Stainless Steel' and set the
properties according to the table below

Density

Specific Heat

Conductivity

8000 kg/m^3

500 J/(kg K)

16.2 W/(m K)

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Create the heat source

Expand the 'Body Force' branch in the Global tree

Right-click 'Body Force' and select 'New'

Rename the newly created Body Force to 'Heat


Source'

Double-click 'Heat Source' to edit the properties

Set the 'Medium' to Solid

Set the Type' to Per Unit Volume

Set the Volume Heat source to 2,000 W/m3


This heat source will later be applied to the internal
cylinder to simulate an internal heat generation
process

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Examine the 'Gravity' Body Force

Double-click 'Gravity' then open the Array


Editor to ensure that gravity is set to act in the Y direction

Click on 'OK' to exit the array editor

Set the Output intervals

Expand the 'Output' branch in the Data tree

Double-click 'Nodal Output' and set 'Time step


frequency' to 10

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Double-click 'Derived Quantity Output'

Set the time-step frequency to 10

This enables output of density

Right-click 'Time History Output' and select 'New'

Rename 'Time History Output 1' to 'Monitor Points'

Double-click 'Monitor Points'


Set 'Type' to 'Coordinates'
Select 'Open Array' to enter the location of the
monitor points
Select 'Add Row' to create 2 rows.
Enter the following points, and hit 'OK'

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Set the initial conditions

The initial conditions for this analysis are


especially important because we have defined
temperature-dependent properties (density). An
appropriate initial condition for temperature can
significantly reduce the number of iterations
required to reach convergence.

Double-click 'Nodal Initial Condition'


Set 'Temperature' to 350K
The velocity components and pressure can be left
at the default value of zero for this analysis.

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Assign the properties to the surfaces and volumes

Collapse the 'Global' branch in the model tree

Expand the 'Volumes' and 'Surfaces' branches under the 'Model'


branch

Right-click 'Surfaces' and select 'Display off'

Right-click 'Volumes' and select 'Display on'

The volume groups have already been assigned from the data in
the arm file

Examine the volume groups by clicking on each of the group

Fluid Region

names in the model tree to highlight them in the visualization


area.

Solid Region

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Assign Volume Properties

Expand the 'SOLID' Volume group

Enable 'Element Output'

Double-click 'Element Set' to edit the


properties
Set 'Medium' to 'Solid'
Set 'Material Model' to 'Stainless Steel'
Set 'Body force' to 'Heat Source'
This associates the internal heat
generation that we created with this
volume group

Collapse the 'SOLID' branch

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Expand the FLUID Volume group

Enable 'Element Output'

Double-click 'Element Set' to edit the properties


Set Medium to Fluid
Set 'Material Model' to Air
Set 'Body force' to 'Gravity'
We have buoyancy-driven flow due to the
spatially varying temperature.

Collapse the 'FLUID' branch


Collapse the 'Volumes' branch

Right-click 'Volumes' and select 'Display off'

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Right-click Surfaces and select Display on
Right-click Surfaces and select Surface
Manager

Click on Columns and ensure that Simple


BC Active and Simple BC Type are enabled

Set the boundary condition types according


to the values shown in the table below.

Click Close to exit the Surface Manager

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Workshop 7 Natural Convection


Assign Thermal Boundary Condition Types

We are going to use a fixed temperature outer wall


for this analysis, so we need to assign this thermal
boundary condition

Expand the Surface group named OUTER_WALLS

Double-click 'Simple Boundary Condition'


Set Temperature BC Type to Value
Set Temperature to 353 K

The default thermal boundary conditions are


appropriate for the remaining surfaces, so we will

not modify them

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Assign Periodic Boundary Conditions

We are trying to simulate infinitely long cylinders in


this analysis. To accomplish this, we will use periodic
boundary conditions.

Right-click 'Periodics' and select 'New'

Rename 'Periodic 1' to 'Z-Periodicity'


Right-click 'Z-Periodicity' and select 'Import'
Load the file 'Mesh_1.pbc' from the
NodalBoundaryConditions directory

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Expand 'Z-Periodicity' and toggle the 'Periodic
Boundary Condition' to on.

The periodic boundary condition consists of pairs of


nodes that will be forced to have the same solution.
The list of node pairs were contained in the
Mesh_1.pbc file that was imported.
The node pairs will force the solution on each of the
planes perpendicular to the z-axis to be equal.

The default setting in AcuSolve is to apply this


condition to all variables in the analysis. We will
accept this default setting.

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Workshop 7 Natural Convection


Assign Pressure Reference Point

This analysis has no inlet or outlet boundary conditions. Therefore, there is no boundary
condition that sets the pressure level in the domain. To make the solution more robust,
we will set a pressure reference point using a nodal boundary condition.

Right-click 'Nodes' and select 'New

Rename 'Node 1' to 'Fixed Pressure Node'


Right-click 'Fixed Pressure Node' and select Define.
In the Node Define Dialog box select Selection type to Pressure Point and Volumes to
FLUID. Click OK.

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Workshop 7 Natural Convection


Expand 'Fixed Pressure Node' and enable 'Pressure'

The default 'Type' of 'zero' sets the nodes in this set to


pressure = 0.0

This single node will now act as the pressure reference point
for the simulation.

To examine the location of the node, right-click 'Fixed


Pressure Node' and select 'Display on'

Then right-click 'Surfaces' and set 'Display type' to 'outline'

Right-click 'Periodics' and select 'Display off'. You should now

be able to see the fixed pressure node as a point.

Fixed pressure
node

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Workshop 7 Natural Convection


Save the model

Click on the save icon in the toolbar, or type Ctrl+S

Launch AcuSolve

Click on the solve icon in the toolbar, or type


Ctrl+Shift+S

Ensure that Problem name is set to


'NaturalConvection'

Ensure 'Problem directory' is set to


path\Workshop7

Ensure Working directory is set to


path\Workshop7\ACUSIM.DIR

Ensure that 'Generate AcuSolve input files' and


'Launch AcuSolve' are toggled 'On'

Select 'Ok to run the model

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Workshop 7 Natural Convection


Monitor the solution in AcuProbe

Click the acuProbe icon in the main toolbar

Plot the residuals

Expand the 'Residual ratio' branch, then right-click 'All' and select 'Plot All'

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Plot the monitor point output

Right-click on 'Residual ratio' branch, then select 'Plot None'

Expand the 'Time History' branch, then expand the 'node 1' and
'node 2' branches.

Right-click on 'y-velocity' for each of the nodes and select 'Plot'

Plot the temperature by following this same approach.

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Workshop 7 Natural Convection


Save the analysis template

Close all windows (acuTail, acuProbe, AcuSolve


Controller,etc.) except for the AcuConsole base
window.

Select the 'Delete Mesh' icon from the main tool bar

Click on 'Yes' when prompted for confirmation.

Ensure that the 'Global' branch of the model tree is


collapsed and the 'Model' branch is expanded

Expand the 'Volumes' and Surfaces' branches


Note the red circle next to each group indicating
empty sets

Save the template

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Workshop 7 Natural Convection


Import refined mesh

All of our boundary condition and analysis settings are still


recorded in the database for future use

Import a new mesh by clicking on the 'Import' icon from


the main tool bar.

Select ACUSIM Raw Mesh' from the File Type selection box

Select the file named 'Mesh_2.arm'

Click on 'Open'

The refined model now appears on the screen with all

grouping automatically set!

Inspect the groups to ensure that all surfaces were


properly assigned

Assign the Pressure Reference point.

Import the periodic node for Mesh_2 (these were not


included in the imported mesh).

Run the model

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Turbulence Modeling

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Turbulence Modeling
AcuSolve supports various types of turbulence modeling

Steady State Simulations


Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations solved to arrive directly at the time averaged flow
field

Transient Simulations
Governing equations are integrated in time to yield a time accurate simulation of transient
flows

Many different turbulence closures are available for each type of simulation
We will briefly discuss the closures that are available in AcuSolve in this presentation

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Turbulence Modeling
Turbulence Background

Turbulence is a phenomena that involves a vast range of length and time scales
This is what makes direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent flows of engineering interest
prohibitively expensive
As the Reynolds Number increases for a given flow, the smallest turbulent eddies decrease in
size
Therefore, as the Reynolds Number increases, the mesh density required to resolve these
eddies increases, and the required time step size decreases!
This is the reason DNS is rarely done in industry. However, if you have a computer large
enough, AcuSolve has been shown to perform quite well for DNS!!!

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Turbulence Modeling
Turbulence Modeling Options

To enable the simulation of turbulence, we look to turbulence models as a way of


reducing the cost
There are many different levels of turbulence modeling
The techniques that employ the most assumptions/modeling are typically the least
demanding from a CPU cost standpoint.
As the number of assumptions made implicit within the model decreases, the cost and
accuracy of the model typically increases.
Turbulence has been researched for centuries, and is still an evolving science.or should we say
art!

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Turbulence Modeling
Turbulence Modeling Options

LES
Smagorinsky, WALES, Germano dynamic model, VMS

Detached Eddy Simulation

Reynolds Stress Models


Launder-Reece-Rodi, Stress- model, etc.

Three Equation Models


k--RT, V2F, etc.

One and Two Equation Models


Spalart-Allmaras, SST, k-, k-, etc.

Algebraic Models

Computing Cost

SA-DES, DDES, SST-DES, SAS, etc.

Mixing Length model, Baldwin-Lomax, Cebeci-Smith, etc.

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Turbulence Modeling
Turbulence Modeling Options within AcuSolve

LES
Smagorinsky, Dynamic model, beta version of VMS

Detached Eddy Simulation


SA-DES, SST-DES, DDES

One-Equation and Two-Equation Models


Spalart-Allmaras
Rotation/curvature correction implemented
Nonlinear S-A model implemented
SST turbulence model
k-w turbulence model
Additional models can be implemented via User-Defined Function
Spalart-Allmaras provides an excellent general purpose model for industrial applications

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Turbulence Modeling
Turbulent Boundary Layers

AcuSolve offers three options for the simulation of turbulent boundary layers
Option 1: Fully resolved
Setting Turbulence wall type to Low Reynolds Number integrates equations directly
to the wall and uses near wall damping functions to produce appropriate behavior
Option 2: Wall Function
Setting Turbulence wall type to Wall Function uses a wall model based on the
standard Law of the Wall for turbulent boundary layers
Option 3: Running Average Wall Function
Setting Turbulence wall type to Running Average Wall Function enforces the Law of
the Wall on the running average flow field.

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Turbulence Modeling
Turbulent Boundary Layers

AcuSolves wall functions are valid through the viscous sublayer and buffer layer
There is no lower bound limit on the wall function
The upper bound limit is y+ 300

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Turbulence Modeling
Turbulence Modeling Options in AcuConsole

Turbulence model is specified in the Problem


Description panel
Different settings of the turbulence model will produce
different menu options in other panels.
Spalart-Allmaras requires solution of a PDE, so it appears
in the Auto Solution Strategy panel. LES is algebraic, so
no entry would appear

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Turbulence Modeling
Turbulence Modeling Options in AcuConsole

Simple Boundary Condition menus will change based


on the choice of laminar vs. turbulent.
Turbulence wall type only appears for turbulent
simulations
Setting Turbulence wall type to None omits the
surface from the collection of facets that are used for
the wall distance computation.
Note that selecting Running Average Wall Function
requires that Running Average be toggled on in the
Problem Description panel

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Turbulence Modeling
Summary

AcuSolve supports a broad range of turbulence modeling options:


Steady RANS (Spalart-Allmaras) provides the most cost effective approach (single equation
model)
Unsteady RANS may improve solution for specific applications
Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) requires finer mesh than RANS, but often provides better
results for complex separated flows
LES models provide additional accuracy over DES and RANS for most cases, but require fine
mesh density throughout the domain.
Dynamic model can be used to predict complex phenomena (transition, etc.).

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Workshop 8 Honey in Tea

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Workshop 8 - Honey in Tea


Purposes of the Workshop

Learn how to work with multiple species


Define properties as functions of species concentration

Use nodal initial conditions on a subset of nodes via the script option

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Workshop 8 - Honey in Tea


AcuSolve is currently formulated for one fluid
Scalar transport used to track other species
Properties can be functions of species concentration

This models a miscible property relative to the mixing of multiple fluids

Honey in Tea in this case

Conservation is only as good as the convergence level achieved

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Workshop 8 - Honey in Tea


Create the database

File -> New

Browse to the Workshop8 directory


Enter name as honey_tea
Select Save

Import the mesh

File Import

Select ACUSIM Raw Mesh in the file filter


drop-down

Navigate to: Workshop8/MESHIN.DIR

Select acusolve.arm and click Open

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Workshop 8 - Honey in Tea


There are 2 volumes in the mesh

Cup_Honey - The portion at the top with the species concentration = 1.0 (all honey)

Cup_Main - The portion with the species concentration = 0.0 (all water)

There are 2 surfaces in the mesh

Top - The top of the cup

Walls - The walls of the cup

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Workshop 8 - Honey in Tea


Set the data tree to Basic

Ensure that the BAS button is selected in the


Data tree Manager

Expand Global and double-click Problem


Description

Set Title to Honey in tea

Set Sub title to Species concentration

Set Analysis type to Transient

Set Species equation to Advective diffusive

and Num. species to 1

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Workshop 8 - Honey in Tea


Expand Solution Strategy and double-click Auto Solution Strategy

Set Max time steps to 200

Set Initial time increment to 0.125 sec


Yields 25 seconds of simulation time

Set Convergence tolerance to 0.0001

Set Max stagger iterations to 6


Better convergence per time step

Set Num. Krylov vectors to 20

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Workshop 8 - Honey in Tea


Define a new material

Right-click Material Model and select New

Rename Material Model 1 to Tea-Honey

Double-click its name to set the properties

For Density set Type to Piecewise Linear

Set Curve fit variable to Species 1

Click Open Array for Curve fit values

Click Add to yield a second row


Enter the values as shown
Species1 = 0., Density = 1000. (water)
Species1 = 1., Density = 1500. (honey)
Linear in between
Click OK to save the values

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Workshop 8 - Honey in Tea


For Viscosity set Type to Piecewise Linear
Set Curve fit variable to Species 1
Click Open Array for Curve fit values

Click Add to yield a second row

Enter the values as shown

Species1 = 0., Viscosity = 0.001 (water)

Species1 = 1., Viscosity = 2. (honey)

Linear in between

Click OK to save the values

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Workshop 8 - Honey in Tea


Define gravity

Expand Body Force and double-click Gravity

Click Open Array for Gravity


Set Y-component to 0.0 and Z-component to -9.81
Click OK to save the values

Expand Output and double-click Nodal Output

Set Time step frequency to 2

Set Output initial condition to On

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Workshop 8 - Honey in Tea


Double-click on Nodal Initial Condition

Toggle Show all variables on

Change Species 1 initial condition type to


Script
Toggle Satisfy species_1 BC on
Click on Open Text next to Species 1 script

Enter the following script to set the species


concentration to 1 in the element set that
represents honey, and 0 elsewhere:
value = 0
if InVolume(Cup_Honey): value=1

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Define Volumes

Expand Model and Volume

Expand Cup_Honey and double-click Element Set


Set Material model to Tea-Honey
Set Body force to Gravity

Follow the same steps for Cup_Main

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Define Surfaces

Expand Surfaces

Expand Top and double-click Simple Boundary Condition


Set Type to Slip

Default settings for Walls are correct

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Workshop 8 - Honey in Tea


Create a reference pressure node

Right-click on Nodes and select New

Rename the new node set to Reference Pressure


Node

Right-click on Reference Pressure Node and select


Define

In the Node Define dialog box, select Nearest


Node and enter {.5,.5,.9} for the target coordinates.

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Workshop 8 - Honey in Tea


Toggle the Pressure variable on beneath
Reference Pressure Node

Set the Type to zero.

For incompressible flows, the absolute pressure


is not needed. Instead, we solve for relative

pressure.
For most cases, an outflow boundary condition
sets the reference pressure for the solver

Since we dont have an outlet in this simulation,


the reference pressure node acts to fix the
pressure at some baseline level.

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Workshop 8 - Honey in Tea


Run AcuSolve

Tools -> AcuSolve

Set Launch AcuSolve to On

Set Generate Input Files to On

Click Ok to write the files and launch the solver

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Working with Expressions and Units

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Working with Expressions and Units


Changing the units

This can be done in two different ways

The first method is to type the number and units with a space in between and hit Enter.

Next method is to click on the units next to the box for entering numbers. A list of units
appears. Select the desired unit.

When AcuConsole writes the input file all the data is converted to SI units.

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Working with Expressions and Units


Variable Manager

Variable Manager dialog can be opened by clicking on Variable List icon in the tool bar.

Variables are defined in this dialog and are used in the panels area when entering floating
point and integer values.

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Working with Expressions and Units

Click on Add for defining new Variable. Rename the variable as desired.

Enter the expression in the Expression column. Before the expression use equal symbol

(=) or colon equal symbols (:=). The expression is valid only if any of these two symbols
are used.

(=) just calculates the value of the expression. (:=) updates the value of expression if any
relative variable is changed.

The value of the expression is shown in Value column.

Information regarding the variable can be included in the Description column.

Each row in the Variable Manager has one variable defined. Variables can be deleted,
moved up and down and sorted based on the values using the Del, Move Up, Move
Down and Sort buttons.

Variables can be imported and exported by clicking on Import and export buttons. Only
ACL file format is used.

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Working with Expressions and Units

Mass flow rate (M) is defined in the Variable Manager dialog. This variable is used in Inlet
SBC as shown below.

Mass flux is specified with a variable (M). Colon equal to symbol (:=) is used before the
variable for automatic update of the expression if any variable in the expression is
changed.

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Working with Expressions and Units


Delayed Variable Spreadsheet

This can be opened by clicking on Delayed List icon in the tool bar.

This functions similar to the Variable Manager.

In Variable Manager, the variable is defined first and used next, whereas delayed
variables are used first and defined next in the Delayed Variable Spreadsheet.

This spreadsheet opens only if there is a delayed variable.

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Working with Expressions and Units

Usage of Delayed List is explained using the following example.

For the inlet SBC change the value of X-velocity from 0.0 to ::=Vel and click on the

Delayed List icon.

Delayed Variable Spreadsheet appears. This sheet has four columns.

First column gives the item in which the delayed variable is used.
(Model>Surfaces>Inlet>Simple Boundary Condition)

Second column provides details of the parameter (X-velocity) for which delayed variable
is used.

Third column gives the name of delayed variable (Vel) used for the parameter.

Fourth column gives the default value of the parameter.

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Working with Expressions and Units

Change the default value to the desired value and click Ok.

If the delayed variables are not defined, Delayed variable spreadsheet appears when the

variable is needed. User needs to update the spreadsheet if required and click Ok for the
process to continue.

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Setting User Preferences

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Setting User Preferences


Preferences

User can set the preferences by clicking on File > Preferences in the menu bar.

Full control is provided to the user for adjusting the default settings.

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Setting User Preferences

General Tab
Under this section users can modify the number of recent files, change the size of icons in the
AcuConsole GUI, adjust the font style and size etc.
After generating the mesh user can set not to load the mesh or to load using the Allow auto
load mesh.
Default option for appending the mesh can be adjusted by setting Allow mesh append.

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Setting User Preferences

Data Base
In this tab, Auto flush and the option for compressing the data base can be selected.

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Setting User Preferences

Active
By default the Surface Output under Simple Boundary Condition for each surface is set to On.
This can be set to off by selecting Off for Default Surface Output.

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Setting User Preferences

Export
In this tab, user can set the exported mesh file type to be in ASCII or binary format. By default
this set to ASCII.

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Setting User Preferences

Vis Window
By using these settings users can set the visualization area as desired.
Type of transparency, shadings, size of point and width of lines in the visualization area can be
adjusted.
Highlight Model Entities option by default is set to On. Therefore when volume or surface
elements are clicked on in Data tree the appropriate volume or surface gets highlighted in
visualization area. But for large models this may take more time. In such cases putting this
option off can be helpful.

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Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Setting User Preferences

Mesh Display
If a mesh is loaded then the default entities to be displayed and their display type can be set
under this tab.
Entities here refer to volumes, surfaces, nodes etc.
If the option is set to none then those elements are set to off.
Volumes, Surfaces, Node sets generated, PBC surfaces, Edges and zone meshes created can be
set to display by default.

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Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Setting User Preferences

Geom Display
Similar to Mesh Display, the CAD model that is loaded will be displayed as desired by setting the
options under this tab.

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Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Setting User Preferences

Surface Highlight
When clicked on a particular surface in Data tree, appropriate surface will be highlighted in the
visualization area. The display type when highlighted can be different than the original display
type set for that particular surface. This can be set by adjusting this tab.
For example if a surface has display type set to Solid & Wireframe. When highlighted, the user
likes to display it as wireframe. This can be done by setting wireframe for Solid & Wireframe
as shown in below image.

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Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Setting User Preferences

Volume Highlight
Similar to surface highlight option, the volume display type can also be set as desired by using
this tab.
Please refer to Surface Highlight for detailed explanation.

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Copyright 2012 Altair Engineering, Inc. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved.

Setting User Preferences

Color Scheme
The default scheme for coloring the CAD model when loaded can be set using this tab.
Three options are available for setting the Outline Line Color and Wireframe Line Color. Users
can set them as desired.

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