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Version 5


In accident investigation collisions between vehicles are modelled using
Newton’s equations of motion. These equations coupled with some other
useful results enable us to predict the behaviour of vehicles given some
knowledge of the forces acting on those vehicles. In addition we can
intuitively see that the amount of damage caused in a collision is related to
the relative speeds of the vehicles concerned. All of the computer
programs around, of which AiDamage is but one, use these principles to
derive an estimate of the velocities of the vehicles involved.
The computer program is merely a tool to assist in those calculations. The
maths involved can be a little daunting and the use of the computer
simplifies the work that is done by the accident investigator. Given time,
and knowledge of the formulae that are used, it is possible to perform the
calculations by hand.
The purpose of this manual is to outline the calculations that AiDamage
makes, explain the principles upon which the equations are based and also
explain some of the necessary assumptions that must also be made. This
should allow the reader to understand how AiDamage works which is
essential in interpreting the results that are generated.
These notes are intended as support material for the AiDamage Users
Course. They should be read in conjunction with notes on the measuring
of damaged vehicles.

Conservation of Linear Momentum
The Law of the Conservation of Linear Momentum states that the total
momentum after a collision is equal to the total momentum before the
collision in a closed system. Let us consider for a moment exactly what
this means. It means that provided we can account for all the momentum
put into a system we know that exactly the same momentum will be present
after the collision.
This is a powerful mathematical statement but we do need to be sure that
we have accounted for all the momentum. Circumstances where we
cannot be sure are when objects fragment during the collision, or if external
forces are acting. In reality fragmentation is not a problem if only objects of
low mass such as windscreens fly off. If the vehicle splits into two or more
substantial pieces then we must account for all those substantial pieces.
Collision Suite
B- 1

An external force acting on the vehicle during impact is potentially a bigger
problem. In the vast majority of real life collisions between vehicles, one or
both of the vehicles are braking at the moment of impact. This braking
imparts an additional force that should be included. The only way to
include these additional braking forces is to take into account the mass of
the Earth as well! This is not really a viable proposition and because the
collision takes place over a very short period of time, typically around 0.1s,
we can ignore the braking forces acting during this time. Care must be
taken with this, as it may not be a reasonable assumption if an extended
period of contact results from the collision.
The derivation of the momentum equation is shown in appendix A and
gives the result,
m1 u1 + m2 u2 = m1 v1 + m2 v2


This equation can be difficult to use because it contains six variables. In
order to solve it we need to know five variables from which we can work out
the sixth.

Conservation of Energy
A few definitions come in handy before we can discuss this principle. Work
is defined as the product of a force acting on a body to produce a
displacement. Energy is defined as the capacity to do work. Energy can
therefore be thought of as a reservoir of potential work. In SI Units force is
measured in newtons (N) and distance in metres so the units of work and
energy are therefore in newton metres (Nm). This unit of Nm is important
throughout physics and has been given a special name, the joule which is
abbreviated to J.
In collision problems it is often important to consider the energy a body has
by virtue of its motion. This is known as the kinetic energy of a body. The
kinetic energy of a body can be calculated from the equation,

KE = ½ m v

(Strictly speaking this is only the expression for linear kinetic energy.
Rotational energy can also be included, but this complicates matters
considerably for our discussion.)
The principle of Conservation of Energy states that energy can neither be
created or destroyed, merely converted from one form to another. So, if we
Collision Suite
B- 2

consider what happens during the moment of impact between a stationary vehicle and a moving vehicle. We need a way of increasing our knowledge of the system. With an elasticity of one. and the second after this point up to the instant when the vehicles separate. A useful way of increasing this knowledge is by using the concept of elasticity. Rubber balls have a lot of spring whereas lumps of plasticene do not! The technical definition of the coefficient of elasticity (e). Note that this accounts for all the energy of the collision. Collision Suite B. With an elasticity of zero this implies that there is no separation velocity in other words the two objects have the same post-impact velocity. we found that the final equation contains six variables. The first up to a point when maximum deformation of the vehicles occurs. Elasticity In the previous discussion of the conservation of linear momentum. As can be seen elasticity is a measure of the ratio between the separation velocity and the closing velocity. The way it is defined means that e will range between zero and one. none is lost. To see how this can be useful. is as follows. The extremes at either end of this scale are useful to consider. the relative separation velocity and initial velocities are the same. A simple way of considering this is as the amount of ‘spring’ or ‘bounce’ in the collision.3 . The whole collision can be considered in two phases. e= v −v Relative separation velocity = − 2 1 Relative closing velocity u2 − u1 (C) The minus sign is required to make the result positive. (or coefficient of restitution as it is sometimes known). but E1 and E2 represent the energy converted (mainly) into deformation of the objects and into heat. This required us to know five of them if we were to solve the equation.AiDamage equate the kinetic energies of two objects before and after a collision we obtain the following expression. 1 1 1 1 m 1 u 12 + m 2 u 22 = m 1 v 12 + m 2 v 22 + E 1 + E 2 2 2 2 2 (B) Where E1 and E2 are the energies ‘converted’ into a different form for each of the objects.

25.19 0 .56 0 . Depending upon the elasticity of the collision.35. the force continues to act slowing one vehicle and accelerating the other until maximum deformation of the bodies has occurred. then the bodies of the vehicles ‘spring back’ slightly.9 . then the vehicles remain together (although not necessarily for very long) and travel at a common post-impact velocity. From the equation for kinetic energy (Equation B) and the definition of the coefficient of Collision Suite B.22 0 . At the end of this phase.5 . pushing the stationary vehicle forward and slowing the moving vehicle.1 29.2 14. both vehicles must be travelling at a common velocity.0.7 4.6 0 .10.4 28.9 .4 .16 6 0.35.5 34.9 34.0.5. The results of their research are reproduced below.13 55 0. 1 (Over 40mph).1 .3 .24 12 0. of Tests Coefficient of Elasticity Frontal Fixed Barrier Tests 18 0.1 .11 39 0. If the elasticity is zero.AiDamage At the instant when the vehicles begin to interact a force exists between them. This force acts equally on both vehicles. In vehicle collisions the elasticity varies between one.21 0 . Table 1: Coefficients of elasticity Relative Speed (mph) 7.15.0. one of two possibilities results for the second phase.4 .30.0. in other words a perfectly inelastic collision.5 No.8 . As the collision progresses.7 .11 Confidence Limits (95%) 0 .36 0.3 24.0.27 There is a connection between the energy absorbed in a collision and the closing speed of the two vehicles involved in a collision.29.02 .0.14 70 0.0.12 Rear Moving Barrier Tests 6 0.23 31 0. again creating a force which accelerates the initially stationary vehicle still faster and slowing the original moving vehicle. Smith and Tsongas (1986) produced data which can be shown in a table to illustrate the elasticity that can be expected in vehicle collisions. for very low speed collisions (less than 3mph) and nearly zero for higher speed collisions.0.28 0. If there is some elasticity. In so doing it also causes the bodywork of both vehicles to deform.

We can give this a more formal definition as. the total energy available reduces to zero. and the mass of each of the vehicles. The required result is. U= u2 − u1 R (E) VR= v2 − v1 (F) The definition of elasticity can also be rewritten in terms of UR and VR since. then we can gain information about the relative closing speeds and hence the change in velocity for each of the vehicles. We mentioned Delta-V earlier in the text as a change in velocity for a vehicle due to a collision. v −v V e= − 2 1 = − R u2 − u1 UR Collision Suite B. This is shown in appendix B as it is rather lengthy. (1 − e 2 )(u2 − u1 ) 2 m1m2 E1 + E2 = 2(m1 + m2 ) (D) This represents the amount of energy available to deform the vehicle.5 . ∆v = v − u We can also define the relative closing and separation speeds as. From this equation we can see that if we know the amount of energy. Delta-V In this section we shall derive some useful results from the momentum equation.AiDamage elasticity (Equation C) we can derive such a connection. the energy available is at a maximum. as determined by the coefficient of elasticity. whereas when the coefficient is zero. When the coefficient is one. This will allow us to express the change in velocity (Delta-V) of a vehicle in terms of the elasticity and closing speeds of the vehicles involved in the collision. as given by E1 and E2.

∆v2 = m1 (1 + e) UR (m1 + m2 ) (H) Strictly speaking equation (H) is relates to the magnitude or absolute value of ∆v2 since the actual value is negative. So in a collision between a heavy and a light vehicle. ∆v1 + ∆= v2 U R (1 + e) (I) And also find a ratio so that. We can add the two equations (G and H) to give. the change in velocity for the heavy vehicle is smaller than the change in velocity for the light vehicle. ∆v1 = m2 (1 + e) UR (m1 + m2 ) (G) An expression for ∆v2 can also be found as. Looking at this a little deeper reveals that for vehicles of Collision Suite B.6 . ∆v1 m2 = ∆v2 m1 (J) Equation (J) is particularly interesting as is shows that the ratio between the Delta-V’s is inversely proportional to their respective masses and nothing else. ⇒ m1u1 + m2 (U R + u1 ) = m1v1 + m2 (VR + v1 ) ⇒ (m1 + m2 )u1 + m2U R = (m1 + m2 )v1 + m2VR ⇒ m2 (U R − VR ) = (m1 + m2 )(v1 − u1 ) ⇒ m2 (1 = + e) (m1 + m2 ) ∆v1 UR So that finally we have.AiDamage So we can substitute into the momentum equation (A) from equations (E) and (F) to give.

This gives a rough guide to checking the results of any calculations. the masses of the vehicles. ∆v1 = m2 (1 + e) UR (m1 + m2 ) So that we can obtain an expression for ∆v1 as. The first two variables are readily determined. the change in velocity during the collision will be about the same. More useful results now follow if we combine the energy loss equation (D) and the equations for Delta-V (G and H). as we shall explain.7 .AiDamage similar mass. from the work of Smith and Tsongas as outlined earlier. 2(m + m2 )( E1 + E2 ) (u2 − u1 ) 2 =1 (1 − e 2 )m1m2 So that. We have some idea. What we can say however. (u2 − u1 ) = U R = 2(m1 + m2 )( E1 + E2 ) (1 − e 2 )m1m2 But from equation (G) we know that. ∆v1 = 2m 2 ( E1 + E 2 ) (1 + e) m1 (m1 + m 2 ) (1 − e) This equation gives us an expression for the change in velocity of a vehicle knowing. Equation (D) can be written in terms of the square of the closing speeds as. ∆v1 = m 2 (1 + e) m (1 + e) UR = 2 (m1 + m 2 ) (m1 + m 2 ) 2(m1 + m 2 )( E1 + E 2 ) (1 − e 2 )m1 m 2 This can be simplified to give. By default. the total damage caused and the elasticity. is that if we assume a totally inelastic collision (in other words e = 0) then the Delta-V calculated will be a minimum. but the elasticity is not so easy to quantify. this is the Collision Suite B.

∆v1 = 2m 2 ( E1 + E 2 ) m1 (m1 + m 2 ) (K) Similarly we can derive an expression for ∆v2. One measure that has been proposed is the ‘Equivalent Barrier Speed’ (EBS). The closing speed values calculated by AiDamage have been updated so that the closing speed is now calculated as the sum of the Delta-V’s at the point of application (usually the damage centroid) as opposed to the vehicle centre of mass as this give as more accurate reflection of the true closing speed. in other words the accident severity. ∆v2 = 2m1 ( E1 + E2 ) m2 (m1 + m2 ) (L) What must be remembered is that Delta-V is a measure of the velocity change that each vehicle experiences in the collision. It is limited to headon impacts and was varied to include other types of solid object impacts when it is known as the ‘Equivalent Test Speed’ (ETS). the way in which separation velocities of the points of application are calculated by AiDamage has been rewritten. This is also possible with the enhanced algorithm used in the Predicted Speeds section of AiDamage.AiDamage assumption that AiDamage makes and in these circumstances the equation above becomes. This is the speed that a vehicle would have to strike a solid immovable block in order to cause the same damage.8 . Many tests have Collision Suite B. Similarly. This research has progressed since the late 1950’s and there are numerous papers reporting various aspects of this relationship. Additional data is needed to find the actual velocities. Previous versions did not always calculate these values correctly where sideslip was present Energy and Damage There are a number of ways in which the damage caused is related to vehicle speeds. It is not a measure of the difference in velocity between the two vehicles. nor is it a measure of the actual velocity of a vehicle.

and the springs we are more used to. Unfortunately vehicle collisions are often with moveable and deformable objects. From details of the mechanics of a spring we can calculate the magnitude of energy required to compress a spring by a certain distance (x). such as other vehicles and the EBS and ETS measurements are 2 no longer that useful.AiDamage been performed by various institutions (notably TRL in the UK) whereby vehicles are crashed into solid objects at various speeds. are that these hypothetical springs do not rebound but remain compressed. This brings us on to a discussion of how vehicle stiffness affects the damage caused to a vehicle in a collision.9 . It is determined by the relative velocities of the vehicles at impact and by the relative masses of the two vehicles as was shown in the derivation for equation (J). This is equivalent to our earlier assumption of a zero coefficient of elasticity. Being an American he worked on an American car. It obviously takes a certain amount of energy to compress these springs. a Chevrolet. It is also the basis for an analysis of impacts which 3 was originally performed by Campbell (1974) . but the principle remains the same whatever the vehicle. The energy required is dependant upon the stiffness of the spring (k) as given in the equation below. An important point to remember is that although Delta-V is independent of the relative stiffness of the vehicles the damage caused to each vehicle will be related to their stiffness. Ventre and Provensal (1973) initiated the concept of Delta-V as a measure of damage severity and this was discussed earlier in these notes as it is the method used by AiDamage to describe accident severity. E = 12 kx 2 Campbell used this idea to produce a series of diagrams to show the amount of energy required to compress a vehicle by various amounts. Delta-V has a number of advantages for the type of collision we are usually discussing. We can imagine a vehicle as being composed of a number of springs that compress upon impact. An example of this is shown below. The difference between these springs. Collision Suite B.

Appendix E shows generalised stiffness coefficients based on the wheelbase. There is actually far less variation in the stiffness of vehicles than might be first thought. From the extensive tests of that have been performed a (very) rough graph of the results can be drawn (shown on the following page). We then multiply this figure by the ratio of the damaged width to the full width then take the square root to find the EBS. and these can be seen to be similar across the range.AiDamage 61 61 61 61 88 127 61 88 61 88 88 88 61 88 88 127 127 127 127 165 165 165 127 165 88 127 165 165 165 203 242 203 242 203 203 242 203 242 203 242 203 242 127 165 203 242 61 242 2 The numbers in the boxes relate to the EBS (as this was how Campbell originally expressed his data). What it does calculate is the energy required to deform each of the vehicles directly from the spring equations. For a collision involving this vehicle as shown in the right-hand diagram we simply add up the numbers in the boxes. The fraction of the total width is about 7/8 so the EBS for this collision is. including the fractional boxes. One area where this idea may be thought to be unsound is in determining the relative stiffness of different vehicles. In the example above we have the total damaged boxes as about 800. Collision Suite B-10 . 800 x 7 8 = 26mph AiDamage doesn’t actually use Campbell’s Diagrams directly as we have illustrated.

life data provides a way of calibrating any mathematical model. So any computer program. These are based on the real life data and have been tested on many occasions and found to give reasonable results. They also allocated coefficients for the Collision Suite B-11 . For actual data the reader is referred to the list of references. or other calculation should give a result lying within this range. The centre dashed line indicates a ‘best-fit’ line. The actual calculations that AiDamage performs to establish the energy absorbed are based on the equation for the energy required to crush a spring. This real . E = 12 kx 2 The programmers allowed for a certain amount of impact energy which does not damage the vehicle. The coefficients used by AiDamage were taken from the data used in the Crash3 program.AiDamage Crush distance (mm) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 75 65 55 45 35 25 15 5 0 Speed (km / h) Note that we have not given any particular results merely the general trend. From the graph we can see that there is a spread of data. There is a broad spread of data and the upper and lower lines show the approximate limits.

Non . which when coupled with the length of the damage (L). G = A / 2B and C is the crush depth.AiDamage actual stiffness of the hypothetical springs. This is not always the case and the program makes allowance for this. These are explained below.Perpendicular Crush Data entry into the AiDamage program requires a statement as to the primary force direction. It is important in measuring and is probably the most difficult aspect of your examination of the vehicle to get right. AiDamage uses the figures it obtains from the crush equations. Implicitly throughout the discussion so far we have assumed that the primary force is perpendicular to the damaged surface. We can show the situation if the primary force producing the damage is at an angle (θ) to the deformed surface in the diagram below: Primary force θ Collision Suite B-12 . gives an expression for the energy. A few modifications are required to cater for all impact configurations of the vehicles before the results can be used. This is the direction from which the user considers the force which caused the damage was directed. E = L( AC + BC 2 + G) 2 2 Where A and B are crush coefficients specified in the program. It can make a significant difference to the calculated Delta-V. together with the mass of the vehicles to calculate Delta-V using equations (K) and (L) as we found above. Methods of establishing to a good level of confidence are discussed in the course.

E = primary force x CTotal = F CMeasured 2 Cos θ From a trigonometrical identity we have. 1 2 Cos θ = 1 + Tan θ 2 So finally we have. Offset Impacts So far we have only considered the situation where the vehicles colliding do so in such a way that the centres of gravity of each of the vehicles are aligned. This factor grows very quickly as theta increases. This maximum value is 2. if a head-on primary force was assumed this would underestimate the DeltaV. Since energy is defined as. primary force = F Cos θ and CTotal = CMeasured Cos θ Where F is the force perpendicular to the crush and Ctotal is the crush that would have resulted from a perpendicular collision. Trigonometry allows us to calculate the actual value of the primary force and thereby the true value for the energy dissipated. and is limited to a maximum value by Ai Damage. E = Force x distance we can say. EActual = Ecalculated x (1 + Tan θ) 2 This means that the total energy dissipated in the crush is greater by a 2 factor of (1 + Tan θ) than the measured perpendicular crush. We have not considered the effect of impacts which are not aligned along a line connecting the two centres of gravity of each vehicle Collision Suite B-13 . In symbols this becomes.AiDamage With this collision the deformation would be measured from the front and. which is the value when θ = 45°. This effectively doubles the estimate for the damage energy at this angle.

In order to understand how AiDamage allows for this we need to firstly consider the idea of ‘damage centres’. We discussed earlier the idea that the vehicles in a collision reach a common velocity. we can see that it must introduce a turning motion of the vehicle about the centre of gravity. The diagrams below illustrate what we mean by aligned and offset impacts. It is either positive or negative. the distance from the centre of gravity of the force direction can be determined. as shown below. Offset impact are known as non-central impacts in other texts. not necessarily the centres of gravity of the vehicles. Aligned Impacts Offset Impacts Offset impacts produce turning moments about the centre of gravity of each vehicle. and the actual crush depths. Collision Suite B-14 . In offset impacts it is the damage centres that reach a common velocity. This number is given the symbol ‘h’ in our terminology.AiDamage (offset impacts). depending upon whether the force tends to produce a clockwise or anti-clockwise rotation of the vehicle. AiDamage determines the location of these points by considering the damage offset measurement input by the user. If we consider the effect that a force acting at a distance (h) from the centre of gravity has on the vehicle. Using the damage centres and the primary force direction.

a subtle distinction! A torque causes a change in the angular momentum of the object on which it acts. This is a hypothetical hoop of radius k in which all the mass of the object is assumed to be concentrated in the rim. However energy is a force which acts through a distance whereas torque is a force acting at a distance . T = (primary force) x h One word of warning here. Torque has dimensions of Force x distance (Nm) which might at first sight be considered to be the same as energy. In linear momentum the inertia of an object is defined as its mass. the ‘radius of gyration’. AiDamage and other mechanics text books define another quantity. Using various techniques it is possible to calculate the moments of inertia of various bodies. This reluctance to rotate (or change the rate of rotation) is known as the ‘moment of inertia’ and is usually given the symbol (I). In angular momentum the mass and the distribution of the mass within the body are needed to adequately describe the reluctance of a body to rotate. Collision Suite B-15 . This concept is purely a mathematical nicety that simplifies the subsequent calculations.AiDamage Primary force x h y CoG This turning motion (moment or torque) about the centre of gravity has a magnitude equal to the product of the force and the perpendicular distance from the centre of gravity. Angular momentum being another property of objects. In symbols this is described as.

It is valid but the value of k that is quoted for a vehicle is not necessarily
related to the actual size of that vehicle.

Our explanation follows that described by Ashton and Jennings (1990) .
The moment of inertia (I) for a vehicle (or other object) is defined in terms
of the radius of gyration (k) as,

I = mk 2
Torque is defined as the rate of change of angular momentum which in
symbols is,

T F=
.h I ω
Where w is the angular velocity - a measure of how fast the object is
rotating. The single dot above the w denotes that it is the rate of change of
this value that is being considered. This can be written, in terms of the
radius of gyration as,

T F=
.h m k 2ω
And therefore,

ω =

mk 2

The force involved (F) produces both linear and angular acceleration,

F mac = m(a p − hω )
Where ac is the acceleration of the centre of gravity and ap is the
acceleration of the point at which the force acts - the damage centre. Then
we can substitute for w (dot) to give,

F Fh 2
m mk 2
ap =

F (k 2 + h 2 )
mk 2

Collision Suite


If we now define a value gamma (γ) as,


k 2 + h2

We can say that,


= a pγ

This gives us an expression for the acceleration of the centre of gravity
given the acceleration of the damage centre and it is the acceleration of the
damage centre that AiDamage calculates. Gamma doesn’t contain any
terms involving time or the distance through which the force acts, so it can
be used a multiplication constant for the Delta-V of the damage centre so
Delta-Vc = Delta-Vp . gamma
The reader might reasonably ask at this stage how much does this affect
the Delta-V of a vehicle. For a head-on impact, not a great deal as the
value of h can only vary by about 0.5m before the collision becomes more
of a sideswipe. With a value of h of 0.5m the average family saloon car
(Cavalier, Sierra size) will yield a value for gamma of around 0.82 - 0.85.
The effect of the gamma factor is to reduce the calculated Delta-V and this
reduces it by around 15 - 18% of the original estimate.
In side impacts the gamma factor can be as small as 0.5 thus reducing the
Delta-V by 50% Which is certainly a significant reduction!
We can now look at what effect that the amendments in the previous
sections have on the Delta-V equations. The gamma value for both
vehicles may not be identical, indeed this is likely to be the case. Our
original equations (K) and (L) found earlier now become,

∆v1 =

2γ 1γ 2 m 2 ( E1 + E 2 )
m1 (γ 1 m1 + γ 2 m 2 )

Collision Suite

2γ 1 ( E1 + E 2 )
 γ m
m1 1 + 1 1
 γ 2 m2





∆v 2 =

2γ 1γ 2 m1 ( E1 + E 2 )
m 2 (γ 1 m1 + γ 2 m 2 )

2γ 2 ( E1 + E 2 )
 γ m
m 2 1 + 2 2
 γ 1 m1



Where E1 and E2 are given by the equation (below remembering that the
angle θ may not be the same for each vehicle).
EActual = Ecalculated x (1 + Tan θ)

Additional Information from the Scene
If no additional data is supplied to AiDamage then the program will
calculate a Delta-V from the crush damage only. If post-impact information
is available, consisting of speed and direction, then AiDamage will attempt
to calculate the actual pre-impact velocities rather than just the change in
AiDamage performs a two dimensional momentum conservation
calculation, if the user supplies post-impact directions of each of the
vehicles, and also the post-impact speeds. If momentum is selected,
either in the data entry wizard, or in the amend data dialog options, then
AiDamage will perform both a damage analysis and momentum
conservation analysis.
The momentum data supplied is displayed on the active edit screen as a
series of vectors in much the same way as UK based users show
momentum calculations. A calculation is performed and not only the preimpact velocities, but also the direction of the principle force are displayed.
This latter aspect is particularly useful in determining primary forces for the
damage collision.
It is always difficult to establish accurately the primary force direction. The
momentum analysis can give additional information as to the primary force
directions for each vehicle. Tests have shown that altering the primary
forces for each vehicle in line with those suggested by the momentum
analysis greatly increases the correlation between the damage and
momentum based results.

Collision Suite


It cannot account for the vehicle that leaves the ground. 5. It does not allow for the effects of gradient. Smith and Tsongas (1986) SAE Paper 860209 Ashton and Jennings (1990) ‘Vehicle Damage and Impact Speed’. 2. The biggest source of error is likely to be with the measuring of the damaged vehicles. Unpublished training document. in common with most programs of this ilk performs a two dimensional analysis of the accident. 4.AiDamage In Conclusion AiDamage is not the perfect answer to accident investigation problems. then the reliability of the results is limited only by the understanding of the program operation by the user. It does not replace momentum exchange calculations. (pp 549 . It is a useful additional tool for a competent investigator as it enables damage to be assessed to produce an indication of the Delta-V due to the impact. or the effects of weight transfer during skidding or rotation. 3.559) Campbell (1974) ‘Energy basis for collision severity’ SAE Paper 740565 Ashton and Jennings (1990) ‘Dynamics of Collisions’. References 1. given sufficient data. and data entry. during the impact phase. Unpublished training document Collision Suite B-19 . The accuracy and reliability of the program is governed by the skill of the operator. This is because the program assumes that the impact occurs at an instant. Ventre and Provensal (1973) ‘Proposal for methods for analysing collision speeds in real accidents’ Proceedings 4th International Technical Conference of Experimental Safety Vehicles. but it will perform these for the user. AiDamage. Once the user is confident with the data. and it cannot deal with the rotation of the vehicles during the impact itself. or bucks.

F = ma (2) If we now substitute for a in equation (1) into equation (1) we get. F t = m (v . In other words.AiDamage Appendix A .u) Now (v . which in symbols is. F t = m ∆v (3) The term F t is also given a separate name . F = m (v . we get two equations from (3) F1 t = m1 ∆v1 F2 t = m2 ∆v2 Collision Suite (4) B-20 . from Newton’s Second Law.u) t Which can be written impulse and from the equation we can see that it is equal to the change in momentum it produces. Since momentum is defined as the product of a bodies mass and velocity we can state that the term F t is equal to a change in momentum. If we now consider two objects 1 and 2 that interact for a common time.Derivation of Equation A The momentum equation can be derived from the definition of acceleration as the rate of change of velocity. a = v .u) is a change in velocity and this occurs so frequently in these calculations that it has been given a separate symbol ∆v. that.u t (1) We can also write.

v22 ) =+ 2( E1 E2 ) ⇒ m1 (u1 . m1 (u12 . using the definition of ∆v.v1 )(u1 + v1 ) + m2 (u2 .∆v2 = m1 (1 + e) UR (m1 + m2 ) B-21 . m1 ∆v1 = .AiDamage Newton’s Third Law asserts that to every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.v12 ) + m2 (u22 . ∆v1 = m2 (1 + e) UR (m1 + m2 ) Collision Suite and . If that something is the other object we can say that. m1 u1 + m2 u2 = m1 v1 + m2 v2 (A) Appendix B .v2 )(u2 + v2 = ) 2( E1 + E2 ) We know from the definitions of Delta-V and e.m2 ∆v2 Which can be expanded.Derivation of equation (D) Considering the kinetic energy equation (B) we have. so the forces F1 and F2 above must act on something. F1 = -F2 This enables us to equate the two equations (4) to obtain. and rearranged to give the momentum equation. 1 1 2 m1u12 + m= 2u2 2 2 1 1 m1v12 + m2 v22 + E1 + E2 2 2 This can be written as. and from equations (G) and (H) that.

m1m2U R (1 + e) U R (1 − e) = 2( E1 + E2 ) m1 + m2 This can be multiplied out to give the required equation (D). m1m2U R (1 + e) m m U (1 + e) (u1 + v1 ) + 1 2 R (−u2 − v2 ) = 2( E1 + E2 ) m1 + m2 m1 + m2 Which can be simplified to give. E1 + E 2 = Collision Suite (1 − e 2 )(u 1 − u 2 ) 2 m1 m 2 2(m1 + m 2 ) (D) B-22 . m1m2U R2 (1 − e 2 ) = ( E1 + E2 ) 2(m1 + m2 ) or.AiDamage Substituting for these equations then gives. m1m2U R (1 + e) (u1 + v1 − u2 − v2 ) = 2( E1 + E2 ) m1 + m2 Which from the definition of e suitably arranged gives.

Crush Depth Centre Line of Damage Centre Line of Vehicle Collision Suite B-23 . If you wish to use the CRASH3 measuring protocol. AiDamage requires the following data to be entered in relation to the damage suffered by the vehicle. Note: this measurement protocol is different from the CRASH3 measurement protocol. Interval (Measured along damage profile) 2. Users need to have a thorough understanding of the way in which crush damage is measured so as to be able to produce sensible results. please see page B54 for further details. 1. Force Direction 4.AiDamage Analysis of Damaged Vehicles Required Data One of the principle requirements of AiDamage is the need for accurate data entry. Offset 3.

Front. Front 0º Frontal and Rear Impacts Front -90º Front +90º Rear -90º Rear +90º Rear 180º Side Impacts Left 0º Right 0º Left -90º Right 90º Left -180º Collision Suite Right 180º B-24 . Firstly the primary damage is entered. There are four options.AiDamage Force Direction The force direction is defined in two parts. The angles are input in the following manner. Once entered users can fine tune this by adding the Force Direction. Rear. Left and Right.

Measurements are in centimetres and 0 values are acceptable which allows the whole length of the damaged side to be measured.AiDamage Offset Measurement The offset measurement can be described as the distance between the centre of the damage profile and the centreline of the side being measured. Once the vehicle has been deformed in a collision. Note that it is the Damage Profile which is measured at regular intervals. Whichever side you are facing. Negative Value Positive Value Negative Value Negative Value Positive Value Positive Value Negative value Offset Damage Positive Value Crush Measurement It is necessary to measure the Crush Profile at regular intervals. The word damage profile. Note that unlike other programs it is not the distance between the centre of mass and the centre of the damaged area. See the diagram below. The offset is entered in centimetres. there is no reason to expect the spacing to be regular with respect to a parallel baseline. It is not necessarily a simple matter of placing a tape measure from one side of the damage to the other and dividing by two. Indeed Collision Suite B-25 . See the next section on Damage Profiles for further information. an offset to the left of the centreline is given a negative value and an offset to the right is given a positive value. The maximum number of entries is 100 per vehicle.

As is to be expected in such a collision note that the wings of the vehicle have been pulled around. The original front of the vehicle is shown as a bold line. Use of suitably marked masking tape can make the taking of measurements using this method quite straight forward. The diagram below shows what is meant by ‘Damage profile’. the suggested method of measuring such damage.AiDamage this is very often the case and by implication means that the points may have moved laterally. There is an anomaly in the way the damage is represented by the program. It might be argued that this does not represent a very accurate picture of the damage which was caused to the vehicle. Note that the damage intervals along the baseline are at irregular intervals whereas the damage intervals along the face of the damage are at regular intervals. However it coincides exactly with the definition stated above for a damage profile and allows the Collision Suite B-26 . The damage from the previous diagram would be shown on the corresponding results pages as shown below. The diagram below shows the front vehicle which has suffered an impact with a narrow pole.

AiDamage program to produce a more representative estimate of the crush energy and therefore a more realistic Delta-V. To explain this aspect it is helpful to define the two terms used. Other areas of damage. since the front of a vehicle is often narrower than the centre this results in ‘shoulders’ of apparently undamaged areas surrounding a central damage profile even where the entire vehicle front is damaged. it was thought that only direct contact damage should be included. For example. The diagram below illustrates these features in respect of an offset head-on collision such as might be expected from a collision with a solid barrier. It is recommended here that both direct and induced damage are measured. Induced damaged due to front of vehicle being pulled round Direct contact area Originally. Collision Suite B-27 . Direct and induced damage There is a potential problem concerning how much damage should be included in the damage profile. provided that the induced damage is contiguous with the direct damage. it should be noted that a side effect of using rectangles to model vehicles leads to few anomalies with graphical representation in general. An illustration of this effect is shown below. However it is apparent that energy must be absorbed in causing the induced crush. direct and induced damage. tend to be of a minor nature and can therefore be ignored. Whilst on the subject of graphical anomalies. remote from the main contact area. The results produced are unaffected.

those which do not cause significant bowing and those which do. since the bowing contributes to the net depth as shown above. SAE 880072 Collision Suite B-28 . In essence this method requires the construction of a reference box around both the damaged vehicle and its undamaged counterpart. Additional deformation due to bowing and not crush Vehicles which are not bowed can be measured in much the same way as described previously. Quite what constitutes significant bowing is of course open to debate. 1 Measuring Protocol for Quantifying Vehicle Damage from an Energy Basis Point of View 1988 Tumbas. Nicholas S. Bowing is defined as a vehicle which distorts during the impact so that the ends of the vehicle curl round towards each other. Its effect is to subtracts the bowing and generate the true crush sustained by the vehicle. A similar effect is noticed in end-wise collisions where the wings fold inwards due to a pole impact.AiDamage Side impact problems Side impacts can usefully be categorised into two groups. This effect is shown in the diagram below. A vehicle which is significantly bowed however would result in the investigator recording higher crush measurements. Instead of trying to quantify the bowing and making an allowance. 1 Smith and Tumbas suggest that 4” (10 cm) is significant and more importantly note that in the field investigators in a trial only correctly identified bowing in 20% of cases. and Smith Russell A. an alternative protocol is proposed below.

The same method when applied to all the points allows the true width of the vehicle to be determined at each point. For clarity only the calculation of the first damaged width (W) is shown. the width (W) can then be calculated from the equation.AiDamage Measurements are taken at the same equal spacing along either side of the vehicle together with the distance measured along the datum lines. The method suggested allows the calculation of the width of the vehicle at various points along the damage profile as shown by the dashed lines in Figure 11. W= ( B − D)2 + ( A − C − E )2 Measurements are also taken at corresponding points on an undamaged vehicle to generate the undamaged width at those points. It is important to start the measurements at a readily identifiable point on the vehicle so that measurements from an undamaged vehicle generate a oneto-one correspondence with the damaged widths. Collision Suite B-29 . The difference between the two widths must therefore be the crush depth sustained at that point. By Pythagoras.

side impacts which include a proportion of crush through the wheels will tend to result in an underestimate of the energy involved in deformation and consequent underestimate of the Delta-V. Barriers are defined as square objects with the dimensions given. If actual stiffness data is not available.AiDamage Variations in stiffness Side impact testing is generally performed using a vehicle sized barrier into the middle of the target vehicle. Collision Suite B-30 . then it seems reasonable to be able to quantify the effect. thus reclassifying several vehicles. Without this information. These dimensions can be reassigned to make more realistic graphics. Those familiar with the older Crash3 coefficients should note that the wheelbase lengths have changed slightly. can be redefined to allow for moveable solid objects in collision You may add vehicles using the vehicle library function within AiDamage to create vehicles which exactly match actual vehicles. Since a considerable proportion of collisions involve an impact over these areas. trucks. it is suggested that you use stiffness coefficients based on the table above and classify vehicles by type and wheelbase. This naturally tends to miss the very stiff parts of the side of a vehicle such as the wheels and suspension. pickups and multi-purpose vehicles. vans. as with all vehicles.lib. The weight of barriers. Unfortunately there seems an absence of empirical data upon which to base any increase in the coefficients. Data for default vehicles These tables show the default values used by AiDamage in the vehicle library newdata. One way of performing this adjustment would be to vary the stiffness coefficients for those parts of the crush profile which include the wheels. In addition several new categories of vehicle have been added.

73 3310.5 ## ## 1 2 3 4 5 Barrier B-31 .8 137.3 1000 316 49.4 512 95.5 284 34.0 506 78.2 175 45.59 3308.6 240 65.75 2708.29 107 127 132 142.7 170 53.6 140.2 ## ## 155 41.AiDamage Table 1: Passenger cars Value / Class Mass (kg) Wheelbase (cm) Length (cm) Width (cm) Track (cm) Overhang (cm) CoG to front (cm) Yaw inertia (kg / m2) Gyration radius (cm) Front A ( N / cm2 ) B ( N / cm ) Rear A ( N / cm2 ) B ( N / cm ) Side A ( N / cm2 ) B ( N / cm ) Collision Suite 1 2 3 4 5 Barrier 945 1119 1332 1669 1756 107 205 – 241 241 – 258 258 – 280 280 – 298 Over 298 100 403 443 484 522 551 100 165 172 177 188 189 100 140 144 149 152 152 100 83 88 105 102 105 0 180 180 206 222 230 50 1524.1 362 48.5 240 65.3 377 46.7 326 32.19 1949.2 ## ## 302 37.1 332 35.7 324 45.

8 4 2293.7 168 53.5 180 63.2 70. 71 2483.7 203 221 193 210 195 223 251 2987.1 509 84.5 137 27.6 1751 689.6 72.8 453 75.1 385 47.1 628 106.1 145. 8 140.7 B-32 .2 74.7 123.8 9 12042.8 125.2 133.6 541 93.7 2 5764.2 1751 689.1 385 47.8 1751 689.7 492 81.1 509 84.6 180 63.5 137 27.8 453 75.1 74.66 4629.8 240 65.2 466 75.7 466 75.4 5 4867.7 155.1 69.4 60.2 158.7 547 97.AiDamage Table 2: Other vehicles Value / Class Mass (kg) Wheelbase (cm) Length (cm) Width (cm) Track (cm) Overhang (cm) CoG to front (cm) Yaw inertia (kg / m2) Gyration radius (cm) Front A ( N / cm2 ) B ( N / cm ) Rear A ( N / cm2 ) B ( N / cm ) Side A ( N / cm2 ) B ( N / cm ) Collision Suite Van Multi-Purpose Pickup Truck 1 2 1 2 1 2 1520 2286 1587 2196 1283 2008 7883 < 293 > 293 < 265 >265 < 290 >290 ALL 454 479 400 487 454 484 582 182 203 168 189 165 197 244 154 175 145 148 139 165 202 89.

The default stiffness values can be changed. The weight of barriers.5 0 0 640.8 30.2 32.7 25.3 569.4 454.8 556 38. Both coefficients A and B are included here for information. it is suggested that you use stiffness coefficients based on the table above and classify vehicles by type and wheelbase.8 309.6 39.1 28.5 34.3 684. Be careful if you change your values.7 26.AiDamage Original Crash3 Categories (old_data.lib) Value /Class Wheelbase (cm) Weight (Kg) Front A (N/cm) B (N/cm2) Rear A (N/cm) B (N/cm2) Side A (N/cm) B (N/cm2) 1 2 3 4 5 Barrier 205 238 1000 238 258 1385 258 280 1609 280 298 1926 298 312 2206 100 528.5 246 46 303. If actual stiffness data is not available.4 29.6 623.7 8. can be redefined to allow for moveable solid objects in collision You may add vehicles using the vehicle library function within AiDamage to create vehicles which exactly match actual vehicles.1 718.4 250.2 32. as with all vehicles. Collision Suite B-33 .5 23.2 25.3 0 0 135.1 624.5 0 0 107 NOTES: Barriers are defined as square objects with the dimensions given.83 520 48. These dimensions can be reassigned to make more realistic graphics.

AiDamage also has context sensitive help. The main AiDamage toolbar Starts the new collision wizard Open an existing collision Save the current collision Print the current results page Print Preview Print all results pages Amend data Force a calculation -1 Switch units between ms . The AiDamage toolbar is shown below. kmh.AiDamage Data Entry Starting the Program AiDamage can be started from either the Collision Manager. the Summary Results page of the most recent collision is automatically displayed. Use the F1 key to call up the appropriate help topic. the Start Menu or from a shortcut which can be created on the desktop. If you pause the mouse over any of the buttons. on loading the program. By default. a description of what they do will be displayed. & fps Options Edit Vehicles Manage library About Help Collision Suite B-34 . mph.

The starting folder can be set using the Browse for Root Folder and Set as Root Folder context menu options.AiDamage AiDamage toolbar cont. Any AiDamage files that appear within the folders can be opened by double clicking on them. In essence it is a simplified version of Windows Explorer but only displays AiDamage files. Collision Suite B-35 . You can also use the context menu to send individual files to the recycle bin. Show Summary Show Damage Show Impact Show Momentum Show Dimensions Show Crash3 Show Predicted Speeds Force Balancing o Adjust PDOF Clockwise 5 o Adjust PDOF Clockwise 1 o Adjust PDOF Anti-Clockwise 5 o djust PDOF Anti-Clockwise 1 Sidebar The Existing Collision side bar allows you to view the contents of a folder or series of folders.

Setting your options Ai Damage allows you to set up various options. The following Dialog box will appear.AiDamage Tab Bar A tab bar is provided along the top of the main window to allow quick access to any open window. From the View menu select Options. you will need to change the target folders in Options. It is possible to cycle through the open windows simply by clicking on the different tabs along the top. The general options screen also allows the colour of each vehicle to be changes to fit with a specific case or simply for personal preference. If you change the location of the vehicle library after initial installation. Collision Suite B-36 . You also have certain Options with regard to display and printed data. Note: A white vehicle in the program will not show up when printed. By default all options will be checked.

On the first page you are presented with a number of edit boxes which must be completed. Just check the momentum box and uncheck the damage box. Using this Wizard. Two check boxes are shown at the bottom of the screen. To edit or add vehicles see the section on the Vehicle Library. and want AiDamage to perform a momentum calculation check the momentum box. The next two pages allow you to enter details about the damage to each of the vehicles. Enter the vehicle type for each of the vehicles and change the mass if you have sufficient data. it is very easy to enter details regarding a particular accident. Once all the data is entered click on the ‘Next’ button to move to the next page. Enter a suitable title for the collision.AiDamage Data Entry Selecting New from the File menu or clicking the new document icon on the toolbar starts the New Collision Wizard. You have 255 characters for this field so a really descriptive title is possible and useful. If you have momentum data. By default only the Damage Calculation box is checked. The vehicle type field is a drop down box which allows you to choose one of the vehicles in the vehicle library. It is also possible to perform a momentum calculation only. When you first start these pages they are filled in with blanks and zeros where appropriate. Collision Suite B-37 .

Collision Suite B-38 . or leave it in the default position. but this should be plenty for the vast majority of cases. rather than just the damage profile. Again the active edit screen shows your choices. You now need to enter the interval between each of the crush measurements. side etc. The next box requests the offset. This is one figure and must therefore be the same for each of the crush measurements. You are limited to 100 crush measurements. In the crush depth box you enter a series of measurements corresponding to the crush found from the accident vehicle separated by a space. select the side of the vehicle which contains the damaged area.AiDamage In the outlined box. By default AiDamage enters 10 cm into this box. Remember that the crush must be measured in centimetres. See the section on Measurement protocols for further details. This should be measured from the centre of the vehicle. not as an offset from the centre of mass. The force direction box also changes to show the new force direction. You can now edit the force direction box to show the actual force angle in your collision. You may change this if you wish. whatever side of the vehicle you are measuring. Note that AiDamage assumes always that you measure damage from the LEFT to the RIGHT. This is the offset of the centre of the damaged area from the centre of the side of the vehicle you have measured. Zero entries are allowed which means that the user can measure the whole profile of the front. Note that the active edit screen reflects any change by moving the primary force angle.

Sideslip is the angle at which the vehicle is sliding as compared to the direction that the front of the vehicle is actually pointing. The diagram below illustrates this protocol. The crush profile is shown as a hatched grey area on the vehicle outline. the impact angle box only is greyed out. If you have selected damage and momentum on page 1. The remainder of this page should be completed with details of the exit angles and post-impact speeds. This value is based on the force angles entered on pages one and two of the Wizard. If you have made any error in entering the data. If not.AiDamage At this point the active edit box will reflect any data entered so far. Clicking on ‘Next’ yet again moves to the momentum page. it will be possible to enter data into this page. If you have selected the momentum calculation option on page 1 of the Wizard. A value is already entered into this box by the program. Collision Suite B-39 . all the boxes will be greyed out preventing data entry. Sideslip has several subtle effects on the final results of any calculation. All of the angles are measured clockwise from the original direction of travel of vehicle 1. it should be easy to see exactly where! The last box requests sideslip data. Clicking on the ‘Next’ button brings up the vehicle two damage page which needs data entered in exactly the same way as for vehicle one.

it is possible to alter the pre-impact direction of travel of vehicle 1. A vector diagram. showing the relative alignment of the entry and exit vectors is shown. Pre Impact Headings 0º 90º 270º 180º As always in the data entry Wizard. This has no effect on any calculations that are performed. Collision Suite B-40 . but means you can rotate the momentum vector diagram to represent your accident more easily. the active edit screen displays the data as you enter it.AiDamage Post impact direction -90º Original direction 90º +180º or -180º 0º +90º To allow more realistic displays to be produced in the final results. Any changes you make will be reflected in the diagram.

Text based information on the crush measurements. an understanding of the diagnostics is very helpful in analysing the results and establishing their validity. the momentum diagram is still displayed but has no effect on the damage calculations. press the ‘Finish’ button. A resume of each sheet is shown below. press ‘Cancel’ and the Wizard will close without amending or adding any data. Once all the data has been entered to your satisfaction. If you are not entirely happy with the data. Once the data entry wizard is complete. Momentum Analysis The vector diagram. With experience. by momentum is displayed in this sheet together with the change in velocity of each vehicle displayed in the same graphical format as used in the impact configuration screen. If you decide that you wish to abandon the Wizard. one relating to momentum data and two relating to Damage are only available when you have performed these types of calculation. you can always step back through the various pages using the ‘Back’ button. The other sheets are available by selected the appropriate option in the View menu. moment arm (h) and vehicle type is also displayed. Three are always available. Crush Damage Profiles Shows a scale diagram of the vehicles and shows the damage profile overlaid onto the vehicle outline together with the primary forces. Results There are six possible result pages. Impact Configuration This shows the two vehicles aligned at the moment of impact and the change in velocity of each vehicle displayed in a graphical format. or by clicking on the relevant icon on the toolbar.AiDamage If you have not chosen the momentum calculation on page 1 of the Wizard. you press ‘Finish’ and the Summary Sheet is automatically displayed. Summary Contains details of any change in velocity. Once the ‘Finish’ button is pressed a calculation will be performed and a summary of the results displayed almost instantly. information about the vehicle types and diagnostic information about the calculation. Collision Suite B-41 .

Selecting this option causes AiDamage to display a page showing the predicted speeds calculated for the collision. Predicted Speeds The functionality originally provided by the program DeltaView has now been included within AiDamage itself and the algorithm used to calculate the real speeds from the DeltaV values has been updated. Collision Suite B-42 . all the crush data and various other items of information.AiDamage Dimensions This is a text based sheet containing all the dimensional data used in the collision.

These diagrams can be very useful in determining whether the configuration you have chosen produces realistic results. The coefficient of restitution used can be altered and there is an option to set the predicted post-impact data as the scene data used in the momentum calculations. The lower diagram shows the path of the points of application of the impulse. For example in the diagram below the lower diagram appears to have one blue post-impact vector for the point of application.AiDamage The top diagram shows the impact configuration and the paths of the centres of mass. Context Menus Clicking with the right mouse button anywhere within the document will display a menu appropriate to the activity currently being performed. the post impact vector for vehicle two will overwrite that for vehicle one. When running in stand alone mode the menu are as follows with two more options available on the Predicted Speed options menu: Collision Suite B-43 .0). Where a common post impact velocity is chosen (which will be when e = 0. Several options are available using the context menu which may be of assistance.

edit the collision data. from the Context Menu. with the same active edit window as used in the data entry Wizard. In stand alone mode the options allow you to switch between any of the available views. For the impact configuration and momentum diagram MiniViews note that additional choices are available which allow the diagram to be scaled.AiDamage To activate any of the options just move the mouse pointer over the desired option and click the left mouse button. change the display units or convert between measurement protocols. recalculate the collision. These options are also available through the function keys: F9 increases the scale F10 decreases the scale F11 resets the scale back to the default setting The following functions are also available through the right mouse click context menu: Amending Data Select the Amend option. Collision Suite B-44 . While running embedded different menus are presented. That option will be activated and the menu will be hidden. This launches a eight page tab box. Tools menu or from the Amend button on the toolbar.

If you have any result sheets open. type of calculation and coefficient of restitution. Various dimensions used by the program. This displays a menu where one option is to reverse the crush measurements. You have the option to change the coefficient of restitution used by the damage part of the program through this page. The first page on the top line contains details about the title. both in the calculations and subsequent displays. Once you have completed any amendments press ‘OK’ and the program will immediately recalculate the collision based on the new data. Pages four and five are concerned with the dimensional data of each vehicle. The first three pages on the bottom row are almost identical to those used in the data entry Wizard. The position of the point of application of the impusle can also be defined. can be adjusted here. The second and third pages along the top line are concerned with editing advanced properties which allows researchers to enter Energy and EES quantities when known. If you inadvertently enter the crush data in the reverse order.AiDamage This series of tab boxes allow any data used in the collision to be amended. these will be updated to reflect the new data. Use the right mouse button and click on the area surrounding the data boxes. Collision Suite B-45 . The summary result page shows the coefficient of restitution as calculated using the momentum data. you have the facility to reverse the measurements.

Activate the Advanced properties page from the View Options menu. the amend data tab box will have an additional tab marked Advanced V1 and Advanced V2 to allow amendment to the figures. Change Pre-impact Speed A further option through the context menus is to change the pre-impact speed for each vehicle involved for use in the momentum calculations. This option can also be found through the predictions tab of the view options menu. the screen for setting the advance properties below will appear when you use the data entry Wizard.AiDamage If you activate the Advanced Properties Page. Collision Suite B-46 . When checked.

Swap Vehicles Use this command to interchange vehicles one and two. In other words. Changing the Coefficient of Restitution By clicking the right mouse button to display the context menu as above. vehicle one becomes vehicle two and vice versa. Set as Scene Data This command can be used to set the predicted speeds results into the momentum data.AiDamage Convert Measurements This function allows the easy conversion between using AiDamage measurements and Crash3 measurement. The post-impact speeds and directions are set into the appropriate fields in the Momentum page and the collision is recalculated using those values. By clicking the right mouse button whilst on the speed predictions page. Collision Suite B-47 . This command is very useful in quickly setting the momentum data to visualise the effect of the predicted speed calculations. the option to set the predicted speeds for use in the momentum calculations can be selected. the option to ‘change e’ can be selected to bring up the below box for the simple adjustment of the value for ‘e’.

Three possibilities are permitted using this dialog: 1. Increase the lower vehicle and decrease the higher vehicle coefficients to generate the required match The decimal places option governs the number of decimal places generated in the new A and B coefficients. a force applied to one vehicle must be equal and opposite to the force applied to the other vehicle. Collision Suite B-48 . Decrease the higher vehicle coefficients to generate the required match 3. Increase the lower vehicle coefficients to generate the required match 2. This dialog box allows you to adjust the A and B coefficients used by the program so the magnitude of the force acting on one vehicle matches that acting on the other vehicle.AiDamage Force Balancing Newton’s third law states that every action has a reaction equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. You should always check to make sure that the generated coefficients are reasonable for the type of vehicle under consideration. In a collision therefore. if there are no significant external forces acting.

Clicking on the Edit Vehicles button loads the vehicle library toolbar which allows the user to add. See also OLE for alternative ways of displaying the results. or by clicking on the Print button. Print All menu or by pressing the Print Everything button on the toolbar. Alternatively you can print all the results pages at once by selecting the File.AiDamage Printing Results There are two print options available. This is due to the graphics used in the program. The Vehicle Library Data entry into AiDamage requires vehicle masses and dimensions in order to calculate the change in velocity. delete or amend vehicles in the library. You may either print each page individually using the Print option from the File menu. Collision Suite B-49 . It is quite straightforward to add new vehicles to the supplied library. On some older printers it may take a little while to compile and print the pages. The vehicle Library dialog box. The program uses information stored in the vehicle library which is supplied with AiDamage. or to amend existing vehicles other than the default classes including the Barrier class. You may find that increasing the printer memory reduces this problem.

This can save time if you are designing a new vehicle. Collision Suite B-50 . select the ‘Add record’ option. If you adopt the convention of naming vehicles by their make and then their model. give it a name and save the record. all vehicles of the same make will be grouped together.AiDamage The Vehicle Library Toolbar Start New Collision Open Save Library Remove Vehicle Save Changes to Current Vehicle Add new vehicle based on this one Import Vehicle First record Previous record Next record Last record About Help To add a new vehicle into the library. navigate to the class 2 vehicle and then select add record. The new entry will be based on data currently displayed. For example to create a new vehicle based on a class 2 vehicle. Make sure you select the one you want. AiDamage does not check the vehicle name to determine whether or not it already exists. If this occurs you will find two entries in the vehicle type lists. It is possible therefore to give a name that already exists. A new record will be created based on the existing class 2 data. When naming vehicles remember that the program displays vehicles alphabetically. Amend those dimensions applicable to the new vehicle.

Your target file will automatically default to the current vehicle library being used by AiDamage. I = mk 2 Any changes you make to the radius of gyration or the moment of inertia therefore will be reflected by a change in the other value according to this equation and the current value of the mass. You can access the manage vehicle library screen from the Record. This password is NOT normally supplied as this facility is primarily designed to allow the system manufacturers to amend this data. highlight the vehicles you wish to add and click the Add button. a management screen has been added. mass (m) and moment of inertia (I) are linked together by the equation. rename and view the properties of any highlighted vehicle. You can also delete. Users can now select vehicles from one library and transfer them to another. Managing the vehicle library Some users have built up quite comprehensive vehicle libraries over the years. To transfer vehicles from one library to the other. Collision Suite B-51 . In response to a number of requests. (either from a hard or floppy disk). use the open button to locate the data source. To add vehicles from another library. Import Vehicles menu within the vehicle library screen.AiDamage You may add as many vehicles as you want using this method and you can also delete any unwanted vehicles. Note that the program will not let you delete or alter the base class vehicles without entering a password. Finally note that the radius of gyration (k).

00 179.98 mph mph mph deg Collision Suite B-52 .05 130.00 0. you can run AiDamage from within the word processor and insert the results directly into the report.77 -8. If you chose to do this.42 100.43 10.57 -8. Vauxhall v Alfa (Damage based) Total Delta-V: Longitudinal Delta-V: Lateral Delta-V: Angular velocity change: Veh 1 8.00 10.58 Veh 2 9.04 -0.52 -19. This means that you can run the program in another Windows program.00 -0.97 mph mph mph deg/s Energy dissapated: Magnitude of force Force direction: 14.24 -0.00 kJ kN deg Pre-impact motion Total speed: Longitudinal component: Lateral component: Sideslip: 25.AiDamage OLE AiDamage is fully OLE compliant.64 -1.05 1.68 130. Alternatively you can run the program on its own and copy and paste each individual results page into your report.04 0. If you use a Windows word ® processor such as Microsoft Word to write your reports. the results are produced as ‘mini views’.24 25. a Summary Sheet mini view is shown here.91 141. As an example.

Click on Damage Document and then OK. press Control and v and the mini view will be pasted into your report. Because the program is fully OLE compliant. press Control and c return to your word processor. it will Collision Suite B-53 . you can choose to wrap text around the mini view or force text to remain above or below it. You can now return to AiDamage to copy the next results page. ® An example of an AiDamage document opened from within MS Word is shown below. double clicking on the mini view in your word processor will allow you to edit the collision or substitute another view. Like any other OLE object. To start an AiDamage run from within your word processor. Your word processor toolbars will change to the AiDamage toolbar.AiDamage When running AiDamage as a standalone program you can copy each results page into your word processor by using the Copy and Paste commands. only that mini view will change. Remember that where you insert a mini view and there is insufficient room for it on the page. Note that if you amend data in this manner. In AiDamage turn to the results page you wish to copy. Select Object from the Insert menu. The Windows shortcut for this is Ctrl + C for Copy and Ctrl + V for Paste. Place the cursor where you require the mini view to be inserted.

49 44. Astra v Rover 214 (Test Collision) (Damage based) Total Delta-V: Longitudinal Delta-V: Lateral Delta-V: Angular velocity change: Veh 1 40.92 Veh 2 36.24 mph mph mph deg/s Energy dissapated: Magnitude of force Force direction: 273.36 -8.26 36.61 30.69 -18. An example is shown on the following page.67 -10. change the view of each one.00 152.30 -495.94 188.51 472.AiDamage insert itself on the following page of the report.98 37.62 mph mph mph deg Astra v Rover 214 (Test Collision) (Impact attitude) Collision Suite B-54 .39 -25. Using the right mouse button.27 -50.81 760.66 -8. To paste more than one mini view simply copy and paste as many instances as you require.97 30.00 kJ kN deg Pre-impact motion Total speed: Longitudinal component: Lateral component: Sideslip: 45. Also like any other OLE object you can grab a corner and enlarge or reduce the size of the view.14 -12.60 -31.

Left of the centre line is negative and right positive. Positive and negative offset measurements are defined similarly but are taken from the centre of mass of the vehicle. The two systems are of course mutually exclusive and are applied to both vehicles. Crash3 assumes a plan view of the vehicle in question and increasing crush measurements are positive from the rear left hand corner of the vehicle. from version 2. (Front.AiDamage Emulating the Crash3 measurement protocol Setting the program to use the Crash 3 measurement protocol AiDamage was originally designed for ease of use and this included the manner in which measurements for crush and offset were taken The AiDamage measurement protocol always assumes that users measure crush from left to right and that offset measurements are taken from the centre line of the panel under inspection. AiDamage has the ability to accept crush and offset measurements using either system. left or right). Switching between systems To aid conversion between the two systems the Tools menu has a function to change the measurement system used for a particular collision. back. The information box on the main screen indicates which measurement protocol was used for a particular collision. Collision Suite B-55 .5. However this is at variance with the standard system of measurement defined by Crash3. This seems rather more natural for those who read from left to right and has the advantage that tape measures are always correctly oriented when actually performing the measurements. This function is also available using the context sensitive menus which may be called up using the right mouse button. As a result of user feedback. Setting the Default system You can set the default measurement system for new collisions using the Options dialog.

AiDamage Crash3 measurement protocol – summary of measurement system Required Data – CRASH3 mode One of the principle requirements of AiDamage is the need for accurate data entry. 1. Users need to have a thorough understanding of the way in which crush damage is measured so as to be able to produce sensible results. AiDamage requires the following data to be entered in relation to the damage suffered by the vehicle. Interval (Measured along damage profile) 3. Measure damage from left to right Collision Suite B-56 . When running in CRASH3 mode. Force Direction Measure damage from right to left 2. When in CRASH3 mode measurements are made in the direction shown by the red arrows on the diagram above. Crush Depth Measure damage from rear to front Centre of Mass of Vehicle Centre Line of Damage Measure damage from rear to front NOTE Direction of measurements. Offset 4.

Front. Front 0º Frontal and Rear Impacts Front -90º Front +90º Rear -90º Rear +90º Rear 180º Side Impacts Left 0º Right 0º Left -90º Right 90º Left -180º Collision Suite Right 180º B-57 . Firstly the primary damage is entered. There are four options. The angles are input in the following manner. Left and Right. Once entered users can fine tune this by adding the Force Direction. Rear.AiDamage Force Direction – CRASH3 mode The force direction is defined in two parts.

It is not necessarily a simple matter of placing a tape measure from one side of the damage to the other and dividing by two.AiDamage Offset Measurement – CRASH3 mode The offset measurement can be described as the distance between the centre of the damage profile and the centre of mass of the vehicle. See page B-24 for further information on measuring crush. Collision Suite B-58 . Activate this option from the View Option dialog box. Crush Measurement – CRASH3 mode It is necessary to measure the Crush Profile at regular intervals. Positive Value Negative Value Negative Value Positive Value Positive Value Negative Value Negative value Offset Damage Positive Value Note . The maximum number of entries is 100 per vehicle. See the next section on Damage Profiles for further information. Measurements are in centimetres and 0 values are acceptable which allows the whole length of the damaged side to be measured.because of the difficulty in measuring from the centre of mass. Positive and negative values must be entered in accordance with the CRASH3 protocol shown in the diagram below. The offset is entered in centimetres. you can measure from the centre of the wheelbase.

This is based on the original Crash3 library with adjustments for front. The CRASH3 data page has been revised to reflect the data required by the CCIS research program. a CCIS vehicle library is provided. rear wheel drive etc. click on View Options and change the vehicle library option to CCIS using the Browse button. To use the CCIS library. Collision Suite B-59 .AiDamage CCIS Vehicle Library For research purposes.