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GLASS FORMATION AND LIGHT AS MEANS OF MODULATION

Xavier Duke Yvez I. Dimalanta


Department of Electronics Engineering, College of Engineering,
Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Sta. Mesa Manila

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study is to extend research about how glass formation and light
be used as means of Modulation. For we know glass is a common material used in
surfaces that requires reflection. Other uses of it nowadays especially in the
Electronics industry is Fiber Optics, as a medium of carrying light across a distance.
This method has been widely used by business because it provides a bit faster
transmission of data. The article is to further study the means of modulation and
the variables glass and light as the medium and modulation of data.
material. Substantial fluctuations of
liquid density in the area of critical
temperature Tc appear as observable
phenomena visible to naked eye. The
facts that liquid phase under critical
temperature is divided into solid-like
structures and voids filled up with
gas-like molecules have been well
known for a long time. Some of the
modern structural theories describing
the structural phenomena of liquid
state at lower temperatures are also
based on a similar idea of local density
fluctuation as well.

INTRODUCTION
Glasses involves in the natural
cooling of melts mainly silicates. Other
substances can obtain this a glasslike output also through rapid cooling
like alcohol or water compounds.
Previous years, the studies of glass
have been wide and have various
applications in the industry and
economy. Glass materials have been
studied
extensively,
like
semiconductor chalcogenides, metallic
alloys and other various polymers. In
response to the wide consumer usage
of products such as glass, research
was inevitable to produce such
applications that of use and can warp
in the development of new technology.

DISCUSSION
Glass Theories
These theories involve on how
glass problems are resolved and
further studies have been conducted
about its salient findings. Each idea
contains estimation about the topic
matter.
Kauzmann, Adam, and Gibbs.
The first attempts to make a theory of
the glass transition focused on the
question of how it might be possible
for an ordinary material, obeying
classical statistical mechanics, to
move
toward
a
frozen
state,
increasingly unable to access its true
equilibrium structure

The formation of glass has


some physical aspects when formed.
One of it was vibrations occurring and
structure changes in liquid state. In
means of modulation, the medium of
what the data is transmitted must
take into consideration in order to
deliver such as uplink and downlink of
data. The physical aspects that
determine whether a material is
capable, or in standard as a means of
transmission is looked into. Glass
formation is achieved through cooling
repeatedly until forms into a reflective

or respond to some kinds of external


forcings on observable time scales.
Adam
and
Gibbs
proposed
a
description of this class phenomena in
1958, who wrote the structural
relaxation time in the form: ln =
ln 0 + const. T sc(T ), where 0 is a
microscopic time scale, and sc(T ) is
the excess entropy per unit volume,
measured relative to the entropy of the
crystalline state. Adam and Gibbs
interpreted sc(T ) as being inversely
proportional to the size of a
cooperatively
rearranging
region,
within which there would be just
enough active degrees of freedom,
example is enough entropy, to enable
rearrangements.

systems. MCT is a renormalized,


truncated, perturbation theory, it is
accurate only so long as the particles
are at high enough temperatures and
low enough densities that they are
weakly scattered while moving past
each other. The theory fails at a mode
coupling temperature TMC > T0, where
the predicted viscosity diverges. In
practice, MCT has been limited by its
use of static, two-body correlation
functions for information about the
many-body interactions. The analytic
structure
of
any
perturbation
expansion is qualitatively different
from that of a theory of activated,
barrier-crossing events, thus there is
unlikely to be an accurate way to
extend MCT to lower temperatures
even
by
including
higher-order
correlations.
More
probably,
as
happens in other areas of many-body
physics, we will have to live with a no
theory region between the modecoupling and glassy regimes.
starting point for deriving the random
first order transition (RFOT) theory of
glass transitions

Mode Coupling Theory. The idea that


comes closest to being realistic is
mode-coupling theory (MCT), which
starts with a well-posed model of an
interacting, fluid-like, many body

Spin glasses. The term spin glass


refers to a class of magnetic alloys in
which the interactions between pairs
of spins are random and, for the
present discussion, can be taken to be
equally likely to be ferromagnetic or
antiferromagnetic. This class of model
was first developed along with a meanfield solution, by Edwards and
Anderson in 1975. The simplest spin
glass was a cubic Ising model with
randomly chosen nearest-neighbor
bonds of strength J shows a
definitive Monte Carlo calculation by
Ogielski to have a glass transition at
kBT0 = 1.18 J and to undergo
stretched-exponential relaxation at
higher temperatures. These models
are relevant to the present discussion
because
they
have
provided
mathematical examples of how well
posed manybody systems might
undergo
phase
transitions
into
glasslike states of broken ergodicity.
They are important because their
behaviors have been used as the

Random first order transition theory. At


present, RFOT is the most cited of the
various glass theories. It is said by its
authors to account quantitatively for
essentially all glassy phenomena in
relatively simple, physically intuitive
ways.
Glass Formation
Cooling a liquid, in the state of
lowering the temperature without
solidifying until the atomic structure
is frozen and transits to glass, forms
glasses. Glasses are often used as
analogues for understanding liquids of
geophysical importance under high
pressure and temperature conditions.
Calcium aluminosilicates constitutes
one of the main fraction of the
composition of the Earth, and its
properties like its melting and freezing

point is understand
process.

to inept the

changing the bias current or the


source of modulating signal. Its
biased current is maintained low in
order to hold the threshold of the
modulation
process.
In
indirect
modulation, an external modulator
used therefore controlling the electric
field and the refractive index by using
Lithium niobate as crystal form. By
controlling so, it can also control the
incoming signals that passes through
the medium itself. Thus, changing the
bias current can create multiple
channels.

Modulation of Light
Modulation
of
the
electromagnetic radiation in the
spatial region is the modulation of
light where the amplitude, phase,
frequency, or polarization of the
radiated oscillations is changed.
Harmonic composition is changed that
characterizes
the
radiation.
In
principle, the quantity of information
that can be transmitted by modulation
of any type increases with increasing
frequency of the oscillations. The
frequency of Visible light, 1016 Hertz
and optical radiation, 1020 Hertz
determines
the
importance
of
modulation of light.

Principles of Light Modulation


Modulations
of
the
electromagnetic wave could contain
coded information we would expect
that
these
signals
would
be
transmitted faster than the speed of
light. The transmitted wave is not a
pure sine wave. It can be Fourier
analyzed into a group of pure sine
waves, all with somewhat different
frequencies. Each pure sine wave is
expected to be traveling with speed u
(>c). However, in sum a case, the
modulation pattern travels with what
is called the group velocity ng. It may
be quite different from the velocities of
the component pure sine waves and in
this case ng < c. The group velocity is
given by:

In technical applications, the


frequency of the modulating signal is
low compared to optical radiation. It
varies in the harmonic composition
and the modulation is taken into
periodic or non-periodic change inn
radiation intensity. Signaling by
interruption of a luminous flux has
been used in light modulation such
that the type of optical signal chosen
as the best specific problem is of
importance. There are cases where
natural light radiation may be
regarded with sufficient accuracy and
may experience forced modulation. A
distinction is made between internal
modulation, which is accomplished
within the radiation source, and
external
modulation,
which
is
produced by special devices called
modulators.
Attaching some light signals
with information can cause the
sending and receiving of information
through fiber optics and categorized
into Direct and Indirect modulation. In
direct modulation, the current being
supplied is amplified or modulated by

Fig 1. Two sine waves of


slightly different frequency are in
phase at the origin and successively

get out of and in phase moving away


from the origin.

converting it to digital 0's and 1's


before transmission. Generally the
modulator is designed so that the
pulse frequency increases as the input
voltage increases. Regardless of the
FM technique used, however, these
optical systems almost always require
more complex electronic circuitry than
AM optical systems, but often the total
cost is comparable since lower-cost
optical components can be used in the
FM system.

It is possible to obtain
modulation functions of other shapes
by adding more sine waves of slightly
different frequencies. An important
example is that of a single pulse of
oscillation where such a single pulse
would look like the central hump in
the above figure and is called a wave
packet. A group of wave packet can be
built up out of a group of neighboring
sine waves. A new sine wave will add
to the central.

Spatial Light Modulator


The spatial light modulator is
an object that enacts a form of varying
modulation on a beam of light.
Usually, a Spatial Light modulator
modulates the intensity of the light
beam and possible to produce devices
that modulate the phase of the beam
or both phase and intensity.

SALIENT FINDINGS
Frequency Modulation
Frequency
modulation
is
sophisticated compared to Amplitude
modulation because in a way of
recovery of encoded signals, it requires
measurement of timing o information
and also immune to optical loss. It is
subsequent to fiber optics because it
is in the high frequency carrier which
means the frequency is changed due
to the changing of signals. FM also
has the advantage of eliminating the
need
for
highly
linear
optical
components that are required for AM
systems.
Often
optical
systems
employing FM encoding refer to the
technique
as
pulse-frequency
modulation (PFM). This simply means
that the FM signal is limited
(converted to digital 0's and 1's) before
it is transmitted over the fiber.

Multiphoton
intrapulse
interference phase scan (MIIPS) is a
technique based on the computercontrolled phase scan of a linear-array
spatial light modulator. Through the
phase scan to an ultra short pulse,
MIIPS can not only characterize but
also manipulate the ultra short pulse
to get the needed pulse shape at target
spot
(such
as Transform-Limited
pulse for optimized peak power, and
other specific pulse shapes). This
technique features with full calibration
and control of the ultrashort pulse,
with no moving parts, and simple
optical setup. Linear array SLMs that
use nematic liquid crystal elements
are available that can modulate
amplitude,
phase,
or
both
simultaneously.

Sine wave FM offers an


effective
means
of
transmitting
multiple channels. In this technique,
multiple channels are each assigned a
separate carrier frequency. Often
optical
systems
employing
FM
encoding refer to the technique as
pulse-frequency modulation (PFM).
This limits the FM signal by

Optical Light Modulator


A device that is used to
modulate a beam of light that may be
carried over a free space medium, or
by waveguides is called an optical
modulator.
Obtaining
modulation

intensity of the beam is by driving the


source over a specific direction.
Modulators are classified into two
groups: Absorptive modulators have
their materials changed by absorption
coefficient where it is characterized by
how much can a beam of light
penetrate through a certain material,
while Refractive modulators have their
materials changed by refractive index.
The effect of a refractive modulator of
any of the types is to change the
phase of a light beam. The phase
modulation can be converted into
amplitude
modulation
using
an
interferometer or directional coupler.

Fig. 2. Table showing the comparison


between
the
three
mentioned
techniques in terms of receiver
sensitivities for different modulations.
Noncoherent or differentially
coherent
detection
can
be
implemented using direct detection,
avoiding the need for a LO laser and
polarization control or diversity. Any of
the
three
techniques
can
be
implemented using heterodyne or
homodyne down conversion, yielding
two potential advantages. First, by
using a fast-tunable LO laser, one can
construct a frequency-agile receiver to
enable wavelength-routed switching or
frequency-hopped
transmission.
Second, fiber CD appears as a linear
distortion, facilitating its effective, lowcomplexity compensation in the
electrical domain.

Modulation and Detection Techniques


for Optical Communication Systems
Digital
modulated
optical
signals are classified using tradition
distinctions of detection methods. A
noncoherent detection, no phase
information is recovered and presence
and absence of energy is determined.
Noncoherent detection of M-level
intensity modulation is referred to as
M-ary pulse-amplitude modulation
(M-PAM). A coherent detection is where
a signal is detected using a carrier
phase reference generated at the
receiver. In differentially coherent
detection, the phase in one symbol is
compared to the phase in the previous
symbol.

Fig. 3. Shows the laser linewidth


requirements for various modulation
and detection techniques.
Electrical signal processing is
useful
for
carrier
phase
synchronization, compensation of CD,
PMD
and
NLPN
in
fiber,
or
compensation
of
atmospheric
turbulence. Some operations, such as
carrier phase synchronization, can be
done easily in the analog domain or
Frequency modulation. But over time,
there may be an increased use of
analog-to-digital
conversion
and
digital signal processing (DSP). DSPbased processing is particularly useful
to track time-varying perturbations, or
when it is necessary to compensate
multiple
perturbations
simultaneously.

REFERENCES
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95 (1986)
B. Hlavek, J. estk, L. Koudelka, P. Monerand J. J. Mare , Forms Of Vibrations
And Structural
Changes In Liquid State.
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March 2014
Revealing the secrets of Glass Formation, 19 June 2016 Retrieved
http://www.ph.ed.ac.uk/news/revealing-secrets-glass-formation-03-12-12

from

Principles
of
Light
Modulation,
21
June
2016
Retrieved
http://www.tutorvista.com/content/physics/physics-iv/communicationsystems/light-modulation.php

from

What is the Modulation of Light?, 21 June 2016 Retrieved


http://www.thebigger.com/physics/principles-of-communication/what-ismodulation-of-light/

from

Frequency Modulation, 20 June 2016


optics.info/articles/frequency_modulation_fm

Retrieved

from

http://www.fiber-

Joseph M. Kahn, Modulation and Detection Techniques for Optical Communication


Systems.
Retrieved
at
http://wwwee.stanford.edu/~jmk/pubs/mod.and.det.tech.COTA.6-06.pdf