\s´√pw \mthdpw

cmjv{SØn¬ \n∂v tZiØnte°pw Ncn-{X-Øn¬ \n∂v anØnte°pw
ae-bm-f-IYm`m-h\ \S-Ønb cmjv{Sob k©m-c-am-bn-cp∂p tImhn-es‚
BJym-\-I-e.
jmPn tP°_
Novel = Antilyrical Poetry
- Milan Kundera
H∂v
Ccp]Xmw \q‰m-≠nse tIc-fN
- c
- n-{X-Øn-s‚-sb-∂t- ]mse ae-bm-f`- m-hp-IX
- z-Øn-s‚bpw
G‰hpw {it≤-b-ß-fmb ]cn-Wm-a-L-´-ß-fn-emWv tImhn-es‚ kmln-Xy-Po-hnXw AS-bm-fs∏-´p-In-S-°p-∂-Xv. 1930 Ifnse sImSnb Zmcn-{Zy-Øn-s‚bpw ]´n-Wn-bp-sSbpw kmº-Øn-I-k- nse tZim-¥c
- , tZiob cm{„o-ba
- m-‰ß
- f
- n¬ apgp-Inbpw ‘50
μ¿`-ßf
- n¬ \n∂p XpS-ßn, ‘40-If
Ifnse {]Xo-£b
- p-sSbpw \ncm-ib
- p-sSbpw Ib-ßf
- n¬ apßnbpw ‘60-If
- n-sebpw ‘70-If
- n-sebpw
kmaq-lnI £n{]-th-K-ß-fn¬ Ie-ßnbpw Fgp-Øn¬ Xs‚ temIw krjvSn®p tImhn-e≥.
1956-˛76 Ime-ØmWv F ssa-\kv _n apX¬ `cX≥ hscbp≈ tImhnes‚ {]apJ cN-\-Isf√mw FgpX-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv ˛ X´Iw Hgn-sI. (F ssa\kv _n ˛ 1958, Ggm-sa-S-߃ ˛ 65,
t_m¿Uu´v 65, Xmgvhc-Iƒ 69, tXm‰-߃ ˛ 70, lnam-ebw ˛ 73, `c-X≥ ˛ 76). C°m-e-b-fhn¬ tIc-fhpw C¥ybpw IS-∂p-t]m∂ Ncn-{Xm-\p-`-h-ß-sfm∂pw Xs‚ IqSn A\p-`-h-am°m-Xn-cp-∂n-´n-√ tImhn-e≥. Ah-bpsS ÿm\-s∏-Sp-Øepw ÿe-]-›m-Ø-ehpw A{X-ta¬
kmam-\y-ambncp∂n√ F∂p-am-{Xw. AYhm kmam-\y-X-bn¬ \n∂pw kuμ-cym-fl-I-X-bn¬
\n∂pw hgn-amdn \S-∂mWv tImhn-e≥ BJym-\-I-e-bn¬ A\p-`-hm-fl-I-X-bp-sS-bpw Ncn-{Xmfl-I-X-bp-sSbpw Hcp kam-¥c `q]Sw hc-™n-´-Xv.
H‰-t\m-´-Øn¬ Xs∂, A\p-`-hsØ ]mT-h¬°-cn-°p-∂-Xn¬ _jo-dns‚ Hcp-]mSv
XpS¿®-Iƒ tImhn-e-\n¬ ImWmw. Atß-b‰w Bfl-\n-jvThpw AtXk-abw Xs∂ AImev]\
- n-Ih
- p-amb BJym-\I
- e ae-bm-ft- \m-he
- n¬ Ah-Xc
- n-∏n-®Xv _jo-dm-Wv. `mh-Xe
- Ø
- n¬
am{X-a√ cq]-X-e-Ønepw t\mh-ens‚ BJym-\sØ _jo¿ \ho-I-cn-®p. bYm-X-Y, Imev]\n-I, B[p-\nI ssien-Isf ka¿∞-ambn Iq´n-bn-W-°nbpw adn-I-S∂pw _jo¿ krjvSn®
t\mh¬ `mhp-I-Xz-Øn\v ae-bm-f-Øn-ep-≠mb GI-]-¶mfn tImhn-e-\m-Wv. F{Xbpw `n∂amb ÿe, Ime `qan-I-Iƒ ]›m-Ø-e-am-°p-tºmgpw a\p-jys\°pdn®pw Pohn-X-sØ-°pdn®pw Ncn-{X-sØ-°p-dn®pw ]pe¿Øp∂ A]m-c-amb Bfl-hn-izm-k-Øn¬ _jodpw tImhne\pw H∂n-°p-∂p. H∏w, t\mh¬ cq]-Øns‚ ]co-£-W-Ønepw.
`mh-\-bp-sSbpw `mj-bp-sSbpw AIm-ev]-\n-I-h¬°c-Whpw A] kuμ-cy-h¬°cWhpw, {]Xy-b-im-kv{X-ß-fnepw `c-W-Iq-S-ÿm-]-\-ß-fn-ep-ap≈ Ahn-izmkw, am\-hn-I-X1

tbm-Sp≈ hn´p-ho-gvNb
- n-√mØ Iqdv, A\p`-hß
- f
- nep≈ ISpw-]n-SpØw Ncn-{X-tØm-Sp≈ BZcw, bm{XIfpw hnZq-c-tZi-ßfpw \nc-¥cw IS-∂p-h-cp∂ ÿe-`q-an-I-Iƒ F∂n-ßs\ \nch[n LS-Iß
- ƒ Cu kam-\X
- I
- sf AS-bm-fs
- ∏-Sp-Øp-∂p-≠v. H∏w, Nne sshcp-≤y-ßs
- fbpw.
Ncn-{X-sØ anØm-°n-am-‰n, _jo-sd-¶n¬ anØns\ Ncn-{X-h¬°-cn®p tImhn-e≥. aXm-flItam atXX-ctam Bb Bflo-b-X-bn¬ A`bw Is≠Øn _jo-sd-¶n¬, Bflo-b-Xsb
GXm≠v ]q¿Æ-ambnØs∂ \ncm-I-cn®p tImhn-e≥.
]ecpw Nq≠n-°m-Wn-®n´p-Xp-t]mse, IY ]d-bp-Ib
- m-bn-cp-∂n√ tImhn-es‚ e£yw.
am\p-jn-Im-kvXn-XzsØ {]iv\h
- ¬°-cn-°p∂ A\p-`h
- ß
- s
- fbpw Pohn-Xm-hÿ
- I
- s
- fbpw ]mTh¬°-cn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. AXp-sIm-≠p-Xs∂ BZn-a-[ym-¥-s∏m-cp-Ø-ap≈ IYtbm CXnhr-Øtam IrXy-ambn \n¿h-Nn-°m-hp∂ {]tabw Xs∂tbm tImhn-es‚ t\mh-ep-Ifnen√.
sNdp-I-Y-I-fn¬ Ipsd-sbms° IYm-fl-I-Xbv°v Du∂¬ \evIp-∂p-s≠-¶nepw t\mh-ep-Ifn¬ IYm-Xz-sa-∂Xv tImhn-e\v Hcp _m[yX Xs∂-b-√.
“Imcy-߃ \n߃ Icp-Xpw-t]mse A{X \n m-c-a√’’ F∂mWv Hmtcm t\mhepw

hmb-\-°m-tcmSp ]d-bp-∂Xv’’ F∂v anem≥ Iptμc kqNn-∏n-°p∂p≠v (Every novel says to
the reader : “Things are not as simple as you think’’ Milan Kundera, 1993:18). Aßs\ Xs∂bmWv tImhn-es
- ‚bpw Hmtcm t\mhepw shfn-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂X
- v. kaq-ls
- Øbpw a\p-jy-s\bpw
Pohn-Xs
- Øbpw kw_-‘n-°p∂ H´pw \n m-ca
- √
- mØ Imcy-߃. Iptμ-cb
- psS Xs∂ as‰mcp
- m-Wv’
{]tbmKw IS-sa-Sp-Øm¬, ‘a\p-jy-Po-hnXw AI-s∏-´n-cn-°p∂ temI-Øns‚ sIWn-If
Ahsb k¶o¿Æ-am-°p-∂-Xv. tImhn-e≥ krjvSn® a\p-jy-cpsS Pohn-X-am-Is´ `c-W-Iq-StØmSpw AXn-s‚ A[n-Im-c-{]-tbm-K-ßtfmSpw am{X-a√ aX-ßfpw {]Xy-b-im-kv{X-ßfpw
\n¿Ωn-°p∂ \∑-Xn-∑-I-sf-°p-dn-®p≈ Xo¿∏p-I-tfmSpw ISpØ hntbm-Pn∏v {]I-Sn-∏n-°p-∂h-bmWv. Cu hnNmcw _jo-dn-\p-ap-≠v. ]s£ ]c-a-Im-cp-Wn-I-\mb Hcp ssZhsØ _jo¿
Ft∏m-sgm-s°tbm \ncm-[m-c-amb a\p-jy-Po-hn-X-Øn\p Iq´p-hn-fn-°p-∂p. tImhn-e≥ Aßs\-b-√. hn.sI.F∂n\pw B\-μn-\p-sam∏w \thm-∞m-\m-[p-\n-I-X-bpsS bp‡n-]m-c-ºcyw
]n≥]‰n ssZh-\n-cm-Ic
- W
- Ø
- n-s‚bpw a\p-jy-\n-ep≈ A]m-ca
- mb hnizm-kØ
- n-s‚bpw tcJoI-c-W-ß-fm°n t\mh-ep-Isf am‰p∂p At±-lw. eq°m-®ns‚ {]kn-≤-amb {]tbm-K-Øns‚
(‘ssZ-ha
- p-t]-£n® temI-Øns‚ CXn-lm-kw’) A£-cm¿∞-Øn-ep≈ (A-ßs\ am{X-hpw)

hmMvab
- k
- m-£y-߃. FØpw-]n-Snbpw In´mØ Pohn-XØ
- ns‚ ZpxJ-°b
- ß
- f
- n¬ apßn-Ømgp-tºmgpw shdpw a\p-jy-\n¬ Xs∂-bmWv tImhn-es‚ IYm-]m-{X-߃ ]nSn apdp-°p-∂-Xv.
B A¿∞-Øn¬ Pohn-X-Øns‚ al-Xzhpw bmYm¿∞yhpw kuμ-cyhpw A\p-`-hhpw H∂pX-s∂-bm-sW∂p Xncn-®d
- n™ Ddq-_n\pw CS-t»-cn°pw sshtem-∏n-≈n-°p-sam-∏a
- mWv tImhne≥. F∂p-h®
- m¬ 1950-˛70 ImesØ ae-bm-fn-Po-hn-XØ
- ns‚ G‰hpw Xo£vWa
- mb cm{„ob
hnNm-c-ambn \ne-\n∂ am\-hn-I-Xm-hm-Z-Øns‚ aq¿Øhpw Ncn-{X-_-≤-hp-amb kuμ-cy-imkv{X-]m-T-ß-fmWv tImhn-e\pw hc-™n-´Xv F∂¿∞w. A\p-`-h-ßsf Ncn-{X-h¬°-cn®pw
Ncn-{XsØ A\p-`h
- h
- ¬°-cn-®p-amWv AkvXn-Xz-Øns‚ Ah-ÿm-¥c
- ß
- sf tImhn-e≥ ]mT2

h¬°-cn-®Xv F∂pw CXv hni-Zo-I-cn-°mw.
ck-Ic
- a
- mbn tXm∂mw, dnb-en-kØ
- ns‚ G‰hpw Xo£vWhpw Xo{h-hp-amb Imev]\
- nI-hn-cp≤ temI-߃ ae-bmf t\mh-en¬ sa\-™n´ tImhn-es‚ XpS°w Nß-ºp-g-bnepw
Imev]-\n-I-X-bnepw \n∂m-Wv. \ncm-i°pw {`m¥n-\p-an-S-bn¬, PohnXw hgnap-´nb \mfp-Ifn¬ Bfl-lX
- ysb AXn-Po-hn-°m≥ Xs∂ klm-bn® GI-LS- Iw Fgp-Øm-bn-cp-∂p-sh∂v
tImhn-e≥ ]d-bp-∂p. c≠v kμ¿`-ß-fn¬ B Fgp-Øn-\p-≠mb {]Xn-k-‘n-L-´-ß-fn¬
Bfl-lXy sNøm≥ Xp\n™ Xs∂ AXn¬ \n∂p ]n∑m-‰nbXv BZyw Nß-ºp-gbpw
]ns∂ kn.-sP. tXma-kp-am-bn-cp-∂p-sh∂v tImhn-e≥ Hm¿Ωn-°p-∂p. 1943-se-gp-Xnb ‘XI¿∂
lrZ-b-߃’ F∂ t\mh-en-s\-°p-dn-®p≈ Hm¿Ω-°p-dn-∏n¬ At±lsagp-Xn: “Xs∂-]n-Sn-®pIp-ep-°nb ct≠m aqt∂m t\mh-ep-I-fn-sem-∂mWv XI¿∂ lrZ-b-߃ F∂v Nß-ºpg
F\n-s°-gp-Xn. AXp-sIm≠p am{Xw Rm≥ Bfl-lXy sNbvXn-√’’. XI¿∂ lrZ-b-ßfpw
AXn-\p-apºpw ]nºp-sa-gp-Xnb a‰p ]e t\mh-ep-Ifpw ]n∂oSv hnkva-cn-°-s∏-´p. BZ¿i-hmZhpw {]W-bm-Xp-c-Xbpw AXn-ssh-Im-cn-I-Xbpw Bfl-`m-j-Whpw hnπ-hm-th-ihpw Xd-hmSnØ hnUw-_-\hpw Imhy-`m-K-ßfpw \nd™ KZy-mJym-bn-I-I-fmbncp∂p Ah an°-Xpw. 78˛¬ tImhn-e≥ ]p\x-{]-kn-≤o-Ic
- n® Xd-hmSv Cu IrXn-If
- n-sem-∂mWv. F¶nepw, “tIi-h-\pX-¥b
- n√, Xd-hm-Sn-√, Ahs‚ AΩ ]nd∂ ho´n¬ \n∂p ]ng-®pt]mb I\y-Ib
- mWv’’ F∂nßs\ Bcw-`n-°p∂ ‘Xd-hm-Sn’s‚ kmaq-ly-hn-a¿i-\hpw a\p-jy-Z¿i\hpw Bfl-tcm-jhpw
t]mep≈ kz`m-h-߃ ]n¬°me tImhn-e≥ IrXn-I-fpsS BJym\ `qanI sI´n-s∏m-°p-Ibm-bncp∂psh∂p Icp-Xp-∂-Xn¬ sX‰n-√.
Aßs\ H∂-c∏
- X
- n-‰m-≠ns‚ IY\Iu-Xp-Iß
- ƒ°n∏p-dw, 1958-˛¬ tImhn-es‚ `mhnÿm-\hpw `mh-\m-Po-hn-Xhpw ae-bm-f-t\m-h-en¬ Dd-∏n-s®-SpØ BZy-Ir-Xn, F ssa\kv
_n, {]kn-≤o-I-cn-°-s∏-´p. C°m-e-b-f-hn¬ tImhn-es‚ Pohn-Xhpw C¥y-bpsS Ncn-{Xhpw
am{X-a√ ]e L´-߃ amdn-a-dn™p apt∂m-s´m-gp-In-b-Xv, ae-bm-f IYm-km-ln-Xy-Øn-s‚
`mhp-I-Xz-kz-`m-h-hp-am-Wv. Nmcp-I-tk-c-km-ln-Xy-Øn\v Imew Nc-a-°p-dn-s∏-gp-Xn-°-gn-™n-cp∂p. Imev]\
- n-IX
- b
- psS ae-cW
- n-°m-Sp-Ifpw ac-XI
- I
- m¥n-Ifpw adn-IS- ∂v Ihn-Xbpw (tIm-hnes‚ XpS-°hpw Ihn-Xb
- n-em-bn-cp-∂p) IYbpw t\mhepw bmYm¿∞y-Øns‚ IÆo¿∏m-Sß
- fn-te°p \S-∂p-I-b-dn-bn-cp-∂p. Pohn-X-Øns‚ sImSn-∏Sw XmgvØm≥ arXyp-hn-\m-In√ F∂v
tIc-fob ]uc-Xzhpw ae-bm-f-`m-h-\bpw Bfl-hn-izmkw ssIh-cn®p XpS-ßn-bn-cp-∂p. CSbvs°mcp L´-Øn¬ h¿§-X-e-Øn-te°p kao-I-cn-°-s∏´ A\p-`-h-ß-fpsS bm{¥n-I-X-bn¬
\n∂v a\p-jy-Po-hn-X-Øns‚ kz—-μ-Xbpw kuμ-cyhpw kzmX-{¥yhpw hos≠-Sp-°-s∏-´p-I-gn™n-cp-∂p. \∑-Xn-∑-I-fpsS Ccp-I-c-I-fn-ep-ambn hnL-Sn-®p-\n-∂n-cp∂ aqey-t_m-[-߃ IS]p-g-°-s∏-´p-Xp-S-ßn-bn-cp-∂p. Ah\h-\n-te°p Npcp-ßn-°qSnb, Imev]-\n-Im-[p-\n-I-X-bpsS
Krlm-Xp-c-Im-a-\-Iƒ ]Sw s]mgn®p XpS-ßn-bn-cp-∂p. hy‡y-\p-`-h-sØbpw a\p-jy-Po-hn-XsØbpw Ncn-{X-h¬°-cn-®p-sIm≠pw t\mh-se-gp-Øns‚ km{º-Zm-bnI kuμ-cy-im-kv{X-߃
\ncm-I-cn-®p-sIm≠pw `mj-bpsS `mh-Ko-Xm-fl-IX Xnc-kvI-cn-®p-sIm≠pw tImhn-e≥ ae-bm3

f-t\m-h-en¬ Nph-Sp-d-∏n-°p-∂Xv Cu L´-Øn-em-Wv. F ssa\kv _n, BJym-\-I-e-bpsS
A]-Kq-Vh
- ¬°-cW
- hpw a\p-jy-Po-hn-XØ
- ns‚ \yq\-{In-bI
- fpw sIm≠v ae-bm-f`
- m-h\
- b
- n¬
Ipdn-®n´ KpW-tImjvTw B[p-\n-I-Xm-hm-Z-Øns‚ G‰hpw _en-jvT-amb `mhp-I-Xz-[m-c-°-SnØ-d-bmbn amdn. _jo-dn¬ XpSßn Ddq-_n-eq-sSbpw tImhn-e-\n-eq-sSbpw XnSw h® B[m-c,
hn.sI F∂n-eq-sSbpw B\-μn-eq-sSbpw hf¿∂p ap‰n. tImhn-es‚ Xs∂ X´Iw B hf¿®bpsS Xe-∏p-If
- n-sem-∂m-Wv.
kmam-\y-amb Hcp hn`-P-\-Øn¬ tImhn-es‚ kmln-Xy-temIw c≠v `mh\m afi-eß-fn-embn s\SpsI ]nf¿∂p \n¬°p∂ H∂m-bn-°m-Wmw. ]´m-f-Øns‚ `c-W-Iq-S-_-e-X{¥-ßfpw A[n-Im-ck
- a
- h
- m-Iy-ßfpw t{iWo-_≤
- X
- I
- fpw a\p-jy-Po-hn-XsØ \n¿Æ-bn-°p∂
cm{„-Øn-s‚bpw, anØp-Ifpw sFXn-ly-ßfpw ]pcm-hr-Ø-ßfpw \m´p-kw-kvIr-Xnbpw XnSw
h®p-\n-e°
v p∂ {]mtZ-in-IX
- b
- p-sSbpw afi-eß
- f
- n-¬. F ssa\kv _n, Ggm-sa-Sß
- ƒ, F∂nh
sXm´v Xmgvh-c-Iƒ hsc-bp-≈h BZy-K-W-Øn¬ s]Sp-tºmƒ tXm‰-߃, P∑m-¥-c-߃
(1982) F∂nh sXm´v X´Iw hsc-bp≈ t\mh-ep-Iƒ c≠mw KW-Øn¬ s]Sp-∂p. `c-X≥
Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ Npcp°w Nne cN-\I
- ƒ Cu c≠v afi-eØ
- n\pw shfn-bn-em-Wv. sNdp-IY
- I
- fn¬, Hcp-]ew a\-tbm-e, Cu PohnXw A\mYam-W,v Hcn-°¬ a\p-jy-\m-bn-cp∂p, Hcp IjWw
Aÿn F∂o kam-lm-c-ß-fnse an°-hmdpw cN-\-Iƒ H∂mw KW-Ønepw th≠mw-I-Sn,
tX¿hm-gvNI
- ƒ, ]nØw, iIp-\w, kpPmX XpS-ßnb kam-lm-cß
- f
- nse an°-hmdpw cN-\I
- ƒ
c≠mw KW-Ønepw s]Sp-∂p.
Fgp-Øns‚ Ime-]-›m-Øew ]cn-K-Wn-®m¬, ‘50 IfpsS a[yw apX¬ 60 IfpsS
Ah-km\w hscbp≈ Ime-ØmWv ]´m-f°
- Y
- I
- fpw t\mh-ep-Ifpw Fgp-Xs
- ∏-Sp-∂s
- X-∂p-ImWmw. Hs∂mgnbmsX Ch Hmtcm∂pw `c-W-Iq-Sm[n-Im-c-Øn-s‚bpw tZicmjv{SØns‚bpw
hna¿i-\-]m-T-ß-fmbn amdp-∂p. Fgp-]-Xp-I-fpsS XpS°w apX-ep≈ Hmtcm t\mh-epw IY-bpam-Is´ cmjv{SØn¬ \n∂v tZiØnte°p≈ ÿe-]-chpw cmjv{Sobhp-amb am‰-Øns‚
kmln-Xob{]Jym-\-ß-fm-Wv˛ lnam-e-bw HgnsI Aßs\ tImhn-es‚ kmln-Xy-Po-hnXw
H´msI tZiob-X-bp-sSbpw cmjv{Sob-hn-a¿i\-Øn-s‚bpw H∂mw L´-Ønepw {]mtZinI-XbpsSbpw anØn-°¬ Ncn-{X-Øn-s‚bpw c≠mw L´-Øn-ep-ambn hn`-Pn-®p-\n¬°p-∂-Xmbpw
IW-°m-°mw.
Cu c≠p L´ßfnepw Hcp-t]mse {]k-‡a
- m-Ip∂, IYbpw Pohn-Xhpw A\p-`hhpw
BJym-\hpw XΩn¬X-Ωn-ep≈ _‘-Øns‚ Ncn-{X-h¬°-c-W-sØ-°p-dn®v tImhn-e≥
]pe¿Ønb [mc-W-I-fpsS Imhy-im-kv{X-sa∂ \ne-bn¬ ImWm-hp∂ Hcp t\mh-ep≠v ˛
P∑m-¥c
- ߃.
Hcp P∑-Øn¬ ]e Pohn-Xß
- ƒ Pohn-®p-Xo¿°p∂ a\p-jy-cpsS IY-bm-Wn-X.v t_m[mt_m-[-߃°n-S-bn¬ P\n-ar-Xn-I-fpsS \n m-cX -t_m-[y-s∏SpØp∂ Bip-]-{Xn-bn¬ PohnX-sØ-°p-dn-®p≈ \n¿h-N-\-߃ t]mse Cu t\mh-ense IYm-]m-{X-߃ acWw ImØpIn-S°
- p-∂p. IYm-Xz-sØ-°m-f[
- nIw Bfl-IY
- m-Xz-ap≈ IrXn. tImhn-es‚ an°-hmdpw sNdp4

I-YI
- f
- nepw t\mh-ep-If
- nepw Bh¿Øn-®p-]d
- b
- s
- ∏-´n-´p-≈X
- p-t]mse, a\p-jym-hÿ
- b
- psS \n l-mb-XI
-- fpw k¶-Sß
- fpw Xs∂-bmWv Cu t\mh-en-ep-ap-≈X
- v. Ch-sb√mw Hscm‰ InS-∏n¬
Hcp-]mSv a\p-jy-cn¬ ImWp∂ hr≤-IY
- m-]m-{X-Øns‚ IÆn-eqsS Bhn-jvIr-Xa
- m-Ip∂ ‘P∑m¥-c-߃’ ae-bm-f-Ønse G‰hpw XojvW-amb ‘tcmK-c-N-\-’bmWv. £oWhpw ad-hnbpw
Pcbpw \cbpw GIm-¥-Xbpw Xnc-kvIm-chpw \μn-tISpw s\dn-tISpw tcmKhpw thZ-\bpw
ac-W`- o-Xnbpw Pohn-Xm-k‡
- nbpw H∂mbn h∂p Xnc-bS- n®pho-gvØp∂ a\p-jy-Po-hn-XØ
- ns‚
\n m-cX
- I
-- f
- mWv P∑m-¥c
- ß
- f
- n-ep-≈X
- v. acWw ImØp-In-S°
- p-tºmgpw a‰p-≈h
- c
- psS Zbbpw
kl-Xm-]hpw Cc-∏m-fn-Isf am{Xta krjvSn°q F∂p Xncn-®d
- n™v Ah X\n°p ths≠∂p
hmin-]n-Sn-°p-∂-h¿, \s´√v Hcp Ah-b-h-a-√, kz`m-h-amWv F∂p hniz-kn-°p-∂-h-¿, {]tXyIn-s®m-c-h-Im-i-hm-Z-hp-an-√msX F.-sI. tKm]m-e-t\m-sSm∏w Ncn-{X-Øns‚ s\Sp-ºm-X-tbm-cß-fn-te°p Ibdn \S-°p-∂-h¿ ˛ P∑m-¥-c-ß-fnse shdpw km[m-c-W-°mcpw \nkzcpw
BXp-c-cp-amb tcmKn-Iƒs°ms° Cß-s\-sbmcp PohnXw IqSn-bp-≠v. AtX-k-abw {]mW`-b-Øns‚ kμ¿`-ß-fn-se-¶nepw ssZh-hn-izm-k-Øn-te°p a\p-jy¿ amdpw F∂m-iz-kn-°p∂-hsc \ncm-is
- ∏-Sp-Øn-s°m≠v a\p-jy-\nepw Ahs‚ Bfl-t_m-[ß
- f
- nepw Pohn-XØ
- ns‚
sImSn-∏Sw XmgmsX kq£n-°p∂ {]⁄m-_-ehpw t\mh¬ {]I-Sn-∏n°p∂p.
IY Pohn-X-a-√msX as‰m-∂p-a√ F∂ ISpØ hnizmkw ]e Ipdn {]kvXm-hn-®psIm≠v tImhn-e≥ Xs‚ IYsbgpØns‚ ck-X{¥w kqNn-∏n-°p∂ \nc-h[n kμ¿`-ß-fpap-≠v P∑m-¥-c-ß-fn¬. IY-sb-°mƒ hnNn-{X-amb Pohn-X-hp-ambn ASpØ I´n-en¬ Hm∏-tdj\p Xøm-dmbn InS-°p∂ bmt°m-_ns\ ap≥\n¿Øn tImhn-e≥ Fgp-Xp-∂p. “Adn-bm-tZ-iß-fnepw Cßs\bmWv Hmtcm IY-Iƒ F\n°v hoWp-In-´n-b-Xv. ]s£ Ah-sbm∂pw IYbm-bn-cp-∂n-√, Hmtcm-cp-Øc
- p-sSbpw Pohn-Xa
- m-bn-cp-∂p. Ah-cpsS Pohn-Xm-Jym-\ß
- fn¬ \n∂v
]e IY-Ifpw Rm≥ Is≠-Sp-Øp. Hcp IY hoWp In´p∂ GXp kml-N-cyhpw F\n-°p-t]£n-°m≥ hø’’ (P-∑m-¥-c-߃, 37).
tImhn-es‚ Xe-ap-d-bnse am{X-a√ ap≥ ]n≥Xe-ap-d-Ifn-sebpw `qcn-]£w Fgp-ØpIm¿°pw apt∂m-´p-h-bv°m≥ Ign-bmØ H∂mWv Cu Ah-Im-i-hm-Zw. kmln-XysØ `mh\m-hym-]m-ca
- mbn am{Xw I≠-hc
- mWv _lp-`q-cn-]£w ae-bmfn Fgp-Øp-Im-cpw. Pohn-XØ
- ns‚
bpw IY-bp-sSbpw AXn¿h-c-ºp-Iƒ ambv®p-I-f-bp∂ taJe _jo¿ GXm-s≠mcp GIm-[n]-Xn-sb-t∏mse Iø-S-°n-bn-cn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. a‰p-an° Fgp-Øp-Imcpw Xß-fpsS Npcp°w
Nne cN-\-I-ƒ, kw`hn®h-tbm, Xß-fpsS Pohn-X-hp-ambn t\cn´p _‘-ap-≈-htbm BWv
F∂v kmμ¿`n-I-ambn km£y-s∏-Sp-Øp-tºmƒ t]mepw s]mXp-hn¬ kq£n-°p∂ kmc-kzX-Xm¬]cyw kw`-hn-®Xp-t]mse tXm∂n-°p∂ `mh-\m-kr-jvSn F∂p-X-s∂-bm-bn-cp-∂p.
ChnsS bmWv IY Pohn-X-a-√msX as‰m-∂p-a√ F∂ kXy-hm-Mvaqew ka¿∏n®v _jo-dns\m∏w tImhn-e≥ ae-bm-f-`m-h-\-bn¬ s\SpsI hf¿∂p-\n-∂-Xv. A\p-`-h-ßsf Ah-bpsS
hy‡n-]c
- X
- b
- nepw sshIm-cn-IX
- b
- nepw \n∂v kzX-{¥-am°n kmaq-ly-h¬°-cn-°m\pw AXphgn Ncn-{X-h¬°cn°m\pw {ian-°p-Ib
- m-bn-cp∂p tImhn-e≥ F°m-eØ
- pw. sNdn-sbmcp ]cn5

lm-kt- Øm-sS, IY-sb-gp-Øns‚ A]m-ca
- mb [¿Ω-k¶
- S- ß
- fpw Bfl-kw-L¿j-ßfpw tImhne≥ CtX t\mh-en¬ as‰m-cn-SØv Cßs\ Ah-Xc
- n-∏n-°p∂p : “Hmtcm a\p-jy-\nepw Hmtcm
CXn-lmkw Dd-ßp-∂p-s≠-∂v aptº Xs∂ F\n-°dn-bmw. ]s£ Hcp IY Fgp-Xn-^-en-∏n°m\pw ssh`hw thWw. Hcp IY-bv°p-th≠ F√m A\p-km-cn-Ifpw bmt°m-_ns‚ IYbn¬ D≠m-bn-cp-∂p. Xnc-°Y t]mepw cNn-°mw. {]`p-°-fpsS Xd-hm-´n¬ ]nd-∂ bmt°m_v
Xs‚ ]nSn-∏n-√mbva sIm≠pw _p≤n-tamiw sIm≠pw £bn®v Xcn-∏W
- a
- m-bn-Øo-cp-∂p. IYmkm-ca
- mbn Hcp _mdpw _mdn¬ \S∂ sIme-]m-XI
- hpw bmt°m-_ns‚ c≠mw sI´pw apXn¿∂
s]◊-°fpw ˛ hn`-h-߃ apgp-h≥ b-t°m-_ns‚ IY-bn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. Im_td t]mepw
k∂n-th-in-°mw.
]t£, Fgp-Xm≥ Adn-b-W-at√m!’’ (]p-dw. 41).
Fgp-Xm\-dn-bmØ A\p-`h
- ß
- sf \n w-ibw Isømgn™p apt∂m´p-t]mb A]q¿hw
Fgp-Øp-Im-cn-sem-cm-fmWv tImhn-e≥
- . Xs‚ kmln-Xy-Po-hn-XØ
- n-semcn°¬ t]mepw tImhne≥ A\p-`-hßtfmSv k‘n sNbvXn-´n-√. kmln-Xym-Jym-\-Øns‚ Du¿÷hpw t{kmXkpw
A\p-`-h-a-√msX as‰m∂pa√ F∂t±lw Icp-Xn. tImhn-es‚ ]´m-f-°-Y-Iƒ ae-bm-f-Øn-eh-X-cn-∏n® A\p-`-h-tem-IØns‚ lnam-e-b-ap-{Z-Iƒ H∂-S¶w B[p-\n-I-Xm-hn-a¿i-\-Øns‚
cmjv{Sob-]m-T-ß-fmbn ]n¬°m-eØp Xncn®dn-b-s∏-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXn-´p-≠v.

c≠v
Pohn-X-Øns‚, Fgp-Øn-te-°p≈ ]cn-`m-j-bn¬ A\p-`-h-ß-fpsS Ncn-{X-h¬°-c-WØn-\p≈ km[y-X-Iƒ Xncn-®-dn-b-W-sa-¶n¬ F ssa\kv _n, Ggm-sa-S-߃, t_m¿Uu´v
Xmgvhc-Iƒ, lnam-ebw F∂o t\mh-ep-Iƒ hmbn-°-Ww. 1953-˛¬ Xs∂ \¥-\m-cpsS ‘Adnb-s∏-SmØ a\p-jy-Po-hn-Iƒ’ ]´m-ft- \m-h¬ KW-Øn\v ae-bm-fØ
- n¬ cq]w sImSpØp Ign™n-cp-∂p-sh-¶nepw tImhn-es‚ t\mh¬ Ie Xo¿Øpw `n∂-am-bn-c-∂p. th¿Xn-cn-®-dn-bmhp∂ \mb-I-cn-√. \n¿h-Nn-s®-Sp-°m-hp∂ {]ta-b-ß-fn-√. BsI-bp-≈Xv Hcm-Jym\w am{Xw.
F√m hihpw Xpd∂ apdn t]mse. BZn-a-[ym-¥-ßtfm ]q¿Δ-˛-]-c-`m-K-ßtfm tXSn-∏n-Sn-°m\m-ImØ shdpw BJym-\w. hmbn-s®-Sp-°m\pw hymJym-\n-s®-Sp-°m\pw Aev]s
- am∂v t¢in°pI Xs∂ thWw F∂m-bt- XmsS Imev]\
- n-IX
- b
- nepw Krlm-Xp-cX
- b
- nepw AXn-ssh-Im-cnI-X-bnepw A\p-\m-knI `mjm-ssi-en-bnepw Ah-\-h-s\-°p-dn-®p≈ s\Sp-ho¿∏nepw A`n-can® ae-bmfn tImhn-es\ Ah-K-Wn-®p-sh∂v Ncn-{Xw. hy‡nsb \mb-I-ÿm-\Øp {]XnjvTn-°mØ BZy-a-e-bm-f-t\m-h-en-ÃmWv tImhn-e≥. hy‡n-bpsS ZpxJ-ßfpw Zpc-¥-ß-fp-a√, a\p-jy-Po-hn-X-Øns‚ Xs∂ ZpxJ-ßfpw Zpc-¥-ß-fp-amWv Xs‚ Hmtcm t\mh-enepw
tImhn-e≥ Bhn-jvI-cn-®-Xv. IY-b√ Pohn-Xm-h-ÿ-I-fmWv tImhn-es‚ cN-\-Iƒ. IY ]d®n-e-√, Pohn-Xm-Jym-\-ß-fmWv Ah. IYm-]m-{X-ß-f√ bYm¿∞ a\p-jy-cmWv Ah-bn-ep-f-fXv. AtX kabw Xs∂, B[p-\n-I-cpsS \ncm-ibpw iq\y-Xbpw tImhn-es\ Iog-S-°p-∂n-√,
tImhn-e≥ Ahsb Iog-S°
- p-Ib
- m-Wv.
6

`bw Hcp Icn-ºSw t]mse hoWp-s]m-Xn™ ]´m-f-_m-c-°p-Iƒ. th´-bm-S-s∏-Sp∂
a\p-jy-Xzw. PmXntbm aXtam `mjtbm tZitam th¿Xn-cn-°mØ ]pcp-j-∑m¿. s]Æns‚
NqSpw Nqcp-a-dn-bm-Ø-Xn-\m¬ BWn-s\-Øs∂ Iman-°p-∂-h¿. a\p-jym-¥kv \nc-¥cw inct—Zw sNø-s∏-Sp∂ `c-W-IqS hyh-ÿ-bv°p-≈n¬ tZicm-jv{SØns‚ A[n-Imcw Ccp-Xe
aq¿®-bp≈ hmƒ t]mse Xqßn-bm-Sp∂ aplq¿Ø-߃-˛ ]´m-f-Po-hn-X-Øns‚ Ahn-iz-k-\obhpw A]-cn-lmcyhp-amb Ahÿm¥c-ß-fmWv tImhn-es‚ cN-\-I-fn-ep-≈-Xv.
ssk\nI-Po-hn-XØ
- n¬ {]Ir-XntbmSpw Imem-hÿ
- tbmSpw taeptZymK-ÿt- cmSpw `cW-Iq-St- ØmSpw Ie-ln-°p∂ tImhn-es‚ ]m´m-f°
- mcmcpw ]s£ ac-WsØ `bs∏-Sp-∂n-√.
acWØn\p Iog- S - ß p- t ºmgpw Pohn- X - Ø n\p ap∂n¬ tXm¬hn kΩ- X n- ° p- ∂ n- √ .
Ah\hs\°pdn®p hne-]n®v X߃ Pohn® Ime-Øn\p am\-lm-\nbp≠m°p-∂n-√. Nߺp-g-bn¬ \n∂v sshtem-∏n-≈n-bnte°p hfcp∂ Imhy`m-h-\bv°v kam-\-amWv XI¿∂
lrZ-bß
- f
- nepw Xdhm-Snepw \n∂v Cu cN-\I
- f
- nte°v ]cn-Wan® tImhn-es‚ t\mh¬`m-h\
- .
F ssa\kv _nbnse tXmakv sNdn-bm\pw apØ-øbpw hnZym-[-c\pw GgmsaS-ß-fnse
Achnμ\pw A\n-Xbpw Xmgvhc
- I
- f
- n-sebpw lnam-eb
- Ø
- n-sebpw inhm-\μ
- ≥, tXma-k,v cmP≥
XpS-ßn-bh
- cpw t_m¿Uu-´nse cmL-h\pw am{X-a√ Bfl-lX
- ybvt°m sImebvt°m A]I-S-a-c-W-Ønt\m hg-ßp∂ a‰p \nc-h-[n-I-Ym-]m-{X-ßfpw a\pjy¿ F∂ \ne-bn¬ kzbw
\ymbo-Ic
- n-®p-Xs
- ∂-bmWv t\mh-en¬ Pohn-°p-∂X
- .v \yq\-{In-bI
- ƒ am{X-ap≈ KWnX imkv{XamWv Pohn-X-sa∂v ]e-t∏mgpw Cu t\mh-ep-Iƒ kqN-\-X-cp-∂p. kzXzhpw AkvXnXzhpw
\jvSs∏-Sp-tºmgpw tameptZymK-ÿ-cpsS Iev]-\-Iƒ°p ap∂n¬ \mb-sb-t∏mse A\p-kcnt°≠n hcp-tºmgpw Bflmhns\ kvt\ln°p-∂-Xp-sIm≠p am{Xw Ah¿ kml-N-cyßsf AXn-Po-hn-°p-∂p. F ssa\kv _nbnse Hmtcm IYm-]m-{Xhpw tImhn-es‚ ]n¬°me
]´m-ft- \m-he
- p-If
- n¬ sNdnb hyXymkß-tfmsS ]p\¿P-\n-°p-∂X
- ns‚ bp‡nbpw as‰m∂√.
\ne-\n¬°p∂ A[n-Imc hyh-ÿIsfbpw `c-W-IqS bp‡n-I-sfbpw cmjv{Sk¶-ev]-sØX-s∂bpw AIta\n∂v \nin-Xa
- mbn B{I-an-°p-∂h
- bmWv tImhn-es‚ ]´m-ft- \m-he
- p-Ifpw
sNdp-I-Y-I-fpw. as‰mscgp-Øp-Im-c\pw sNøm-Ø-hn[w a\p-jym-¥ ns‚ sISp-Xn°v \mbsb∂ {]cq-]-Øn-eqsS krjvSn®p\n¬Ip∂ hymJym-\t`Z߃ tImhn-es‚ BJym-\-`q-]-SØnse auen-I-amb LS-I-ßfn-sem∂mbn amdp-∂Xpw ]m´-f-°-Y-Iƒ ]d-bp-tºm-gm-Wv. Hcp
t\mh¬ t]mep-an-√, ]´n-bpsS Ah-ÿ-I-fnte°pw A\p-`-h-ß-fnte°pw \yq\o-I-cn-°-s∏Sp∂ a\p-jym-¥- ns‚ Nn{XoI-c-W-an-√m-ØXm-bn. IY-I-fnem-sW-¶n¬ Hcp Uk≥ cN-\-Isf¶nepap≠v. P¥p-P-∑-Ønte°p X≈n-am-‰-s∏-Sp∂ a\p-jym-kvXn-Xz-Øns‚ kam-\-X-I-fn√mØ kvamc-Iß
- f
- m-bn.
Hmtcm a\p-jy\pw Hmtcm Pohn-X-ap-s≠∂pw Xs‚ Xs∂ hn[n-cq-]-s∏SpØp-I-bmWv
Hmtcma-\p-jys‚bpw \ntbmKw F∂pw tImhn-es‚ ]´m-f-°-Y-Iƒ ]d-bp-∂p, kvt\lw,
{]Wbw, Imaw, ]I, tcmjw, Bfl\nμ, cmPykvt\lw, aX-t_m[w IpSpw_‘-w, Zmcn-{Zyw,
thZ-\˛ Hcp aqey-Ønepw Ah-ÿ-bnepw tImhn-es‚ ]´mf-°m¿ ssS∏p-I-fmbn amdp-∂n-√.
7

kmlnXy Ncn-{X-ß-fpsS Imt\m-\oI-c-WsØ adn-I-S-°p∂ IYm-IrØpw t\mh-en-Ãp-ambn
tImhn-e≥ amdp∂ ]›m-Ø-e-an-Xm-Wv. ]cn-an-X-amb Ncn-{X-Imew am{Xta \ne-\n-∂n-´p-≈psh-¶nepw ae-bmf KZy-Øns‚ `mhp-IXz L-´-ß-tfm-tcm∂pw tImhn-e≥ AtX thK-Øn¬
adn IS-∂p-t]m--∂p. \thm-∞m\ Imev]\
- n-IX
- b
- n¬ \n∂v Imev]\
- nI dnb-en-kØ
- n-tebv°pw
H∏w tkmjy¬ dnb-en-k-Øn-tebv°pw AhnsS \n∂v B[p-\n-I-X-bn-te°pw ]n∂oSv B[p\n-Im-\-¥-c-X-bn-tebv°pw k©-cn® IY\ `mh-\-bmWv tImhn-e-t‚Xv
Cu ]cn-Wm-a{- ]-{In-bb
- n¬ tImhn-es‚ t{SUvam¿°mbn \ne-\n-∂ H∂m-asØ LSIw
`mj-bm-Wv. Xm≥ Xs∂ Fgp-Xnb Imhy-`m-K-ßfpw \ne-\n∂ \mS≥ ]m´p-Ifpw \nd™
t\mh-ep-Iƒ apX¬ Hscm‰ JWvU-Imhyw t]mse cq]w amdnb t\mh-ep-Iƒ hsc tImhnet‚Xm-bp-≠.v ]´m-f°
- Y-If
- n-te-bs
v °-Øp-tºmƒ Iq¿Ø-ap-≈pt]m-se-bmWv tImhn-es‚ `mj.
IpØn-°-b-dpw. Icn-¶¬ Nofp-t]mse Xd-™p-\n¬°pw BJym-\w. at\m-\n-e-bpw, a\p-jymh-ÿbpw ]c-kv]cw ]I¿∂m-Sp∂ ]Z-tIm-iw. Imev]\
- n-IX
- s
- b°mƒ dnb-en-khpw {]W-btØ-°mƒ Imahpw Bflm-hn-t\-°mƒ ico-chpw `mh-\sb-°mƒ Ncn-{Xhpw hnizm-k-tØ°mƒ hntbm-Pn∏pw hnc-l-tØ-°mƒ hni∏pw ta¬ss° t\Sp∂ IY-\-ssi-en. KWn-X-IrXy-Xb
- p≈ `mj-WI
- e. a\p-jym-hÿ
I
- f
- psS \·-Xb
- v°p-ta¬ kwkvIm-cØ
- n-s‚tbm kapZm-b-Øn-t‚tbm h¿Æ-°p-∏m-b-ß-f-Wn-bn-°mØ tImhn-e≥ at\m-\n-e-I-fpsS Xpd-∂p-Im-´en¬ Be-¶m-cn-I-X-Isf Iq´p-]n-Sn-°p-∂n-√. Hcp Ncn-{X-Øns‚ apgp-h≥ Zpc-¥-ßfpw G‰phmßn _mey-Øn¬ Xs∂ apSn-\-c® ]´m-f-Ønse ss{Uh¿ \nc-RvP≥ knwKns\ tImhne≥ Ah-X-cn-∏n-°p-∂p≠v F ssa\kv _n bn¬. “el-f-°m¿ A—-t‚bpw AΩ-bp-tSbpw
Igp-Ø-d-°p-tºmƒ Ah≥ apƒIm-´n-\-I-Øn-cp∂p hnd-bv°p-I-bn-cp-∂p. Hcp Znh-kw....-c≠p
Znhkw... Ah\v cmhpw ]Iepw Xncn-®-dn-hn-√. Bƒ°m¿ Is≠-Øp-tºmƒ ]I-®-t\m-´hpw
angn® IÆp-I-fp-ambn Xd-®n-cp∂p hnd-bv°p-I-bm-Wv. an≠p-∂n-√. an≠-W-sa-∂p-≠v. hmhn-´p\n-e-hn-fn-bv°-W-sa-∂p-≠v. Ah¿ Ahs\ FSp-Øp-sIm-≠p-t]m-bn. hfsc \mƒ Ign™p
Xe Ipfn®p apSn-bp-e¿Øp-tºmƒ I≠p. apgp-h≥ sh≈-Ib
- d
- n-bn-cn-°p∂p’’. (]pdw 17) kq£vaXbpw anX-Xzhpw aq¿®bpw Ipdp-Iepw sIm≠v `mj-bnepw `mh-Ønepw \S-Øp∂ CS-s]-S¬
t\mh¬ LS-\-bpsS ssiYn-eysØ km[q-I-cn-°p∂p. `mj-bntem `mh-\-bn-tem F∂-Xpt]mse ÿew {]IrXn XpS-ßn-bh
- b
- nepw kuμcyw tXSn-t∏m-Ip-∂n√ tImhn-e≥. F ssa\kv
_n bpsS {]kn-≤-amb B XpS°w Xs∂ {i≤n-°p-I. “Agp°pw Nn´-bp-an-√msX-Nm-™n-dßp∂ ta´n≥ Ncp-hnse Nc¬]-d-ºn¬ ap≈p-th-en-°-IØv dPnsa‚ v NnX-dn-°n-S∂
-- p. ap≈pth-en-tbmSv tN¿∂v Smdn´ sabn≥ tdmUv, apXpIp NX™ Icn-ºm-ºp-t]mse Cg-bp-∂p-≠mbn-cp-∂p. AI-Øm-Is´ s]mSnbpw sNXºepw ]nSn® Icn-th-∏p-Iƒ, sXdp-ºn® ]®n-e-I-

8

fn¬ shbn¬ Im™p-\n-∂p. Cu Icn-th-∏p-I-fpsS \nc-Iƒ°n-S-bn-em-Wv, a™-°p-Ωmbw
tX® Npa-cp-Ifpw Bkv_-kvt‰mkv ta¬°q-c-bp-ap≈ Dbcw Ipd™ _mc-°p-Iƒ. Ah
Ccn°Ip-Øs\- hoWt]mse, Xeßpw hneßpw Aºn-°n-Sp-∂p. tdmUn\-∏p-dØv h√-t∏msg-ßm≥ amSp-Iƒ tabm-\n-dßp∂ Cu¥-∏-\-°m-Sv, aqh-¥n-bn¬ Pohn-®n-cn-°p-tºmƒ Xs∂
Adp-sIm-es
- ∏´ ]´m-f°
- m-cpsS shdp-ße
- n® Bflm-hpI-sf-∂t- ]mse, \ngepw cq]hpw hc®p
\n∂p.
Hscm‰ hmt°m _nw_tam, Iev∏-\tbm, cq]-I-tam, kqN-Itam C√, Imev]-\n-I-Xtbm, `mh-Ko-Xm-flI
- X
- t- bm, kwKo-Xm-flI
- X
- tbm ]I-cp-∂X
- mbn. Cu ]cp-°≥ Imgv®I
- ƒ°nS-bn¬ Xs∂ hmƒap\Ø-am-iI
- ƒt]mse Ncn-{X-tØbpw anØp-It- fbpw hnizm-kß
- t- fbpw
A]-\n¿Ωn-°p∂ \¿Ω-t_m-[hpw sXgpØp hcpw. hrμm-h-\-Ønse IrjvWs‚ HmS-°pg¬ Xt‚-Xm°n am‰nb ]´m-f°
- m-c≥ tk-hm-kn-ßns\ tImhn-e≥ Ah-Xc
- n-∏n-°p-∂p. “tkhmknMv ]c-Øn-∏n-Sn® ssII-tfmsS I´n-en¬ N{aw ]Sn-™n-cp-∂p.-H®
- b
- n√ A\-°a
- n√ aW¬Øcn-Isf ]pfIw sIm≈n-°p-Ibpw ]p√n≥sIm-Sn-Isf B\-¥-_m-jv]-a-Wn-bn-°p-Ibpw
Imfnμnsb \rØ-am-Sn-°p-Ibpw sNbvX B ]p√m-¶p-g¬, \q‰m-≠p-I-fpsS tI´p-tI-ƒ-hn-I-fneqsS, km¿eu-InI Imev]-\nI {]ÿm-\-Øns‚ apIƒ∏-c-∏n-eqsS, ]´m-f-Iym-ºnse aq´
\nd™ I´n-en¬ t]mepw ams‰men sIm≈p-I-bm-hmw.’’(-]pdw 17-˛18)
Pohn-X-Øn\pw Ncn-{X-Øn\pw t\¿°p≈ Cu Iqk-en-√mbva Xs∂-bmWv \nin-Xamb hy‡n-t_m-[t- ØmsS a\p-jym-hÿ
- I
- sf t\cn-Sm-\p≈ `mh-\m-tijn tImhn-e\p \¬Ip∂-Xv. \thm-∞m\ tIcfw cq]w sImSpØ atX-Xc kmaq-ln-I-Xbpw am\-hn-I-Xbpw tImhnes‚ cN-\m-tem-I-Øp-S-\ofw ASn-sbm-gp°mbp≠v. anØpw ]mc-º-cyhpw hnizm-k-ßfpw
]g-a-Ifpw `uXnI Ncn-{X-Øns‚ Du¿÷w am{X-am-Wn-hnsS. a\p-jy-\n-ep≈ ASn-bp-d®
hnizm-k-amWv Cu bp‡n-t_m-[-Øns‚ ]n≥_-ew. am\p-jn-I-amb Zu¿_-ey-ß-tfm-Sp≈
klm-\p-`m-h-amWv \∑-bn-ep≈ ]nSn. Fgp-Ønepw Pohn-X-Ønepw Cg ]ncn-bmsX \ne\n¿Ønb Cu t_m[y-ß-sf-°p-dn®v CS-bv°nsS tImhn-e≥ hmb-\-°msc Hm¿an-∏n-°pw.
Bflo-b-X-sb-°p-dn-®pw, ac-Wm-\-¥c Pohn-X-sØ-°p-dn-®pw, a\p-jys‚ Bfl-_-e-an-√m-bvaIsf°pdn®psams°bp≈ IY-bmbn hymJym-\n-°s
- ∏Spw F∂ ap∂-dn-hpsIm-≠p-Xs∂ ‘Hcp
‘IjWw Aÿn’ F∂ cN-\bpsS BapJ-ambn tImhn-e≥ Fgp-Xp∂ Hcp JWvUn-Ib
- p-≠v.

AXn-c‰ IpSn sIm≠p acn-®p-t]mb Hcm-sf-°p-dn®v Rms\mcp IY-sb-gpXn ]{X-Øn-\-b-®p.
A®-S-n®p-h-∂-t∏mƒ Hcp Xncp-Ø-ep-≠v.-A-bmƒ NØp F∂v Rms\-gp-Xn-bn-cp-∂n-√. IpSn-b\m-sW-¶nepw a\p-jy-\m-Wt- √m. AXp-sIm≠v acn®p Fs∂-gp-Xn. _lp-am-\s
- ∏´ ]{Xm-[n]¿
- f
- n¬ ]{Xm-[n-]¿
AXßp XncpØn. ‘Abmƒ ]c-temIw {]m]n-®p’. Fs‚ Nn√d hnizm-kß

9

ssIh-®n-cn-°p-∂p. ]c-temIw {]m]n-®p-t]mepw. F\n°v H‰ temIta D≈p. \o≠ Hcp
IsØ-gp-Xn. taem¬ Fs∂ D]-{Z-hn-°-cp-Xv’’.

shdpw a\p-jy-\n-emWv tImhn-e\p hnizm-kw. AhcpsS Pohn-XØ
- nepw. Np‰p-ap≈ a\pjysc
Ah-cp-tS-Xmb Np‰p-]m-Sn¬ \n∂p t\m°n-°m-W-W-sa∂p am{Xsa IY-sb-gp-Xp-tºmƒ Xm≥
\n¿_‘w ]nSn-°m-dp≈p F∂v as‰mcp IY-bpsS Ah-km\w tImhn-e≥ Ipdn-®n-Sp-∂p-≠v.
cmjv{SØn¬ \n∂p tZiØnte°pw Ncn-{X-Øn¬ \n∂v anØp-I-fnte°pw `mh-\m-`qanI ]dn®p\Sp∂ cN-\I
- f
- nepw tImhn-es‚ cmjv{Sobw as‰m∂√. GIXz-Øn¬\n∂v \m\mXz-Ønte°v \nem]mSv am‰n \ΩpsS kmwkvIm-cnI tZiobXmhmZ-sØbpw tZicm-jv{Shm-ZsØbpw io¿jm-k\-Øn¬ \n¿Øn tImhn-e≥. hc-samgn`m-h\ hmsa-gn-°p-h-gn-am-dn.
htcWyXI-fn¬ \n∂v Iogm-f-X-I-fnte°pw

hep-Xp-I-fn¬ \n∂v sNdp-Xp-I-fnte°pw

tI{μØn¬ \n∂v {]m¥-ßf
- nte°pw kh¿Æ-Xb
- n¬\n∂v Ah¿Æ-Xb
- nte°psams° k©cn® cmjv{Sob hnNm-c-am-bn-cp∂p tImhn-e≥ IrXn-I-fpsS A¥xkØ. BJym-\-I-e-bn¬
Ah ]men®v hwio-bhpw tZiob-hp-amb kuμ-cy-t_m-[-߃ ae-bm-f-t\m-h-en¬ auen-Iamb Hcp hgn-amdn \S-∏mbn amdp-Ibpw sNbvXp. \m´n-Sß
- f
- nte°pw Xmh-gn-If
- nte°pw XncnsI
h∂ `mh-\b
- psS k©m-cw, temIsØ \mSmbn I≠ ImgvNb
- n¬ \n∂v \mSns\ temI-ambn
ImWp∂ ImgvN-bnte°p ]cn-W-an-®p.

aq∂v
AºXp ]pdw am{Xw ssZ¿Ly-ap≈ tXm‰-߃ Hcp t\mh-se∂ t]cn¬ {]kn-≤o-Icn-°m≥ {]Xn` am{Xw t]mcm, Akmam-\y-amb ss[cyhpw th≠n-bn-cp-∂p. A{X-ta¬ ]mcº-cy-hn-cp-≤-amWv B cN-\. `mj-bnepw LS-\-bnepw BJym-\-Ønepw. ‘kwKo-Xm-fl-I-amb
]Z-inev]w’ F∂ hnti-jWw sIm≠v hnP-bs‚ Jkm-°n-s\bpw Fw.-Sn.-bpsS a™n-s\bpw
tImhn-es‚ tXm‰-ßs
- fbpw H‰-izm-kØ
- n¬ Ae-¶c
- n-°p∂ \ncq-]I
- c
- p-≠v. kmt¶-Xn-Ia
- mbn
Cu {]kvXmhw icn-bp-am-Wv. ]s£ ]c-kv]cw F{X `n∂-amWv Cu t\mh-ep-I-fpsS ]Z-inev]-Øns‚ kwKo-Xm-fl-I-X-Iƒ F∂m-tem-Nn-°p-tºmgmWv tXm‰-߃ ]pe¿Øp∂
sshhn[yw a\- n-em-°p-I. A\p-\m-kn-I-ß-fn-√mØ kwKo-X-amWv tImhn-e-t‚-Xv. tXm‰w
]m´p-I-fp-sSbpw tXmWn-∏m-´p-I-fp-sSbpw ]p≈p-h≥ ]m´n-s‚bpw k¿∏]m´n-s‚bpw ]mW¿
]m´p-I-fp-sSbpw Cuc-Sn-Ifpw Iev]-\-Ifpw am{X-a-√, `mhm-hn-jvI-c-Wssi-enbpw sIm≠v
\n¿Ωn® Cg-I-fpsS LS-\-bmWv tXm‰-߃°p-≈-Xv. `mj-bn¬ am{X-a-√, `mj-W-Ønepw
BJym-\-Ønepw taev]-d™ ]m´p-I-fn¬ \ne-\n-¬°p∂ kmaq-lym-t_m-[-ß-fpsS aqi-bnte-°mWv tImhn-e≥ Xs‚ IYm-]m-{X-ß-fpsS PohnXw Dcp-°n-sbm-gn-°p-∂-Xv. `‡nbpw
Imahpw ambn-IX
- bpw bmYm¿∞yhpw CW tNcp∂ ]pcm-hr-Øß
- fpw ]m´p-If
- p-ambn Aßs\
10

t\mh¬ cq]w amdp-∂p. ssieo-h¬°r-X-amb KZyhpw ]Zyhpw \mS≥ ]m´ns‚ Xmfm-fl-IX-bv°∏
- pdw Hcp P\-Xb
- psS h\y-XI
- fpw {Kmao-WX
- I
- fpw {]mtZ-in-IX
- I
- fpw hwio-bX
- I
- fpw
D≈n¬ t]dn Imew sX‰n-∏n-d-°p∂p. ]pØqcw ]m´p-Ifpw Xt®m-fn-∏m-´p-Ifpw k¶-ev]n-s®SpØ {]W-b-Øn-s‚bpw ac-W-Øn-s‚bpw F°m-esØbpw D÷z-e-amb ae-bm-f-hm-Mvabw
tXm‰-߃ ]p\x-kr-jvSn-°p-∂p. kv{Xoa-\ 
- ns‚ \nKq-VX
- I
- ƒ, ]I-bp-sSbpw shdn-bp-sSbpw
cXn-bp-sSbpw Bfl-k-a¿∏-W-Øn-s‚bpw hncp-≤-`m-h-ß-tfmsS ]p\¿P-\n-°p-∂p. anØp-Ifn¬ \n∂n-d-ßn-h∂ Ncn{Xw h¿Ø-am-\-Im-e-Øns‚ a¿Xym-\p-`-h-ßsf ]pXnb ]mT-cq-]ß-fn-te°p ]cm-h¿Ø\w sNøp-∂p. tXm‰-ß-fpsS Xmh-gn-bn¬ tImhn-e≥ ]n∂oSv cq]wsIm-SpØ X´-IØ
- n-te°p hcp-tºmƒ BJym\w A\p-`h
- Ø
- n-s‚bpw Ncn-{Xm-flI
- X
- b
- p-sSbpw
Ipsd-°qSn aq¿Øhpw hnim-e-hp-amb `qan-I-bn-te°p amdp-∂Xpw ImWmw.
ap≥]v P∑m-¥-c-߃ Dƒs∏sS ]e t\mh-ep-I-fnepw kqNn-X-am-bn-cp∂ ap∏n-en-t»-cnbpsS ]pcm-hr-Ø-ßsf hy‡y-\p-`-h-߃°-∏p-d-tØ°p sIm≠p-t]mbn tZi-N-cn-{X-am°n
- p-sSbpw
]p\-ch
- X
- c
- n-∏n-°p-Ib
- mWv X´-Iw. tXm‰-ßf
- pƒs∏-sS-bp≈ ‘{]mtZ-inI’ t\mh-ep-If
]´m-f°
- Y
- I
- ƒ ]d-bp∂ ‘tZiob’ t\mh-ep-If
- p-sSbpw ]c-ºc
- b
- n¬ G‰-hp-sam-Sp-hn¬ cNn-°s∏´ X´Iw (1996), aq∂p Xe-ß-fn-emWv tImhn-es‚ cN-\m-Po-hn-X-Øn¬ sshhn[yw
]pe¿Øp-∂-Xv. H∂v, {]mtZ-in-I-ß-fmb anØp-I-sfbpw ]pcm-hr-Ø-ß-sfbpw as‰mcp IrXnbn-ep-an-√m-Ø-hn[w _rl-Ømb Ime-]-›m-Ø-e-Øn¬ Ncn-{X-h¬°-cn-°p-∂p. c≠v, ÿe`m-h\
- s
- b, B[p-\n-Im-\¥
- c t\mh¬ Ie-bpsS cm{„o-bß
- f
- n-sem-∂m-°n-am-‰p-∂p. aq∂v, PmXn,
kwkvIm-c-N-cn-{X-Øns‚ ASn-∏-S-hp-I-fn-sem-∂mbn BJym-\-Øn-ep-S-\ofw k∂n-ln-X-am-Ip∂p.
Hm¿Ω-I-fn¬ \n∂v Cg ]ncn-s®-Sp-°p∂ IY-Iƒt]m-se, Fgp-X-s∏-SmØ Ncn-{X-]pkvX-I-Øn¬ \n∂pw ]I¿Øp∂ anØp-I-fpsS ]c-ºc X´-I-Øn-ep-≠v. . DÆocnapØ-∏≥
N¥°p-t]mb IY-bn¬ \n∂p \ofp∂ tNme°pf-ßc `K-h-Xn-bpsS anØv, DÆocnapØ∏≥ tZim-¥cw t]mb IY-bn¬ \n∂p cq]w sIm≈p∂ \mK-b-£n-bpsS anØv, HSp-hn¬,
\n∂ \n¬∏n¬ acn-®p-t]mb DÆo-cn-ap-Ø∏
- s‚ Xs∂ anØv. F∂n-ßs
- \. a{¥-kn-≤n-sIm≠v
sImº-\m-\-bmbn amdnb ]mW≥ i¶p-hns\ ho´p-ap-‰Øp Xf®pw \Sp-ap-‰Øv Abn-e-s]øn®pw ckn® Ip©n´]Wn-°-cpw, a{¥-hn-Zy-sIm≠v tNme-°p-f-ßc `K-h-Xnsb Bhm-ln®p-sI-´nb ]mW≥i¶phpw ssakq¿]-Ssb Iui-e]
- q¿Δw IpSp°n Nn{X-h[w sNbvX Xm®p´n-t®-Ih
- cpw I≈pw I©mhpw tkhn®v ZnKw-_c
- \
- mbn \S∂v {]h-N\
- ß
- ƒ \S-Ønb tKm mbn-km-anbpw ]p√m-\n-°p-∂ns‚ ]Sn-™mdv ap\n-a-S-bv°-∏p-dØv ]p¬]-≠-ß-fpsS c£n-Xmhmbn hmgp∂ sX≠\pw AIm-bn-∏-d-ºn¬H‰°p \S-°p∂ Ip´n-Isf ]nSn-°m≥ ImØp\n¬°p∂ H‰-ape-®nbpw Acn-b-∂q¿ `K-h-Xn°p Ipfn°m≥ sh´p-]m-d-bn¬ Ipfw sImØns°m-SpØ `qX-KW
- ß
- fpw ap∏n-en-t»-cn-bpsS ]pcm-hr-Øß
- f
- n¬ \nd-™p. P\-Xb
- psS `bhpw

11

`‡nbpw `mh-\-bpw-sN-∂m-{i-bn-°p-∂, ]mc-º-cy-Øns‚ I\w \nd™ CØcw anØp-Isf
X´-IØ
- ns‚ s\Spw XqWp-If
- m-°p-tºmƒ, tImhn-e≥, t\m¿t{Xm]v ss{^ ]d-bp-∂X
- p-t]mse,
h¿Ø-am-\I
- me kwkvIm-chpw AXns‚ ss]Xr-Ihpw XΩn-ep≈ _‘w hni-Ie
- \w sNøm≥
kmln-Xy-Øn¬ anØp-Isf k∂n-th-in-∏n-°p-I-bmWv sNøp-∂-Xv. a\p-jy≥ Pohn-°p∂Xv
c≠p-tem-I-ß-fn-emWv F∂v ss{^ ]d-bp-∂p-≠v., ‘Z {In´n-°¬ ]mØv’ F∂ {KŸ-Øn¬.
H∂v, hkvXp-\n-jvTamb ]cn-X-ÿn-Xn-I-fn¬ c≠v `mh-\-I-fn¬ ˛ B{K-l-ß-fp-sSbpw {]Xo£-If
- p-sSbpw k¶-e]
v ß
- f
- p-sSbpw temI-Ø.v Cu c≠p temI-ßfpw XΩn-en-W°
- p∂ G‰hpw
henb IÆn-If
- n-sem-∂mWv kwkvIm-cØ
- ns‚ {]mIvkq-NI
- ß
- f
- mbn Xncn-®d
- n-bs
- ∏-Sp∂ anØpIƒ. X´-IØ
- nse \nc-h[
- n-bm-b- an-Øp-If
- n-eq-sSbpw \mtSm-Sn-°Y
- I
- f
- n-eq-sSbpw ]pcm-Wß
- f
- neq-sSbpw tImhn-e≥ km£m-XvI-cn-°p-∂Xpw as‰m-∂-√
ap∏n-en-t»-cn-bn¬ \n∂v kntem-Wn¬t]mbn _p≤-hn-lm-c-ß-fn¬ Xma-kn-°p-Ibpw
Xangpwknwl-fhpw kwkvIr-X-hpw ]menbpw {]mIr-Xhpw ]Tn-°p-Ibpw sNbvX Xmg-ºn≈n
KwKm-[-c≥ `n£p [¿Ω-]m-e-bmbn Xncn-s®Øn ap∏n-en-t»-cn-bpsS Ncn-{X-Im-c-\m-Ip-∂p. Ncn{X-Im-c≥ F∂m¬ Ncn-{Xm-t\z-j-I≥. ‘N-cn-{X-sa-∂m¬ Ncn-{X-t_m[w Xs∂bmWv’. F∂v
tImhn-e≥ X´-I-Øn¬ Hcn-SØp kqNn-∏n-°p-∂p≠v. (]p-dw-˛232) “a¨a-d™ kwkvIr-XnbpsS aq¿Ø-amb kqN-\-Iƒ e`n-°m-hp∂ ]pd-tºm-°p-Iƒ ImWm\pw Adn-bm\pw ae-\m´n-seßpw `n£p k©-cn-®p. B¿°pw th≠mØ Ip∂n≥ \nc-∏p-I-fn¬ sh´p-]m-d-∏-c-∏mbn
hnfn-∏m-Sp-Iƒ Zqc-tØmfw ]pd-tºm-°p-Iƒ ]c∂p InS-°p-∂p. a¨]m-d-I-fn¬ \∂-ßm-SnIfn¬ \ß-Wmw-Ip-gn-I-fn¬ IpS-°-√p-Ifn¬ BZn-kvar-Xn-Iƒ k©m-cn-bpsS ]mZ-kv]¿iw
Zmln®p InS-∂p. A\yw \n∂ kwkvIr-Xn-bpsS alm-kz-cq]w sXfn™p In´m≥ `n£p
k©mcw XpS-¿-∂p.......-ap-\n-a-Sbpw ]p√m-\n-°p∂pw tX´n-°p-∂ns‚ ]Sn-™msd Xmgvhcbn¬
]≈n-∏p-dsØ ]d-ºpw- I-cn-º\Ifpw `n£p ad-∂n-√.......Cu Ip∂p-I-fpsS Xmgvhc-I-fn¬
a\p-jy-cpsS alm-P-\-]-Z-߃ Pohn-®n-cp-∂p. Hcp ]s£ \tΩ-°mƒ hen-b-h¿’’ (]pdw 143˛144) X´-I-Øn¬ GXm\pw A≤ym-b-ß-fn¬ am{Xw {]mXn\n[yw e`n-°p∂ Cu `n£phmWv Cu t\mh-ense BJym-\-Øns‚ tI{μ_nμp. 19-˛mw \p‰m-≠ns‚ HSp°w apX¬
20˛mw \q‰m-≠ns‚ a[yw hsc-bp≈ {]Xy-£-Im-e-Øn¬ Nph-Sp-d-∏n®p \n∂p-sIm≠v ap∏n-ent»-cn-bpsS \q‰m-≠p-Iƒ \ofp∂ `qX-Im-esØ AXns‚ hnizm-k-ß-fpsSbpw BNm-c-ß-fpsSbpw ]g-sam-gn-If
- p-sSbpw ]mc-ºc
- y-Øn¬ \n∂v hmIvNc
- n-{X-ambn ]p\:krjvSn-°p∂ tImhnes‚ IYm-X{¥w X´-I-Øns‚ BJym-\sØ tIc-fo-b-amb Hcp kwkvIm-cnI ]cn-k-cØp
{]Xn-jvTn-°p-∂p-≠v.
X´-I-Ønse \nc-h-[n-bmb IYm-]m-{X-߃ XΩn¬ XΩn¬ \nc-¥cw _‘-s∏-Sp-

12

Itbm IY Hcn-°se¶nepw GI-[m-c-bn¬ apt∂-dpItbm sNøp-∂n-√. ]c-kv]cw _‘-an√mØ At\Iw IYm-]m-{X-ßfpw IY-Ifpw X´-I-Øn-ep-≠v. ]t£ Ah-sb√mw ap∏n-en-t»cn-sb∂ ÿe-]›
- m-Øe
- Ø
- n¬ GIo-`h
- n-°p-∂p. CXn-hr-Ø]
- c
- a
- mb CØ-cs
- amcp ssiYneyw
t\mh-ens‚ IcpØp Xs∂-bmbn A\p-`-h-s∏-Sp-∂Xv BJym-\-Øns‚ hnhn[ Xe-ß-fn¬
BJym-Xmhv CS-s]´p \S-Øp∂ ÿeNcn-{X-Øns‚ hymJym-\-ß-fmbn Ah amdp-∂-XpsIm-≠m-Wv. ]pcm-hr-Ø-ßfpw kw`-h-ßfpw hnizm-k-ßfpw hkvXp-X-Ifpw, k¶-ev]-ßfpw
Bi-b-ßfpw CS-I-e¿Øn \n¿Ωn-°p∂ ap∏n-en-t»-cn-bpsS \q‰m-≠p-Iƒ \o≠ Ncn-{X-amWv
X´-Iw. PmXn, aXw, sXmgn¬, IpSpw-_ß
- ƒ, kmº-Øn-Ia
- mb am‰-߃, hnZy, ]c-tZ-ib
- m-{X,
Irjn, bp≤w, a{¥w, X{¥w, aZy-hy-h-km-bw, \nb-aw, \nb-a-ew-L-\w, I®-h-Sw, \mbm-Sn-Iƒ,
\m´p-cm-Pm-°≥am¿, \mcm-b-W-Kp-cp, ktlm-Z-c≥ Aø-∏≥, Km‘n-Pn, hyh-lm-c-߃, {Ibhn-{I-bß
- ƒ, P∑n-Øw, t£{Xw, t£{X-{]-thi\ hnfw-_c
- w, Kpcp-hm-bq¿ kXym-{K-lw, \m´pNn-In’, D’-hß
- ƒ, BNm-cß
- ƒ, tZh-XI
- ƒ, anØp-Iƒ, \mtSm-Sn-°Y
- I
- ƒ, Ie-Iƒ, hmkvXphn-Zy, If-cn-∏-b-‰v, kvIqƒ, Icn-©¥ F∂n-ßs\ Hcp tZi-Øns‚ Ncn{Xw HgpIn°S∂
L´-ßf
- psS Hcp h≥ \nc Xs∂ X´Iw ImgvNh
- b
- v°p-∂p. X´-IØ
- ns‚ IYbpw X´-IØ
- nse
IYm-]m-{X-ßfpw Cu Ncn{X cN-\b
- psS D]-Ic
- W
- ß
- ƒ am{X-am-Wv. Hmebpw \mcm-bhpw D]tbm-Kn-°p∂ ]g-b-X-e-ap-dbpw IS-emkpw s]≥knepw D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ ]pXnb Xe-ap-dbpw
XΩn¬ Adn-hns‚ hn\n-tbm-K-Øn-ep≈ hyXym-k-߃ Bhn-jvI-cn-®p-sIm≠v Cu Ncn{X
cN-\-bpsS {]Xo-Im-flI kqN-\-Iƒ tImhn-e≥ X´-I-Øn¬ ]e-X-hW Bh¿Øn-°p-∂p≠v.
ap∏n-en-t»-cn-bpsS \m´-I-߃ Ah-X-cn-∏n-°p-tºmƒ tImhn-es‚ BJym\w `qan-im- psSHcp
kv{X-Øns‚ ]pXnb kuμ-cy-im-kv{X-߃ cNn-°p-∂p. “Ing°pwapdn-bn¬ Ip∂p-If
\nI∂\nc. sXs° A‰Øv tX´n-°p-∂v. hS°v sNdp-Ip-∂v. tX´n-°p-∂ns‚bpw sNdp-Ip-∂ns‚bpw a≤y-Øn¬ ]p√m-\n-°p-∂v. Ip∂p-I-fpsS Xmgvhcbn¬ Ccp-´-S®v Ihp-ßn≥ tXm∏pIƒ. Xmsg sImbvØp Ign™v Dg-Xp-e¿∂ HscmSn \new, B¬tØ-cn-∏m-Sw. ]mS-Øn-\-∏pdØv sXßn≥tXm-∏p-If
- m-bn. ]©m-ca
- W
- ∏
- c
- ∏
- n¬ \mSmsI \nd™ sXßn≥ tXm∏p-Iƒ°nS-bn-eqsS tXmSp-Iƒ, Ip≠-\n-S-h-gn-Iƒ. tX´n-°p-∂n-dßn a∂n°c°p t]mIp∂ apØ-∏s‚
CS-h-gn. \mK-b£n hmgp∂ ]mºn≥Imhpw apØ-∏s‚ Aº-ehpw CS-h-gn-bpsS hSs°
hi-Øm-bn-cp-∂p.-]p-√m-\n-°p-∂nse hcn-®m-ep-Iƒ H∂n-®p-tN-cp∂ ]\-ºms´ CS-\mgn aT∏m´v ]d-ºns‚ hSs° AXn-cn-eqsS IS∂v ]Sn-™m-sd-]m-St- Ø-°n-dß
- p-∂p. Ing-°pw-ap-dnsb
th¿Xn-cn-°p∂ X´ms‚ CS-hgn hS°v Nn‰n-°m-´n-eqsS ]qØ-d∏
- m-SØpw sX°v h´w-]m-SØ
- psa-Øp-∂p. tXh-cpsS XmgsØ s\Sp-h-c-ºn-dßn sNdn-sbmcp h≈v Xm≠n-bm¬ ]nSn-bms´

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CS-h-gn-bmbn. ]nSn-bms´ CS-hgn aT-∏m´p ]d-ºnse ]Sn-∏p-cbpw IÆ-©n-d-I-f-cnbpw Xmßn
Gdm-aqSpw i¶-c≥Ip-fhpw IS∂v I√p-Øn-∏m-d-bv°n-∏p-dØv hSw]mSsØ s\Sp-h-c-ºnepw
s\Sp-h-cºv s]m∂pw-tXm-´n-ep-sa-Øp∂p’’ (]p-dw˛ 25) ssakq¿]S ap∏n-en-t»-cn-bn¬ IS-°mhp∂ hgnIƒ Xm®p-´n-t®-I-h-cpsS a\- n¬ sXfn-bp∂ Nn{X-am-Wn-Xv. Cu a´n¬Xs∂bmWv \mbm-Sn-Iƒ Xmh-f-a-Sn® \mbm-Sn-∏-dºpw, \ß-Wmw-Ip-gn-Ifpw ap\n-a-S-Ifpw \∂-ßmSn-Ifpw \nd™ ]p√m-\n-°p∂pw Hmtcm IpSpw-_-Øns‚bpw Irjn-bn-S-ßfpw X´-I-Øn¬
hnh-cn-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. ÿe-]p-cm-W-ß-fpsS Cu ka-{K-Xbpw km{μ-Xbpw ap∏n-en-t»-cn-bnse
Pohm-Po-hI
- ß
- f
- p-sS-sb√mw km∂n-≤y-ap≈ Ncn-{X-Øns‚ ta®n¬∏p-dß
- ƒ Xs∂-bm-Ip-∂p.
PmXn-bpsS cmjv{Sobw C{Xta¬ ASn-ÿm-\-]-c-ambn tZiN-cn-{X-sØbpw BJym-\sØ-Ø-s∂bpw \n¿Æ-bn-°p∂ as‰mcpt\m-h¬ ae-bm-f-Øn-en-√. Cug-h-Ø-Øns‚ kmaqly-h¬°-cWw C{X-ta¬ {]iv\-h¬°-cn-°p∂ kmln-Xy-]mThpw ae-bm-f-Øn¬ as‰m-∂n√. hnP-bs‚ Xe-ap-d-I-tf-°mƒ ka-{K-ambn X´Iw tIcf-Ønse Cug-h-Pm-Xn-bpsS Ncn{Xhpw `qX-Im-ehpw kmaq-ln-I-_-‘-ßfpw Cg-Xn-cn-s®-Sp-°p-∂p. t\mh-ens‚ H∂mw `mKw
_u≤-]m-c-º-cy-Øn¬ \n∂v Cug-h-Ø-Øns‚ anØn-°¬ `qX-Im-ehpw tZi-_-‘-ßfpw
Is≠-Øp-∂p. PmXn-cq-]o-Ic
- W
- Ø
- ns‚ kmaq-ly-Nc
- n-{X-amWv Cu `mK-sa-¶n¬, c≠mw `mKw,
ktlm-Zc
- ≥ Aø-∏\pw \mcm-bW
- K
- p-cp-hp-apƒs∏-sS-bp-≈h
- c
- psS Ime-Øp-\n-∂m-cw-`n®v PmXnbn¬ \n∂v kap-Zm-b-Øn-te°p hf¿∂ Hcp P\-X-bpsS B[p-\n-Io-I-c-W-Øns‚ cm{„ob
Ncn-{X-ambn amdp-∂p.
Cu hn[w A\¥ sshhn-[y-ap≈ a\p-jym-\p-`-h-ßsf Ah-bpsS kmaqly kμ¿`ß-fn¬ \n∂-S¿Øn-am-‰m-sXbpw hy‡n-h¬°-cn-°m-sXbpw emh-Wy-h¬°-cn-°m-sXbpw IWni-Xt- bmsS Ncn-{X-h¬°cn-°p-Ib
- mWv tImhn-e≥ sNøp-∂X
- v. thW-sa-¶n¬ Cu tImhn-e≥
A\p-`-hsØ kmln-Xy-kw-⁄I-fn-tebv°v hnh¿Ø\w sNbvXv Cßs\ kw{K-ln-°mw:
\s´-√mWv {]ta-bw. Pohn-Xa
- mWv CXn-hr-Øw. kaq-la
- mWv IYm]m-{Xw. cmjv{SØn¬ \n∂v
tZiØnte°pw Ncn-{X-Øn¬\n∂v anØp-If
- nte°pap-≈ cmjv{Sob k©m-cß
- fmWv BJym\-Ie. a\p-jy≥, a\p-jy≥ am{X-amWv {]Xyb imkv{Xw.

klm-b{- K-Ÿß
- ƒ
ANyp-X≥ Fw ˛ sNdp-IY C∂se C∂v, kmlnXy {]h¿ØI kl-I-c-W-kwLw, 1985
tImhn-e≥ ˛ Xd-hm-Sv, t_m¿Uu-´v, {]`mXv _p°vlukv 1999
`c-X≥, aƒ_-dn, 1997
lnam-ebw, Fkv]nknFkv,1998
Xmgvhc-Iƒ, Id‚ v _pIvkv 1999
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X´Iw, Id‚ v _pIvkv, 1999
tXm‰-߃, Id‚ v -_pIvkv 2000
P∑m-¥-c-߃, aƒ_-dn, 2000
F ssa\kv _n, Un.-kn. _pIvkv, 2004
tImhn-e≥ IY-Iƒ, Id‚ v _pIvkv,2006
Xc-I≥ sI.Fw ˛ ae-bmf t\mh¬ kmln-Xy-N-cn{Xw, tIcf-km-lnXy A°m-Z-an.
\¥-\m¿

˛ kºq¿Æ t\mh-ep-Iƒ, ]q¿Æ,2007

jmPn tP°_v ˛ t\mh¬ Ncn-{X-Øns‚ ]mT-t`Zw, Id‚ v, -_pIvkv 2003
Kundera, Milan, The Art of the Novel, Rupa, 1993

A¥¿tZiob tImhn-e≥ ]T-\-kwLw Xr»q¿ kmlnXy A°m-Zan lmfn¬ 2011 Pq¨ H∂n\v
\S-Ønb tImhn-e≥ A\p-kva-cW NS-ßn¬ Ah-X-cn-∏n® {]_-‘w.

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