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Cramer's Rule Cramer's mile involves using determinants of matrices to solve systems. Before we can apply this rule, we ‘must understand how to find the determinant of a matrix. A matrix is just a rectangular arrangement of numbers. Square brackets are used around the arrangement. na 8 ‘These are all examples of matrices We deny matrices by the number : ° ofrows and columns The rows are borzontal snd the columns ae oo 203 ‘vereal. The matrix on the fr lefts 2x2 matin, The mai te a) 1°] |-s 7-2 ‘idle sa 3x1 mate (he umber of,ows comes fret and hen the ‘number of columns). The one on height is 3 max 135-3 ‘the matrix has the same number of rows as it does columns itis called a square matrix. Al square ‘matrices have a determinant b | deat . > Notice that a matrix has square ‘The determinant of a 2x2 matrix is denoted by asic a a ure To evaluate a 2x2 determinant use| (Cramers Rule ayx+by=e, Jsr+ bymcy Tesaainot eaten: { } seventy xe [the determinaot inthe denominator is zero, then one of vo thing implied 1. Hall te determinate above formal are ere (oth umerators andthe denoinati) then the ystems ‘pendent 2, ‘the denominator iz and there atleast one mmeator that tno eo, then the sytem ie inconsistent. ‘Notice that when looking for x, we replaced the xterm coefficients wit the constants in the ‘numerator and when looking, for y, we replaced the y-term coefficients withthe constants in the ‘numerator. Inthe denominator, we constructed ‘our determinant with the x and y-term coefficients. This will help us remember the rule 29) 06-5)_ -69480 11 (@3)-GX-5) 18415 333 ‘The denominator of each fraction is the same 7 aloe G3 in hice) so you realy don't ned (606)-GN-28) _ 95469 _ 165 rocalenlate it again when looking forthe second OO-OS) “BAS 1 (54) 1062 revised 10501 ‘Answer. The check is left upto you. To evaluate a 3x3 determinant use |b eh efi ‘Each 2x2 determinant in this expansion is evaluated as discussed above, Notice the minus sign. To help |* ~ + remember the signs we may use the matrix of signs. This sign matrix tells us the sigs in our expansion, |— + = jst look at the postions ofthe numbers inthe determinant. So the umber “a"hasaphus sign infin” |,” ‘in the expansion, “b” has a minus sign and “c” has «plus sign, ‘To get the 2x2 determinant pars, we “eross out” the row and column containing the given element of ‘our expansion column/row. The 2x2 part leftovers what we multiply by tat element For example, if ‘we want the 2x2 determinant that goes along with 2, we would cross out the second row and the fs olin, whats left over i he 2x2 determinant containing d & gin the I" row and fin the 2" ow. ‘We may evaluate a detenmitant by expanding ove any row or column. Here, we expanded over the first column, Ifyou expand over another row or column, use the marx of signs to gt the operations (signs) in the expansion conect. ‘The solution of thesystem }apx+ day +c lasxt by tose la koa where De=|a by cy 23] p23 ook Sl D=-AL51-9)~ (01-8) }4[2X-9)-4-8)] +71 2K9 0-5] Da M45 +48)44(-186 24) 702-15) =120 gens het, JHE, earn -ce-amsreaoy hols a 7(45448) +13 (18+ 24)+39(12+15) » 480 GD —> oumveismeesene sedans 2of? revised 1001