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CAA & DOS

ETABS & SAP

Lecture No: 01
ETABS stands for Extended 3D Analysis of building systems
In this software we have to follow the scheme as given below:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Modeling
Properties Assigning (like dimensions of beams & columns and type of foundation etc)
Loading
Design

Notes:

Wetting means to cross check the work ones person. The one who cross checks is called
Wetter.
PBC stands for Pakistan Building Codes
ETAB is quite goog for the concrete structures.
Generation of results is very convinent in ETAB
ETAB, SAP & STAAD results for the slab case are not satisfactory. While SAFE gives relative better
results for Slab design.
Wood, Aluminium, concrete etc all materials based buildings can be design on STAAD.
STAAD gives more conservative results, as the factor of safties used in STAAD are greater.
In ETAB at any stage units can be changed.
Results of ETAB for steel Trusses are also satisfactory.

INSERT WINDOW HAVING DIFFERENT VIEWS


Click Options Windows

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ETABS & SAP


These arrows buttons are the Move up/down list. These keys will active when the plan view
is active.
We can shift the boarder line using there arrows, inorder to get the required one image
(either Plan view or Elevation) of any floor or side.

Notes:

In order to deselect the slection, Esc will not work. Use the
button in the side vertical
tool bar.
Use
button to shift the mode on Snap to Grid intersection & points
Use
button to pick the intersection points other than grid intersections.

MODLEING
Select the units at the very first stage.

Step No: 01
a) Click Menu Bar File button
b) Click New Model
Press NO
a) Click Grids Only & press OK
Step No: 02
b) Edit/Edit Grid Data/Edit Grid
c) Select Global under the heading of System.
d) Click Modify/show system

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Step No: 03
a)
b)
c)
d)

Select Ordinate or Spacing


Type spacing values for X & Y Grids
Check (Primary, show, top, color etc)
Click OK and then agin press OK

Step No: 04
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

If needed: Edit/Edit StoryData/Insert Story


Edit/Edit StoryData/Edit Story
Rename Label acc. to ur choice
Modify Heights (as per requirements)
Press OK

Step No: 05
a) In vertical side tool bar, select Draw Line tool
b) Draw beams and columns as per requirements
*Beams are placed in Plan view and Columns are placed in Elevation View.
*Select All Stories as mentioned below:

Step No: 06
a) For Render View - Click
set building view option button.
b) Check the Extrusion under spwcial effects.
Step No: 07 (GL-VIEW)
a) Select the 3D view window
b) View/Create openGL-view

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ETABS & SAP

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ETABS & SAP

Lecture No: 02
Notes:

Modeling of lift case & retaining wall is necessary.

Thumb Rule for the slab thickness: Slab thickness =

Or divide the Slab perimeter by 15 to get answer in Inches.


Mostly it happens when beam fails, column also fails.
-ive moment of the beam is resisted by column.

 
 


We have to increase the colmns no. or


dimension, whenever the span changes (increases)
Steel in column is usually 1 3% of the cross
sectional area of column.
ACI gives provisions for the static loadings.
UBC & IBC for dynamic loadings. (UBC =
Universal building codes)
In ETABs distances are measured from C/C.

If fc is given in kips-in, check it out in which units u r working. If in kips-ft u r working then
convert fc in kips-ft as: let, 4 x 144 = 576 kips-ft
In case of concrete stresses at all points are taken same isotropic
If you know the name of ur slab type, then u can select all the slab pannels at atime. The optin is
in one of the tabs in menu bar.
When & where, there are calculations Engineering is needed.

PROPERTIES ASSIGNING
Step No: 01

Draw Slab

a) Draw Area toolbar


*havig three typres: Irregular, Square/Rectangular & Create area at click
Step No: 02
a)
b)
c)
d)

Assign support conditions to columns and beams

Select Plan View Select Base Plan


Select point with the help of window (one story must i.e., base)
Click Assign/joint-points/Restraints(supports)
Select support type (like fix)

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ETABS & SAP

e) Press OK
Step No: 03

Define Properties

a) Click Define/Materials
b) Select CONC/Modify/Type fc and fy (keep eye on units)
c) Press OK
Step No: 04
a) Click Define/Frame section
b) Select rectangular or circular (as per need) from drop down of add/wide flange
c) Select material

d) Type selection name (like beam) and Type dimension according to units
e) Select Reinforcement
f) Check beam-column/shape/ckeck-reinforcement to be designed
Step No: 05

Define Slab section properties

a) Click Define/Wall-slab-deck section


*Either modify the SLAB1 or insert ur own new one
b) Add new Slab
c) Define the type, thickness and material

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Step No: 06

ETABS & SAP

Assigning Properties

a) Select Beam/Column
b) Click Assign/Frame-line/Frame section/Color beam
Step No: 07
a) Select all Slab (all pannels)
b) Click Assign/Shell Area/wall-slab-deck section

Lecture No: 03
Analysis & Design
Notes:

While transfering the Autocad (Grids) file into ETABS, be sure that all grids must be in single
layer and only grids layer will be active at that time.
Save As file in .dxf format

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ETABS & SAP

Wt. per unit volume = 150 lb/cft


Wt. per unit mass = 4
* w = mg and if g = 32
Since

then

m = 150/32 = 4.6875

Ec = 57000 (where fc in psi)

Note: If you have fc value other than 4000 psi then by manually put that value.

Poissons Ratio ranges from 0.2- 0.5


Shear Modulus =


  

Membrane Whole slab thickness


Bending Effective depth

For slab case put same values in membrane and


Bending.

Shear Reduction Factor in light weight concrete


is 1.

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ETABS & SAP

In heavy concrete structures iron chips is used now a days.


UBC chapter 16 is about Seismic Details
LOAD CASE:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

D.L
L.L
R.L.L
Seismic load in x-direction
Seismic load in y-direction

Weight:
Plaster =
3 Mud =

"


1- Tites =

.


120 = 5

120 = 30
.


110 = 13.7

__________________
= 50 lb/sft
* Select the soil type on the basis of SPT-value, using UBC. Also the Seismic Zone Factor is also provided
by the UBC against different zones.
Step No: 01. Define Load Case
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Define/Static load case


Type load name (let DL, LL, RLL, SEISMIC-in x & y direction etc)
Select Type (Dead, Live, Quake etc) according to your condition.
Set Wt. multiplier (For Dead 1 and for Live 0)
Click Add New Load & press OK (In case of seismic loading also set the UBC 97)

Step No: 02 Modify Lateral Load (Seismic in X & Y direction)


a) Define/static load case/Modify lateral load/select direction - select soil type - select zone &
press OK

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ETABS & SAP

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ETABS & SAP

Step No: 03 Loading Values


Let

D.L = 50 lb/sft

L.L = 60 lb/sft

R.L.L = 20 lb/sft

Wall load = 1 k/ft (over all beams)


Step No: 04
a) Select all slabs Assign/(Shell/area load)/uniform
b) Select Dead or Live Type value check Gravity & Replace Existing Loads

Step No: 05
a) Select Beams Assign/Frame line load/ Point OR UDL (whatever u need)

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Step No: 06

ETABS & SAP

Add Default design combinations

b) Define/Add default combination


c) Check concrete frame design

Step No: 07

Analysis & Design

a) Analyze/Set analyses option/Full-3D and OK


b) Analyze/Run Analysis or Press F5
c) Click Design/concrete frame design/start design
* By default after design you will get Longitudinal reinforcement. You can get % ratio etc.
Follow the steps:
i.
ii.

Design/concrete frame design/display design information


Choose your required information type

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ETABS & SAP

To end the analysis press

Select any member and press right click on it details will come out and click summary.

button

How to change code?

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CAA & DOS


Lecture No: 04

ETABS & SAP


LOAD CALCULATION

Notes:

Show selection only Select only particular beam in elevation view and then go: View/show
selection only and then turn elevation view into 3D view.
In footing design we do not use factored load we use service loads.
In commercial structures slab thickness may vary from place to place.

Step No: 01

Add new combination

a) Define/Load Combinations/Add new combo/Type load combination name


b) Type Case name (Dead, Live etc)/Type scale factor and then press ADD. Now press OK

Service combination: 1DL + 1LL + 1RLL


Factored Combination: 1.2DL + 1.6LL + 1.6RLL

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ETABS & SAP

To Check the Errors in the model:


Analysis/Check model
Show Deformed & Un-deformed shape:
Display/show deform shape (against specific load case i.e Dead or Live etc)
Application of Point Load:
a)
b)
c)
d)

Assign/(Joint/point load)/Force
Select load case and type value of load with +ive or ive sign as per condition.
Addition of self made design combination
Design/Concrete frame design/Select design combination.

Be sure under Design Combos only that combination will be there on which you need the design. So
using the Add-> AND <-Remove buttons set the SERV on the right side and all other on the lift side. Press
OK
Display/Show tables/check Reactions/Show modify case select service (SERV Combo) load
Note:
To show the point labels in the Plan View, click the button Set building view options and check
Point Labels

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Manual Calculation Page

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Lecture No: 05
DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS/SIMPLE BEAM
Dead Load = 20 psf

Live load = 20 psf

Slab thickness = 6

Beam size = 12 x 12

Column size = 12 x 12

Density = 150 lbs/cft

fc'= 4 ksi

fy = 60 ksi

Design of B1.
Manual Calculation:

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Design Combination: 1.0DL + 1.0LL

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ETABS & SAP

MESHING (To transfer the load from beams to columns)


a)
b)
c)
d)

Assign/(Shell/Area)/Area object mesh options.


Check Auto mesh object into structural elements.
Put value of mesh dimension 1
Set Building view option/check Auto Area Mesh.

DIAPHRAGM (Assign for lateral loading)


a) Select all slabs
b) Assign/Shell Area/Diaphragms
* Now software will take the slab/slabs as a single rigid unit that will provide resistance against lateral
loading.
SHEAR WALL
Draw wall using elevation view and mesh it. At each intersection point of mesh an bottom, fix the
shear wall.

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Lecture No: 06
Notes:
#4 and #5 bars are not welcomed to provide in the columns.
In brick masonry construction, #4 bars could be used in columns.
MIRROR
(a). Copy/cut/paste
I.
II.
III.

Select the object (to be mirrored)


Edit/Replicate/click Mirror
Define Co-ordinates (X1,Y1) & (X2,Y2) and press OK

Example:

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ETABS & SAP

(b). Story
I.

Select object in Plan or Elevation/ Click Edit/ Select story and press OK

TO DRAW CIRCULAR SLAB/BEAM


(a). Slab
I.
II.
III.
IV.

Draw beam or line and select it.


Edit/Extrude line to beam/Radial
Define center under rotate about point
Under Increment Data put values and put Total Drop = 0. And press OK

(b). Beam
I.
II.
III.
IV.

Select Point (if no selection, first draw beam/line then select point)
Edit/Extrude point to line/Radial
Define center under rotate about point
Under Increment Data put values and put Total Drop = 0. And press OK

REFRENCE POINT
I.
II.

Draw/Draw reference point


Define x & Y co-ordinates (with reference to 0,0) OR put x =0 and Y = 0 and now place the ref.
point manually.

* Right click on the ref. point and delete it, if you can.

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ETABS & SAP

Column Rotation about Axis


Steps:
a) Select column
b) Assign/Frame Line/Local Axis
c) Type angles value which is required.

SAP - STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS PROGRAM


Lecture 07
Notes:

Linear and non-linear both type of analysis are possible in SAP.


Precast slab doesnt transfer the moments.
Shell no shear failure and moment transfer.
SPD Wetter for the Army Projects

Opening of New Model


a) File/new model OR press Ctrl + N, a dialog box will appear.

*Modeling and properties assigning is same as in ETABS.

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ETABS & SAP

Lateral Load (Earthquake & wind load)

Min 10 m above the G.L wind speed is required for designing building.
Fastest wind speed km/hr having probability to occur is 0.02
UBC 97 wind load:
o Normal force method
o Projected area
Normal force method is mostly applicable for almost all type of structures and but only method
for the gabled structures. Not applicable for 60 m high buildings.

Calculations:
P = qsACDIW
Where Iw is the importance factor

(From table 16-K)

qs = Wind stagnation pressure (0.5V2) (From table 16-F)


Cd = Drag co-efficient = Ce Cq
And Ce = Combined height, exposure and gust factor co-efficient.
Cq = pressure co-efficient

(from table 16-G)

(from table 16-H)

EXAMPLE: Determine the wind force for an office building in down town area with exposure type B?
Wind speed = 160 km/hr
Bay length = 5 m
Bay width = 7.5 m
Height = 6 @ 3.4 m from G.L

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ETABS & SAP

Solution:
P = QsACDIW

------------------- (1)

Using table of UBC we get IW = 1.0


Qs = 160 km/hr OR

%
.%

M/hr = 100 M/hr

(1.6 factor comes from table 16-F)

Therefore; Qs = 25.6 against 100 M/hr

(table 16-F)

Cd = Ce Cq
Ce, since it varies with height, so make a table as shown below:
H

IW

Qs

Ce

Cq

(windward side)

0 15
1
25.6
0.62
0.8
12.6
15 20
1
25.6
0.67
0.8
13.7
20 25
1
25.6
0.72
0.8
14.7
WIND
25 30
1
25.6
0.76
0.8
15.5
30 40
1
25.6
0.84
0.8
40 60
1
25.6
0.95
0.8
60 80
1
25.6
1.04
0.8
Leeward Side
66
1
25.6
1.04*
-0.5
Roof
66
1
25.6
1.04
0.7
* For leeward side the value of Ce will be that of the highest value in Ce for windward side (i.e 1.04 in this
case)
In ETABS and SAP:
a) Define/Load Case
b) Add wind / Type wind / under lateral load select UBC 97
c) Modify lateral load/define wind speed, exposure type, importance factor etc and see if there
would any more modifications are required.
Notes:

ETABS doesnt calculate the result for wind


if diaphragm is not applied.
First do your wind pressure calculations
manually (as mentioned above) then assign
it to the modeled walls
Check Exposure from area

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ETABS & SAP

Lecture No: 09
Design of a Steel truss bridge using SAP 2000.
Data:

Width of bridge = 12
Total length of span = 60 ft
Slab is concrete Deck.
Note:

&
'(
)* +

ratio 0 1.

&
'(
)* +

ratio should be towards 1.

Step 01:
Click File/New model/Grid only press OK
Type x = 10, y = 1 z= 1 OK (See units if its in inches then put values in inches)
Step 02:
Define/(frame/cables)/import double angle/add new property.
Select _ Section8.pro and click open Select all 2L-section (with help of shift key)
Click OK OK
Step 03:
Add auto select /Add new property/again select all 2L-section/click add OK OK
Step 04:
Click Draw/(Frame/cables)/Select Auto under
property.
(a)

Draw long chords & Trans members.

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(b)
(c)
(d)

Select long chords select points


Assign/Frames/Automatic frame mesh..
Select auto subdivide and select options shown below.

Step 05:
a) Select all members
b) Edit/Replicate/Linear Replicate
c) Type x = 72, y = 0, z = 144

d) Select long chords and member.

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ETABS & SAP

e) Edit/Edit lines/(Trim/extend) lines


f) Draw inclined members using elevation select all inclined members
g) Edit/Replicate Linear /Type x = 0, y = 144, z = 0

Step 06:
a) Define/Section properties/area section/Add new section
b) Type slab name let Deck
[Note: DECK SLAB = Length much more than width]
c) Type shell & thickness membrane = 6
Bending = 6
NOTE: Assign/Clear display of assigns (To clear the assign properties like beam & column names and load values etc)
d) Draw Slab using Draw Quad Area Select points:

e) Select slab & all Trans members using button shown:


f) Edit/Mesh Area/select mesh using selected joints on edges.
Support Assigning
Select point B and D
Assign/joints/restraints/Make it roller
Similarly, make point A and C hinge
NOTE: We can draw single big slab & then by divide command it will be automatically converted into
panels.

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