A Semiconductor is a solid which behaves as an insulator at absolute zero whose resistivity lies between 10 ^{}^{4} to 0.5 m. They have negative temperature coefficient of resistance in which the current conduction is carried out by electrons and holes.
There are two types of semiconductors. 1. Intrinsic Semiconductor
Intrinsic Semiconductor
2. Extrinsic Semiconductor
A semiconductor in which charge carriers are created only by increasing temperature is known as an intrinsic semiconductor.
Expression for density of electrons in the conduction band
The number of electrons per unit volume in the conduction band at an equilibrium temperature is called density (concentration) of electrons.
Let dn be the number of electrons in the conduction band in the energy
interval dE between temperature T.
E
and
E+dE
in
the
conduction
band
at
any
dn= Z(E) F(E) dE
WhereZ(E) dE is the density of energy states in the energy interval dE and F(E) is the probability of occupation of an electron in the energy state E.
If E _{c} is the bottom of the conduction band, then the density of electrons in
the conduction band is
n
Z ( E )F ( E )dE
E
c
Now,
Z E dE
(
)
4
h
3
(2 )
m
3/ 2
1/ 2
E dE
can be written as
Z E dE
(
)
4
h
3
(2 *)
m
e
3/ 2
1/ 2
E dE
, where m* is the effective mass of electron.
Since E _{c} is the bottom of the conduction band
Z E dE
(
)
4
h
3
(2
m
e
*)
3/ 2
(
E E
c
)
1/ 2
dE
And
F ( E )
1
1
exp(
E E
F
kT
)
=exp(
E ^{E} F
kT
)
=exp(
E E
F
kT
)
n
E c
4
h
3
(2
m
e
*)
3/ 2
(
E E
c
1/ 2
) exp(
E
F
E
kT
) dE
n
4
h
3
(2 *)
m
e
3/ 2
E
c
(
E E
c
1/ 2
) exp(
E
F
E
kT
) dE
n
4
h
3
3/ 2
(2 *) exp(
m
e
E
F
kT
)
E
c
(
E E
c
1/ 2
) exp(
E
kT
) dE
^{E} v
Let EE _{c} = x 
=>E=E _{c} +x and dE=dx 



n 4 h 3 (2 m e 
3/ 2 *) exp( E F ) 
0 
x 
1/ 2 
exp ( 
E x c 

kT 

kT 



n 4 h 3 (2 m e 
3/ 2 *) exp( E F 
E c 
) 0 
x 1/ 2 exp ( 
x 

kT 

kT 



1/2 
x 
) 
( 



By gamma function 0 xn 4 h 3 3/ 2 (2 *) exp( m e E F 
exp ( E c kT )( kT 
kT) 3/ 2 
1/ 2 2 

n 2( 2 
m kT * e 
) 3/ 2 exp( 
E F 

E c 
) 

h 2 
kT 

dp = Z(E)[1 F(E)] dE 

E v 

p 
Z(E)[1 F(E)]dE 

Z E dE ( ) 4 h 3 
(2 m ) E dE 3/ 2 1/ 2 
can be written as 

Z E dE ( ) 4 h 3 Z E dE ( ) 4 h 3 F E 1 
(2 *) m h (2 m h *) 
3/ 2 1/2 E dE 3/ 2 ( E v E 1 
) 1/ 2 
dE 
E E 

[1 ( )] 
E E F 
_{=} exp( 
kT F ) 

1 exp( 
) 

kT 

4 
(2 m *) 3/ 2 ( E 
E 1/ 2 ) exp( 
E E F ) dE 

h 
3 h 
v 
kT 
) dE
) dE
3/2
1/2
Expression for density of holes in the valence band
The number of holes per unit volume in the valence band at an equilibrium
temperature is called density (concentration) of holes. Let dp be the number of holes in the conduction band in the energy interval dE between E and E+dE in the valence band at any temperature
T.
Where Z(E) dE is the density of energy states in the energy interval dE in the valence band and [1F(E)] is the probability of presence of a hole (absence of an electron) in the energy state E.
If E _{v} is the energy corresponding to the top of the valence band, then the density of holes in the valence band is
Now,
, where m* is the effective mass of
hole.
Since E _{v} is the top of the valence band
And
p
E 

p 
4 h 3 
(2 *) m h 3/ 2 
v 
( E v 

E 1/ 2 ) exp( 
E E F kT 
) dE 

E 

p 
4 h 3 
3/ 2 (2 *) exp( m h 
E kT 
F 
) 
v ( E 
v 

E 1/ 2 ) exp( E kT 
) dE 

Let E _{v} E= x =>E=E _{v} x and dE=dx 



p 
4 h 3 
3/ 2 (2 *) exp( m h E F kT 
) 
0 
x 1/ 2 
exp( 
E x v kT 
) dE 



p 
4 h 3 
3/ 2 (2 *) exp( m h E v 
kT 
E F ) 0 
x 
1/ 2 exp( 
x kT ) dE 



By gamma function 0 
1/ 2 exp ( 
x kT ) dE 
( kT 
) 
3/ 2 

x 

p 

4 h 3 
3/2 (2 *) exp( m h E v E F kT )( 2( p 2 m kT h * h 2 ) 3/2 
kT ) 3/2 1/2 2 exp( E v kT 
E F ) 
1/ 2
2
Intrinsic Carrier Concentration (n _{i} )
The
number
of
charge
carriers
per
unit
volume
in
an
intrinsic
semiconductor is known as intrinsic carrier concentration. It is numerically equal to the square root of the product of densities of the electrons in the conduction band and holes in the valence band of an intrinsic semiconductor. In an intrinsic semiconductor n=p=n _{i} => n _{i} ^{2} =n. p
i.e., 
2
m kT
*
2
n 2(
e
i
2
h
2 kT
2
=>
n
4
i
2
h
2 kT
=> n
2
i
2
h
3/2
2
kT
n
2
i
2
h
3/2 3 ( 3/2 ( 
) exp( E F E kT 
c ).2( 
2 m kT h * h 2 3/2 ) exp( E E v F kT 
) 

E E 

3/2 * *) exp( m m e h v kT 
c ) 

3/4 * *) exp( m m e h E E v 2 kT 
c ) 

3/4 
E 
g 

( * *) exp( m m e h 2 kT ) , where Fermi Level in an intrinsic semiconductor 
E E E band gap g c v 

For an intrinsic semiconductor density 
of 
electrons 
in 
CB 
(n) 
= 
density of holes in VB (p)
i.e.,
=>
_{=}_{>}
=>
2(
2
m kT
e
*
h
2
)
3/2
exp(
E
F
E
c
kT
) 2(
=
2
m kT
h
*
h
2
3/2
) exp(
E
v
E
F
kT
) [1]
n
i
2
2 kT
h
2
3/2
(
*
m m
e
h
3/4
*) exp(
E
g
2
kT
) =
2
E
F
(
E E
v
c
)
3
kT
kT
log
2
m
h
*
m
e
*
E
F
(
E E
v
c
)
3
kT
2
4
log
m
h
*
m
e
*
[3]
m *
h
m *
e
3/2
[2]
When m _{e} *= m _{h} *,
E
F
E E
v
c
2
It is clear from [3] that if the temperature is increased above O K, the Fermi level moves towards the bottom of the conduction band.
Extrinsic Semiconductors
A semiconductor, in which charge carriers are
created
not
only
by
increasing temperature but also by adding impurities to it, is known as an intrinsic semiconductor.
Carrier concentration of ntype semiconductor
Ntype semiconductor is obtained by doping an intrinsic semiconductor with pentavalent impurity atoms like phosphorus, arsenic, antimony etc. In this type of semiconductor electrons are the majority charge carriers.
Expression for carrier concentration:
The energy level diagram of a Ntype semiconductor Density of electrons in the conduction band is given as
is shown in fig.
n 2(
2
*
m kT
e
h
2
3/2
) exp(
E
C
kT
)
[1]
Let N _{d} be the donor concentration and E _{d} be the donor energy level. At very low temperatures all donor levels are filled with electrons. With increase in temperature the ionisation of donor impurity atoms takes place and density of electrons in the conduction band increases.
Number of ionised impurities = N _{d} [1F(E _{d} )]
N exp(
d
E
d
E
F
kT
)
At low temperatures, The no. of ionised donor impurities= no. of electrons in the conduction band [2]
2(
*
2 m kT
e
h
2
3/2
) exp(
E
C
kT
)
=
N exp(
d
E
d
kT
)
[3]
Taking logarithm and rearranging, we get
(
E
F
E
C
kT
)
(
E
d
E
F
kT
)
=
log
N
d
log2(
2
m kT
*
e
h
2
)
3/2
2
E
F
(
E
d
E
C
)
kT
log
N
d
2(
2
m kT
e
*
h
2
)
3/2
E
F
kT
(
E
d
E
C
)
2
2
log
N
d
2(
2
m kT
e
*
h
2
)
3/2
[4]
E
F
(
E E
d
C
)
2
At 0 K, Fermi level lies exactly at the middle of the donor level E _{d} and the bottom of the conduction band E _{c} as shown in fig. Now, substituting E _{F} from equation [4] in equation [1] ,
exp(
E
F
E
C
kT
)
=exp{(
E
d
E
c
2
kT
)
+
1
N
d
2
2
2
m kT
*
e
h
2
3/2
log
}[5]
N 
1/2 

E d E 
log 
d 

=exp{( 
C 
) 
+ 
2 m kT * e 
} 

2 kT 
[2( 
3/2 1/2 

h 2 
) 
] 

N 
1/2 d 

E E 

_{=}_{[} exp( 
d 2 kT 
C 
) 
[2( 
2 
m kT * e 
3/2 1/2 
] 

h 2 
) ] 

2 m kT * e h 2 
3/2 
N d 1/2 

n 
2 
2 m kT e * 
3/2 1/2 

(2 n 
N d ) 1/2 
2 
m h 
e 2 
[2( * kT 
h 2 3/4 exp 
) E d 2 
] E kT C 
Thus it is evident from equation [7], at low temperatures; the density of electrons in the conduction band is proportional to the square root of donor concentration in an Ntype semiconductor.
Carrier concentration of ptype semiconductor
Ptype semiconductor is obtained by doping an intrinsic semiconductor with trivalent impurity atoms like aluminum, gallium, indium etc. In this type of semiconductor holes are the majority charge carriers.
Expression for carrier concentration:
The energy level diagram of a Ptype semiconductor Density of holes in the valence band is given as
is
shown in fig.
p 2(
*
2 m kT
h
h
2
3/2
) exp(
E
v
E
F
kT
)
[1]
Let N _{a} be the acceptor concentration and E _{a} be the acceptor energy level. At very low temperatures all acceptor levels are empty. With increase in temperature the ionisation of acceptor impurity atoms takes place i.e., the electrons move from valence band to and occupy the vacant sites in the acceptor level by leaving holes in the valence band.
Number of ionised impurities = N _{a} F(E _{a} )
N exp(
a
E
F
E
a
kT
)
At low temperatures, the no. of ionized acceptor impurities= no. of holes in the valence band [2]
2( 
* 
E 

2 m kT
h 3/2 
E 
v 
E F ) 
= 
N exp( a 
E F 
a 
) [3] 

h kT Taking logarithm and rearranging, we get 
kT 

( E 

E 2 a kT 
E 
log 
N 
a 

v 
F 
) 
2( 
2 

m kT h * 
3/2 

h 
2 
) 

E 
( 
E v E 
a 
) 

kT 
N a 

F 
2 
2 log 
2( 
2 

m kT h * 
3/2 

h 2 
) 
E
F
(
E E
v
a
)
2
At 0 K, Fermi level lies exactly at the middle of the acceptor
level
E _{a}
and
the
top
of the valence
band
E _{v}
as
shown
in
fig.
Now,
substituting E _{F} from equation [4] in equation [1],
exp(
E E
v
F
kT
) =exp{(
E E
v
a
2
kT
)
+
log
N
a
1/2
[2(
2
m kT
h
*
h
2
)
3/2 1/2
]
}
v
a
N
a
1/2
[2(
2
m kT
h
*
h
2
)
3/2 1/2
]
]
p 2
2
m kT
h
*
h
2
3/2
N
a
1/2
[2(
2
m kT
h
*
h
2
)
3/2 1/2
]
exp
E
v
E
a
2
kT
[6]
a
1/2
h
2
3/4
v
a
[7]
Thus it is evident from equation [7], at low temperatures; the
density of holes in the valence band is proportional to the square root of
acceptor concentration in a Ptype semiconductor.
Direct and Indirect Band gap semiconductors
S.NoDirect Band gap semiconductors 
Indirect Band gap semiconductors 

1. 



2. 
The semiconductors 
in which 
The the semiconductors 
in 
which 
the 

maximum of 
maximum 

the 
valence band 
coincides 
with 
of the valence band does not coincide the 

minimum 
with the minimum of the conduction band 

of the conduction band for the same value 
for 

of 
the same value 
of 
the propagation 

the propagation constant K is known as a 
constant K is known as a indirect band gap 

direct 
semiconductor. 

band gap semiconductor. 

3. 
In these semiconductors the electronhole In these semiconductors the electron 

recombination takes place directly from 
hole recombination does not take place 

conduction band to valence band. 
directly from conduction band to valence 

band but via a trap centre in the forbidden 

band. 

4. 
Life time of the charge carriers is less due 
Life time of the 
charge 
carriers is more 

to 
due to 

direct recombinations. 
indirect recombinations. 

5. 
Current amplification is less 
Current amplification is more 

6. 
Light is produced due to recombinations.Heat is produced due to recombinations. 

7. 
They are used for 
making LEDs, Laser 
They are used in the manufacture of 

diodes, ICs 
diodes, transistors, amplifiers etc. 

etc. 
8. 
All compound semiconductors such as 

GaAs, GaP, InSb are best examples for 

these type of semiconductors. 
for these 

type of semiconductors. 
The elemental semiconductors like
Germanium and Silicon are best examples
Equation of continuity
The fundamental relation governing the rate of change of charge as a
function of both distance and time in a semiconductor is known as
equation of continuity which interprets the physical law of conservation of
charge in a material.
Fig 3
Let us consider the infinitesimal volume element of area ‘A’ and length ‘dx’ as
shown in fig 3. Let p be the average hole concentration within this volume. If _{p}
is the mean life time of the holes, then holes lost/ sec/unit volume due to
recombination is (p/ _{p} ).
Now rate of change of charge within the volume= e A dx (p/ _{p} ) [1]
If ‘g’ is the thermal rate of generation of electronhole pairs, then the rate of
increase of charge within the volume= e A dx g [2]
If J(x) is the current density of the current entering and J(x+dx) is the current
density of the leaving current, then the rate of loss of charge due to the flow of
charge carriers = dJ. A [3]
Due to the above three effects, the hole density changes with time.
Change in net charge/ sec within the volume=
e Adx
[4]
From the law of conservation of charge, charge can neither be
created nor destroyed.
Change= GainLoss
e Adx
eAdxg eAdx
p
p
dJ A
.
, where
J peE
h
eD
p
dp
dx
[5]
Under thermal equilibrium, the hole density attains a constant value p _{o}_{,} when
there is no external field dJ =0 and (dp/dt)=0, then the equation becomes
g
p
o
p
[6]
Equation[6] indicates that the rate of generation of holes is equal to the rate
of loss due to recombination under thermal equilibrium conditions.
From [4], [5] and [6]
dp p
o
p
dt
p
D
p
charge.
2
d p
dx
2
h
d pE
(
)
dx
. This is called equation of continuity
of
Hall Effect
When a conductor (metal or semiconductor) carrying current is placed in a
transverse magnetic field, an electric field is produced inside the
conductor in a direction normal to both the current and the magnetic field.
This phenomenon is known as Hall Effect and the generated voltage is
called Hall voltage.
Hall Effect in a ptype semiconductor
Let us consider a ptype material for which the current is passed along x
direction from left to right and the magnetic field applied along zdirection
as shown in fig. Since the direction of current is from left to right, the holes
will also move in the same direction as shown in fig. Now due to the
magnetic field, the holes move in the downward direction with velocity ‘v’
and get accumulated at face 1 as shown in the fig. a potential difference is
established between the opposite faces in positive
ydirection.
_{}_{F}_{o}_{r}_{c}_{e} due to the potential difference =eE _{H} [1]
Force due to the magnetic field= Bev[2]
At equilibrium eE _{H} = Bev[3]
E _{H} = Bv[4]
We know that, current density J _{x} = n e v [5]
[9]
Equation [9] represents hall coefficient and the positive sign indicates that
the hall field is developed in the positive y direction.
If the breadth of the sample is b and the voltage developed is V _{H} , then
Hall voltage
E b
H
From eqn[8],
R J Bb
H x
If b is the width of the sample then;
Area of the sample= b.t
Current density
J
x
I
x
bt
=>
V
H
R
H
I
x
bt
Bb
=>
V
H
R
H
I
x
B
t
The sign for V _{H} will be opposite for n and p type semiconductors.
Significance of Hall Effect
1. It is used to determine whether the given semiconductor material is ptype or ntype. i.e., if R _{H} is negative then the material is ntype and if R _{H} is positive then the material is ptype.
2. It is used to find carrier concentration of the given material
n
1
eR
H
3. It is used to find the mobility of the charge carriers.
4. It is used to calculate the magnetic flux density B applied.