You are on page 1of 63

INTRODUCTION

Training and development is an attempt to improve the current and future employee
performance. It is an organized by which employees will learn knowledge skills and attitudes
for a job purpose.
Training and development need = standard performance actual performance. The
department head will raise a note of approval to the GM through the finance commercial and
administration manager regarding certain essential contribution to the organization but also
with the following aspects.
Increase morale of employee
Employees efficiency and
Better human relations
Reduced supervision
Increase organizational viability and flexibility
IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY:
The importance of human resource management to a large extent depends on human
resource development. For human resource development, training is the most important
technique. As stated earlier, no organization can get a candidate who exactly matches with the
job and the organizational requirements. Hence, training is important to develop the
employee and make him suitable to the job.
The increasing competition among other things increases the significance of training.
Training matches the employee with the job from time to time. Further the trained employees
invite organizational change and ready to take up any type of assignment. The success of any
organization to a greater extent depends on the amount, qualitative and timely training
provided by that organization.
NEED FOR THE STUDY:
Cost factor in training should be taken into consideration in evaluating the training
effectiveness. Cost of various techniques of training and their value in the form of reduced
learning time, improved learning and higher performance can be taken into account. Cost of
training includes cost of employing trainers, providing the means to learn, maintenance and
running of training centers, wash low level of production, opportunity cost of trainees etc.

The value of the training includes increased value of human resource of both the
trainee and trainers and their contribution to raise their contribution to raise production,
reduce wastages breakage minimization of time requirement etc., cost-value relationship of
training programmer or a training technique is helpful determining the priorities for training
matching the employee and job through training.
Training is the corner stone of sound management. It makes employees more effective
of productive. It is connected with all personal and managerial activities there is present need
for training measures so that new changes techniques may be taken advantage and
improvement affected in new methods.
Therefore there is a need to study the effective implementation of training and
Development for improving the efficiency of employees.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:
1) To know whether employees are satisfied with training and development facilities provide
at their respective trades.
2) To know the awareness of training and development facilities to its employees.
3) To know individual and collective moral sense of responsibility cooperative attitudes and
good relationship.
4) To know whether the employees are well educated about their implementation of new
technology.
5) To know whether the employees have enthusiasm in knowing about training plan, its
implementation and participation.
DATA SOURCE & METHODOLOGY:
The required data of the present study to evaluate the training and development
program in KTPS has been collected from both its primary data and secondary data.
Primary data:
Primary data has been collected through a structured questionnaire. A questionnaire is
prepared and distributed to the participants by which collects the required material from the
respondents.
Secondary data:
It requires data and is collected from the existing magazines, books, files, broachers,
manuals, company new letters and published annuals reports of the company.

SAMPLE DESIGN:
Samples of 100 executives are selected from different departments like operations
department, maintenance department, finance, commercial department and administration
department.
The collected data has been processed tabulated and summarized in a systematic approach
and for the data analysis various structural tools have been employed such as presently
diagrams, percentages, etc.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY:
The present in a case of method and research to evaluate the training & development
programme and its effective implementation in various sectors.
In particularly by focusing on the areas of:
1) Annual plan is focused on Training need identified by the company.
2) The management initiatives are not included in the process of training needs
identification.
3) The skill matrix formatting is relevant is to job.
4) The performance appraisal system for training needs identification is biased.
5) Training makes your job more effectively.
6) The training helps you to acquire knowledge.
7) The training is necessary to improve your skills.
8) The job performance has changed after training.
9) I think that training helps to improve team building and to be energetic.
10) Training helps for the individual as well as organizations development.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:
1) The study is mainly based on corporate data, it may not fulfill all the training data at
KTPS
2) As it was project on training need analysis in KTPS visiting different work place would
have added future values to this report.
3) Limited knowledge due to the short duration of the study, the data presentation may not
give the true picture.
4) The budget provision is discussed in secondary data analysis but the detail of budget
allocation to individual training program is not discussed to organizational constrains.

INDUSTRY PROFILE
The electric power industry provides the production and delivery of electric energy,
often known as power, or electricity, in sufficient quantities to areas that need electricity
through a grid connection. The grid distributes electrical energy to customers. Electric power
is generated by central power stations or by distributed generation.
Many households and businesses need access to electricity, especially in developed
nations, the demand being scarcer in developing nations. Demand for electricity is derived
from the requirement for electricity in order to operate domestic appliances, office
equipment, industrial machinery and provide sufficient energy for both domestic and
commercial lighting, heating, cooking and industrial processes. Because of this aspect of the
industry, it is viewed as a public utility as infrastructure.
Energy is required for everything that we do, and it is the next important thing apart
from the food upon which the lives of nations depend. Lack of power could cause economies
to cripple. The flourishing power generation industry is considered to be a sign of prosperity
for any nation.
Energy comes in various forms but electrical energy is the most convenient form of
energy since it can be transported with ease, generated in a number of different ways, and can
be converted into mechanical work or heat energy as and when required. In this article we
will learn about a few of the most commonly used methods of generating electrical energy.
THE POWER PLANT:
Power or energy is generated in a power plant which is the place where power is
generated from a given source. Actually the term generated in the previous sentence is a
misnomer since energy cannot be created or destroyed but merely changed from one form to
the other. More correctly, a power plant can be said to be a place where electrical energy is
obtained by converting some other form of energy. The type of energy converted depends on
what type of power plant is being considered.
In the industrial use of the word, the term power plant also refers to any arrangement
where power is generated. For example the main engine of a ship or an airplane for that
matter.

TYPES OF ENERGY SOURCES:


Oil is the worlds favorite energy source which comprises 38% to the total energy
production closely followed by coal (26%) and gas (23%). Both nuclear and hydroelectric
energy sources contribute equally at 6% each with the remaining 1% coming from solar,
wind, wood, wave, tidal, and geothermal sources. The supply of oil has both geopolitical and
strategic implications for the entire world. It is geopolitical because the large known oil
reserves are in the Middle East which is a region considered to be anti-American.
It was the hidden agenda in the U.S. invasion of Iraq and the toppling of a legitimate
or some say illegitimate, presidency of Saddam Hussein. Iraq has the 2 nd largest known oil
reserves in the world after Saudi Arabia.
Oil was used once before as a political weapon by Arab countries when the cartel of
OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) was still strong then. The discovery
of new and large oil fields in countries which are not members reduced OPECs political and
economic clout on the world stage. It is also strategic militarily because it is one of the war
materials a country needs to wage and win wars. Oil, like copper and aluminum, is a strategic
raw material and the U.S. imports a lot of oil not for its consumption but for stockpiling in
underground salt mines in Utah and Nevada. These reserves form its strategic planning to
ensure supplies of critical materials in wartime. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve is filled
up to 700 million barrels which is equal to about a months energy consumption by the U.S.
There has been a frantic search for oil by drilling in such pristine areas as Alaska, around the
Great Lakes area and continental shelf but it carries the risk of degrading the ecosystem and
the environment.
Coal consumption has been increasing for the past years because of the fantastic price
increases of oil in world markets. Coal is relatively cheaper compared to all other energy
sources and new carbon-emission technologies allowed cleaner burning. Another reason for
its comeback is its availability in the U.S. mainland and therefore it is less vulnerable to
supply disruptions than oil which is mainly imported from other countries.
Gas is a cleaner fuel compared to either oil or coal but has its own drawbacks. One is
the safe transport of gas since it is very flammable or combustible. This energy source is
cooled and pressurized to make it into liquid form for easier and safer transport. The correct
term for it is liquefied natural gas (LNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).

Nuclear power is a significant energy source in some countries like Germany and
France. Its critics always cite safety concerns because of what happened at the Chernobyl
reactor. The meltdown and resulting explosion spewed clouds of radioactive material into
much of Europe and is the leading cause of birth defects due to genetic mutations. There is a
new nuclear reactor technology that uses ceramics for its core. Ceramics can prevent
meltdowns because it has a very high tolerance for extreme heat.
Hydroelectric power is the alternative energy chosen by some countries who do not
want nuclear plants due to safety concerns. This is a viable alternative when a country has
sufficient water supplies. The largest dam for years is the Hoover Dam in the U.S. between
the borders of Arizona and Nevada. Today, that distinction now belongs to the Three Gorges
Dam in mainland China. When it becomes operational in 2011, it will be the largest
hydroelectric power station in the world producing some 22,500 megawatts.
The argument against building dams to produce electricity is dislocation of the people
living nearby and the resulting changes to the environment.
The dam made many historical monuments, archaeological sites and cultural villages
now underwater and gone forever. This Chinese dam spans the Yangtze River in the Hubei
province and is the largest civil works project since the construction of the Great Wall. A
reason for building this giant dam is flood control along the entire Yangtze River. Estimated
total cost of this project is US$25 billion when completed and it needs to generate about
1,000 terawatts in 10 years for its construction costs to be fully recovered. China has a 14facility hydropower long-term development plan in place until 2020.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF POWER PLANTS:
Steam power plants use fuels such as petroleum, coal, or biomass are burned to heat
water to create steam, the pressure of the steam spins a turbine turning the copper wire inside
the generator.
Geothermal power plants are steam power plants that tap into steam released from the
earth. Once used the water is returned to the ground.
Gas power plants use fuels that are burned to create hot gases to spin the turbine.

Nuclear power plants nuclear generators use nuclear fission to turn water into steam.
This drives the steam turbine, which spins a generator to produce power. A pound of highly
enriched uranium can power a nuclear submarine or nuclear aircraft carrier is equal to
something on the order of a million gallons of gasoline.
Wind power plants use the wind to push against the turbine blades, spinning the
copper wires inside the generator to create an electric current.
Hydroelectric dams use falling (or flowing) water to spin the turbine blades. Coal
plants burn coal to drive a steam engine. Coal is plentiful, but the collateral damage is
extreme.
Fossil fuel power plants burn oil to drive a steam engine. Burning fossil fuels is increasingly
expensive, and highly polluting. Oil supplies will run very thin in the coming decades.
PERFORMANCE:
The capital-intensive power industry suffered tremendous losses due to the economic
recession. Industry analysts have revealed that there was a staggering 50% decline in the
number, value and capacity of new projects between the beginning of the credit crunch in Q3
2008 and Q3 2009. There is a silver lining though, as analysts believe figures for Q3 2009
have shown signs of positive growth.
Going forward, it is believed the hotspots of activity will primarily be in India, China
and the UK. As well as new builds, there are also significant opportunities for synergies
across the global energy supply chain with industry and governments keen to invest in and
adopt new technologies. In order to best capitalize on these new opportunities, major
contractors and companies across the energy supply chain have begun to work together more
closely, to streamline their operating and procurement procedures.
India has the fifth largest electricity generation capacity in the world. The total
installed capacity of India is ~150,000 MW, of which majority of generation, transmission
and distribution capabilities with either public sector companies or with State Electricity
Boards (SEBs). Only ~15% capacity is from the private sector, though this is now beginning
to increase. Market research suggests ~65% of Indias total installed capacity is contributed
by thermal power with the Western and Southern regions each accounting for ~30%.

Due to unbalanced growth and rural-urban disparity, only ~40% of rural household
have access to electricity versus ~80% of urban households. Key players include National
Thermal Power Corporation Limited, Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, North
Eastern Electric Power Corporation Limited, Power Grid Corporation of India and Tata
Power.
GROWTH POTENTIAL:
The Indian power sector is experiencing a large demand-supply gap. At present, the
energy shortage in the India is ~10% but there are States where the energy shortage is as high
as 25%. To combat this, over 80,000 MW of new generation capacity is planned in the next
five years. A corresponding investment is required in Transmission and Distribution
networks.
The Indian Ministry of Power has set a goal, Mission 2012: Power for all and
released a comprehensive sector development blueprint. The main objectives, in addition to
providing 100% access to power, are to provide sufficient power to achieve targeted GDP
growth rate of 8%, provide reliable and good quality power and to enhance commercial
viability.
A huge capital investment of about US$ 200 billion is required to meet Mission 2012
targets. This has welcomed numerous global companies to establish their operations in India
under the famous PPP (public-private partnership) programs. Additional massive capital
investment is further required over the subsequent years with the countrys power requisite
expected to touch 800,000 MW by 2031-32.
FUTURE PROSPECTS:
Due to the influx of foreign companies, and the ramping up of operations by domestic
companies, the industry is experiencing a hiring spike. New graduates would be advised to
seek an initial position in one of the larger companies as there will be specific training
courses and more opportunities for someone starting out. Given the breadth of the power
industry, it is possible to work with a range of different technologies and disciplines
depending upon your preferences.
All of the large power-generation companies are looking for graduates and

apprentices in a range of disciplines. Degrees in engineering (mechanical, electrical or civil),


science (physics, chemistry or mathematics) and even IT or business studies are required. In
addition, work experience is a big advantage.
POWER INDUSTRY IN INDIA:
The critical role played by the power industry in the economic progress of a country
has to be emphasized. A self sufficient power industry is vital for a nation to achieve
economic stability.
INDIAN POWER INDUSTRY:
BEFORE INDEPENDENCE
The British controlled the Indian power industry firmly before Independence. The
then legal and policy framework was conducive to private ownership, with not much
regulation with regard to operational safety.
POST INDEPENDENCE
Immediately after Independence, the country was faced with capacity restraint. India
adopted a socialist structure for economic growth and all the major industries were controlled
by public sector enterprises. By 1970's India had nationalized most of its energy assets, due to
its commitment to social goals. By the late 1980's the Indian economy felt the strain of the
socialist agenda followed since independence. Faced with a serious deterioration in public
finance and balance of payment crisis, the Union government as part of its policy of
economic liberalization allowed greater investment by private sector in the power industry.
POWER
Constitutional Position
Power as a matter of legislative and executive competence, falls in the Concurrent
List (List III of the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution of India).Both the Parliament and
state legislatures have the rights to pass laws on the matter and any law passed by the
Parliament overrides the existing state laws unless.

The existing law is conserved or saved from such a repeal or

A law passed by the state legislature receives acknowledgment from the President of
India.

POST LIBERALIZATION:
Understanding the critical part played by the power industry, the Union government
passed several laws and restructured the Power Industry to gear it up to meet the challenges
posed to the Indian economy post Liberalization.
ELECTRICITY BILL 2001
Learning from the experience gained through various reform initiatives, the Indian
government passed the Electricity Bill 2001.The Bill seeks to

Consolidate and rationalize existing laws.

To address the issues of developing industry including regulation, power trading, non
discriminatory open access, choice of dispensing with vertically integrated state
enterprises and encouraging private enterprise.

Energy Conservation Act 2001


The Act was enacted by the Indian government to facilitate stringent steps to ensure
the efficient use of energy and its conservation. A Bureau of Energy Efficiency was set up to
monitor and regulate the Power Industry according to the provisions of the act.
NON RENEWABLE ENERGY:
FOSSIL FUELS:
The Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 19th century forced human's to seek
alternative sources of fuel to cater to the increasing demand. Focus was shifted to fossil fuels
as an alternate source of energy.
Fossil fuels were formed millions of years ago. They are nothing but fossilized
organic remains that after millions of years has been converted into oil, gas and coal. Because
this process takes a long time, they are known as non renewable.

COAL:
It is the most easily available fossil fuel in the world. It is mostly carbon and is used
as a combustion fuel, especially after the Industrial Revolution. Coal can further be divided
into lignite, bituminous and anthracite. Lignite and Bituminous have lesser percentage of
carbon and therefore burn faster. They are not environmentally friendly, Whereas Anthracite
has about 98% carbon and therefore burns slowly and is more environmentally friendly. Coal
can be found in both underground mines and open mines.
Though Petroleum gained prominence through the 20th century, coal still continues to
be the most used raw material for power generation.
OIL AND GAS:
Oil and Gas is mostly found in underground rocks. Millions of years ago when plants
and animals died, they got buried in layers of mud and sand. The earth's crust changed its
shape and put immense pressure and heat on the dead plants and animals. Over a period of
time, the energy in those plants and animals changed into hydrocarbon liquids and gases.
They then turned into chemicals called hydrocarbons .Most of the hydrocarbons is found
under the sea bed. Oil has a disastrous effect on the environment and many scientists believe
the

main

reason

for

global

warming.

Natural gas is usually found near a source of oil. It is a mixture of light hydrocarbons.
It is lighter than air and is odorless. It is therefore mixed with a chemical that gives it a strong
our and thereby easy to detect in case of a leak. It is the cleanest burning fossil fuel.
RENEWABLE ENERGY:
Because of the environmentally disastrous effect of non renewable energy, an
alternate source of energy which would not pollute the environment and which can also be
renewed was tapped. They are known as renewable energy. The various types of renewable
energy.
SOLAR ENERGY:
It is the most easily available renewable resource. After the oil shock in 1970's many
countries conducted research work to tap solar energy. It is believed in the next few years
millions of consumers across the world would switch to solar energy. In India the Indian

Renewable Energy Development Agency and the Ministry of Non Conventional Energy
Sources are devising strategies to encourage the usage of solar energy.
Solar energy can be used for cooking, heating, drying, distillation, electricity, cooling,
refrigeration, cold storage etc.
HYDEL ENERGY:
Energy available in fast flowing water can be used to generate electricity. Waves
occur due to the interface of the wind with surface of sea and represent a transfer of energy.
This energy can be tapped for commercial purpose.
HYDRO POWER:
It is the one of the best, cheapest and cleanest source of power, though large dams
could have environmental and social repercussions. In view of these problems associated
with larger dams, experts have advocated the construction of smaller dams. New
environmental laws to safeguard the planet from the effects of global warming have made
smaller hydropower projects more viable.
WIND ENERGY:
It is the kinetic energy used for many centuries in water sports like sailing and for
irrigation. It converts kinetic energy into more usable forms of power. Wind turbines help to
convert the energy in the wind into mechanical energy which can be used for generating
power. Since the late 1980's the viability of wind energy has gained in prominence across the
globe. In India the states of Tamil Nadu and Gujarat lead in the field of wind energy.
BIOMASS:
It is sourced from the carbonaceous waste of animals and is also the by products from
timber industry, agricultural crops, raw material from forest, household waste and wood. It
can be used to generate power with the same power plant that are burning fossil fuels and is
very much environmentally friendly.
It is being used in the western countries for applications such as combined heat and
power generation. In India 90% of the rural households and 15% of the urban households use
bio mass fuel.

NUCLEAR ENERGY:
Nuclear energy can be created in nuclear reactors under strict human control. The
nuclear power can be generated by the fission of uranium, plutonium or thorium or the fusion
of hydrogen into helium. Nowadays mostly Uranium is used for generating nuclear power.
With a view to increase India's dependence on nuclear energy to offset the energy crisis in the
country, the Indian government entered into an agreement with the government of USA called
the 123 agreement. This agreement aims to assuage greater cooperation between the two
countries in the field of nuclear technology.
FUTURE TRENDS:

According to experts the private sector would play a greater role in power generation
and foreign investments would increase considerable in his sector.

The government of Indias Hydrocarbon vision 2025 gives in details the guidelines for
the policies in India for the next 25 years to attract investment in exploration,
production, refining and distribution of petroleum products.

INDIA POWER SECTOR:


India power sector or the power industry in India comprises of the various
governmental bodies looking after the power systems in India, power generation industry and
technologies in India, power supplies, power industry report showing the analysis of the
power scenario in India, the India power requirements and shortage, the various India power
supply unit and the power infrastructure in India.
MINISTRY OF POWER:
Indian power sector comes under the Ministry of Power India. Earlier known as
Ministry of Energy, it comprised of separate departments for power, coal and nonconventional sources of energy. In 1992, the Ministry of Power started working
independently with work areas covering planning and strategizing the Indian power projects
and policies. The power management and implementation of the various power projects
undertaken, formulation and amendments of the power laws in India, management of the
power supply in India, monitoring of the power plants in india, power companies in India,
power generation in India and other power shortage problems etc.

The Ministry of Power (MoP) is coordinated by Central Electricity Authority (CEA)


in all technical and economic aspects. Along with the CEA, other subsidiary organizations of
the Mop are:

National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC)

National Hydro Electric Corporation (NHEC)

Power Finance Corporation of India (PFCI)

Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited

North Eastern Electric Power Corporation (NEEPC)

Rural Electrification Corporation (REC)

Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC)

Bhakra Beas Management Board (BBMB)

POWER INFRASTRUCTURE IN INDIA:


The power industry in India derives its funds and financing from the government,
some private players that have entered the market recently, World Bank, public issues and
other global funds. The Power Ministry India has set up Power Finance Corporation of India
that looks after the financing of the power sector in India. The Power Finance Corporation
Limited provides finance to major power projects in India for power generation and
conversion, distribution and supply of power in India.
Power Finance Corporation (PFC) Ltd India also looks after the installation of any
new power projects as well as renovation of an existing power project India. The PFC in
association with central electricity authority and the ministry of power facilitates the
development in infrastructure of the power sector India. They have taken up construction of
mega power projects that will answer to the power shortage in various states through power
transmission through regional and national power grids.

POWER SUPPLY UNITS INDIA:


Power is derived from various sources in India. These include thermal power,
hydropower or hydroelectricity, solar power, biogas energy, wind power etc. the distribution
of the power generated is undertaken by Rural Electrification Corporation for electricity
power supply to the rural areas, North Eastern Electric Power Corporation for electricity
supply to the North East India regions and the Power Grid Corporation of India Limited for
an all India supply of electrical power in India.

Thermal Power in India is mainly generated through coal, gas and oil. India coal
power forms a majority share of the source of power supply in India. The electric
power in India is generated at various thermal power stations in India. The power
generated at these thermal power plants is then distributed all over India through a
network of powergrid at regional and national levels. The power ministry organization
responsible for the thermal power management in India is the NTPC.

Hydropower is India is one of the mega power generators in India. Various


hydropower projects and hydro power plants have been set up by the ministry of
power for generation of hydro power in India. Various dams and reservoirs are
constructed on major rivers and the kinetic energy of the flowing water is utilized to
generate hydroelectricity. The power generator here is the running water. The
hydroelectric power plants and the hydro power generation companies are managed
by the National Hydro Electric Power Corporation (NHPC).

Wind Power in India is available in plenty as India witnesses high intensity winds in
various regions due to the topographical diversity in India. Efforts have been made to
utilize this natural source of energy available free of cost for wind power generation.
Huge wind energy farms have been set up by the government for tapping the wind
energy by using gigantic windmills and them converting the kinetic energy of the
wind into electricity by the use of power converters. The wind power advantages start
with the very fact that a wind energy power plant does not require much infrastructure
input and the raw material i.e. wind itself is available free of cost.

Solar Power in India is being utilized to generate electricity on smaller scale by


setting up massive solar panels and capturing the solar power. Solar power India is
also being utilized by the power companies in India to generate solar energy for
domestic and small industrial uses.

Nuclear Power in India is generated at huge nuclear power plants and nuclear power
stations in India. A nuclear power plant generates the electricity using nuclear energy.
All the nuclear power plants in India are managed by the Nuclear Power Corp of India
Ltd (NPCL). The electricity from all India nuclear plants is distributed by the NPCL
as per the nuclear power project scheme.

Biogas Production in India is still in its infancy stage. Also the number of biogas
plants in India is still very low. India being the largest domestic cattle producer has
plenty of biogas fuel and thus utilization of the fuel for mass biogas production by
setting up more biogas plants in India would solve the power shortage problem to
some extent.

POWER COMPANIES IN INDIA:


Many government as well as private organizations have taken up the task of power
generation in India. The major Indian power companies playing prime are:

Bhakra Beas Management Board

Enercon Systems India

Essar Group

GMR Group

Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation Ltd

Jindal Steel & Power Limited

Karnataka Power Transmission Corporation Limited (KPTCL)

Karnataka Renewable Energy Development Limited

Konarka

Magnum Power Generation Limited

Nippo Batteries

Reliance Energy Ltd.

Shri Shakti

Durgapur Projects Limited

Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam Ltd.

United Power

COMPANY PROFILE
INTRODUCTION:
Kothagudem Thermal Power Station (KTPS) consists of 8 units in four stages in A,
B, C, stations. It is located in PALVONCHA village 15km away from Badrachalam Road
Railway Station, Kothagudem. It consists of about 8 miles long BG Railway siding for BCM
read station to the powerhouse site. 6 miles of track laid in side the powerhouse area with
marshalling yard.
Two main reservoirs of 6 million-gallery have constructed and water was let into the
reservoir form the Kinnerasani project through the supply channel
The scheme was sanctioned in 1961 for erection of two sets of 60MW each under 1 st
state and two sets 60MW under 2nd stage of development.
Due to abundant supply of cheap coal from nearby singareni collieries and abundant
water supply from Krishnaveni River a tributary of Godavari KTPS in a natural selection for
the construction of thermal power station.
At instant 1&2 stages, o two sets of 60MW each has commenced (A station) 3 rd stage
of two sets of each 110MW each has commenced (C station) later.
UNIT NO

STAGE

STATION

CAPACITY

DATE OF COMMISSINING

60MW

04.07.1966

60MW

27.11.1967

II

60MW

27.11.1967

II

60MW

08.07.1967

III

120MW

13.08.1974

III

120MW

19.12.1974

IV

120MW

10.03.1977

IV

120MW

10.01.1978

In A station the R&L (refurbishment and life extension) works have been carried out
during 1998 2000 for all its four units to extends its life period and at both B& C stations
R&M (Renovation and Modernization) works were carried out during 2001 2004 to raise

the each unit capacity of each unit from 110 MW to 120MW and also to increase its life
period. Details are given in table. 1 below.
TABLE 1.0
A generating station, which converts heat energy of coal combustion into electrical
energy, is known as thermal power station.
A thermal power station is basically works on Rankin cycle. Steam is produced in the
boiler by utilizing the heat of coal combustion. The produced steam is the expanded in the
steam turbine (Prime Mover) and is condensed in condenser to be fed to the boiler again. The
steam turbine drives the alternator, which converts mechanical energy of the turbine in to
electrical energy. These are located where coal and water are available in abundance.
Although thermal power station simply involves the conversion of heat of coal
combustion in the electrical energy, yet it embraces many arrangements of proper working
and efficiency.
The whole arrangement of production process can be divided into the following stages.
Coal and ash handling arrangement
Steam generating plant.
Steam turbine
Alternator
Feed water
Cooling arrangement
COAL AND ASH HANDLING ARANGEMENT::
The coal is transported to the KTPS byroad or rail from near by Singareni Collieries
and is stored in coal storage plant. Then coal is diverted to coal handling plant where it is
crushed, thus the crushed coal is fed to the mills through belt conveyers. Coal is pulverized in
the mills then fed to the boiler through belt conveyers.
Coal is pulverized in the mills then fed to the mills through belt conveyers. Coal is
pulverized in the mills then fed to the boiler through vapor fans. The coal is burnt in the
boiler and the ash handling plant for further disposal. The removal of ash from boiler furnace
is necessary for proper operation of boiler.

STEAM GENERATING PLANT:


The steam generating plant consists of a boiler for the production of steam and other
auxiliary equipment for utilization of flue gases.
BOILER:
The heat of coal combustion in the water tube boiler is utilized to convert water into
steam at high temperature and pressure. The flue gases make their journey through super
heaters, economize and air pre heaters and are finally exhausted to atmosphere through the
chimney.
SUPER HEATER:
The steam produced in the boiler is wet and is passed through super heater coils
where it is dried and super heated by the flue gases on their way to chimney. Super heating
provides two principle benefits, firstly the overall efficiency is increased, and secondly too
much condensation in last stages of turbine is avoided. The super heated steam from super is
fed to the steam turbine through M.S. pipeline.
ECONOMIZER:
An economizer is essentially a feed water heater and derives heat from the flue gases
for this purpose. The feed water is fed to the economizer before supplying to be boiler. The
economizer extracts a part of heat of flue gasses to increase the feed water temperature.
AIR PRE HEATER:
An air pre heater increases the temperature of the air supplied for coal burning by
deriving heat from flue gases air is drawn from the atmosphere by forced draught fan and is
passed through air pre heater before supplying to the boiler furnace. The air pre heater
extracts heat from flue gases and increases the temperature of air used for coal combustion.
The main benefits of air pre heaters are increased thermal efficiency and increased steam
capacity per Sq meter of boiler surface.
STEAM TURBINE:
The super heated steam is fed to the turbine, is passed through three stages i.e HP, IP

and LP. In turbine the super heated steam is converted into mechanical energy, which in the
condenser from LP turbine is condensed by means of cold-water recirculation.
ALTERNATOR:
The steam turbine is coupled to an alternator. The alternator converts mechanical
energy of the turbine into electrical energy. Then the electrical power is delivered to the grid.
FEED WATER:
The condensate from the condenser is used as feed water to the boiler, some water
may be loosed in the cycle, which is suitable made up from DM plant. The feed water on its
way to the boiler is heated by water heaters (LPHs and HPHs) and economizer. This helps
in raising overall efficiency of the plant.
COOLING ARRANGEMENT:
In order to improve the efficiency of the plant the steam exhausted from the turbine is
condensed by means Condenser. Water is drawn from a natural source of supply such as river,
canal or CW pump house, and is re circulated through the condenser. Circulating water take
up the heat of the exhaust steam and itself becomes hot. This hot water coming out from
condenser is discharged on cooling tower at CW pump house. The cold water in the cooling
tower is reused in the condenser.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
TRAINING PROGRAMS IN KTPS:
INTRODUCTION:
Training and development is an attempt to improve the current and future employee
performance. It is an organized by which employees will learn knowledge skills and attitudes
for a job purpose.
Training and development need=standard performance Actual performance. the
department head will raise a note of approval to the to GM through the finance commercial
and administration manager regarding certain essential contribution to the organization but
also with the following aspects.
Increase morale of employee
Employees efficiency and
Better human relations
Reduced supervision
Increase organizational viability and flexibility
TRAINING PROCEDURE:
PURPOSE:
To ensure that all employees are adequately trained to enable them to perform their
duties in the most competent and effective way to identity future requirements to maintain
and improve standards and develop staff for higher positions or other duties at the same level.
SCOPE:
This procedure applies to all the employees at KTPS.

Employees efficiency and

Better human relations

Reduced supervision

Increase organizational viability and flexibility.

RESPONSIBILITY:
The Sr. Manager finance, commercial and administration is responsible for
continuous improvement of this procedure.
PROCEDURE:
Specified positions is the power station organization will have an identified and
agreed set of basic training modules that must be completed prior to or during the initial
stages of appointment. Training consists of formal and informal elements. And ongoing
assessments confirm the efficacy of training received.
TRAINING PLAN:
The training plan is a compilation of all training needs identified by each supervisor
and department manager during year-end appraisals. The training plan will be submitted to
the department after the annual appraisal which in turn refer to training plan or training
schedule.
The training plan will identify training needs of continuous improvement Training
may be both internal and external and include informal on-job training.
At periodic intervals assessments will be carried out to check progress against plans.
Training records maintained by the department include training and seminars attended from
previous companies, training received and instantiate future requirements for individual staff
of training and seminars
If no training was identified during annual appraisal or no training plan is submitted to
the department after the annual appraisals.
ON JOB TRAINING:
For many site positions, on-job training is an essential element to complement the
formal training. Modules identified covering areas of required knowledge complement the
formal training. The departments manger will be responsible for directing, training and
assessing progress and recommending acceptance of levels achieved.
FUTURE REQUIREMENTS:

During the annual staff appraisal each employees retaining or future training
requirements will be identified. These will be agreed by the supervisor and confirmed by the
Sr.Manager. Such need will be consolidated into the training plan.
QUALIFICATIONS:
In deciding training needs to prepare staff for progression, their qualifications and
experience will be reviewed to decide if they are sufficient or whether further formal
education is required for entry onto further training.
KTPS
The training modules at KTPS consist of the following:

Function related training in the areas of operation, maintenance, materials, finance


and administration and IT. This training is essentially provided to the employees
based on the training needs identified, an appropriate course/Programme is
recommended by the department manager, while the performance assessment is
done.

Fire fighting safety and occupational health related training _ All the employees of
KTPS, and the contract workers etc. are covered for this programme. This training
is an ongoing, on the site course conducted by the manager safety, fire &
technical services, with/without assistance of outside faculty.

Management development programmers _ these are considered on a case-to-case


basis, with the recommendation of the department manager and by the approval of
the general manager.

Computer literacy programmers The training courses related to computer


literacy are provided progressively to cover respective employees of KTPS.

Statutory requirements related training Any mandatory certifications required of


staff operating the power station and the related works, appropriate training is
provided to the staff for fulfilling the requirement.

The training department compile the information and appropriately approach the
concerned agency for proving the required training on receipt of the information
of training programme/plan form agency. The individuals is nominated for the
training with the due recommendation of the department manager and by the
approval of the general manager.

Keeping in view, the cost consideration and the budget availability, training venue
will be normally located on site, however for external training residential
programmes are to be given preference over the non-residential programmes.

IMPLEMENT TRAINING:
For onsite programmes, the department will raise a note of approval to the general
manager through the Sr.Manager, regarding which enrich the individual not only in his
contribution to the organization, but also with the following aspects:
Increases morale of employee
Employees efficiency and efficacy
Better human relations
Reduced supervision
Increased organizational viability and flexibility
KTPS is providing facilities to its faculty/trainers who are coming to the site depending
on case-to-case basis like transportation, accommodations as per approval by the general
manager, and are arranged by the Asst. Communication Officer.
TRAINING FACILITY:
A training area consisting of lecture rooms, facilities, etc., will be provided on site.
KTPS will have a well equipped training room with facilities like OHP-Projector, video
show, while Boards, show-charts etc., in the administration building/training hall to conduct
training, seminars, first aid sessions etc., Furthermore, a well-equipped training room will be
maintained in the fire station for the continuous training and development, which is required
more in the plant.
TRAINEES DETAILS:
To ascertain the background and level of knowledge of the trainings of following
information will be made available to the trainer:
1. Job position
2. Academic levels
3. Numbers and experience
4. Training attainments required

5. Feedback and assessments


FEED BACK / EVALUTION:
It is difficult to measure the efficacy of training because of its abstract nature and
long-term impact on the trainees and the organization. However it can be evaluated in various
methods:

Training objectives (setting goals)

Evaluation criteria (meeting its objectives)

Collection of infrastructure (data bank)

RETENTION OF TRAINING PLANS AND RECORDS:


Training plans shall be retained for a period of 6 years. Training records of the
individuals staff shall be retained for a period of 2 years after leaving the company. Process
flow sheet for training power station staff is attached in the appendix for reference.
TRAINING METHODS OF KTPS :

Overseas Training

External Training

In-house Training

OVERSEAS TRAINING:
All administrative co-ordination with regard to overseas training will be carried out by
the corporate HR department for training purpose executive are sent to the following
countries.
o Australia
o England
o Malaysia
o Singapore
o USA
EXTERNAL TRAINING:
Based on approval the co-coordinator of HR department will initiate action with the
training agency institution and confirmation participation will be the responsibility HR

department.
IN HOUSE TRAINING:
In respect of in house training hr. department will initiate necessary action and
coordination with the faculty and conducting of programmed will be under taken by hr
department.
TRAINING METHODOLOGY:
INTRODUCTION:
Employee training is a specialized function and is one the fundamental operative
functions for human resources management.
Training is a shout-term educational process and utilizing a systematic and organized
procedure by which employees learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose.
In other words training improves, changes, moulds the employees knowledge, skill,
behavior, aptitude, and attitude towards the requirements of the job and organization.
Training refers to the teaching and learning activities carried on for the primary purpose of
helping members of an organization , to acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, abilities and
attitudes needed by a particular job and organization .
Organization and individual should develop and progress simultaneously for their
survival and attainment of mutual goals. So every modern management has to develop the
organization through human resource development. Employee training is a specialized
function and is one of the fundamental operative functions for human resources management.
MEANING:
After an employee is selected placed and introduced he or she must be provided with
training facilities. Raining is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for
doing a particular job. Training is short-term educational process and utilizing a systematic
and organized procedure by which employees learn technical knowledge and skills for a
definite purpose. Dales definition beach define training as,
DEFINITIONS:
Training can be defined as The organized procedure by which people learn
knowledge and |or skill for a definite purpose. (Dale S. Beach)

In other words, training improves, changes, moulds the employees knowledge, skill,
behavior, aptitude and attitude towards the requirements of the job and organization.
Training consists of planned program designed to improve performance at the
individual group and/or organizational level which in turn gives measurable change in
knowledge, skill, and/or social behaviour. (Wayne Cassio)
Training is the process of teaching a new employee the basic skill they need to
perform their job. (Gray Dessler)
PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING:
MOTIVATION:
As the effectiveness of an employee depends on how well he is motivate u
management, the effectiveness of learning also depends on motivation. Thus the training
must be released to the desires of trainee such as more wages or better job, recognition,
status, promotion, etc. The trainer should find out the proper ways to motivated experienced
employees who are already enjoying better facilities in case of re-training.
PROGRESS INFORMATION:
It has been found by various research studied that there is a relation between learning
rapidly and effectively and providing right information specially and as the trainer should not
give excessive information that can be misinterpreted. So, the trainer has to provide only the
required amount of progressive information especially to the trainee.
REINFORCEMENT:
The effectiveness of the trainee in learning new skills or acquiring new knowledge
should be reinforcement are promotions, rise in pay, praise etc., negative reinforcement is
punishments. Management should take proper care to award the successful trainees.
PRACTICE:
A trainee should actively participate in the training program in order to make the
learning program an effective one. Continuous and long practice is highly essential for
effective learning. Jobs are broken down into elements from which the fundamental physical,
sensory and mental skills are extracted.
FULL Vs PART:

It is not clear whether it is best to teach the complete job at a stretch or deciding the
job into parts and teaching each part a time. If the job is complex and requires a too long to
learn, it is better to teach part of the job. Generally the training process should start from the
known and process should start from the known and process to the unknown and from the
easy to the difficult parts are thought. However, the trainer has to reach the trainees based on
this judgment on their motivation and convenience.
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCE:
Individual training is costly, and group training in economically viable and
advantageous to the organization. But individuals vary in intelligence and aptitude from
person. So the trainer has to adjust program to the individual abilities aptitude.
TYPICAL TOPICS OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING:
o Communications: The increasing diversity of todays workforce brings a wide
variety of languages and customs.
o Computer skills: Computer skills are becoming a necessity for conducting
administrative and office tasks.
o Customer service: Increased competition in todays global marketplace makes it
critical that employees understand and meet the needs of customers.
o Diversity: Diversity training usually includes explanation about how people have
different perspectives and views, and includes techniques to value diversity.
o Ethics: Todays society has increasing expectations about corporate social
responsibility. Also, todays diverse workforce brings a wide variety of values and
morals to the workplace.
o Human Relation: The increased stresses of todays workplace can include
misunderstandings and conflict. Training can people to get along in the workplace.
o Quality initiatives: Initiative such as total quality management, quality circles,
benchmarking, etc., require basic training about quality concepts, guidelines and
standards for quality, etc.
o Safety: Safety training is critical where working with heavy equipment, hazardous
chemicals, repetitive activities, etc., but can also be useful with practical advice for
avoiding assaults, etc.
o Sexual Harassment: Sexual harassment training usually includes careful description

of the organizations policies about sexual harassment, especially about what are
inappropriate behaviors.
BENEFITS OF TRAINING:
Benefits of training are multi-faced. Training benefits the organization, individual and
in the formulation of policies an in maintenance of relations. These benefits are,
HOW TRAINING BENEFITS THE ORGANIZATION:

Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes toward profits orientation.

Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of organization.

Improves the morale of the workforce.

Helps people identify with organizational goals.

Helps create a better corporate image.

Fosters authenticity, openness and trust.

Improves the relationship between boss and subordinate.

Aids in organizational development.

Learns from the trainee.

Helps prepare guidelines for work.

Aids in understanding and carrying out organizational policies.

Provides information for future needs in all areas of the organization,

Organization gets more effective decision-making and problem solving.

Aids in development for promotion from within.

Aids in increasing productivity and/or quality of work.

Improves labour-management relations.

Creates an appropriate climate for growth, communication.

Aids in improving organizational communication.

Helps employees adjust to change.

Aids in handling conflict, there by helping to prevent stress and tension.

BENEFITS OF THE INDIVIDUAL WHICH IN TURN ULTIMATELY SHOULD


BENEFIT THE ORGANIZATION:

Helps the individual in making better decisions and effective problem solving.

Through training and development, motivational variables of recognition, achievement,


growth responsibility and advancement are internalized and operationalised.

Aids in encouraging and achieving self-development and self-confidence.

Helps a person handle stress tension, frustration and conflict.

Increases job satisfaction and recognition.

Moves a person toward personal goals while improving interactive skills.

Satisfies, personal needs of the trainer (and trainee).

Provide the trainee an avenue for growth and a say in his/her own future.

Develops a sense of growth in learning.

Helps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks.

BENEFITS IN HUMAN RELATIONS, INTRA AND INTERGROUP RELATIONS


AND POLICY IMPLEMENTATION:

Improves communication between groups and individuals..

Provides information on equal opportunity and affirmative action.

Provide information on other governmental laws and administrative policies.

Improve interpersonal skills.

Makes organization policies, rules and regulation viable.

Improves morale.

Build cohesiveness in groups.

Provides a good climate for learning, growth, and co-ordination.


Training matches the employee with the job from time to time.The importance of training

can also be viewed from the need for training and the advantages of training.
KINDS OF TRAINING :
INDUCTION TRAINING:
Orientation training it is concerned with the problem of orienting a new employee to
the organization and its proceeding rules and regulations. It helps in getting him introduced to

the organization help him to get a general idea about the rules, regulation, and working
conditions.
JOB TRAINING:
Training for a job is the most common of formal in plant training programmatic is
necessary for a new a employee to acquaint them with the jobs they are expected to perform
various on the job and off the trading techniques are adopted to educate the employee.

REFRESHER TRAINING:
It is meant for the old employee of the enterprise the basic purpose of refresher
training is to acquaint the existing workforce with the latest method of performing their jobs
and improve their efficiency further.
INTERNSHIP TRAINING:
Under this method the vocational or professional institute enters is to arrangement
whiter a big business enterprise for providing practical knowledge to its students by gaining
actual work experience, the period of such training various from 6 month to 2 years.
REMEDIAL TRAINING:
It indented to the refresh the skills and knowledge which are being used. It is tailored
to individual needs.
CRAFT TRAINING:
Training for craft man ship involves preparation not for a single job but for the many
types of related which can as assigned competent craftsman. The intensity differs from issue
to issue apprenticeship training is the major adopted for the type of training.
SAFETY TRAINING:
It involves importing workers as to now various equipments can be handled safety
precautions that must be under taken to ensure safety, action to be taken when an accident
occurs.

TRAINING CONTENTS FOR DIFFERENT CATEGORIES OF EMPLOYEES:


Training methods and contents may not be the same for different categories of
employees. As such management has to train the employees of different categories and
different area and through different methods based on the job analysis. Training methods and
contents for few jobs are discussed here under.

FOR MANAGEMENT:
Most of the time attention has been given to what steps a manager can take to aid in
the development of others. Managers should not ignore their own development. Much of
what has been other applies equally to managers to aid the learning of others managers need
to continue their own development and learning.
Training activities have their place in development and are extremely valuable way of
acquiring and improving skills but learning to happen fully. Those skills have to be put to use
so it is the development of skills on the job and transfer of learning to the job that are of
immense important to any organization.
Training and development should stress topics such as finance, journalisms political
and governmental bodies, economics etc., for managers. By and large top managers need
have little technical expertise within the companies specialists. The managers knowledge
and skills are being based on ability to control their companies relationships with the outside
world. They need to know actually the forms standing within the economic and social
environment and will need think creatively with a high degree of conceptual skill. The top
executive must be able to

Forecast

Plan

Formulate policy

Deal with outside bodies

Integrate varying deplane

Middle managers are who execute the policies which are framed by top eve-the target set
through resource management they have to achieve given to him. So, he will need a

throughout knowledge of:

Production planning

Cost analysis

Personal administration

Date processing

Industrial relations

Management services

Operation research

SALES PERSON:
For sales person the emphasis should be towards on-the-job as well as off the training
methods are used. Course content include job knowledge, organizational knowledge, about
the company products, customs, competitors sales administration procedures, law concerning
sales, special skills like prospecting, making presentation, handling, objections, closing the
sales etc., employee attitude such as loyalty to the company and trust in company products
understanding and tolerance with regard to potential and existing customers.
FOR CLERICAL EMPLOYEES:
Emphasis may be given on the off-the-job training in the clerical includes
organization and methods, personal. The training content company policies, procedures and
programmes, background knowledge of the company, forms, report, written communications,
clerical aptitude maintaining ledgers, records etc.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT METHODS:
The training and development methods are ways of training the employee in
improving their skills and development and selection of the correct methods, is also a crucial
one in training and development programme. Training methods are broadly divided into two
types they are:
1) ON THE JOB
2) OFF THE JOB

ON THE JOB:
In this the trainee learns under the supervision and guidance of a qualified worker or
instructor; On-job training is giving firsthand knowledge and experience under the actual
working conditions. This includes 5 techniques, which are:
Job rotation
Coaching
Job instructions
JOB ROTATION:
This type pf training involves the movement of the trainee from the one job to
another. The trained receives job knowledge and gains and experience from his supervisor or
trainer in each of the different job assignments. This method gives opportunity to the trainee
to understand the problems of employee and other jobs and respect them.
COACHING:
The trainee is placed under a particular supervisor and he functions as a coach in
trainee the individual. The supervisor provides feed back to the trainee in the performance
and offers him some suggestions for improvement. Often the trainees share some of the
duties and responsibilities of the coach and relief him of his burden. A limitation of this
method of training is the trainee many not have the freedom or opportunity to express his
own ideas.
JOB INSTRUCTION:
This method is also known as training through step by step. Under this method, trainer
explains the trainee the way of doing the job, knowledge and skills and allows doing the job.
The trainer appraises the performance of trainee, provides feed back information and corrects
the trainee.
OFF THE JOB:
In this method the trainee is separated from the job situation and his attention is
focused upon learning the material the related to his future job performance. Since the trainee
is not distracted by job requirements, he can place his entire concentration of learning rather
than spending his time in performing it. They are free to express their doubts and the
opinions. This includes the following techniques, which are:
Vestibule Train

Role playing
The case study
In Basket Method
Lecture Methods
Simulation
Conference or Discussion
VESTIBULE TRAINING:
In this method actual work condition or simulated in a class room. Material files and
equipment hose are used in actual job performance are also used in training. This type of
training is commonly used for training personal semiskilled jobs.

ROLE PLAYING:
It is defined as a method of human interaction that involves realistic behavior in
imaginary situations. This method of training involves action, doing the practice. The
participants play the role of certain char actors, such as the production manager mechanical
engineer superintendence, maintenance engineer, foremen and the like.
CASE STUDY:
Present an in depth description of a particular problem an employee might encounter
on the job. The employee attempts to find and analyze the problem, evaluate alternative
courses of action & decide what course of action would be most satisfactory.

IN-BASKET METHOD:
Also known as In-tray method of training. The trainee is presented with a pack of
papers & files in a tray containing administrative problems & is asked to take decisions on
these problems & are asked to take decisions on these within a stipulated time.
LECTURE METHODS:
The lecture is a traditional and method instruction. The instructor organize the
material and gives it to a group of trainees in the form of a talk to be effective the lecture
most motivate and create the trainees and advantage of lecture that it is direct and can be used

for a large group of trainees. Thus cost and time involved are reduced.
SIMULATION EXERCISE:
Any training activity that explicitly places the trainee in an artificial environment that
closely mirrors actual working conditions can be considered a simulation. Simulation
activities include case experiences, experiential exercises, vestibule training, management
games & role-play.
CONFERENCE OR DISCUSSION:
It is method of training clerical, professional and supervisory personnel, this method
involves a group of people who pose ideas, examine and share facts ideas and data. Test
assumptions and drawn conclusions, all of which contributes to the improvements of job
performance. Discussion involves hence feedback is provided.
TRAINING TECHNIQUES:
According to the most important techniques of human resource development, no
organization can get a candidate who exactly matches with the job and organizational
requirements. Hence training is important to develop the employee and make him suitable to
the job. Job and organizational requirements are not static. They are changes from to time in
view of the technical advancement. Thats why continuous training is needed pro gross and
development of the organization depends on training and development activities to greater
extent. Specifically the need from training arises due to the following reasons:
To match the employee specification with the job requirements and organizational
needs
When technical advancement takes place
Organizational complexity
Change in the job assignment
Increase productivity
Improve quality
Help a company to fulfill its future needs
Improve organizational climate
Effect the personal growth
Minimize the resistance to change

STEPS IN TRAINING PROGRAMME:


Training programmes are a costly affair a time consuming process therefore they need
to be drafted very carefully. Usually in the organization the training and development
programmes, the following steps are considered necessarily. They are,
STEPS IN TRAINING PROGRAMME:
1. Discover in training programme.
2. Discover or identity the training and development needs
3. Getting ready for the job
4. Preparation of the learner
5. Presentation of operations and knowledge
6. Performances
7. Try out
8. Follow-up and evaluations of the programme
DISCOVER OR IDENTITY THE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT NEEDS:
This is done on the basis of the organizational analysis, job analysis and man analysis.
Training methods and course content are to be planned on the basis of training needs.
Training needs are those aspects necessary to perform the job in an organization in which
employee is lacking attitude, knowledge, and skill.
Training needs - job and organizational requirements- employee specification getting
ready for the job; under this step, it is to be decided who is to be training the new comer or
the older employee, is the supervisory staff, and is all of them.
Selected from different departments, the trainer has to be prepared for the job, for
he/she is the key figure in the entire program. Preparation of learner this step consists:
1) In putting the learner at case (so that he does not feel nervous because of the fact he is
on new job)
2) In stating the importance and ingredient of the job and its relationship
3) In explaining why he is being taught.
4) In explaining interest and encouraging questions, finding out what the learner already
knows about his job or other jobs.
5) In explaining the why of the whole job and relating it to some job the worker
already knows.
6) In placing the learner as close to his normal working position as possible.

7) In familiarizing him with the equipment materials, tools trades terms


PERFORMANCE TRIES OUT:
Under this the trainee is asked to go throw the job several times slowly, explaining
him each step. Mistakes are corrected and if necessary, some complicated steps are done for
the trainee the first time. Them the trainee is asked to do the job, gradually building up skill
and speed as soon as the trainee is asked to do the job, gradually building up skill and speed
as soon as the trainee demonstrates that he can do the job right way, he is put on his own, but
not abandoned. The trainee is then tested and the effectiveness of the training program
evaluated.
Giving written or oral tests to trainee
Observing the trainee on the job itself and administering performance test to them
Finding out individuals or a groups reaction to the training program while it is in
progress and getting them to fill up evaluation sheets
Arrange structured interviews with the participants or sending them questionnaires by
mail.
Eliciting the opinion or judgment of the management about the trainees performance.
Study of profiles and charts of carrier development of participants and related
assignment techniques.
Through one or a combination of these devises, the validity of training programmers may
be ascertained. If there are errors or weakness, they should be corrected and instruction
repeated, if necessary, till the trainer knows that the trainee has learned whatever has been
imparted to him.
FOLLOW UP:
This step is undertaken with a view of testing effectiveness of training efforts. This
consists in:
Putting a trainee on his own
Checking frequently to be sure that he has followed instructions
Tapering of extra supervision and close follow-up until he is qualified to work with
normal supervision.
It is worth remembering that if the learner has not learned, the teacher has not taught.

CHARACTERS OF LEARNING PROCESS:


Learning principles: According to Andrew F.Sikula learning process defined as that
human process by which skills, knowledge habits and attitude are acquired and utilized in
such a way that behavior is modified. Models of human learning are studied in order to find
out the reasons for fast and accurate learning.
All human beings can learn
An individual must be motivated to learn
Learning is active but not passive
Learners may acquire knowledge more rapidly with guidance feedback ensures
improvement in speed and accuracy of learning.
Appropriate material (like case studies, tools problem, reading etc.) should be
provided.
Time must be provided to practice learning
Learning methods should be varied, variety of methods should be introduced off-set
fatigue boredom.
The learner must secure satisfaction from learning. Education must fulfill human
needs desire and expectations.
Learners need reinforcement of correct behavior
Standards of performance should be test be set for the learner
Different levels of learning exist
Learning is an adjustment on the part of an individual
Learning is a cumulative process
Ego involvement is widely regarded as a major factor in learning
The rate of learning decreases when complex skill are involved
Learning is closely related to attention and concentration
Learning involves long-run retention and immediate acquisition of knowledge.
Accuracy deserves generally more emphasis then speed
Learning should be relatively based.
Leaning should be goal oriented
HUMAN RESOURCE FACTORS:

Training programme can also evaluated on the basis of employee satisfaction which in
turn can be viewed on the basis of

Decrease in employee turnover

Decrease in absentism

Decrease in number

Betterment of employee morale

Decreases in grievance and disciplinary cases

Reduction in time to earn piece rates

Decrease in the number of discharge or dismissals

PERFORMANCE TESTS:
In this immediate sense, the specific coerce of training can be evaluated in terms of
written and performance tests. The test is supported by a sample of what the trainee knows or
can do. Successful accomplishment of the tests would indicate successful training but the true
test is whether or not what has been learned in training is successful training but the true test
is whether or not what has been learned in training is successfully transferred and appalled to
the job. It is dangerous to rely upon tests along to demonstrate the true value of training.
Performance appraisal on the job before and after training may be supplemented to the tests.
TRAINING PROCEDURE:
Evaluate the trainee
Identify the training needs
Design the training needs
Prepare cost budget and foresee benefits have cost benefit analysis
Design trainings content methods and media
Prepare the instructor
Prepare the trainee

Get ready to teach


Implement the training programme
Present the operations
Gin the acceptance of the programme
Try out the trainees performance
Job and organizational analysis
Evaluate the results
Update the programme

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION


1. Do you plan that annual plan is focused on training needs identified by the company?
TABLE -1:
Response
Strongly Agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Total
CHART 1:

No. of

Percentage

Respondents
42
43
7
8
100

42%
43%
7%
8%
100%

TRAINING IDENTIFIED BY COMPANY


45%
40%
35%
30%
% of Response

25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

Strongly Agree

Agree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Response

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that 42% of the responds who expressed strongly agree
towards annual plan is focused on training needs identified by the company, 43% of the
responds agree. Remaining 7% expressed disagree and 8% expressed strongly disagree
regarding the above the statement.
2. Does the management initiatives are not included in the process of training needs
Identification?
TABLE 2:
Response
Strongly Agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Total
CHART 2:

No.of Respondents
13
17
43
27
100

Percentage
13%
17%
43%
27%
100%

MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES INCLUDEDOR NOT


45%
40%
35%
30%
% of Response

25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

Strongly Agree

Agree

Disagree

Strongly Disagreee

Response

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that 43% of the respondents who expressed disagree. towards
the annual plan is focused on training needs identified by the company. Remaining 27%
expressed strongly disagree regarding the above statement.
It is be concluded that majority of the respondents disagree with the management is
fully concentrating on training activities.

3. The skill matrix formatting is relevant to job?


TABLE 3:
Response
Strongly Agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Total
CHART 3:

No.of Respondents
27
33
23
17
100

Percentage
27%
33%
23%
17%
100%

SKILL MATRIX RELENANT TO JOB


35%
30%
25%
% of Response

20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

Strongly Agree

Agree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Response

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that 33% of the respondents who expressed agree towards the
skill matrix format is relevant their jobs, remaining expressed strongly agree regarding the
above statement.
It is concluded that majority of the respondents satisfied with skill matrix format.

4. Will you agree that performance Appraisal system for training needs identification is
biased?
TABLE - 4:
Response
Strongly Agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Total
CHART 4:

No.of Respondents
30
43
5
10
100

Percentage
30%
43%
17%
10%
100%

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL FOR TRAINING


45%
40%
35%
30%
% of Response

25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

Strongly Agree

Agree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Response

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that 43% of the respondents who expressed agree towards
performance appraisal system for training needs identification based. Remaining 30%
expressed strongly agree regarding the above statement.
It is concluded that majority of the respondents satisfied with performance appraisal
system for the training needs identification is base.

5. Do you agree that training helps to do your job more effectively?


TABLE 5:
Response
Strongly Agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Total
CHART 5:

No.of Respondents
33
40
10
17
100

Percentage
33%
40%
10%
17%
100%

TRAINING HELPS TO DO JOB EFFECTIVELY


40%
35%
30%
25%
% of Response

20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

Strongly Agree

Agree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Response

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that 40% of the respondents who expressed agreed towards
the training helps to do their job more effectively. Remaining 33% expressed strongly agree
regarding the above statement.
It is be concluded that majority of the respondents satisfied with training helps to do
their job more effective.

6. Do you agree that training helps you to acquire knowledge?


TABLE 6:
Response
Strongly Agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Total
CHART 6:

No.of Respondents
50
30
13
7
100

Percentage
50%
30%
13%
7%
100%

TRAINING HELPS TO ACQUIRE KNOWLEDGE


50%
45%
40%
35%
30%
% of Response

25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

Strongly Agree

Agree

Disagree

Srongly Disagree

Response

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that 50% of the respondents who expressed agree towards
training helps them to acquire knowledge. Remaining 30% expressed strongly agree
regarding the above statement.
It is concluded that majority of the respondents satisfied with training activities helps
them to acquire knowledge.

7. Do you agree that training is not necessary to improve your skills?


TABLE 7:
Response
Strongly Agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Total
CHART 7:

No.of Respondents
13
10
44
33
100

Percentage
13%
10%
44%
33%
100%

TRAINING IS NECESSARY OR NOT


45%
40%
35%
30%
% of Response

25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

Strongly Agree

Agree

Disagree

Srongly Disagree

Response

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that 44% of the respondents who expressed strongly disagree
training is not necessary to improve their skills. Remaining 33% expressed strongly disagree
regarding the above statement.
It can be concluded that majority of the respondents satisfied with training activities
helps them to improve their skills.

8. Before training your quality of work is good or after training?


TABLE 8:
Response
Strongly Agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Total
CHART 8:

No.of Respondents
13
20
40
27
100

Percentage
13%
20%
40%
27%
100%

QUALITY OF WORK BEFORE & AFTER TRAINING


40%
35%
30%
25%
% of Response

20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

Strongly Agree

Agree

Disagree

Srongly Disagree

Response

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that 43% of the respondents who expressed disagree. Towards
the annual plan is focused on training needs identified by the company. Remaining 27%
expressed strongly disagree regarding the above statement.
It can be concluded that majority of the respondents agree worth the management is
fully concentrating on training activated.

9. Before training your performance of work of is good or after training?


TABLE - 9:
Response
Strongly Agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Total
CHART 9:

No.of Respondents
30
40
17
13
100

Percentage
30%
40%
17%
13%
100%

PERFORMANCE OF WORK BEFORE & AFTER TRAINING


40%
35%
30%
25%
% of Response

20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

Strongly Agree

Agree

Disagree

Srongly Disagree

Response

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that 40% of the respondents who expressed agree. Towards
job performance level increased after training. Remaining 30% expressed strongly agree
regarding the above statement.
It can be concluded that majority of the respondents satisfied with the job
performance after training.

10. Do you agree that your job performance has changed after training?
TABLE - 10:
Response
Strongly Agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Total
CHART 10:

No.of Respondents
27
50
13
10
100

Percentage
27%
50%
13%
10%
100%

CHANGING PERFORMANCE AFTER TRANING

% of Response

50%
45%
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

Strongly Agree

Agree

Disagree

Srongly Disagree

Response

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that 50% of the respondents who expressed agree Towards
job efficiency is better after training. Remaining 27% expressed strongly agree regarding the
above statement.
It can be concluded that majority of the respondents satisfied with the job
performance level increased after training.

11. I think that training helps to improve team building?


TABLE-11:
Response
Strongly Agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Total
CHART 11:

No.of Respondents
33
50
10
7
100

Percentage
33%
50%
10%
7%
100%

TRAINING HELPS TO BULID TEAM


50%
45%
40%
35%
30%
% of Response

25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

Strongly Agree

Agree

Disagree

Srongly Disagree

Response

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that 50% of the respondents who expressed agree towards job
the training helps to improve team building. Remaining 33% expressed strongly agree
regarding the above statement.
It is be concluded that majority of the respondents satisfied with the training helps to
improve team buildings.

12. I think that training makes you enthusiastic and energetic?


TABLE - 12:
Response
Strongly Agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Total
CHART-12:

No.of Respondents
40
30
20
10
100

Percentage
40%
30%
20%
10%
100%

TRAINING MAKES ENTHUSIASTIC &ENERGETIC


40%
35%
30%
25%
% of Response

20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

Strongly Agree

Agree

Disagree

Srongly Disagree

Response

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that 40% of the respondents who expressed strongly agree
Towards the training makes you enthusiastic and energetic. Remaining 30% expressed
strongly agree regarding the above statement.
It can be concluded that majority of the respondents satisfied with the training makes
you enthusiastic and energetic.

13. Do you agree that training helps for the individual as well as the organization
development?
TABLE - 13:
Response
Strongly Agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Total
CHART 13:

No.of Respondents
50
40
10
0
100

Percentage
50%
40%
10%
0%
100%

TRAINING HELPS FOR ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT

% of Response

50%
45%
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

Strongly Agree

Agree

Disagree

Srongly Disagree

Response

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that 50% of the respondents who expressed strongly agree
Towards the training helps for the individual as organizational development. Remaining 40%
expressed strongly agree regarding the above statement.
It can be concluded that majority of the respondents agree helps for the individual as
well as organizational development.

14. Do you agree that training is not sufficient to enrich your skills and knowledge with
update technology?
TABLE - 14:
Response
Strongly Agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Total
CHART 14:

No.of Respondents
37
40
13
10
100

Percentage
37%
40%
13%
10%
100%

TRAINING SUFFICIENT TO IMPROVE SKILLS & KNOWLEDGE


40%
35%
30%
25%
% of Response

20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

Strongly Agree

Agree

Disagree

Srongly Disagree

Response

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that 40% of the respondents who expressed agree Towards the
training to attend to your work regularly without any absenteeism. Remaining 37% expressed
strongly agree regarding the above statement.
It can be concluded that majority of the respondents satisfied with the helps to attend
your work.

15. Training helps to attend your work regularly without any absence?
TABLE 15:
Response
Strongly Agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Total
CHART 15:

No.of Respondents
17
23
60
0
100

Percentage
17%
23%
60%
0%
100%

TRAINING HELPS TO WORK REGULARLY


60%
50%
40%
% of Response

30%
20%
10%
0%

Strongly Agree

Agree

Disagree

Srongly Disagree

Response

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that 60% of the respondents who expressed disagree Towards
the training is not sufficient to enrich your skill and knowledge with update technology.
Remaining 40% expressed agree regarding the above statement.
It can be concluded that majority of the respondents satisfied with the training is not
sufficient to enrich employees skills and knowledge with update technology.

FINDINGS
1. The management initiatives are included in the process of training needs identification.
2. The skill matrix formatting is relevant is to job.
3. Performance appraisal system is training needs identification is biased.
4. The training helps to a employee to acquire knowledge.
5. Training is necessary to improve employees skills...
6. After training the quality of work of is good than before training.
7. After training job performance has been changed.
8. After training job efficiency is better.

9. Training helps for improving team building.


10. Training makes enthusiastic and energetic.
11. Training helps for the individual and organization development.
12. The training is sufficient to enrich your skills and knowledge with update technology.
13. Training helps to attend work regularly without any absenteeism.
14. Annual plan is focused on training need identified by the company.

SUGGESTIONS
1. Job rotation should be adopted in inter departments like maintenance and finance.
2. Because of less manpower, growth opportunities are less. They can be supported by
taking good academic or technical courses.
3.

Overall behavioral training can be given as most of the employees are technical.

4. Employees suggestion in respect of growth and development.


5. More HR programs in house and outside are to be conducted.

6.

First preference should be given to personal attention.

7. Better and more interaction should be developed between the management and technical
staff at all levels.
8. Inter personal and inter dependent communication should be improved
9. Have open and transparent decision making process.
10. Team effectiveness should be improved
11. More HRD activities are to be initiated.

CONCLUSIONS
T&D program is the one where every organization is concentrating more as it is the
tool which improves the employees skills and potentialities.
The study of the training and development in KTPS is came to know that they are
following perfect and effective training program for its employees to develop their skills and
also concentrate on their career developmental activities which makes them perform well and
attain success which leads to effectiveness and morality of organization and individual is to
be achieved.

QUESTIONNAIRE
1. Do you plan that annual plan is focused on training needs identified by the company?(

a) Strongly agree
b) Agree
c) Disagree
d) Strongly Disagree
2. Does the management initiatives are not included in the process of training needs
identification?

a) Strongly Agree
b) Agree
c) Disagree
d) Strongly Disagree
3. The skill matrix formatting is relevant to job?
a) Strongly Agree
b) Agree
c) Disagree
d) Strongly Disagree
4. Will you agree that performance Appraisal system for training needs identification is
biased?

a) Strongly Agree
b) Agree
c) Disagree
d) Strongly Disagree
5. Do you agree that training helps to do your job more effectively?
a) Strongly Agree
b) Agree
c) Disagree
d) Strongly Disagree

6. Do you agree that training helps you to acquire knowledge?

a) Strongly Agree
b) Agree
c) Disagree
d) Strongly Disagree
7. Do you agree that training is not necessary to improve your skills?

a) Strongly Agree
b) Agree
c) Disagree
d) Strongly Disagree
8. Before training your quality of work is good or after training?
a) Strongly Agree
b) Agree
c) Disagree
d) Strongly Disagree
9. Before training your quality of performance of is good or after training?
a) Strongly Agree
b) Agree
c) Disagree
d) Strongly Disagree
10. Do you agree that your job performance has changed after training?
a) Strongly Agree
b) Agree
c) Disagree
d) Strongly Disagree

11. I think that training helps to improve team building?

a) Strongly Agree
b) Agree
c) Disagree
d) Strongly Disagree
12. I think that training makes you enthusiastic and energetic?
a) Strongly Agree
b) Agree
c) Disagree
d) Strongly Disagree
13. Do you agree that training helps for the individual as well as the Organization
development?

a) Strongly Agree
b) Agree
c) Disagree
d) Strongly Disagree
14. Do you agree that training is not sufficient to enrich your skills and knowledge with
update technology?

a) Strongly Agree
b) Agree
c) Disagree
d) Strongly Disagree
15. Training helps to attend your work regularly without any absence?
a) Strongly Agree
b) Agree
c) Disagree
d) Strongly Disagree

BIBLIOGRAPHY

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

- V.S.P.Rao

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

- T.V. Rao

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

- C.R Kothori

ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN RESOURCE


MANAGEMENT AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

- P.Subba Rao

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

- Ashwatappa

Web site of a company kothagudem thermal power station.com