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Mathematics

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Teachers Guide
Unit 2

This book was collaboratively developed and reviewed by


educators from public and private schools, colleges, and/or universities.
We encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to email their
feedback, comments, and recommendations to the Department of
Education at action@deped.gov.ph.
We value your feedback and recommendations.

Department of Education
Republic of the Philippines

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Mathematics Grade 10
Teachers Guide
First Edition 2015

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Published by the Department of Education


Secretary: Br. Armin A. Luistro FSC
Undersecretary: Dina S. Ocampo, PhD

Development Team of the Teachers Guide

Consultants: Soledad A. Ulep, PhD, Debbie Marie B. Verzosa, PhD, and


Rosemarievic Villena-Diaz, PhD

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Authors: Melvin M. Callanta, Allan M. Canonigo, Arnaldo I. Chua, Jerry D.


Cruz, Mirla S. Esparrago, Elino S. Garcia, Aries N. Magnaye, Fernando B.
Orines, Rowena S. Perez, and Concepcion S. Ternida
Editor: Maxima J. Acelajado, PhD

Reviewers: Carlene P. Arceo, PhD, Rene R. Belecina, PhD, Dolores P.


Borja, Maylani L. Galicia, Ma. Corazon P. Loja, Jones A. Tudlong, PhD, and
Reymond Anthony M. Quan
Illustrator: Cyrell T. Navarro

Layout Artists: Aro R. Rara, Jose Quirovin Mabuti, and Ronwaldo Victor Ma.
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Introduction

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This Teachers Guide has been prepared to provide teachers of Grade


10 Mathematics with guidelines on how to effectively use the Learners
Material to ensure that learners will attain the expected content and
performance standards.
This book consists of four units subdivided into modules which are
further subdivided into lessons. Each module contains the content and
performance standards and the learning competencies that must be attained
and developed by the learners which they could manifest through their
products and performances.
The special features of this Teachers Guide are:
A. Learning Outcomes. Each module contains the content and
performance standards and the products and/ or performances
expected from the learners as a manifestation of their
understanding.
B. Planning for Assessment. The assessment map indicates the
type of assessment and categorized the objectives to be assessed
into knowledge, process/skills, understanding, and performance
C. Planning for Teaching-Learning. Each lesson has Learning
Goals and Targets, a Pre-Assessment, Activities with answers,
What to Know, What to Reflect on and Understand, What to
Transfer, and Summary / Synthesis / Generalization.
D. Summative Test. After each module, answers to the summative
test are provided to help the teachers evaluate how much the
learners have learned.
E. Glossary of Terms. Important terms in the module are defined or
clearly described.
F. References and Other Materials. This provides the teachers with
the list of reference materials used, both print and digital.

We hope that this Teachers Guide will provide the teachers with the
necessary guide and information to be able to teach the lessons in a more
creative, engaging, interactive, and effective manner.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Table of Contents
Curriculum Guide: Mathematics Grade 10

Unit 2

Module 3: Polynomial Functions................................................................ 82


Learning Outcomes ..............................................................................................82
Planning for Assessment ......................................................................................83
Planning for Teaching-Learning ...........................................................................86
Pre-Assessment ...................................................................................................87
Learning Goals and Targets .................................................................................87

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Activity 1 ....................................................................................................88
Activity 2 ....................................................................................................89
Activity 3 ....................................................................................................90
Activity 4 ....................................................................................................90
Activity 5 ....................................................................................................91
Activity 6 ....................................................................................................91
Activity 7 ....................................................................................................92
Activity 8 ....................................................................................................94
Activity 9 ....................................................................................................99
Activity 10 ................................................................................................100
Activity 11 ................................................................................................101
Activity 12 ................................................................................................102
Activity 13 ................................................................................................106
Activity 14 ................................................................................................107
Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ...................................................................108
Summative Test .......................................................................................................109
Glossary of Terms ...................................................................................................114
References Used in This Module ........................................................................115

Module 4: Circles ........................................................................................... 116


Learning Outcomes ............................................................................................116
Planning for Assessment ....................................................................................117
Planning for Teaching-Learning .........................................................................123
Pre-Assessment .................................................................................................125
Learning Goals and Targets ...............................................................................126

Lesson 1A: Chords, Arcs, and Central Angles................................................126

Activity 1 ..................................................................................................127
Activity 2 ..................................................................................................128
Activity 3 ..................................................................................................129
Activity 4 ..................................................................................................130
Activity 5 ..................................................................................................131
Activity 6 ..................................................................................................132
Activity 7 ..................................................................................................132
Activity 8 ..................................................................................................132
Activity 9 ..................................................................................................133
Activity 10 ................................................................................................136
Activity 11 ................................................................................................136
Activity 12 ................................................................................................137
Activity 13 ................................................................................................138
Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ...................................................................139

Lesson 1B: Arcs and Inscribed Angles .............................................................139

Activity 1 ..................................................................................................140

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Activity 2 ..................................................................................................141
Activity 3 ..................................................................................................142
Activity 4 ..................................................................................................143
Activity 5 ..................................................................................................144
Activity 6 ..................................................................................................145
Activity 7 ..................................................................................................145
Activity 8 ..................................................................................................146
Activity 9 ..................................................................................................148
Activity 10 ................................................................................................151
Activity 11 ................................................................................................153
Activity 12 ................................................................................................154
Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ...................................................................154

Lesson 2A: Tangents and Secants of a Circle ................................................155

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Activity 1 ..................................................................................................155
Activity 2 ..................................................................................................159
Activity 3 ..................................................................................................160
Activity 4 ..................................................................................................161
Activity 5 ..................................................................................................162
Activity 6 ..................................................................................................163
Activity 7 ..................................................................................................164
Activity 8 ..................................................................................................172
Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ...................................................................172

Lesson 2B: Tangent and Secant Segments .....................................................173

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Activity 1 ..................................................................................................173
Activity 2 ..................................................................................................174
Activity 3 ..................................................................................................174
Activity 4 ..................................................................................................175
Activity 5 ..................................................................................................175
Activity 6 ..................................................................................................176
Activity 7 ..................................................................................................176
Activity 8 ..................................................................................................177
Activity 9 ..................................................................................................179
Activity 10 ................................................................................................180
Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ...................................................................180
Summative Test .......................................................................................................181
Glossary of Terms...................................................................................................189
List of Theorems and Postulates on Circles....................................................191
References and Website Links Used in This Module ....................................193

Module 5: Plane Coordinate Geometry .................................................. 198


Learning Outcomes ............................................................................................198
Planning for Assessment ....................................................................................199
Planning for Teaching-Learning .........................................................................205
Pre-Assessment .................................................................................................207
Learning Goals and Targets ...............................................................................207

Lesson 1: The Distance Formula, the Midpoint Formula,


and the Coordinate Proof ....................................................................207

Activity 1 ..................................................................................................208
Activity 2 ..................................................................................................208
Activity 3 ..................................................................................................209
Activity 4 ..................................................................................................210

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Activity 5 ..................................................................................................212
Activity 6 ..................................................................................................212
Activity 7 ..................................................................................................213
Activity 8 ..................................................................................................215
Activity 9 ..................................................................................................216
Activity 10 ................................................................................................217
Activity 11 ................................................................................................220
Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ...................................................................221

Lesson 2: The Equation of a Circle ....................................................................221

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Activity 1 ..................................................................................................221
Activity 2 ..................................................................................................222
Activity 3 ..................................................................................................223
Activity 4 ..................................................................................................225
Activity 5 ..................................................................................................226
Activity 6 ..................................................................................................227
Activity 7 ..................................................................................................227
Activity 8 ..................................................................................................228
Activity 9 ..................................................................................................228
Activity 10 ................................................................................................229
Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ...................................................................230
Summative Test .......................................................................................................231
Glossary of Terms ...................................................................................................237
References and Website Links Used in This Module ....................................238

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Module 3:

Polynomial Functions

A. Learning Outcomes
Content Standard:
The learner demonstrates understanding of key concepts of
polynomial functions.
Performance Standard:

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The learner is able to conduct systematically in different fields


a mathematical investigation involving polynomial functions.
Unpacking the Standards for Understanding

Quarter: Second Quarter


TOPIC: Polynomial
Functions

1.

Illustrate polynomial functions

2.

Graph polynomial functions

3.

Solve problems involving


polynomial functions

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Lesson:
Illustrating Polynomial
Functions, Graphs of
Polynomial Functions and
Solutions of Problems
Involving Polynomial
Functions

Learning Competencies

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Subject: Mathematics 10

Writer:

Elino Sangalang Garcia

Essential
Understanding:

Essential
Question:

Students will
understand that
polynomial
functions are
useful tools in
solving real-life
problems and in
making decisions
given certain
constraints.

How do the
mathematical
concepts help
solve real-life
problems that can
be represented
as polynomial
functions?

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Transfer Goal:
Students will be able to apply the key
concepts of polynomial functions in
finding solutions and making decisions
for certain life problems.
B. Planning for Assessment
Product/Performance

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The following are products and performances that students are


expected to come up with in this module.
1. Write polynomial functions in standard form
2. List all intercepts of polynomial functions written in both standard and
factored forms
3. Make a list of ordered pairs of points that satisfy a polynomial function
4. Make a table of signs for polynomial functions
5. Make a summary table of properties of the graph of polynomial functions
(behavior, number of turning points, location relative to the x-axis)
6. Formulate and solve real-life problems applying polynomial functions
7. Sketch plans or designs of objects that illustrate polynomial functions
g. Create concrete objects as products of applying solutions to problems
involving polynomial functions (e.g. rectangular open box, candle mold)

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Assessment Map

TYPE

PreAssessment/
Diagnostic

KNOWLEDGE

PROCESS/
SKILLS

UNDERSTANDING

PERFORMANCE

Part I

Part I

Part I

Part II

Illustrating
polynomial
functions
(Recalling the
definition of
polynomial
functions and
the terms
associated
with it)

Illustrating
polynomial
functions
(Recalling
the definition
of polynomial
functions and
the terms
associated
with it)

Graphing
polynomial
functions
(Describing the
properties of
graphs of
polynomial
functions)

Products and
performances
related to or
involving
quadratic
functions
(Solving area
problems)

Graphing
polynomial
functions
(Describing
the
properties of
graphs of
polynomial
functions)

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Solving problems
involving
polynomial
functions

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PROCESS/
SKILLS

UNDERSTANDING

Quiz 1:

Quiz 2:

Quiz 3:

Illustrating
polynomial
functions
(Writing
polynomial
functions in
standard form
and in
factored form)

Graphing
polynomial
functions
(Preparing table
of signs)

Quiz 4:

Graphing
polynomial
functions
(Finding the
intercepts of
polynomial
functions)
(Finding
additional
points on the
graph of a
polynomial
function)
Quiz 5:

Graphing
polynomial
functions

Graphing
polynomial
functions

(Identifying
the number of
turning points
and the
behavior of
the graph
based on
multiplicity of
zeros)

(Sketching
the graph of
polynomial
functions
using all
properties)

Solving problems
involving
polynomial
functions

PERFORMANCE

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(Describing the
behavior of the
graph using the
Leading
Coefficient Test)
Quiz 6:

(Solving real-life
problems that
apply polynomial
functions)

Formative

KNOWLEDGE

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TYPE

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Solving
problems
involving
polynomial
functions

Summative
Assessment

(Sketching the
graph of
polynomial
functions
using all
properties)
Part I
Illustrating
polynomial
functions
(Recalling the
definition of
polynomial
functions and
the terms
associated
with it)

Part I

Part I

Part II

Illustrating
polynomial
functions
(Recalling
the definition
of polynomial
functions and
the terms
associated
with it)

Graphing
polynomial
functions
(Describing the
properties of the
graph of
polynomial
functions)

Products and
performances
related to or
involving
polynomial
functions
(Solving
problems
related to
volume of an
open
rectangular box)

Graphing
polynomial
functions

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Solving problems
involving
polynomial
functions

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SelfAssessment
(optional)

KNOWLEDGE

PROCESS/
SKILLS

Product/
Performance
30%

Part I items 1, 2,
and 3

Illustrate polynomial
functions.
Graph polynomial
functions

Solve problems
involving polynomial
functions

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Understanding
30%

Paper and
Pencil Test

The learner
demonstrates
understanding of key
concepts of
polynomial functions.

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Process/Skills
25%

How will I
assess?

What will I assess?

Knowledge 15%

PERFORMANCE

(Describing
the
properties of
the graphs of
polynomial
functions)
Journal Writing:
Expressing understanding of polynomial functions, graphing
polynomial functions, and solving problems involving polynomial
functions

Assessment Matrix (Summative Test)


Levels of
Assessment

UNDERSTANDING

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TYPE

The learner is able to


conduct systematically
a mathematical
investigation involving
polynomial functions
in different fields.

How Will I Score?

1 point for every


correct response

Part I items 4, 5,
6, 7, and 8

1 point for every


correct response

Part I items 9,
10, 11, 12, 13,
and 14

1 point for every


correct response

Part II
(6 points)

Rubric for the Solution


to the Problem
Criteria:
Use of polynomial
function as model
Use of appropriate
mathematical
concept
Correctness of the
final answer

Solve problems
involving polynomial
functions.

Rubric for the


Output (Open Box)
Criteria:
Accuracy of
measurement
(Dimensions)
Durability and
Attributes

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C. Planning for Teaching-Learning


Introduction
This module is a one-lesson module. It covers key concepts of
polynomial functions. It is composed of fourteen (14) activities, three
(3) of which are for illustration of polynomial functions, nine (9) are
for graphing polynomial functions, and two (2) are for solving real-life
problems involving polynomial functions.

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The lesson as incorporated in the activities is designed for the


students to:
1. define polynomial functions and the terms associated with it;
2. write polynomial functions in standard and factored form;
3. write polynomial functions in standard form given real numbers as
coefficients and exponents;
4. recall and apply the different theorems in factoring polynomials to
determine the x-intercepts;
5. determine more ordered pairs that satisfy a polynomial function;
6. investigate and analyze the properties of the graphs of polynomial
functions (like end behaviors, behaviors relative to the x-axis,
number of turning points, etc.); and
7. solve real-life problems (like area and volume, deforestation,
revenue-advertising expense situations, etc.) that apply
polynomial functions.
One of the essential targets of this module is for the students
to manually sketch the graph of polynomial functions which later on
can be verified and validated with some graphing utilities like Grapes,
GeoGebra, or even Geometers Sketchpad.

In dealing with each activity of this lesson, the students are


given the opportunity to use their prior knowledge and required skills
in previous tasks. They are also given varied activities to process the
knowledge and skills learned and further deepen and transfer their
understanding of the different lessons.
Lastly, you may prepare your own related activities if you feel
that the activities suggested here are not appropriate to the level and
contexts of students (for examples, slow/fast learners, and localized
situations/examples).

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As an introduction to the main lesson, show the students the


picture mosaic below, then ask them the question that follows:

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In this mosaic picture, can you see some mathematical


representations? Give some.

Objectives:

Motivate the students to find out the answers and to determine


the essential applications of polynomial functions through this
module.

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After the learners have gone through this module, they are expected
to:
1. illustrate polynomial functions;
2. graph polynomial functions; and
3. solve problems involving polynomial functions.

PRE-ASSESSMENT:

Check students prior knowledge, skills, and understanding of


mathematics concepts related to polynomial functions. Assessing
these will facilitate your teaching and the students understanding of
the lessons in this module.

LEARNING GOALS AND TARGETS:


Students are expected to demonstrate understanding of key
concepts of polynomial functions, formulate real-life problems involving
these concepts, and solve these using a variety of strategies. They are
also expected to investigate mathematical relationships in various
situations involving polynomial functions.
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Answer Key
Part I:
1. B
2. C
3. A
4. D
5. A
6. D
7. C

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

B
A
A
D
D
A
A

Part II.
(Use the rubric to rate students work/output)
Solution to the problem
Since P 2l 2w , then 36 2l 2w or 18 l w , and
w 18 l .
The lot area can be expressed as A(l ) l (18 l ) or

A(l ) 18l l 2 .
A(l ) (l 2 18l )

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A(l ) (l 2 18l 81) 81


A(l ) (l 9) 2 81, in vertex form.
Therefore, l 9 meters and w 18 l 18 9 9
meters, yielding the maximum area of 81 square
meters.

What to KNOW

The students need first to recall the concept of polynomial


expressions. These will lead them to define and illustrate mathematically
the polynomial functions.

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Activity 1: Which is which?


Answer Key

1. polynomial
2. not polynomial
sign
3. polynomial
4. not polynomial
numbers
5. not polynomial
6. polynomial
7. not polynomial
number
8. polynomial
9. not polynomial
10. polynomial

because the variable of one term is inside the radical

because the exponents of the variable are not whole


because the variables are in the denominator
because the exponent of one variable is not a whole
because the exponent of one variable is negative

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Let this activity be the starting point of defining a polynomial


function as follows:
A polynomial function is a function of the form

P( x ) an x n an 1x n 1 an 2 x n 2 ... a1x a0 ,

an 0,

where n is a nonnegative integer, a0 , a1, ..., an are real numbers called

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coefficients, an x n is the leading term, an is the leading coefficient,


and a0 is the constant term.
Other notations:

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f ( x ) an x n an1x n1 an2 x n2 ... a1x a0


or

y an x n an1x n1 an2 x n2 ... a1x a0 ,

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Answer Key

Activity 2: Fix and Move Them, Then Fill Me Up

Degree

Leading
Coefficient

Constant
Term

2
3

5
3

y x 3 5x

4. y x( x 3)( x 3)

y x 3 9x

-1

5. y ( x 4)( x 1)( x 1)2

y x 4 3x 3 5x 2 3x 4

Polynomial Function

1. f ( x ) 2 11x 2x 2

3
2. f ( x ) 2x 5 15x
3
3
2
3. y x( x 5)

Polynomial Function in
Standard Form

f ( x ) 2x 2 11x 2

f (x)

2x 3
5
15x
3
3

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Activity 3: Be a Polynomial Function Architect


Answer Key
7 2 1
x x
4
6
1
7
2. f ( x ) 2x 3 x 2
x
6
4
7 3
1
3. f ( x )
x 2x 2 x
4
6

7 3 1 2
x x 2x
4
6
1
7 2
5. f ( x ) x 3
x 2x
6
4
1
7
6. f ( x ) x 3 2x 2
x
6
4

4. f ( x )

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1. f ( x ) 2x 3

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The answers above are expected to be given by the students. In


addition, instruct them to classify each polynomial according to the
degree. Also, let them identify the leading coefficient and the constant
term.
What to PROCESS

In this section, the students need to revisit the lessons and their
knowledge on evaluating polynomials, factoring polynomials, solving
polynomial equations, and graphing by point-plotting.

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Activity 4: Do you miss me? Here I Am Again


Answer Key

1. ( x 1)x 3( x 2)

6.

y x( x 3)( x 4)

2.

7.

y ( x 2)( x 2)( x 2 4)

8.

y 2( x 1)( x 1)( x 1)( x 3)

9.

y x( x 1)( x 1)( x 3)( x 3)

3.

x 3x 2( x 3)( x 3)
(2x - 3) x -1 (x - 3)

4. ( x 2)( x 2)( x 3)
5. (2x 3)( x 1)( x 2)( x 3)

10. y (2x 3)( x 1)( x 2)( x 3)

The preceding task is very important for the students because it


has something to do with the x-intercepts of a graph. These are the xvalues when y = 0, and, thus the point(s) where the graph intersects the
x-axis can be determined.

90

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Activity 5: Seize Me and Intercept Me


Answer Key
x-intercepts:
x-intercepts:
x-intercepts:
x-intercepts:
x-intercepts:

0, -4, 3
2, 1, -3
1, -1, -3
2, -2
0, 1, -1, -3,

Activity 6: Give Me More Companions


Answer Key

x
y

C
O

1. x-intercepts: -4, -2, 1, 3


y-intercept: 24

PY

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

-5
144

-3
-24

0
24

2
-24

4
144

ordered pairs: (-5,144), (-4,0), (-3, -24), (-2,0), (0,24), (1,0),


(2-24), (3,0), (4,144)

3
, 2, 4
2

EP
E

2. x-intercepts: -5,

y-intercept: -90
x
y

-6
-720

-4
240

-0.5
-101.2

3
72

ordered pairs: (-6, -720), (-5, 0), (-4, 240), (


(2, 0), (3, 72), (4, 0), (5, -390)

3. x-intercepts: -6, 0,
y-intercept:

0
x
y

5
-390

3
, 0), (-0.5, 101.2),
2

4
3
-7
175

-3
-117

1
7

2
-32

ordered pairs: (-7,175), (-6,0), (-3,-117), (0,0), (1,7), (


91

4
,0),
3

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(2,-32)
4. x-intercepts: -3, -1, 0, 1, 3
y-intercept: 0
x
y

-4
1680

-2
-60

-0.5
1.64

0.5
1.64

2
-60

4
1680

PY

ordered pairs: (-4,1680), (-3, 0), (-2, -60), (-1, 0), (-0.5, 1.64),
(0, 0), (0.5, 1.64), (1, 0), (2, -60), (3, 0), (4, 1680)

Activity 7: What is the destiny of my behavior?

C
O

Answer Key

Location of the Point


(x,y): above the xaxis, on the x-axis, or
below the x-axis?
above the x-axis

Value
of y

Relation of y-value to
0:
y 0, y 0, or y 0 ?

-5

144

y 0

-4
-3

0
-24

y=0

on the x - axis
below the x-axis

-2
0

0
24

y=0

on the x - axis
above the x-axis

1
2

0
-24

y=0

on the x - axis
below the x-axis

3
4

0
144

y=0

on the x - axis
above the x-axis

Value
of x

y 0

EP
E

y 0

y 0
y 0

Answers to the Questions:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

(-4,0), (-2,0), (1,0), and (3,0)


The graph is above the x-axis.
The graph is below the x-axis.
The graph is above the x-axis.
The graph is below the x-axis.
The graph is above the x-axis.

Show the students how to prepare a simpler but similar table, the
table of signs.
92

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Example:
The roots of the polynomial function y ( x 4)( x 2)( x 1)( x 3)
are x = -4, - 2, 1, and 3 . These are the only values of x where the graph
will cross the x-axis. These roots partition the number line into intervals.
Test values are then chosen from within each interval.

y ( x 4)( x 2)( x 1)( x 3)

position of the curve


relative to the x-axis

PY

x 3

C
O

Test Value
x4
x2
x 1

x 4
-5

Intervals
4 x 2 2 x 1 1 x 3
-3
0
2
+
+
+

+
+

above

below

above

below

x 3
4
+
+
+
+
+

above

EP
E

Give emphasis that at this level, though, we cannot yet determine


the turning points of the graph. We can only be certain that the graph is
correct with respect to intervals where the graph is above, below, or on
the x-axis as shown on the next page.

93

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Activity 8: Sign on and Sketch Me


Answer Key

y (2x 3)( x 1)( x 4)


(a)

3
, 1, 4
2

(b)

3
x ,
2

3
x 1, 1 x 4 ,
2

x4

PY

1.

(c)

Test Value
2x 3

x 1

x4

3
x 1
2

1 x 4

x4

0
+
+

2
+
+

5
+
+
+
+

below

above

below

above

EP
E

position of the curve


relative to the x-axis

y (2x 3)( x 1)( x 4)

-2

3
2

C
O

Intervals

(d)

2. y x 3 2x 2 11x 12
(a)

-3, 1, 4

(b)

x 3 ,

or

y ( x 3)( x 1)( x 4)

3 x 1, 1 x 4 ,

94

x4

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(c)
x 3

Test Value

-4
+

x 3

x 1

x4

y ( x 3)( x 1)( x 4)
position of the curve
relative to the x-axis

below

x4
5
+
+
+
-

above

below

PY

above

C
O

Note: Observe that there is one more factor, -1, that


affects the final sign of y. For example, under
y is
positive because
x 3 , the sign of
-(-)(-)(-) = + .

(d)

Intervals
3 x 1
1 x 4
0
2
+
+
+
+

EP
E

3. y x 4 26x 2 25

or

y ( x 5)( x 1)( x 1)( x 5)

(a) -5, -1, 1, 5


(b) x 5 ,

5 x 1,

1 x 1,

1 x 5 ,

x 5

(c)

Test Value

x 5

x 1
x 1

x 5

y x 26x 2 25

position of the
curve relative to
the x-axis

x 5

Intervals
5 x 1 1 x 1 1 x 5

x 5

-6
+

-2
+

0
+
+
+

2
+
+
+

6
+
+
+
+
+

above

below

above

below

above

95

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4. y x 4 5x 3 3x 2 13x 10

or

y ( x 5)( x 2)( x 1)2


(b) x 5 ,

C
O

(a) -5, -2, 1

5 x 2 ,

(c)

x 5

x 5

-6
-

EP
E

x2

2 x 1,

( x 1)2

y ( x 5)( x 2)( x 1)
position of the curve
relative to the x-axis

x 1

Intervals
5 x 2
2 x 1
-3
0
+
+
+

Test Value

PY

(d)

x 1
2
+
+

below

above

below

below

Note: Observe that there is one more factor, -1, that affects
the final sign of y. For example, under x 5 , the
sign of y is negative because -(-)(-)(+) = - . .

(d)

96

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5. y x 2 ( x 3)( x 1) 4 ( x 1)3
(a) -3, -1, 0, 1
(b) x 3 ,

3 x 1,

1 x 0 ,

0 x 1,

x 1

(c)
Intervals
x 3
-4

3 x 1
-2

1 x 0
-0.5

0 x 1
0.5

x 1

x2
x 3
( x 1) 4
( x 1)3

+
+

+
+
+

+
+
+

+
+
+

+
+
+

y x 2 ( x 3)( x 1)4 ( x 1)3

above

below

below

below

above

EP
E

(d)

PY

position of the curve


relative to the x-axis

C
O

Test Value

Broken parts of the graph indicate that somewhere below,


they are connected. The graph goes downward from (-1,0)
and at a certain point, it turns upward to (-3,0).

Answers to the Questions:

1. For y (2x 3)( x 1)( x 4)


a. Since there is no other x-intercept to the left of
graph falls to the left continuously without end.
b. (i)

3
x 1 and x 4
2

(ii) x

3
, then the
2

3
and 1 x 4
2

c. Since there is no other x-intercept to the right of 4, then the


graph rises to the right continuously without end.
d. leading term: 2x 3
e. leading coefficient: 2, degree: 3

97

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2. For y x 3 2x 2 11x 12 or y ( x 3)( x 1)( x 4)


a. Since there is no other x-intercept to the left of -3, then the
graph rises to the left continuously without end.
b. (i) x 3 and 1 x 4
(ii) 3 x 1 and x 4
c. Since there is no other x-intercept to the right of 4, then the
graph falls to the right continuously without end.
d. leading term: x 3
e. leading coefficient: -1, degree: 3

C
O

PY

3. For y x 4 26x 2 25 or y ( x 5)( x 1)( x 1)( x 5)


a. Since there is no other x-intercept to the left of -5, then the
graph rises to the left continuously without end.
b. (i) x 5 and 1 x 1
(ii) 5 x 1 and 1 x 5
c. Since there is no other x-intercept to the right of 5, then the
graph rises to the right continuously without end.
d. leading term: x 4
e. leading coefficient: 1, degree: 4

EP
E

4. For y x 4 5x 3 3x 2 13x 10 or y ( x 5)( x 2)( x 1)2


a. Since there is no other x-intercept to the left of -5, then the
graph falls to the left continuously without end.
b. (i) 5 x 2
(ii) x 5 , 2 x 1 and x 1
c. Since there is no other x-intercept to the right of 1, then the
graph falls to the right continuously without end.
d. leading term: x 4
e. leading coefficient: -1, degree: 4

5. For y x 2 ( x 3)( x 1)4 ( x 1)3


a. Since there is no other x-intercept to the left of -3, then the
graph rises to the left continuously without end.
b. (i) x 3 and x 1 (ii) 3 x 1, 1 x 0, and 0 x 1
c. Since there is no other x-intercept to the right of 1, then the
graph rises to the right continuously without end.
d. leading term: x 10
e. leading coefficient: 1, degree: 10

Let the students reflect on these questions: Do the leading


coefficient and degree of the polynomial affect the behavior of its
graph? Encourage them to do an investigation as they perform the next
activity.

98

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Activity 9: Follow My Path!


Answer Key

b. odd degree

Case 2:
a. negative

c. falling to the left


rising to the right

b. odd degree

Case 3:
a. positive

c. rising to the left


falling to the right

b. even degree

Case 4:
a. negative

c. rising to the left


rising to the right

b. even degree

Sample Polynomial Function

c. falling to the left


falling to the right

C
O

Summary table:

PY

Case 1:
a. positive

Leading
Coefficient:

n0
or

n0

EP
E

3
2
1. y 2x 7x 7x 12

5
4
3
2
2. y x 3x x 7x 4

4
2
3. y x 7 x 6x

4
3
2
4. y x 2x 13x 14x 24

Degree:
Even
or Odd

Behavior of
the Graph:
Rising or
Falling
LeftRighthand
hand

n0

odd

falling

rising

n0

odd

rising

falling

n0

even

rising

rising

n0

even

falling

falling

99

Possible
Sketch

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Synthesis: (The Leading Coefficient Test)


1. If the degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient
positive, then the graph falls to the left and rises to the right.
2. If the degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient
negative, then the graph rises to the left and falls to the right.
3. If the degree of the polynomial is even and the leading coefficient
positive, then the graph rises to the right and also rises to the left.
4. If the degree of the polynomial is even and the leading coefficient
negative, then the graph falls to the left and also falls to the right.

is
is
is
is

C
O

PY

You should also consider another helpful strategy to determine


whether the graph crosses or is tangent to the x-axis at each x-intercept.
This strategy involves the concept of multiplicity of a root of a
polynomial function, the one generalized in the next activity.
Activity 10: How should I pass through?
Answer Key

-2
-1
1
2

2
3
4
1

Multiplicity

even
odd
even
odd

EP
E

Root or
Zero

Characteristic
of
Multiplicity:
Odd or even

Behavior of Graph Relative


to x-axis at this Root:
Crosses or is Tangent to

tangent to x-axis
crosses the x-axis
tangent to x-axis
crosses the x-axis

Answer to the Questions:

a. The graph is tangent to the x-axis.


b. The graph crosses the x-axis.

The next activity considers the number of turning points of the


graph of a polynomial function. The turning points of a graph occur
when the function changes from decreasing to increasing or from
increasing to decreasing values.

100

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Activity 11: Count Me In


Answer Key

Polynomial
Function

Number
of
Degree
Turning
Points

1. y x 4

PY

Sketch

C
O

EP
E

2. y x 4 2x 2 15

3. y x

4. y x 5 x 3 2x 1
x

101

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5. y x 5 5 x 3 4x

PY

Answers to the Questions:

C
O

a. Quartic functions: have an odd number of turning points; at most 3


turning points
Quintic functions: have an even number of turning points; at most
4 turning points
b. No. It is not possible.
c. The number of turning points is at most (n 1).

Important: The graph of a polynomial function is continuous, smooth, and


has rounded turns.

What to REFLECT on and UNDERSTAND

EP
E

Activity 12: Its Your Turn, Show Me


Answer Key

1. y ( x 3)( x 1)2 (2x 5)


a. leading term:
b. end behaviors:

c. x-intercepts:

points on x-axis:

d. multiplicity of roots:

2x 4
rises to the left, falls to the right
-3, -1,

5
2

(-3,0), (-1,0), (

5
,0)
2

-3 has multiplicity 1, -1 has multiplicity 2,

5
has multiplicity 1
2
e. y-intercept:
point on y-axis:
f. no. of turning points:

15
(0,15)
1 or 3

102

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PY

g. expected graph:

C
O

Note: At this stage, we cannot determine the exact values of all


the turning points of the graph. We need calculus for this.
For now, we just need to ensure that the graph's end
behaviors and intercepts are correctly graphed.

2. y ( x 2 5)( x 1)2 ( x 2)3


a. leading term:
b. end behaviors:
c. x-intercepts:
points on the x-axis:

( 5 ,0), (1,0), ( 5 ,0), (2,0)

5 has multiplicity 1, 1 has


multiplicity 2, 5 has multiplicity 1, 2

d. multiplicity of roots:

x7
falls to the left, rises to the right
5 , 1, 5 , 2

EP
E

has
multiplicity 3
e. y-intercept:
40
point on y-axis:
(0, 40)
f. no. of turning points: 2 or 4 or 6
g. expected graph:

Note: Broken parts of the graph indicate that somewhere above,


they are connected. The graph goes upward from (1, 0) and
at a certain point, it turns downward to ( 5 , 0).

103

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C
O

PY

3. y x 3 2x 2 2x 4 or in factored form y ( x 2 2)( x 2)


a. leading term:
x3
b. end behaviors:
rises to the left, falls to the right
c. x-intercept:
2
point on x-axis:
(2, 0)
d. multiplicity of root:
-2 has multiplicity 1
e. y-intercept:
4
point on y-axis:
(0, 4)
f. no. of turning points:
0 or 2
g. expected graph:

EP
E

Note: The graph seems to be flat near x = 1. However, at this stage,


we cannot determine whether there are any flat parts in the
graph. We need calculus for this. For now, we just need to
ensure that the graph's end behaviors and intercepts are
correctly graphed.

4. y x 2 ( x 2 7)(2x 3)
a. leading term:
b. end behaviors:

c. x-intercepts:

points on the x-axis:

d. multiplicity of roots:

e. y-intercept:
0
point on the y-axis:
f. no. of turning points:

2x 5
falls to the left, rises to the right

3
, 0, 7
2
3
( 7 , 0), ( , 0), (0, 0), ( 7 , 0)
2
3
7 has multiplicity 1, has
2
7,

multiplicity 1, 0 has multiplicity 2,


has multiplicity 1

(0, 0)
2 or 4

104

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PY

g. expected graph:

5. y 2x 4 3x 3 18x 2 6x 28 or in factored form

2x 4
rises to the left, rises to the right

c. x-intercepts:

-2, 2 ,

points on x-axis:

C
O

y ( x 2 2)(2x 7)( x 2)
a. leading term:
b. end behaviors:

EP
E

7
, 0)
2

-2 has multiplicity 1, 2 has


multiplicity 1,

2 has multiplicity 1,

7
has multiplicity
2

28
(0, 28)
1 or 3

e. y-intercept:
point on y-axis:
f. no. of turning points:
g. expected graph:

7
2

(-2, 0), ( 2 , 0), ( 2 , 0), (

d. multiplicity of roots:

2,

105

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Activity 13: Investigate Deeper and Decide Wisely


Answers to the Questions

C
O

PY

1. a. 50%
b. The value given by the table is 23.7%. The polynomial gives a
value of 26.3%. The given polynomial is the cubic polynomial
that best fits the data. We expect it to give a good
approximation of the forest cover but it may not necessarily
produce the exact values.
c. The domain of the function is [0,98]. Since year 2100
corresponds to x = 200, we cannot use the function to predict
forest cover during this year. Moreover, if x = 200, the
polynomial predicts a forest cover of 59.46%. This is very
unrealistic unless major actions are done to reverse the trend.
You can find other data that can be modelled by a
polynomial. Use the regression tool in MS Excel or GeoGebra
to determine the best fit polynomial for the data.

2. The figure below can help solve the problem.


24

EP
E

18

18 - 2x

x
x

x
24 - 2x

106

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Solution:

Let x
18 2x
24 2x

be the height of the box


be the width of the box
be the length of the box

Working Equation: lwh V

PY

(24 2x )(18 2x )x V ( x )
(24 2x )(18 2x )x 560
4x 3 84x 2 432x 560
4x 3 84x 2 432x 560 0
x 3 21x 2 108x 140 0
( x 2)( x 5)( x 14) 0

C
O

To meet the requirements, the height of the box is either


2 inches or 5 inches. Both will result in the volume of 560 cubic
inches. In this problem, it is impossible to produce a box if the
height is 14 inches, so x = 14 is not a solution.

EP
E

Encourage the students to write their insights. Let them show their
appreciation of polynomial functions. The following questions might be
helpful for them: Were you surprised that polynomial functions have
real and practical uses? What mathematical concepts do you need to
solve these kinds of problems?
What to TRANSFER

The goal of this section is to check if the students can appl y polynomial
functions to real-life problems and produce a concrete object that
satisfies the conditions given in the problem.
Activity 14: Make Me Useful, Then Produce Something
Answers to the Questions
Solution:
Let x be the side of the square base of the pyramid. So,
area of the base (B):
B x2
height of the pyramid (h):
h x 2
Working Equation: V

1
Bh
3
107

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V (x)

1 2
x ( x 2)
3

1 2
x ( x 2)
3
75 x 3 2x 2
25

x 3 2x 2 75 0
( x 5)( x 2 3x 15) 0

The only real solution to the equation is 5. So, the side of


the square base is 5 inches long and the height of the pyramid is
3 inches.

C
O

Summary/Synthesis/Generalization:

PY

Students outputs may vary depending on the materials used and in the
way they consider the criteria.

This lesson was about polynomial functions. You learned how to :


illustrate and describe polynomial functions;

show the graph of polynomial functions using the following


properties:
- the intercepts (x-intercept and y-intercept);
- the behavior of the graph using the Leading Coefficient Test,
table of signs, turning points, and multiplicity of zeros; and

solve real-life problems that can be modelled with polynomial


functions.

EP
E

108

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SUMMATIVE TEST
Part I
Choose the letter that best answers each question.

A.

B.

C.

1
4

D.

PY

2.

Which of the following could be the value of n in the equation


f(x) = x n if f is a polynomial function?

Which of the following is NOT a polynomial function?


C. f ( x ) x 5 x 3
A. f (x )

2 3
B. f ( x ) x 1
3

C
O

1.

1
5

D. f ( x ) x 2x 2

What is the leading coefficient of the polynomial function f ( x ) x 2x 3 4 ?


A. 4
C. 1
B. 2
D. 3

4.

How should the polynomial function f ( x )

EP
E

3.

written in standard form?


1
A. f ( x ) 11x 4 2x 3 x x 2
2
1
B. f ( x ) x 2 x 2x 3 11x 4
2
1
C. f ( x ) 11x 4 2x 3 x 2 x
2
1
D. f ( x ) x x 2 2x 3 11x 4
2

1
x x 2 11x 4 2x 3 be
2

5.

Which polynomial function in factored form represents the given


graph?
y

A. y (2x 3)( x 1)2


B. y (2x 3)( x 1)2
C. y (2x 3)2 ( x 1)
D. y (2x 3)2 ( x 1)
109

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6.

Which of the following could be the graph of y x 4 5 x 2 4 ?


y

x
x

A.

C.
y

PY

y
x

C
O

B.

D.

If you will draw the graph of y x 2 ( x 1) , how will the graph behave
at the x-axis?
A. The graph crosses both (0, 0) and (1, 0).
B. The graph crosses (0, 0) and is tangent to the x-axis at (1, 0).
C. The graph crosses (1, 0) and is tangent to the x-axis at (0, 0).
D. The graph is tangent to the x-axis at both (0, 0) and (1, 0).

8.

You are asked to graph f ( x ) x 6 x 5 5x 4 x 3 3x 2 x using its


properties. Which of these will be your graph?

EP
E

7.

y
1

-5

-4

-3

-2

-6

-1

-5

-4

A.

-3
-1

-6

-5

-4

-3

-6

-2

-5

-1

-4

-3

1 x -2

-1

1 x

1
-1

-1

1 x

-2

-1

B.

C.

-2

D.

-2

-1

9.

3 n

-3

-3

-5

D.-5

-6

-6

Given that f ( x ) 7 x x , what value should be assigned to n to


-2
-4
-4
make f a function of degree 7?
-2

7
A.
3

-3

B.
-4

3-3
7

C.

-4

3
7

7
3

-5

-5

110

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10. If you were to choose from 2, 3, and 4, which pair of values for a
and n would you consider so that y = ax n could define the graph
below?
y

A.
B.
C.
D.

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

=
=
=
=

2
3
2
3

,
,
,
,

n
n
n
n

=
=
=
=

3
2
4
3

-1

C
O

PY

11. A car manufacturer determines that its profit, P, in thousands of


pesos, can be modeled
by the function P(x) = 0.001 25x 4 + x 3,
-2
where x represents the number of cars sold. What is the profit at
-3
x =150?
A. Php 75.28
C. Php 3,000,000.00
-4
B. Php 632,959.50
D. Php 10,125,297.00

-5
12. Your friend Aaron
Marielle asks your help in drawing a rough sketch
of the graph of y ( x 2 1)(2x 4 3) by means of the Leading
-6
Coefficient Test. How will you explain the behavior of the graph?
A. The graph is falling to the left and rising to the right.
B. The graph is rising to both left and right.
C. The graph is rising to the left and falling to the right.
D. The graph is falling to both left and right.

13. Lein Andrei is tasked to choose from the numbers 2, 1, 3, and 6 to


form a polynomial function in the form y = ax n. What values should
he assign to a and n so that the function could define the graph
below?

EP
E

-7

A.
B.
C.
D.

-8

a
a
a
a

a
a
a
a

=
=
=
=

3 ,
3 ,
6 ,
-1 ,

n = -2
n=6
n=3
n=6

14. Consider this Revenue-Advertising Expense situation.


A drugstore that sells a certain brand of vitamin capsule estimates
that the profit P (in pesos) is given by

P 50x 3 2400x 2 2000 , 0 x 32

111

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where x is the amount spent on advertising (in thousands of pesos).


An advertising agency provides four (4) different advertising
packages with costs listed below. Which of these packages will
yield the highest revenue for the company?
A. Package A: Php 8,000.00
B. Package B: Php 16,000.00
C. Package C: Php 32,000.00
D. Package D: Php 48,000.00
Part 2

PY

Read and analyze the situation below. Then, answer the questions or
perform the required task.

(a) Write a function that represents the volume V of the new box.
(b) Find the dimensions of the new box.
(c) Using hard paperboard, make the two boxes - one with the
original dimensions and another with the new dimensions.
(d) On one face of the bigger box, write your mathematical
solution in getting the new dimensions.

EP
E

Task:

C
O

An open box with dimensions 2 inches by 3 inches by 4 inches


needs to be increased in size to hold five times as much material as the
current box. (Assume each dimension is increased by the same
amount.)

Additional guidelines:

1. The boxes should look presentable and are durable enough to


hold any dry material such as sand, rice grains, etc.
2. Consider the rubric below.

Rubric for Rating the Output:


Point
3
2
1

Descriptor
Polynomial function is correctly presented as model,
appropriate mathematical concepts are used in the solution,
and the correct final answer is obtained.
Polynomial function is correctly presented as model,
appropriate mathematical concepts are partially used in the
solution, and the correct final answer is obtained.
Polynomial function is not correctly presented as model,
other alternative mathematical concepts are used in the
solution, and the final answer is incorrect.
112

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Criteria for Rating the Output (Box):


Each box has the needed dimensions.
The boxes are durable and presentable.
Point/s to be Given:
3 points if the boxes have met the two criteria
2 points if the boxes have met only one criterion
1 point if the boxes have not met any of the criteria

Part II.
(Use the rubric to rate students work/output)

C
O

Solution for finding the dimensions of the desired box:


Let x be the number to be added to each of length, width
and height to increase the size of the box. Then the
dimensions of the new box are x+2 by x+3 by x+4.

Since the volume of the original box is (2 inches)


(3 inches) (4 inches) = 24 cubic inches, then the volume
of the new box is 120 cubic inches.

EP
E

Part I:
1. B
2. D
3. B
4. C
5. B
6. A
7. C
8. C
9. A
10. B
11. B
12. D
13. D
14. C

PY

Answer Key for Summative Test

Writing these in an equation, we have


( x 2)( x 3)( x 4) V ( x )
x 3 9x 2 26x 24 120
x 3 9x 2 26x 96 0 ,
( x 2)( x 2 11x 48) 0
Therefore, from the last equation, the only real solution
is x = 2. Thus, the dimensions of the new box are 4
inches by 5 inches by 6 inches.
Note to the Teacher:
To validate that the volume of the bigger box is five
times the volume of the other box, guide the students to
compare the content of both boxes using sand, rice
grains, or mongo seeds.

113

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Glossary of Terms
Constant Function a polynomial function whose degree is 0
Cubic Function a polynomial function whose degree is 3
Evaluating a Polynomial the process of finding the value of the
polynomial at a given value in its domain

PY

Intercepts of a Graph the points on the graph that have zero as


either the x-coordinate or the y-coordinate
Irreducible Factor - a factor that can no longer be factored using
coefficients that are real numbers

C
O

Leading Coefficient Test - a test that uses the leading term of the
polynomial function to determine the right-hand and the left-hand
behaviors of the graph
Linear Function - a polynomial function whose degree is 1

Multiplicity of a Root - tells how many times a particular number is a


root for a given polynomial

EP
E

Nonnegative Integer - zero or any positive integer


Polynomial Function - a function denoted by
P( x ) an x n an1x n1 an2 x n2 ... a1x a0 , where n is a nonnegative
integer, a0 , a1, ..., an are real numbers called coefficients, but an 0, ,

an x n is the leading term, an is the leading coefficient, and a0 is the


constant term
Polynomial in Standard Form - any polynomial whose terms are
arranged in decreasing powers of x
Quadratic Function - a polynomial function whose degree is 2
Quartic Function - a polynomial function whose degree is 4
Quintic Function - a polynomial function whose degree is 5
Turning Point - point where the function changes from decreasing to
increasing or from increasing to decreasing values
114

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References
Alferez, M. S., Duro, MC.A., & Tupaz, KK. L. (2008). MSA Advanced
Algebra. Quezon City, Philippines: MSA Publishing House
Berry, J., Graham, T., Sharp, J., & Berry, E. (2003). Schaums A-Z
Mathematics.
London,
United
Kingdom:
Hodder
&Stoughton
Educational.

PY

Cabral, E. A., De Lara-Tuprio, E. P., De Las Penas, ML. N., Francisco,


F. F., Garces, IJ. L., Marcelo, R. M., & Sarmiento, J. F. (2010).
Precalculus. Quezon City, Philippines: Ateneo de Manila University
Press

C
O

Jose-Dilao, S., Orines, F. B., & Bernabe, J. G. (2003). Advanced


Algebra, Trigonometry and Statistics. Quezon City, Philippines: JTW
Corporation
Lamayo, F. C., & Deauna, M. C. (1990). Fourth Year Integrated
Mathematics. Quezon City, Philippines: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc.

Larson, R., & Hostetler, R. P. (2012). Algebra and Trigonometry. Pasig


City, Philippines: Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd

EP
E

Marasigan, J. A., Coronel, A. C., & Coronel, I. C. (2004). Advanced


Algebra with Trigonometry and Statistics. Makati City, Philippines: The
Bookmark, Inc.
Quimpo, N. F. (2005). A Course in Freshman Algebra. Quezon City,
Philippines

Uy, F. B., & Ocampo, J. L. (2000). Board Primer in Mathematics.


Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Capitol Publishing House.
Villaluna, T. T., & Van Zandt, GE. L. (2009). Hands-on, Minds-on
Activities in Mathematics IV. Quezon City, Philippines: St. Jude
Thaddeus Publications.

115

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Module 4: Circles
A. Learning Outcomes
Content Standard:
The learner demonstrates understanding of key concepts of circles.
Performance Standard:

PY

The learner is able to formulate and find solutions to challenging


situations involving circles and other related terms in different disciplines
through appropriate and accurate representations.
Unpacking the Standards for Understanding

Quarter: Second Quarter


TOPIC: Circles

2.
3.

LESSONS:
1. A. Chords, Arcs, and
Central Angles
B. Arcs and Inscribed
Angles
2. A. Tangents and
Secants
of a Circle
B. Tangent and Secant
Segments

1.

Learning Competencies
Derive inductively the relations among
chords, arcs, central angles, and inscribed
angles
Illustrate segments and sectors of circles
Prove theorems related to chords, arcs,
central angles, and inscribed angles
Solve problems involving chords, arcs,
central angles, and inscribed angles of
circles
Illustrate tangents and secants of circles
Prove theorems on tangents and secants
Solve problems involving tangents and
secants of circles

C
O

Subject: Mathematics 10

EP
E

4.

Writer:

Concepcion S. Ternida

5.
6.
7.

Essential
Understanding:

Essential
Question:

Students will
understand that the
concept of circles has
wide applications in real
life and is a useful tool
in problem-solving and
in decision making.

How do geometric
relationships
involving circles
help solve real-life
problems that are
circular in nature?

116

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Transfer Goal:
Students will be able to apply the key
concepts of circles in finding solutions and
in making decisions for certain real-life
problems.
B. Planning for Assessment
Product/Performance

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

PY

C
O

2.

EP
E

Assessment Map

1.

The following are products and performances that students are expected
to come up with in this module.
Objects or situations in real life where chords, arcs, and central angles of
circles are illustrated
A circle graph applying the knowledge of central angles, arcs, and sectors
of a circle
Sketch plans or designs of a stage with circular objects that illustrate the
use of inscribed angles and arcs of a circle
Sketch plans or designs of an arch bridge that illustrate the applications of
secants and tangents
Deriving geometric relationships involving circles
Proof of theorems and other geometric relationships involving circles
Formulated and solved real-life problems

TYPE

PreAssessment/
Diagnostic

KNOWLEDGE

PROCESS/
SKILLS

Pre-Test:
Part I

Pre-Test:
Part I

Identifying
inscribed angle

Finding the
length of an arc
of a circle given
its radius

Identifying the
external secant
segment
Describing the
opposite angles
of a quadrilateral
inscribed in a
circle
Identifying the
sum of the
measures of the
central angles of
a circle

Finding the
measure of a
central angle
given its
intercepted arc

UNDERSTANDING

PERFORMANCE

Pre-Test:
Part I
Part II
Solving problems
involving the key
concepts of
circles

Finding the
lengths of
segments
formed by
intersecting
chords

117

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KNOWLEDGE

PROCESS/
SKILLS

Describing the
inscribed angle
intercepting a
semicircle

Finding the
measure of the
angle formed by
two secants

Determining the
number of line
that can be
drawn tangent to
the circle

Finding the
length of a chord
that is
perpendicular to
a radius
Finding the
length of a
secant segment

PERFORMANCE

C
O

Finding the area


of a sector of a
circle

UNDERSTANDING

PY

TYPE

Finding the
measure of a
central angle
given its
supplement

EP
E

Finding the
measure of an
angle of a
quadrilateral
inscribed in a
circle

Finding the
measure of an
inscribed angle
given the
measure of a
central angle
intercepting the
same arc

Pre-Test:
Part III
Situational
Analysis

Pre-Test:
Part III
Situational
Analysis

Pre-Test:
Part III
Situational
Analysis

Pre-Test:
Part III
Situational
Analysis

Planning the
design of a
garden

Illustrating every
part or portion of
the garden
including their
measurements
and accessories

Explaining how to
prepare the
designs of the
garden

Making designs
of gardens

118

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Determining the
mathematics
concepts or
principles
involved in the
design of the
garden
Formative

PROCESS/
SKILLS

KNOWLEDGE

Quiz:
Lesson 1A
Identifying and
describing terms
related to circles

UNDERSTANDING

PERFORMANCE

Formulating
problems that
describe the
situations
Solving the
problems
formulated
Quiz:
Lesson 1A

Quiz:
Lesson 1A

Solving the
degree measure
of the central
angles and arcs

Explaining why
an arc is a
semicircle

C
O

Finding the
length of the
unknown
segments in a
circle

Justifying why
angles or arcs are
congruent

PY

TYPE

EP
E

Determining the
reasons to
support the
given
statements in a
two-column
proof of a
theorem

Solving the
length of an arc
of a circle given
its degree
measure

Explaining how to
find the degree
measure of an
arc
Explaining how to
find the center of
a circular garden
Solving real-life
problems
involving the
chords, arcs, and
central angles of
circles

Finding the area


of the shaded
region of circles
Quiz:
Lesson 1B

Quiz:
Lesson 1B

Quiz:
Lesson 1B

Identifying the
inscribed angles
and their
intercepted arcs

Finding the
measure of an
inscribed angle
and its
intercepted arc

Explaining why
the inscribed
angles are
congruent

119

Proving theorems
on inscribed

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KNOWLEDGE

PROCESS/
SKILLS

Determining the
measure of an
inscribed angle
that intercepts a
semicircle
Determining the
reasons to
support the
given
statements in a
two-column
proof of a
theorem

UNDERSTANDING

angles and
intercepted arcs
using two-column
proofs
Proving
congruence of
triangles using
the theorems on
inscribed angles
Solving real-life
problems
involving arcs and
inscribed angles

Quiz:
Lesson 2A

Identifying
tangents and
secants
including the
angles they form

Determining the
measures of the
different angles,
arcs, and
segments

Proving theorems
on tangents and
secants using
two-column
proofs

EP
E

C
O

Quiz:
Lesson 2A

Explaining the
kind of
parallelogram that
can be inscribed
in a circle
Quiz:
Lesson 2A

Explaining how to
find the measure
of an angle given
a circle with
tangents

Quiz:
Lesson 2B

Quiz:
Lesson 2B

Solving real-life
problems
involving tangents
and secants of a
circle
Quiz:
Lesson 2B

Identifying the
external secant
segment in a
circle

Finding the
length of the
unknown
segment in a
circle

Proving theorems
on intersecting
chords, secant
segments, and
tangent segments

PERFORMANCE

PY

TYPE

Explaining why
the solution for
finding the length

120

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UNDERSTANDING

Drawing a circle
with appropriate
labels and
description

of a segment is
correct or
incorrect

Pre-Test:
Part I

Pre-Test:
Part I

Identifying an
inscribed angle

Finding the
measure of an
arc intercepted
by a central
angle

Pre-Test:
Part I
Part II

Identifying a
tangent
Describing the
angles of a
quadrilateral
inscribed in a
circle

Finding the
length of an arc
Finding the
lengths of
segments
formed by
intersecting
chords

EP
E

Identifying the
sum of the
measures of the
central angles of
a circle

Describing the
inscribed angle
intercepting a
semicircle

Determining the
number of lines
that can be
drawn tangent to
the circle

PERFORMANCE

Solving real-life
problems
involving tangent
and secant
segments
Post-Test:
Part III A and B

PY

Summative

PROCESS/
SKILLS

KNOWLEDGE

Solving problems
involving the key
concepts of
circles

C
O

TYPE

Finding the
measure of the
angle formed by
a tangent and a
secant

Preparing
sketches of the
different
formations to be
followed in the
field
demonstrations
including their
sequencing and
presentation on
how each will be
performed
Formulating and
solving problems
involving the key
concepts of
circles

Finding the
measure of an
inscribed angle
given the
measure of a
central angle
intercepting the
same arc
Finding the
length of a
secant segment
Finding the area
of a sector of a
circle

121

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TYPE

KNOWLEDGE

PROCESS/
SKILLS

UNDERSTANDING

PERFORMANCE

Finding the
measure of a
central angle
given its
supplement

Finding the
length of a chord
that is
perpendicular to
a radius

C
O

SelfAssessment

PY

Finding the
measure of an
angle of a
quadrilateral
inscribed in a
circle

Journal Writing:
Expressing understanding of the key concepts of circles

Expressing understanding of the different geometric relationships involving


circles

What will I assess?

EP
E

Levels of
Assessment

Assessment Matrix (Summative Test)

1. Derive inductively the


relations among
chords, arcs, central
angles, and inscribed
angles.
2. Illustrate segments
and sectors of circles.
3. Prove theorems
related to chords, arcs,
central angles and
inscribed angles
4. Solve problems
involving chords, arcs,
central angles, and
inscribed angles of
circles

Knowledge
15%

The learner demonstrates


understanding of key
concepts of circles.

Process/Skills
25%

Understanding
30%

122

How will I
assess?

How Will I
Score?

Part I items 1, 3, 4,
6, 7, and 10

1 point for
every correct
response

Part I items 2, 5, 8,
9, 11, 12, 13, 14,
15, and 16

1 point for
every correct
response

Part I items 17, 18,


19, and 20

1 point for
every correct
response

Paper and Pencil


Test

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Part II items 1 and


2

Rubric on
Problem
Solving
(maximum of
4 points for
each
problem)

The learner is able to


formulate and find
solutions to challenging
situations involving
circles and other related
terms in different
disciplines through
appropriate and accurate
representations.

Part III A

Rubric for
Sketches of
the Different
Formations
(Total Score:
maximum of
6 points )

PY
Part III B

Rubric on
Problems
Formulated
and Solved
(Total Score:
maximum of
6 points )

C
O

Product/
Performance
30%

5. Illustrate tangents and


secants of circles
6. Prove theorems on
tangents and secants
7. Solve problems
involving tangents and
secants of circles

C. Planning for Teaching-Learning

EP
E

This module covers key concepts of circles. It is divided into four


lessons namely: Chords, Arcs, and Central Angles, Arcs and Inscribed
Angles, Tangents and Secants of a Circle, and Tangent and Secant
Segments.

Lesson 1A is about the relations among chords, arcs and central


angles of a circle, area of a segment and a sector, and arc length of a
circle. In this lesson, the students will determine the relationship between
the measures of the central angle and its intercepted arc, apply the
different geometric relationships among chords, arcs, and central angles
in solving problems, complete the proof of a theorem related to these
concepts, find the area of a segment and the sector of a circle, and
determine the length of an arc. (Note that all measures of angles and arcs
are in degrees.)
Moreover, the students will be given the opportunity to demonstrate
their understanding of the lesson by naming objects and citing real-life
situations where chords, arcs, and central angles of a circle are illustrated
and applied.

123

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The concepts about arcs and inscribed angles of a circle are


contained in Lesson 1B. In this lesson, the students will determine the
geometric relationships that exist among arcs and inscribed angles of a
circle, apply these in solving problems, and prove related theorems.
Moreover, they will formulate and solve real-life problems involving these
geometric concepts.

PY

The geometric relationships involving tangents and secants and


their applications in real life will be taken up in Lesson 2A. In this lesson,
the students will find the measures of angles formed by secants and
tangents and the arcs that these angles intercept. They will apply the
relationships involving tangents and secants in finding the lengths of
segments of some geometric figures. Moreover, the students will be given
opportunities to formulate and solve real-life problems involving tangents
and secants of a circle.

C
O

Lesson 2B of this module is about the different geometric


relationships involving tangent and secant segments. The students will
apply these geometric relationships in finding the lengths of segments
formed by tangents and secants. To demonstrate their understanding of the
lesson, the students will make a design of a real-life object where tangent
and secant segments are illustrated or applied, then formulate and solve
problems out of this design.

EP
E

In all the lessons, the students are given the opportunity to use their
prior knowledge and skills in learning circles. They are also given varied
activities to process the knowledge and skills learned and further deepen
and transfer their understanding of the different lessons.

As an introduction to the main lesson, show the students the


pictures below, then ask them the questions that follow:

124

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Have you imagined yourself pushing a cart or riding a bus having


wheels that are not round? Do you think you can move heavy objects
from one place to another easily or travel distant places as fast as you
can? What difficulty do you think would you experience without circles?
Have you ever thought of the importance of circles in the field of
transportation, industries, sports, navigation, carpentry, and in your daily
life?
Entice the students to find out the answers to these questions and
to determine the vast applications of circles through this module.

PY

Objectives:

C
O

After the learners have gone through the lessons contained in this
module, they are expected to:
1. identify and describe terms related to circles;
2. use the relationship among chords, arcs, central angles, and
inscribed angles of circles;
3. find the area of segments and sectors of circles;

4. find the lengths of arcs of circles;

EP
E

5. use two-column proofs in proving theorems related to chords, arcs,


central angles, and inscribed angles of circles;
6. identify the tangents and secants of circles;
7. formulate and solve problems involving chords, arcs, central angles,
and inscribed angles of circles;

8. use two-column proofs in proving theorems related to tangents and


secants of circles; and
9. formulate and solve problems involving tangents and secants of
circles.

PRE-ASSESSMENT:
Check students prior knowledge, skills, and understanding of
mathematics concepts related to circles. Assessing these will facilitate
teaching and students understanding of the lessons in this module.

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Answer Key
11. A
12. A
13. B
14. A
15. A
16. A
17. A
18. C
19. B
20. C

Part II (Use the rubric to rate students


works/outputs)
1. 24.67 m
2. 27.38 km
Part III (Use the rubric to rate students
works/outputs)

C
O

LEARNING GOALS AND TARGETS:

PY

Part I
1. B
2. A
3. D
4. D
5. C
6. C
7. C
8. B
9. A
10. D

Students are expected to demonstrate understanding of key concepts


of circles, formulate real-life problems involving these concepts, and solve
these using a variety of strategies. They are also expected to investigate
mathematical relationships in various situations involving circles.

EP
E

Lesson 1A: Chords, arcs, and Central angles


What to Know

Assess students knowledge of the different mathematics concepts


previously studied and their skills in performing mathematical operations.
Assessing these will facilitate teaching and students understanding of chords,
arcs, and central angles. Tell them that as they go through this lesson, they
have to think of this important question: How do the relationships among
chords, arcs, and central angles of a circle facilitate finding solutions to reallife problems and making decisions?
Ask the students to identify, name, and describe the terms related to circles
by doing Activity 1. Let them explain how they arrived at their answers. Also,
ask them to describe and differentiate these terms.

126

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Activity 1: Know My Terms and Conditions


Answer Key
1. AN , AJ , AE
2. EJ
3. EL , EJ
4. JNE , JLE

5. JL , JN , EN , EL
6. LEN , LJE , ENL , JLN , LNJ
7. JAN , NAE
8. LEJ , JEN

PY

Questions:
a. Recall the definition of the terms related to circles.

EP
E

C
O

Terms related to circle


Description
1. radius
It is a segment drawn from the center of
the circle to any point on the circle.
2. diameter
It is a segment whose endpoints are on the
circle and it passes through the center of
the circle. It is the longest chord.
3. chord
It is a segment joining any two points on
the circle.
4. semicircle
It is an arc measuring one-half of the
circumference of a circle.
5. minor arc
It is an arc of a circle that measures less
than a semicircle.
6. major arc
It is an arc of a circle that measures
greater than a semicircle.
7. central angle
It is an angle whose vertex is at the center
of the circle and with two radii as its sides.
8. inscribed angle
It is an angle whose vertex is on a circle
and whose sides contain chords of the
circle.

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Answer Key

C
O

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b. 1. A radius is half the measure of the diameter.


2. A diameter is twice the measure of the radius and it is the longest
chord.
3. A chord is a segment joining any two points on the circle.
4. A semicircle is an arc measuring one-half the circumference of a
circle.
5. A minor arc is an arc of a circle that measures less than the
semicircle.
6. A major arc is an arc of a circle that measures greater than the
semicircle.
7. A central angle is an angle whose vertex is the center of the circle
and with two radii as its sides.
8. An inscribed angle is an angle whose vertex is on a circle and
whose sides contain chords of the circle.

Show the students the right triangles with different measures of sides
and let them find the missing side. Give focus on the mathematics concepts
or principles applied to find the unknown side particularly the Pythagorean
theorem.

EP
E

Activity 2: What is my missing side?


Answer Key

c 10 units
c 17.49 units
c 12.73 units
a 12 units
b 4 units
b 12.12 units

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Questions:

a. Using the equation a2 b2 c 2 .


b. Pythagorean theorem

128

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Provide the students with an opportunity to derive the relationship


between the measures of the central angle and the measure of its intercepted
arc. Ask them to perform Activity 3. In this activity, students will measure the
angles of the given figures using a protractor. Ask them to get the sum of the
angles in the first figure as well as the sum of the central angles in the second
figure. Ask them also to identify the intercepted arc of each central angle.
Emphasize that the sum of the angles formed by the coplanar rays with
common vertex but with no common interior points is equal to the sum of the
central angles formed by the radii of a circle with no common interior points.

PY

Activity 3: Measure Me and You Will See


Answer Key

d. 90
e. 30

C
O

1. a. 105
b. 75
c. 60
2. a. 105
b. 75
c. 60

In each figure, the angles have a common vertex.


360 ; 360
360
360

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E

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

d. 90
e. 30

Measure

Intercepted Arc

1. FAB

105

FB

2. BAC

75

BC

3. CAD

60

CD

4. EAD

90

ED

5. EAF

30

EF

Central Angle

8. 360 because the measure of the central angle is equal to the


measure of its intercepted arc.
9. Equal

129

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Present a real-life situation to the students to develop their


understanding of arcs and central angles of circles. In this activity, ask them
to find the degree measure of each arc of the wheel and also the angle
formed at the hub. Ask them further the importance of the spokes of the
wheel.
Activity 4: Travel Safely

a. 60 ; 60
b. Evaluate students responses

PY

Answer Key

What to PROCESS

C
O

Before proceeding to the next activities, let the students give a brief
summary of what they have learned so far. Provide them with an opportunity
to relate or connect their responses in the activities given to this lesson. Let
the students read and understand some important notes on chords, arcs, and
central angles. Tell them to study carefully the examples given.

EP
E

In this section, let the students apply the key concepts of chords, arcs,
and central angles. Tell them to use the mathematical ideas and the
examples presented in the preceding section to answer the activities
provided.

Ask the students to perform Activity 5. In this activity, the students will
identify and name arcs and central angles in the given circle and explain how
they identified them.

130

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Activity 5: Identify and Name Me


Answer Key
1. LMH (or LGH ) and LKH (or LJH ); JKM (or JLM ) and

Minor Arcs

Major Arcs

JK

KMJ

PY

2.

JGM (or JHM )

KL

KGL

LM

LJM

MG
JH

HKG

C
O

HG

MKG
JMH

Note: There are many ways of naming the major arcs. The given
answers are just some of those ways.

EP
E

3. Some Possible Answers: LAM ; MAG ; GAH ; JAH ; JAK ;


LAK

Questions:
a. A semicircle is an arc with measure equal to one-half of the
circumference of a circle and is named by using the two endpoints
and another point on the arc.
A minor arc is an arc of a circle that measures less than the
semicircle. It is named by using the two endpoints on the circle.
A major arc is an arc of a circle that measures greater than the
semicircle. It is named by using the two endpoints and another point
on the arc.
A central angle is an angle whose vertex is the center of the circle
and with two radii as its sides.
b. Yes. A circle has an infinite set of points. Therefore, a circle has
many semicircles, arcs, and central angles.

In activities 6, 7, and 8, ask the students to apply the different


geometric relationships in finding the degree measure of the central angles,
the arcs that the angles intercept, and the lengths of chords. Then, let them
explain how they arrived at their answers.

131

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Activity 6: Find My Degree Measure


Answer Key
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

90
48
138
42
132

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

PY

Activity 7: Find Me!

90
48
150
42
132

Answer Key

C
O

1. JSO and NSI ; JSN and OSI . They are vertical angles.
2. a. 113
b. 67
c. 67
3. Yes. Yes. Opposite sides of rectangles are congruent.
4. JO and NI ; JN and OI . The central angles that intercept the arcs
are congruent.
5. a. 67
d. 113
b. 113
e. 180
c. 67
f. 180

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6. NJO ; NIO ; JOI ; JNI . The arcs measure 180. Each arc or
semicircle contains the endpoints of the diameter.
Activity 8: Get My Length

Answer Key

5. 39 6.24 units
6. 8 units
7. 2 7 5.29 units
8. 4 7 10.58 units

1. 8 units
2. 2 units
3. 5 units
4. 39 6.24 units

Note: Evaluate students explanations.


Provide the students opportunity to develop their skills in writing proofs.
Ask them to complete the proof of a theorem involving the diameter, chord,
and arc of a circle by doing Activity 9. If needed, guide the students as they
complete the proof of the theorem.
132

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Activity 9: Make Me Complete!


Problem:

To prove that in a circle, a diameter bisects a chord and an arc


with the same endpoints if and only if it is perpendicular to the
chord. The proof has two parts.
E

Given: ES is a diameter of U and


perpendicular to chord GN at I.

N
I
U

Prove: 1. NI GI

PY

2. EN EG
3. NS GS

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Answer Key

Proof of Part 1: We will show that ES bisects GN and the minor arc GN.
Given

Reasons

Definition of perpendicular lines


Right angles are congruent.
Radii of the same circle are
congruent.

EP
E

2.
3.
4.

1.

Statements
U with diameter ES and chord
GN ; ES GN
GIU and NIU are right angles.
GIU NIU
UG UN

133

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Answer Key
Proof:

Statements

Reasons
Reflexive/Identity Property
HyL Theorem
Corresponding parts of congruent
triangles are congruent (CPCTC).

5. UI UI
6. GIU NIU
7. GI NI

Definition of segment bisector

8. ES bisects GN .
9. GUI NUI

PY

From 6, CPCTC

mEN mNUE

From 11, 12, substitution

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E

13. mEN mEG


14. mGUS mNUS

Degree measure of an arc

12. mEG mGUE

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O

E, I, U are collinear.
10. GUI and GUE are the
same angles.
NUI and NUE are the same
angles.
From 9, 10, definition of congruent
11. mGUE mNUE
angles

15. mGS mGUS


mNS mNUS

16. mNS mGS

From 11, definition of


supplementary angles, angles that
are supplementary to congruent
angles are congruent.
Degree measure of an arc
From 14, 15, substitution
Definition of arc bisector

17. ES bisects GN .

134

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Given: ES is a diameter of

U; ES bisects GN

at I and the minor arc GN.

E
N

PY

Answer Key

EP
E

GE NE
3. UI UI
4. UG UN

GN.
2. GI NI

C
O

Proof of Part 2: We will show that ES GN .


Statements
Given
1.
U with diameter ES , ES
bisects GN at I and the minor
arc

5. GIU NIU
6. UIG UIN
7. UIG and UIN are right
angles.
8. IU GN
9. ES GN

Reasons

Definition of bisector
Reflexive/Identity Property
Radii of the same circle are
congruent.
SSS Postulate
CPCTC
Angles which form a linear pair and
are congruent are right angles.
Definition of perpendicular lines

IU is on ES

Combining Parts 1 and 2, the theorem is proven.


Have the students apply the knowledge and skills they have learned
about arc length, segment, and sector of a circle. Ask the students to perform
Activity 10 and Activity 11.

135

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Activity 10: Find My Arc Length


Answer Key
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

3.925 units
5.23 units or 5.23 units
7.85 units
10.46 units or 10.47 units
8.29 units

C
O

PY

Questions:
a. The area of each shaded region was determined by using the
A
l

proportion
where A = degree measure of the arc,
360 2r
l = length of the arc,
r = radius of the circle. Use the formula for
finding the area of a segment and the area of a triangle.
A
l

b. The proportion
, area of a segment and the area of a
360 2r
triangle were used and so with substitution and the division
property.

Activity 11: Find This Part!

9 cm2 or 28.26 cm2


18 cm2 or 56.52 cm2
52.77 cm2
9.31 cm2
59.04 cm2
40 cm2

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

EP
E

Answer Key

Questions:
a. The area of the sector is equal to the product of the ratio
measure of the arc
and the area of the circle.
360
Subtract the area of the triangle from the area of the sector.
b. Area of a circle, area of a triangle, ratio, equilateral triangle, and
regular pentagon

136

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What to REFLECT on and UNDERSTAND


Ask the students to take a closer look at some aspects of the
geometric concepts contained in this lesson. Provide them opportunities to
think deeply and test further their understanding of the lesson by doing
Activity 12. In this activity, the students will solve problems involving chords,
arcs, central angles, area of a segment and a sector, and arc length of a
circle.

PY

Activity 12: More Circles Please

EP
E

C
O

Answer Key
1. a. 72
b. 3.768 cm
c. regular pentagon
2. Yes. There are two pairs of congruent central angles/vertical angles
formed and they intercept congruent arcs.
3. a. Yes. because the arcs are intercepted by the same central angle.
b. No. Even if the two circles have the same central angles, the
lengths of their intercepted arcs are not equal because the 2
circles have different radii.
4. 60. (Evaluate students explanations. They are expected to use the
A
l
proportion
to support their explanations.)

360 2r
5. Draw two chords on the garden and a perpendicular bisector to
each of the chords. The intersection of the perpendicular bisectors
to the chord is the center of the circular garden.
6. a. Education, because it has the highest budget which is
Php12,000.00
Savings & Utilities, because they have the lowest budget which
is Php4,500.00
b. Education. It should be given the greater allocation because it is
a very good investment.
c. Education 120
Food 90
Utilities 45
Savings 45
Other expenses 60
d. Get the percentage for each item by dividing the allotted budget
by the monthly income, then multiply it by 360.

137

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e.

Item
Education
Food
Utilities
Savings
Other expenses

Sector
654.16 cm2
490.625 cm2
245.3125 cm2
245.3125 cm2
327.083 cm2

Arc Length
52.3 cm
39.25 cm
19.625 cm
19.625 cm
26.16 cm

PY

Before the students move to the next section of this lesson, give a
short test (formative test) to find out how well they understood the lesson. Ask
them also to write a journal about their understanding of chords, arcs, and
central angles. Refer to the Assessment Map.

C
O

What to TRANSFER

EP
E

Give the students opportunities to demonstrate their understanding of


circles by doing a practical task. Let them perform Activity 13. You can ask
the students to work individually or in group. In this activity, the students will
name 5 objects or cite 5 situations in real life where chords, arcs, and central
angles of a circle are illustrated. Then, instruct them to formulate and solve
problems out of these objects or situations. Also, ask them to make a circle
graph showing the different school fees that students like them have to pay
voluntarily like Parents-Teachers Association fee, miscellaneous fee, school
paper fee, Supreme Student Government fee, and other fees. Ask them to
explain how they applied their knowledge of central angles and arcs of circle
in preparing the graph. Then, using the circle graph that they made, ask them
to formulate and solve at least two problems involving arcs, central angles,
and sectors of a circle.

Activity 13: My Real World


Answer Key

Evaluate students product. You may use the rubric provided.

138

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Summary/Synthesis/Generalization:
This lesson was about chords, arcs and central angles of a circle, area
of a segment and a sector, and arc length of a circle. In this lesson, the
students determined the relationship between the measures of the central
angle and its intercepted arc.

PY

They were also given the opportunity to apply the different geometric
relationships among chords, arcs, and central angles in solving problems,
complete the proof of a theorem related to these concepts, find the area of a
segment and the sector of a circle, and determine the length of an arc.

C
O

Moreover, the students were asked to name objects and cite real-life
situations where chords, arcs, and central angles of a circle are illustrated and
the relationships among these concepts are applied.

Lesson 1B: Arcs and Inscribed Angles

What to KNOW

EP
E

Let the students relate and connect previously learned mathematics


concepts to the new lesson, arcs and inscribed angles. As they go through
this lesson, tell them to think of this important question: How do geometric
relationships involving arcs and inscribed angles facilitate solving real-life
problems and making decisions?

Start the lesson by asking the students to perform Activity 1. In this


activity, the students will identify in a given figure the angles and their
intercepted arcs. The students should be able to explain how they identified
and named these angles and intercepted arcs.

139

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Activity 1: My Angles and Intercepted Arcs


Answer Key
Arc That the Angle Intercepts

MSC

MC

CSD

CD

MSD

MD

PY

Angles

MGC

MC

DGC

MD

C
O

MGD

CD

1. Determine the chords having a common endpoint on the circle. The


chords are the sides of the angle and the common endpoint on the
circle is the vertex.

Determine two radii of the circle. The two radii are the sides of the angle
and the center of the circle is the vertex.

EP
E

Determine the arc that lies in the interior of the angle with endpoints on
the same angle.
2. There are 6 angles and there are also 6 arcs that these angles
intercept.

3. An angle intercepts an arc if a point on one side of the angle is an


endpoint of the arc.

Give the students opportunity to determine the relationship between


the measure of an inscribed angle and the measure of its intercepted arc by
performing Activity 2. The students should be able to realize in this activity
that the measure of an angle inscribed in a circle is one-half the measure of
its intercepted arc (or the measure of the intercepted arc is twice the measure
of the inscribed angle).

140

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Activity 2: Inscribe Me!


Answer Key
Possible Responses
2.

C
O

PY

1.

3.

mWEL 60 ;

mLW 60

EP
E

The measure of the central angle is


equal to the measure of its intercepted
arc.

4. mLDW 30

5. An inscribed angle is an angle whose vertex is on a circle and whose


sides contain chords of the circle.
6. The measure of LDW is one-half the measure of LW .

141

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Answer Key
7. Draw other inscribed angles of the circle. Determine the measures of
these angles and the degree measures of their respective intercepted
arcs. (Check students drawings.)
The measure of an inscribed angle is one-half the degree measure
of its intercepted arc.

PY

If an angle is inscribed in a circle, then the measure of the angle


equals one-half the measure of its intercepted arc (or the measure of
the intercepted arc is twice the measure of the inscribed angle).

C
O

Activity 3 is related to Activity 2. In this activity, the students will


determine the relationship that exists when an inscribed angle intercepts a
semicircle. They should be able to find out that the measure of an inscribed
angle that intercepts a semicircle is 90.

2.

1.

EP
E

Answer Key

Activity 3: Intercept Me so I Wont Fall!

3.

5. a. mMOT 90

4.

b. mMUT 90

c. mMNT 90

The measures of the three angles are equal. Each angle measures 90.
The measure of an inscribed angle intercepting a semicircle is 90.
The measures of inscribed angles intercepting the same arc are equal.
142

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Develop students understanding of the lesson by relating it to a reallife situation. Ask them to determine the mathematics concepts that they can
apply to solve the problem presented in Activity 4.
Activity 4: One, Two,, Say Cheese!
Answer Key

EP
E

C
O

PY

1.

80

40
New location where Janel
could photograph the entire
house with the telephoto lens

2. Relationship between the central angle or inscribed angle and the arc
that the angle intercepts.
3. Go farther from the house until the entire house is seen on the eye
piece or on the LCD screen viewer of the camera.

143

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Before proceeding to the next section of this lesson, let the students
give a brief summary of the activities done. Provide them with an opportunity
to relate or connect their responses in the activities given to their new lesson,
Arcs and Inscribed Angles. Let the students read and understand some
important notes on the different geometric relationships involving arcs and
inscribed angles and let them study carefully the examples given.
What to PROCESS

PY

Give the students opportunities to use the different geometric


relationships involving arcs and inscribed angles, and the examples
presented in the preceding section to perform the succeeding activities.

C
O

Ask the students to perform Activities 5, 6, and 7. In these activities,


they will identify the inscribed angles and their intercepted arcs, and apply the
theorems pertaining to these geometric concepts and other mathematics
concepts in finding their degree measures. Provide the students opportunities
to explain their answers.
Activity 5: Inscribe, Intercept, then Measure

Answer Key

EP
E

1. LCA , LCE , ACE , ALC , CAE , CAL , LAE , and AEC


2.
a. CAL
b. ACE
c. LCE and LAE
d. ALC and AEC
3.
a. m1 28
d. m4 56
g. m7 28
b. m2 62
e. m5 124
h. m8 62
c. m3 62
f. m6 56
i. m9 62
4.
a. mCL 52
c. mAE 52
b. mAC 128

d. mLE 128

144

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Activity 6: Half, Equal or Twice As?


Answer Key
1. BAC BDC and ACD ABD . If inscribed angles intercept the
same arc, then the angles are congruent.
2. mCD 108
3. mACB 48
c. mDCA 38
d. mAD 76

a. x 5
b. mBDC 26

c. mBC 52
d. mBAC 26

Activity 7: Encircle Me!

1.

Answer Key

PY

5.

a. x 7
b. mABD 38

C
O

4.

a. mOA 150

4.

EP
E

b. mOG 50
c. mGOA 80
d. mGAO 25

3.

b. mFAI 82

5.

a. mCAR 65
b. mACR 57.5
c. mARC 57.5

2.

a. mTIA 105

a. mTM 116
b. mMA 64
c. mAE 116

d. mAC 115

d. mMEA 32

e. mAR 115

e. mTAM 58

a. mRDM 35
b. mDRM 55
c. mDMR 90
d. mDM 110
e. mRD 180

145

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In Activity 8, ask the students to complete the proof of the theorem on


inscribed angle and its intercepted arc. This activity would further develop
their skills in writing proofs which they need in proving other geometric
relationships.

Activity 8: Complete to Prove!


To prove that if an angle is inscribed in a circle, then the
measure of the angle equals one-half the measure of its
intercepted arc (or the measure of the intercepted arc is twice
the measure of the inscribed angle).

PY

Problem:

Given: PQR inscribed in

S and

PQ is a diameter.
1
mPR
2

Prove: mPQR

C
O

Case 1:

x
S

EP
E

Draw RS and let mPQR x .

146

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Answer Key
Statements
1. PQR inscribed in

and PQ is a diameter.

Reasons
Given

2. QS RS

Radii of a circle are congruent.

3. QRS is an isosceles .
4. PQR QRS

Definition of isosceles triangle


The base angles of an isosceles
triangle are congruent.
The measures of congruent angles
are equal.
Transitive Property

PY

5. mPQR mQRS

7. mPSR 2x

Transitive Property

EP
E

9. mPR 2x

8. mPSR mPR

10. mPR 2mPQR


1
mPR
2

Substitution
Multiplication Property of Equality

11. mQRS

The measure of an exterior angle of a


triangle is equal to the sum of the
measures of its remote interior
angles.
The measure of a central angle is
equal to the measure of its
intercepted arc.

C
O

6. mQRS x

What to REFLECT on and UNDERSTAND


Provide the students with opportunities to think deeply and test further
their understanding of the lesson. Let them prove the different theorems on
arcs and inscribed angles of a circle and other geometric relationships by
performing Activity 9 and Activity 10. Moreover, ask the students to solve the
problems in Activity 11 for them to realize the wide applications of the lesson
in real life.

147

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Activity 9: Prove It or Else !


Answer Key
1. Case 2
Given: KLM inscribed in
Prove: mKLM

O.

1
mKM
2

Proof:

Reasons

1
1
mKN and mMLN mMN
2
2

1
1
mKN mMN or
2
2
1
mKLN mMLN mKN mMN
2
mKLN mMLN mKLM

EP
E

mKLN mMLN

mKN mMN mKM


1
mKLM mKM
2

The measure of an
inscribed angle is one-half
the measure of its
intercepted arc (Case 1).
Addition Property

C
O

mKLN

Statements

PY

To prove: Draw diameter LN.

Angle Addition Postulate


Arc Addition Postulate
Substitution

Answer Key

1. Case 3
Given: SMC inscribed in
Prove: mSMC

A.

1
mSC
2

To prove: Draw diameter MP.

148

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Proof:
mPMS

Statements

Reasons

1
1
mPS and mPMC mPC
2
2

The measure of an
inscribed angle is one-half
the measure of its
intercepted arc (Case 1).
Angle Addition Postulate

mPS mSC mPC or

Arc Addition Postulate

mSC mPC mPS

1
1
mPC mPS or
2
2
1
mPMC mPMS mPC mPS
2
1
mSMC mSC
2

Substitution

In T, PR and AC are the


intercepted arcs of PQR
and ABC , respectively.

2. Given:

By Subtraction

C
O

mPMC mPMS

PY

mPMS mSMC mPMC or


mSMC mPMC mPMS

PR AC

PQR ABC

EP
E

Prove:

Proof:

Statements

Reasons

Given

PR AC

Congruent arcs have equal


measures.

mPR mAC
1
mPQR mPR and
2
1
mABC mAC
2

mPQR

The measure of an inscribed


angle is one-half the measure
of its intercepted arc.

1
mAC
2

Substitution

mPQR mABC

Transitive Property

PQR ABC

Angles with equal measures


are congruent.
149

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3. Given:

In C, GML intercepts
semicircle GEL.
GML is a right angle.

Proof:

Statements

Reasons

GML intercepts semicircle GEL.

mGEL 180
1
mGEL
2
1
mGML 180 or mGML 90
2
GML is a right angle.

Definition of right angle

Quadrilateral WIND is inscribed


in Y .

4. Given:

C
O

mGML

Given
The degree measure of a
semicircle is 180.
The measure of an inscribed
angle is one-half the measure
of its intercepted arc.
Substitution

PY

Prove:

EP
E

Prove: 1. W and N are supplementary.


2. I and D are supplementary.

To prove: Draw WY , IY , NY , and DY .


Proof:

Statements

Reasons

mWI mIN mND mDW 360

Substitution

mDNI mDWI 360

Arc Addition Postulate

mNYD mND , and mDYW mDW

The sum of the measures


of the central angles of a
circle is 360.
The measure of a central
angle is equal to the
measure of its intercepted
arc.

mWYI mIYN mNYD mDYW 360

mWYI mWI , mIYN mIN ,

150

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Answer Key
Statements

mDWI

Reasons

The measure of an inscribed


angle is one-half the
measure of its intercepted
arc.

1
1
mDNI and mDNI mDWI
2
2

1
1
mDNI mDWI or
2
2
1
mDWI mDNI mDNI mDWI
2
1
mDWI mDNI 360 or
2
mDWI mDNI 180
mDWI mDNI

PY

mW mI mN mD 360

mI mD 180 360
mI mD 180

Substitution

Definition of supplementary
angles
The sum of the measures of
the angles of a quadrilateral
is 360.
Substitution
Addition Property
Definition of supplementary
angles

C
O

W and N are supplementary.

By Addition

EP
E

I and D are supplementary.

Activity 10: Prove to Me if You Can!


C

Answer Key

1. Given:
Prove:

Proof

MT and AC are chords of


and MC AT ,
CHM THA .

D
H

A
Reasons

Statements

1. MT and AC are chords of


D and MC AT .
2. MCA , ATM , CMT , and
CAT are inscribed angles.
3. MCA ATM and
CMT CAT
4. CHM THA

D.

Given
Definition of inscribed angle
Inscribed angles intercepting the
same arc are congruent.
ASA Congruence Postulate
151

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Answer Key
2. Given:

Quadrilateral DRIV is inscribed in E.


RV is a diagonal that passes through
the center of the circle.

DV IV

Proof:

RVD RVI
V

D
Statements

Reasons

1. RV is a diagonal that
passes through the center of
the circle
2. RV RV
3. DRV VRI

Given

PY

Prove:

C
O

Reflexive Property
Inscribed angles intercepting the
same arc are congruent.

4. RIV and RDV are


semicircles.
5. RDV and RIV are right
angles.
6. RVD and RVI are right
triangles.

Inscribed angle intercepting a


semicircle measures 90

Definition of right triangle

EP
E

7. RVD RVI

Definition of semicircle

3. Given:

Proof:

A, SE NE and SC NT .
S

CSE TNE

Prove:

In

Hypotenuse-Angle Congruence
Theorem

Statements

Given

1. SE NE and SC NT

N
Reasons

If two arcs are congruent, then


the chords joined by their
respective endpoints are also
congruent.
Congruent arcs have equal
measures.

2. SE NE and SC NT
3. mSE mNE and
mSC mNT
4. mSE mSC mEC and
mEN mNT mET

Arc Addition Postulate


152

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Answer Key
Statements

Substitution

1. mEC mET

Reasons

Definition of Congruence

2. EC ET
3. Draw chord CT .
4. ECT ETC

Definition of chord of a circle


Inscribed angles intercepting
congruent arcs are congruent.
Definition of isosceles triangle.
The legs of an isosceles triangle are
congruent.
SSS Congruence Postulate

PY

5. CET is an isosceles triangle.


6. CE TE
7. CSE TNE

Answer Key

C
O

Activity 11: Take Me to Your Real-World!

1. a. 72
b. 36. The measure of an inscribed angle is one-half the measure of
its intercepted arc.

EP
E

2. Rectangle. In a circle, there is only one chord that can be drawn


parallel and congruent to another chord in the same circle. Moreover,
the diagonals of the parallelogram are also the diameters of the circle.
Hence, each inscribed angle formed by the adjacent sides of the
parallelogram intercepts a semicircle and measures 90.

3. 38. If EG is drawn, the viewing angles of Joanna, Clarissa, and


Juliana intercept the same arc. Hence, the viewing angles of Joanna
and Juliana measure the same as the viewing angle of Clarissa.
4. Mang Ador has to draw two inscribed angles on the circle such that
each measures 90. Then, connect the other endpoints of the sides of
each angle to form the diameter. The point of intersection of the two
diameters is the center of the circle.
5. a. PQR is a right triangle.
b. The length of RS is the geometric mean of the lengths of PS and
QS .
c. PS = 6 in.; QS = 2 in.; RS = 2 3 in.
d. RT 4 3 in. and MN 4 3 in.
153

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Before the students move to the next section of this lesson, give a
short test (formative test) to find out how well they understood the lesson. Ask
them also to write a journal about their understanding of arcs and inscribed
angles. Refer to the Assessment Map.
What to TRANSFER

C
O

PY

Give the students opportunities to demonstrate their understanding of


the geometric relationships involving arcs and inscribed angles. In Activity 12,
ask the students to make a design of a stage where a special event will be
held. Tell them to include in the design some circular objects that illustrate the
use of inscribed angles and arcs of a circle, and explain how they applied
these concepts in preparing the design. Then, ask them to formulate and
solve problems out of the design they made. You can ask the students to
work individually or in groups.
Activity 12: How special is the event?
Answer Key

EP
E

Evaluate students product. You may use the given rubric.

Summary/Synthesis/Generalization:

This lesson was about arcs and inscribed angles of a circle. In this
lesson, the students were given the opportunity to determine the geometric
relationships that exist among arcs and inscribed angles of a circle, apply
these in solving problems, and prove related theorems. Moreover, they were
given the chance to formulate and solve real-life problems involving these
geometric concepts out of the product they were asked to come up with as a
demonstration of their understanding of the lesson.

154

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Lesson 2A: Tangents and Secants of a Circle


What to KNOW
Assess students prior mathematical knowledge and skills that are
related to tangents and secants of a circle. This would facilitate teaching and
guide the students in understanding the different geometric relationships
involving tangents and secants of a circle.

C
O

Activity 1: Measure then Compare!

PY

Start the lesson by asking the students to perform Activity 1. This


activity would lead them to some geometric relationships involving tangents
and segments drawn from the center of the circle to the point of tangency.
That is, the radius of a circle that is drawn to the point of tangency is
perpendicular to the tangent line and is also the shortest segment.

Answer Key

S.

EP
E

1. Use a compass to draw

S at exactly one point. Label the

2. Draw line m such that it intersects


point of intersection as T.

3. Connect S and T by a line segment. What is TS in the figure drawn?


TS is a radius of S.

155

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PY

4. Mark four other points on line m such that two of these points are on
the left side of T and the other two points are on the right side. Label
these points as M, N, P, and Q, respectively.

C
O

5. Using a protractor, find the measures of MTS , NTS , PTS, and


QTS . How do the measures of the four angles compare?
The four angles have equal measures. Each angle measures 90.

EP
E

6. Repeat step 2 to 5. This time, draw line n such that it intersects the
circle at another point. Name this point V.

The four angles, AVS , BVS , DVS , and EVS have equal
measures. Each angle measures 90.

156

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C
O

PY

7. Draw MS , NS , PS , and QS .

8. Using a ruler, find the lengths of TS , MS , NS , PS , and QS .

EP
E

How do the lengths of the five segments compare?


The lengths of the five segments, TS , MS , NS , PS , and QS are
not equal.
What do you think is the shortest segment from the center of a circle
to the line that intersects it at exactly one point? Explain your
answer.

The shortest segment from the center of a circle to the line that
intersects the circle at exactly one point is the segment
perpendicular to the line. Whereas, the other segments become the
hypotenuses of the right triangles formed. Recall that the
hypotenuse is the longest side of a right triangle.

157

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Provide the students with opportunities to investigate relationships


among arcs and angles formed by secants and tangents. Ask them to perform
Activity 2 and Activity 3. Let the students realize the following geometric
relationships:
1. If two secants intersect on a circle, then the measure of the angle formed
is one-half the measure of the intercepted arc. (Note: Relate this to the
relationship between the measure of the inscribed angle and the measure
of its intercepted arc.)

PY

2. If a secant and a tangent intersect in the exterior of a circle, then the


measure of the angle formed is one-half the positive difference of the
measures of the intercepted arcs.

C
O

3. If a secant and a tangent intersect at the point of tangency, then the


measure of each angle formed is one-half the measure of its intercepted
arc.
4. If two secants intersect in the exterior of a circle, then the measure of the
angle formed is one-half the positive difference of the measures of the
intercepted arcs.

5. If two tangents intersect in the exterior of a circle, then the measure of the
angle formed is one-half the positive difference of the measures of the
intercepted arcs.

EP
E

6. If two secants intersect in the interior of a circle, then the measure of an


angle formed is one-half the sum of the measures of the arcs intercepted
by the angle and its vertical angle.

158

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Activity 2: Investigate Me!


Answer Key

PY

1. Which lines intersect circle C at two points? AD, AE, DG,

How about the lines that intersect the circle at exactly one point? BG

EP
E

C
O

2. What are the angles having A as the vertex?


DAE, EAG, DAB, DAG . There are still other angles with A as
the vertex, but for the purpose of our new lesson, we consider these
angles.
C as the vertex? ACD, ACG, ECF, DCE
D as the vertex? ADG. There are still other angles with D as the
vertex but for the meantime, we only consider this.
G as the vertex? AGD. There are still other angles with G as the
vertex but for the meantime, we only consider this.
3.

DAB AD
DAE DE
DAG DEA
EAG EFA
ADF AF

4.

DAE and DCE DE


DAB , DCA , and AGD AD
ACF , ADF , and AGD AF

DCE DE
ACD AD
ACF AF
ECF EF
AGD AF and AD

5. mDAE 34.43
mEAG 90
mDAB 55.57
mDAG 124.43
mACD 111.14

mACG 68.87
mECF 111.14
mDCE 68.87
mADG 34.43
mAGD 21.13

159

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Answer Key
6. Determine the measure of the central angle that intercepts the same
arc. The measure of the central angle is equal to the measure of its
intercepted arc.
mEFA= 180

mDE= 68.86

mEF= 111.14

mDEA= 248.86

mAF= 68.86

8.

mAD 2mDAB
mEFA 2mEAG

9.

mBGD

PY

mDCE 2mDAE
mDE 2mDAE . Since mDCE mDE ,
then mDE 2mDAE .

C
O

7.

mAD= 111.14

1
mAD mAF
2

Activity 3: Find Out by Yourself!

2.

EP
E

Answer Key

RST is a central angle of

4. mRST

S.

1
mST
2

1
mRVT mRT
2

8. Yes. mRST

1
mRT mNT
2

10. Yes. mRST

1
mRT mMN
2

12. Yes. mRST

1
mRT mMN
2

6. Yes. mRST

160

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Let the students give their realizations of the activities done before
proceeding to the next activities. Provide them with an opportunity to relate or
connect their responses to the activities given in their lesson, tangents and
secants of a circle. Let the students read and understand some important
notes on tangents and secants of a circle and study carefully the examples
given.
What to PROCESS

PY

In this section, let the students use the geometric concepts and
relationships they have studied and the examples presented in the preceding
section to answer the succeeding activities.

C
O

Present to the students the figure given in Activity 4. In this activity, the
students should be able to identify the tangents and secants in the figure
including the angles that they form and the arcs that these angles intercept.
They should be able to determine also the unknown measure of the angle
formed by secants intersecting in the exterior of the circle. Give emphasis to
the geometric relationship the students applied in finding the measure of the
angle. Provide them opportunities to compare their answers and correct their
errors, if there are any.

EP
E

Answer Key

Activity 4: Tangents or Secants?

1. KL and LM. Each line intersects the circle at exactly one point.
2. KN and MP. Each line intersects the circle at two points.

3. KNK and N; MPM and P; KLK; LMM


4. There are other angles formed but only these are considered.
KOM is formed by two secant lines.
KLM is formed by two tangent lines.
LMP, LKN, PMR, and NKS. Each is formed by a secant and a
tangent.
5. MP PMR , NP KOM , KN NKS , KM KLM ,
KPM KLM
6. mKLM 50 ; mNP = 30

161

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In Activity 5, provide the students with opportunities to apply the


different geometric relationships in finding the measures of the angles formed
by tangents and secants and the arcs that these angles intercept. Let them
also determine the lengths of segments tangent to circle/s and other
segments drawn on a circle. Ask them to support their answers by stating the
geometric relationships applied.
Activity 5: From One Place to Another

C
O

7. mPQO 61
mPQR 119
8. a. mPW 125
b. mRPW 27.5
c. mPRW 62.5
d. mWRE 27.5
e. mWER 62.5
f. mWER 62.5
9. PQ 6 4 5
10. a. x 6
b. ST 19
c. RT 19
d. AT 19

EP
E

1. mABC 40
2. mMQL 40
3. mPTR 47
mRTS 133
4. a. x 10
b. mCG 65
c. mAR 55
5. mMC 71
6. OR 4 85
RS 24
KS 4 85 24

PY

Answer Key

What to REFLECT on and UNDERSTAND

Let the students think deeply and test further their understanding of the
different geometric relationships involving tangents and secants of circles by
doing Activity 6. In this activity, they will apply these geometric relationships in
solving problems.

162

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Activity 6: Think of These Relationships Deeply!


Answer Key
a. mRON 90 ; mRON 90 . The radius of a circle is
perpendicular to a tangent line at the point of tangency.
b. NRO NUD
c. mNRO 59
d. mNDU 41; mDUO 131
e. RO 5 ; DN 12 ; DU 6 3
NRO is not congruent to DUN . The lengths of their sides are
not equal.

2. LU is tangent to

I.

a. RL LI . If two segments from the same exterior point are tangent


to a circle, then the two segments are congruent.
b. LTR LTI by HyL Theorem.
c. mILT 38 ; mITL 52 ; mRTL 52
d. TL 26 ; LI 24 ; AL 16
a. SZ 6
b. DZ 3
c. CX 7.5
d. CY 7.5
If two segments from the same exterior point are tangent to a circle,
then the two segments are congruent.

EP
E

4.

I. SC is also tangent to

C
O

3.

PY

1.

5. 5 55 m
6.
a. mP 55
mR 55
mS 55
b. The angle that I will make with the lighthouse must be less than
55.

Provide the students with opportunities to prove theorems involving


tangents and secants of circles. Let them perform Activity 7. Guide the
students in writing the proof. If needed, provide hints.

163

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Activity 7: Is this true?


Answer Key
1. Given:
Prove:

AB is tangent to

C at D.

AB CD

PY

To prove: a. Draw AC
b. Assume AB is not perpendicular
to CD and AB AC
Proof:
Statement
AB is not perpendicular
to CD and AB AC .

C
O

Assumption

Ruler Postulate

E is a point on AD such that


DE 2DA

Betweenness and Congruence


of Segments
Right angles are congruent.
Reflexive Property
SAS Congruence Postulate
CPCTC
The lengths of congruent
segments are equal.
Definition of circle

EP
E

DA AE
CAE CAD
AC AC
CDA CEA
CD CE

Reason

CD CE

D and E are on C.
D and E are the points of intersection
of tangent line AB and
C is not true.

AB CD

2. Given: RS is a radius of
PQ RS
Prove: PQ is tangent to

A tangent intersects the circle at


exactly one point.
Only one line can be drawn on a
circle that is tangent to it at the
point of tangency.

S.
S at R.

To prove: Draw QS .

164

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Answer Key
Statement

RS is a radius of

Reason

S and PQ RS .

QS >RS

Q is not on

S.

PQ is tangent to

S at R.

Given
The shortest segment from the
center of a circle to a line tangent
to it is the perpendicular
segment.
No other point of a tangent line
other than the point of tangency
lies on a circle.
A tangent intersects the circle at
exactly one point.

Prove: EM EL

C
O

3. Given: EM and EL are tangent to


S at M and L, respectively.

PY

Proof:

EP
E

To prove: Draw MS , LS , and ES .

Proof:

Statement

Reason
Radii of the same circle are
congruent.
A line tangent to a circle is
perpendicular to the radius.
Reflexive Property
Hypotenuse-Leg Congruence
Theorem
CPCTC

MS LS

EL LS and EM MS .

ES ES
ESM ESL

EM EL

165

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RS and TS are tangent to


and intersect at the exterior

Prove:

mRST

1
mTQR mTR
2

V at R and T, respectively,
S.

PY

a. Given:

C
O

4.

To prove: Draw RV , TV , and SV .


Proof:

EP
E

Statement
SVR SVT
mRVS mRSV 90 and
mTVS mTSV 90
mRVS mTVS mRVT
mRVT 90 x 90 x

180 2x

mTR 180 2x

mTQR mTR 360

mTQR 180 2x
mRSV mTSV mRST
mRSV mTSV x x

Reason
(Proven)
Acute angles of a right
triangle are complementary.
Angle Addition Postulate
Substitution
The measure of a central
angle is equal to the
measure of its intercepted
arc.
The degree measure of a
circle is 360.
Substitution and Addition
Property of Equality
Angle Addition Postulate
By Substitution and Addition

2x
mRST 2x

Transitive Property

mTQR mTR 180 2x 180 2x


22x

By Substitution and
Subtraction

166

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Answer Key
By Substitution

mTQR mTR 2mRST


1
mRST mTQR mTR
2
b. Given:KL is tangent to

Multiplication Property
O at K.

NL is a secant that passes through

C
O

PY

KL and NL intersect at the


exterior point L.

O at M and N.

1
mNPK mMK
2

mKLN

EP
E

Prove:

To prove: Draw KM , MO , and KO .


Let mMKL x so that mMKO 90 x and mKMO 90 x .

Proof:

mNMK

Statement

Reason
The measure of an
inscribed angle is one-half
the measure of its
intercepted arc.
The measure of the
exterior angle of a triangle
is equal to the sum of the
measures of its remote
interior angles.
The measure of a central
angle is equal to the
measure of its intercepted
arc.

1
mNPK
2

mNMK mMKL mNLK

mKOM mKM

167

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mKOM 2x

The sum of the


measures of
complementary angles is
90.
The sum of the
measures of the interior
angle of a triangle is 180
Addition Property

mKM 2x

Transitive Property

mKMO mMKO mKOM 180

2mMKL mKM or mMKL

1
mKM
2

mNLK

1
mNPK mKM
2

By Substitution

AC is a secant that passes


through T at A and B.

c. Given:

By Subtraction

C
O

1
mNPK 1 mKM mNMK mMKL
2
2
mMKL mNLK mMKL
mNLK

Multiplication Property

PY

mMKL mMKO 90

EP
E

EC is a secant that passes


through T at E and D.

AC and EC intersect at the


exterior point C.

Prove:

mACE

1
mAE mBD
2

To prove: Draw AD and BE .

168

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Answer Key
Proof:

Statement

1
mAE and
2
1
mDAB mBD
2
1
mAE 1 mBD mADE mDAB
2
2
mADE mDAC mACE
1
1
mACE mAE mBD or
2
2
1
mACE mAE mBD
2

By Subtraction

C
O

mADE

PY

mADE mDAC mACE

Reason
The measure of the
exterior angle of a
triangle is equal to the
sum of the measures of
its remote interior
angles.
The measure of an
inscribed angle is onehalf the measure of its
intercepted arc.

Transitive Property

PR and QS are secants


intersecting in the interior
of V at T.

EP
E

5. Given:

Addition Property

PS and QR are the intercepted


arcs of PTS and QTR .

1
mPS mQR
2
To prove: Draw RS .

Prove: mPTS

169

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Proof:

Statement

Reason
The measure of an
inscribed angle is one-half
the measure of its
intercepted arc.

1
mPS and
2
1
mQSR mQR
2
mQTR mPRS mQSR

mPRS

PY

The measure of the


exterior angle of a triangle
is equal to the sum of the
measures of its remote
interior angles.

1
mPS 1 mQR or
2
2
1
mQTR mPS mQR
2
mQTR mPTS
mQTR

C
O

MP and LN are secant and


tangent, respectively, and
intersect at C at the point
of tangency, M.

EP
E

6. Given:

1
mPS mQR
2

The measures of vertical


angles are equal.
Transitive Property

mPTS

Substitution

1
mMP and
2
1
mLMP mMKP
2
mNMP

Prove:

To prove: Draw OP and OM .


Let mNMP x so that mOMP 90 x and
mOPM 90 x .

170

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Answer Key
Statement

mMOP mMP

mNMP mOMP 90
mOMP mOPM mMOP 180
mMOP 2x

Reason
The measure of a central
angle is equal to the
measure of its intercepted
arc.
The sum of the measures
of complementary angles
is 90.
The sum of the measures
of a triangle is 180.
Addition Property

PY

Proof:

Transitive Property

mMP 2x

mMP mMKP 360

Substitution

C
O

mMP 2mNMP
1
mNMP mMP
2

Multiplication Property

mMKP 360 2x

EP
E

mMKP 2180 x
mLMP 90 90 x or
mLMP 180 x

The degree measure of a


circle is 360.
By Substitution and
Subtraction
By Factoring
Angle Addition Postulate
Substitution

mMKP 2mLMP
1
mLMP mMKP
2

Multiplication Property

Before the students move to the next section of this lesson, give a
short test (formative test) to find out how well they understood the lesson. Ask
them also to write a journal about their understanding of tangents and secants
of a circle. Refer to the Assessment Map.

171

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What to TRANSFER
Give the students opportunities to demonstrate their understanding of
the different geometric relationships involving tangents and secants of circles
by doing a practical task. Let them perform Activity 8. You can ask the
students to work individually or in a group. In this activity, the students will
formulate and solve problems involving tangents and secants of circles as
illustrated in some real-life objects.

PY

Activity 8: My Real World


Answer Key

C
O

Evaluate students product. You may use the rubric provided.

Summary/Synthesis/Generalization:

EP
E

This lesson was about the geometric relationships involving tangents


and secants of a circle, the angles they form and the arcs that these angles
intercept. The lesson provided the students with opportunities to derive
geometric relationships involving radius of a circle drawn to the point of
tangency, investigate relationships among arcs and angles formed by secants
and tangents, and apply these in solving problems. Moreover, they were given
the chance to prove the different theorems on tangents and secants and
demonstrate their understanding of these concepts by doing a practical task.
Their understanding of this lesson and other previously learned mathematics
concepts and principles will facilitate their learning of the wide applications of
circles in real life.

172

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Lesson 2B: Tangent and Secant Segments


What to KNOW

PY

Find out how much students have learned about the different
mathematics concepts previously studied and their skills in performing
mathematical operations. Checking these will facilitate teaching and students
understanding of the geometric relationships involving tangent and secant
segments. Tell them that as they go through this lesson, they have to think of
this important question: How do geometric relationships involving tangent and
secant segments facilitate solving real-life problems and making decisions?

C
O

Provide the students with opportunities to enhance further their skills in


finding solutions to mathematical sentences previously studied. Let them
perform Activity1. In this activity, the students will solve linear and quadratic
equations in one variable. These mathematical skills are prerequisites to
learning the geometric relationships involving tangent and secant segments.
Ask the students to explain how they arrived at the solutions and how
they applied the mathematics concepts or principles in solving each
mathematical sentence.

EP
E

Answer Key

Activity 1: What is my value?

1. x 9
2. x 5

6. x 5
7. x 8
8. x 2 3

3. x 6
4. x 9

9. x 3 5
10. x 4 5

5. x 12

Questions:
a. Applying the Division Property of Equality and Extracting Square
Roots
b. Division Property of Equality and Extracting Square Roots

Present to the students the figure in Activity 2. Then, let them identify
the tangent and secant lines and the chords, name all the segments they can
see, and describe a point in relation to the circle. This activity has something
to do with the lesson. Let the students relate this to the succeeding activities.

173

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Activity 2: My Segments
Answer Key
1.
2.
3.
4.

JL - tangent; JS - secant; AS ; AT ; LN - chords


NE ; ET ; AE ; EL
AS ; AJ ; JL
A point outside the circle

C
O

PY

Ask the students to perform Activity 3 to determine the relationship that


exists among segments formed by intersecting chords of a circle. In this
activity, the students might not be able to arrive at the accurate
measurements of the chords due to the limitations of the measuring
instrument to be used. If possible, use math freeware like GeoGebra in
performing the activity.

Activity 3: What is true about my chords?

EP
E

Answer Key

1-2.
3. a. BA = 2.8 units
c. MA = 1.95 units
b. TA = 2.8 units
d. NA = 4.02 units
4. The product of BA and TA is equal to the product of MA and NA .
5. If two chords of a circle intersect, then the product of the measures
of the segments of one chord is equal to the product of the measures
of the segments of the other chord. (Emphasize this idea.)

Present to the students a situation that would capture their interest and
develop their understanding of the lesson. Let them perform Activity 4. In this
activity, the students will determine the mathematics concepts or principles to
solve the given problem.

174

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Activity 4: Fly Me to Your World


Answer Key
1. d = 27.67 km
2. External secant segment, tangent, Pythagorean theorem

PY

Ask the students to summarize the activities done before proceeding to


the next activities. Provide them with an opportunity to relate or connect their
responses in the activities given to their new lesson, Tangent and Secant
Segments. Let the students read and understand some important notes on
tangent and secant segments and study carefully the examples given.
What to PROCESS

C
O

Let the students use the different geometric relationships involving


tangent and secant segments and the examples presented in the preceding
section to answer the succeeding activities.

In Activity 5, the students will name the external secant segments in


the given figures. This activity would familiarize them with the geometric
concept and facilitate problem solving.

EP
E

Activity 5: Am I away from you?


Answer Key

IM and IL
TS and DS
OS
IR
LF and WE
IH , FG , IJ , EF , AK , DC

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

175

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Have the students apply the different theorems involving chords and
tangent and secant segments to find the unknown lengths of segments on a
circle and solve related problems. Ask the students to perform Activity 6 and
Activity 7.
Activity 6: Find My Length!
Answer Key
x 8 units
x 8 units
x 9 units
x 5 units
x 6.64 units

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

x 10.5 units
x 4.8 units
x 15 units
x 2 10 6.32 units
x 4 units

PY

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

EP
E

Activity 7: Try to Fit!

C
O

Questions:
a. The theorems on two intersecting chords, secant segments, tangent
segments, and external secant segments were applied.
b. Evaluate students responses.

Answer Key

1. Possible answer:

2. a. VU = 4.57 units
b. XU = 8 units

176

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What to REFLECT on and UNDERSTAND


Test further students understanding of the different geometric
relationships involving tangent and secant segments including chords by
doing Activity 8 and Activity 9. Let the students prove the different theorems
on intersecting chords, secant segments, tangent segments, and external
secant segments and solve problems involving these concepts.

Answer Key

Prove:

AB and DE are chords of


intersecting at M.

C
O

1. Given:

PY

Activity 8: Prove Me Right!

AM BM DM EM

Proof:

To prove: Draw AE and BD .

Statement

EP
E

1
mBE and
2
1
mBDE mBE
2

Reason
The measure of an inscribed
angle is one-half the
measure of its intercepted
arc.
Inscribed angles intercepting
the same arc are congruent.
AA Similarity Theorem
Lengths of sides of similar
triangles are proportional.

mBAE

BAE BDE

AME ~ DMB
EM BM

AM DM
AM BM DM EM

Multiplication Property

177

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Answer Key
2. Given:

Prove:

DP and DS are secant


segments of T drawn
from exterior point D.

DP DQ DS DR

Proof:

Statement

QPR RSQ and PQS SRP

DQS ~ DRP
DP DS

DR DQ
DP DQ DS DR

Multiplication Property

KL and KM are tangent


and secant segments,
respectively of O drawn
from exterior point K.

EP
E

3. Given:

Reason
Inscribed angles
intercepting the same arc
are congruent.
Supplements of congruent
angles are congruent
AA Similarity Theorem
Lengths of sides of similar
triangles are proportional.

C
O

DQS DRP

PY

To prove: Draw PR and QS .

KM intersects

KM KN KL

Prove:

O at N.

To prove: Draw LM and LN .

178

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Answer Key
Proof:

Statement

Reason
The measure of an inscribed
angle is one-half the measure
of its intercepted arc.

1
mLN and
2
1
mLMN mLN
2
mNLK mLMN
mNLK

PY

NLK LMN
mLNK mNLM mLMN

EP
E

KM KN KL

MKL ~ LNM
KM KL

KL KN

C
O

mLNK mNLM mNLK


mKLM mNLM mNLK
mLNK mKLM
LNK KLM

Transitive Property
Angles with equal measures
are congruent.
The measure of the exterior
angle of a triangle is equal to
the sum of the measures of its
remote interior angles.
Substitution
Angle Addition Postulate
Transitive Property
Angles with equal measures
are congruent.
AA Similarity Theorem
Lengths of sides of similar
triangles are proportional.
Multiplication Property

Activity 9: Understand Me More

Answer Key

1. Janel. She used the theorem If two secant segments are drawn to a
circle from an exterior point, then the product of the lengths of one
secant segment and its external secant segment is equal to the product
of the lengths of the other secant segment and its external secant
segment.
2. Gate 1 is 91.65 m from the main road.
3. a. The point of tangency of the two light balls from the ceiling is about
44.72 cm.
b. Anton needs about 1967.53 cm of string.

179

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Find out how well the students understood the lesson by giving a short
test (formative test) before proceeding to the next section. Ask them also to
write a journal about their understanding of tangent and secant segments.
Refer to the Assessment Map.
What to TRANSFER

PY

Give the students opportunities to demonstrate their understanding of


tangent and secant segments including chords of a circle by doing a practical
task. Let them perform Activity 10. You can ask the students to work
individually or in a group.

Answer Key

Activity 10: My True World!

C
O

In Activity 10, the students will make a design of an arch bridge that
would connect two places which are separated by a river, 20 m wide. Tell
them to indicate on the design the different measurements of the parts of the
bridge. The students are expected to formulate and solve problems involving
tangent and secant segments out of the design and the measurements of its
parts.

EP
E

Evaluate students product. You may use the rubric provided.

Summary/Synthesis/Generalization:

This lesson was about the different geometric relationships involving


tangents, secants, and chords of a circle. The lesson provided the students
with opportunities to derive geometric relationship involving intersecting
chords, identify tangent and secant segments, and prove and apply different
theorems on chords, tangent, and secant segments. These theorems were
used to solve various geometric problems. Understanding the ideas
presented in this lesson will facilitate their learning of the succeeding lessons.

180

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SUMMATIVE TEST
Part I
Choose the letter that you think best answers each of the following questions.

F below, AG is a diameter. What is mAD if mDFG 65 ?


65
115
130
230

EP
E

2. In
A.
B.
C.
D.

C
O

PY

1. In the figure on the right, which is an inscribed angle?


A. RST
B. PQR
C. QVT
D. QST

3. Which of the following lines is tangent to


below?

F as shown in the figure

A. DE

B. AG

C. BD
D. AE

181

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4. Quadrilateral ABCD is inscribed in a circle. Which of the following is true


about the angle measures of the quadrilateral?
I. mA mC 180
II. mB mD 180
III. mA mC 90
A. I and II

B. I and III

C. II and III

D. I, II, and III

PY

5. An arc of a circle measures 72. If the radius of the circle is 6 cm, about
how long is the arc?
A. 1.884 cm
B. 2.4 cm
C. 3.768 cm
D. 7.54 cm

C
O

6. What is the total measure of the central angles of a circle with no common
interior points?
A. 480
B. 360
C. 180
D. 120
7. What kind of angle is the inscribed angle that intercepts a semicircle?
A. straight
B. obtuse
C. right
D. acute

EP
E

8. What is the length of AS in the figure on the right?


A. 6.92 units
C. 14.4 units
117
130
B.
units
D.
units
10
9

C at D. If mDF = 166 and mDE = 78, what is

9. Line AB is tangent to
mABF ?
A. 44
B. 61
C. 88
D. 122

182

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10. How many line/s can be drawn through a given point on a circle that is
tangent to the circle?
A. four
B. three
C. two
D. one

11. In U on the right, what is mPRE if mPUE 56 ?


A. 28
C. 56
B. 34
D. 124

PY

U
R

C
O

12. In the figure below, TA and HA are secants. If TA = 18 cm, LA = 8 cm,


and AE = 10 cm,
L

what is the length of AH in the given figure?

EP
E

A. 18 cm
B. 20 cm

C. 22.5 cm
D. 24.5 cm

13. In O on the right, mHT = 45 and the length of the


radius is 8 cm. What is the area of the shaded region
in terms of ?

A. 6 cm 2

C. 10 cm 2

45

B. 8 cm 2

D. 12 cm 2

183

8 cm

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14. In the circle on the right, what is the measure of SRT if AST is a
semicircle and mSRA 74 ?
A. 16
S
B. 74
C. 106
D. 154
A

PY

S. If mLUC 96 and
U

96

77

C
O

15. Quadrilateral LUCK is inscribed in


mUCK 77, find mULK .
A. 77
B. 84
C. 96
D. 103

EP
E

16. In S on the right, what is RT if QS = 18 units


and VW = 4 units?
A. 4 2 units
B. 8 2 units
C. 14 units
D. 16 2 units

17. A circular garden has a radius of 2 m. Find the area of the smaller
segment of the garden determined by a 90 arc.
A. 2 m2
B. 2 m2
C. m2
D. 4 2 m2

184

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18. Karen has a necklace with a circular pendant hanging


from a chain around her neck. The chain is tangent to
the pendant. If the chain is extended as shown in the
diagram on the right, it forms an angle of 30 below
the pendant. What is the measure of the arc at the
bottom of the pendant?
A. 60
B. 75
C. 120
D. 150

30

PY

19. Mang Jose cut a circular board with a diameter 80 cm. Then, he divided
the board into 20 congruent sectors. What is the area of each sector?
A. 80 cm2 B. 320 cm2
C. 800 cm2
D. 1 600 cm2

Part II

C
O

20. Mary designed a pendant. It is a regular octagon set in a circle. Suppose


the opposite vertices are connected by line segments and meet at the
center of the circle. What is the measure of each angle formed at the
center?
B. 45
C. 67.5
D. 135
A. 22.5

EP
E

Solve each of the following problems. Show your complete solutions.


1. Mr. Jaena designed an arch for the top part of a subdivisions main gate.
The arch will be made out of bent iron. In the design, the 16 segments
between the two concentric semicircles are each 0.7 meter long. Suppose
the diameter of the outer semicircle is 8 meters. What is the length, in
whole meters, of the shortest iron needed to make the arch?

2. A rope fits tightly around two pulleys. What is the distance between the
centers of the pulleys if the radii of the bigger and smaller pulleys are
10 cm and 6 cm, respectively, and the portion of the rope tangent to the
two pulleys is 50 cm long?

185

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Rubric for Problem Solving


3
Used an
appropriate
strategy to come
up with a
solution, but a
part of the
solution led to an
incorrect answer

2
Used an
appropriate
strategy but
came up with an
entirely wrong
solution that led
to an incorrect
answer

C
O

Part III A: GRASPS Assessment


Perform the following.

1
Attempted to
solve the problem
but used an
inappropriate
strategy that led
to a wrong
solution

PY

4
Used an
appropriate
strategy to come
up with a correct
solution and
arrived at a
correct answer

To prepare the different student formations to be done during a


field demonstration

Role:

Student assigned to prepare the different formations to be


followed in the field demonstration

Audience:

The school principal, your teacher, and your fellow students

Situation:

Your school has been selected by the municipal/city


government to perform a field demonstration as part of a big
local event where many visitors and spectators are expected to
arrive and witness the said occasion. The principal of your
school designated one of your teachers to organize and lead the
group of students who will perform the field demonstration.

EP
E

Goal:

Being one of the students selected to perform during the


activity, your teacher asked you to plan the different student
formations for the field demonstration. In particular, your teacher
instructed you to include arrangements that show geometric
figures such as circles, arcs, tangents, and secants. Your
teacher also asked you to make a sketch of the various
formations and include the order in which these will be
performed by the group.

186

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Products:

Sketches of the different formations to be followed in the field


demonstrations including the order and manner on how each
will be performed

Standards: The sketches of the different formations must be accurate and


presentable, and the sequencing must also be systematic.
Rubric for Sketches of the Different Formations

Part III B

2
The sketches of
the different
formations are not
accurately made
but the
sequencing is
systematic.

1
The sketches of
the different
formations are
made but not
accurate and the
sequencing is not
systematic.

PY

3
The sketches of
the different
formations are
accurately made
and the
sequencing is
systematic but not
presentable.

C
O

4
The sketches of
the different
formations are
accurately made,
presentable, and
the sequencing is
systematic.

EP
E

Use the prepared sketches of the different formations in Part III A in


formulating problems involving circles, then solve.

187

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Rubric on Problems Formulated and Solved


Score
6

Descriptors
Poses a more complex problem with 2 or more correct possible
solutions and communicates ideas unmistakably, shows indepth comprehension of the pertinent concepts and/or
processes, and provides explanations wherever appropriate.

Poses a complex problem and finishes all significant parts of


the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably, shows indepth comprehension of the pertinent concepts and/or
processes.

Poses a complex problem and finishes most significant parts of


the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably, shows
comprehension of major concepts although neglects or
misinterprets less significant ideas or details.

Poses a problem and finishes some significant parts of the


solution and communicates ideas unmistakably but shows
gaps on theoretical comprehension.

Poses a problem but demonstrates minor comprehension, not


being able to develop an approach.

EP
E

C
O

PY

Poses a more complex problem and finishes all significant


parts of the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably,
shows in-depth comprehension of the pertinent concepts
and/or processes.

Source: D.O. #73 s. 2012

Answer Key

11. A
12. C
13. B
14. C
15. D
16. D
17. A
18. D
19. A
20. B

Part I
1. B
2. B
3. D
4. A
5. D
6. B
7. C
8. D
9. A
10. D

Part II (Use the rubric to rate students works/outputs)


1. 35 m
2. 50.16 cm
Part III A (Use the rubric to rate students works/outputs)
Part III B (Use the rubric to rate students works/outputs)

188

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GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Arc a part of a circle
Arc Length the length of an arc which can be determined by using the
A
l
=
proportion
, where A is the degree measure of an arc, r is the
360 2 r
radius of the circle, and l is the arc length

PY

Central Angle an angle formed by two rays whose vertex is the center of
the circle

C
O

Common External Tangents tangents which do not intersect the segment


joining the centers of the two circles
Common Internal Tangents tangents that intersect the segment joining
the centers of the two circles
Common Tangent a line that is tangent to two circles on the same plane

EP
E

Congruent Arcs arcs of the same circle or of congruent circles with equal
measures
Congruent Circles circles with congruent radii
Degree Measure of a Major Arc the measure of a major arc that is equal
to 360 minus the measure of the minor arc with the same endpoints.

Degree Measure of a Minor Arc the measure of the central angle which
intercepts the arc
External Secant Segment the part of a secant segment that is outside a
circle
Inscribed Angle an angle whose vertex is on a circle and whose sides
contain chords of the circle

Intercepted Arc an arc that lies in the interior of an inscribed angle and has
endpoints on the angle

189

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Major Arc an arc of a circle whose measure is greater than that of a


semicircle
Minor Arc an arc of a circle whose measure is less than that of a semicircle
Point of Tangency the point of intersection of the tangent line and the
circle

PY

Secant a line that intersects a circle at exactly two points. A secant contains
a chord of a circle
Sector of a Circle the region bounded by an arc of the circle and the two
radii to the endpoints of the arc

C
O

Segment of a Circle the region bounded by an arc and a segment joining


its endpoints
Semicircle an arc measuring one-half the circumference of a circle

EP
E

Tangent to a Circle a line coplanar with the circle and intersects it at one
and only one point

190

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List of Theorems And Postulates On Circles


Postulates:
1. Arc Addition Postulate. The measure of an arc formed by two adjacent
arcs is the sum of the measures of the two arcs.
2. At a given point on a circle, one and only one line can be drawn that is
tangent to the circle.

PY

Theorems:

C
O

1. In a circle or in congruent circles, two minor arcs are congruent if and only
if their corresponding central angles are congruent.
2. In a circle or in congruent circles, two minor arcs are congruent if and only
if their corresponding chords are congruent.

3. In a circle, a diameter bisects a chord and an arc with the same endpoints
if and only if it is perpendicular to the chord.

EP
E

4. If an angle is inscribed in a circle, then the measure of the angle equals


one-half the measure of its intercepted arc (or the measure of the
intercepted arc is twice the measure of the inscribed angle).
5. If two inscribed angles of a circle (or congruent circles) intercept congruent
arcs or the same arc, then the angles are congruent.

6. If an inscribed angle of a circle intercepts a semicircle, then the angle is a


right angle.
7. If a quadrilateral is inscribed in a circle, then its opposite angles are
supplementary.
8. If a line is tangent to a circle, then it is perpendicular to the radius drawn to
the point of tangency.
9. If a line is perpendicular to a radius of a circle at its endpoint that is on the
circle, then the line is tangent to the circle.

191

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10. If two segments from the same exterior point are tangent to a circle, then
the two segments are congruent.
11. If two secants intersect in the exterior of a circle, then the measure of the
angle formed is one-half the positive difference of the measures of the
intercepted arcs.

PY

12. If a secant and a tangent intersect in the exterior of a circle, then the
measure of the angle formed is one-half the positive difference of the
measures of the intercepted arcs.

C
O

13. If two tangents intersect in the exterior of a circle, then the measure of
the angle formed is one-half the positive difference of the measures of
the intercepted arcs.
14. If two secants intersect in the interior of a circle, then the measure of an
angle formed is one-half the sum of the measures of the arcs intercepted
by the angle and its vertical angle.

EP
E

15. If a secant and a tangent intersect at the point of tangency, then the
measure of each angle formed is one-half the measure of its intercepted
arc.
16. If two chords of a circle intersect, then the product of the measures of
the segments of one chord is equal to the product of the measures of the
segments of the other chord.

17. If two secant segments are drawn to a circle from an exterior point, then
the product of the lengths of one secant segment and its external secant
segment is equal to the product of the lengths of the other secant
segment and its external secant segment.
18. If a tangent segment and a secant segment are drawn to a circle from an
exterior point, then the square of the length of the tangent segment is
equal to the product of the lengths of the secant segment and its
external secant segment.

192

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DEPED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS THAT CAN BE USED AS


ADDITIONAL RESOURCES FOR THE LESSON ON CIRCLES:
1. Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao (BEAM) Learning Guide, Third
Year Mathematics. Module 18: Circles and Their Properties.
2. Distance Learning Module (DLM) 3, Module 1 and 2: Circles.
References And Website Links Used in This Module:

PY

References:

Bass, L. E., Charles, R.I., Hall, B., Johnson, A., & Kennedy, D. (2008). Texas
Geometry. Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall.

C
O

Bass, L. E., Hall B.R., Johnson A., & Wood, D.F. (1998). Prentice Hall
Geometry Tools for a Changing World. NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Boyd, C., Malloy, C., & Flores. (2008). McGraw-Hill Geometry. USA: The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Callanta, M. M. (2002). Infinity, Worktext in Mathematics III. Makati City:


EUREKA Scholastic Publishing, Inc.

EP
E

Chapin, I., Landau, M. & McCracken. (1997). Prentice Hall Middle Grades
Math, Tools for Success. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: PrenticeHall, Inc.
Cifarelli, V. (2009) cK-12 Geometry, Flexbook Next Generation Textbooks.
USA: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike.

Clemens, S. R., ODaffer, P. G., Cooney, T.J., & Dossey, J. A. (1990).


Geometry. USA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.
Clements, D. H., Jones, K.W., Moseley, L. G., & Schulman, L. (1999). Math in
My World. Farmington, New York: McGraw-Hill Division.
Department of Education. (2012) K to 12 Curriculum Guide Mathematics.
Department of Education, Philippines.
Gantert, A. X. (2008) AMSCOs Geometry. NY, USA: AMSCO School
Publications, Inc.
Renfro, F. L. (1992) Addison-Wesley Geometry Teachers Edition. USA:
Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.
193

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Rich, B. and Thomas, C. (2009). Schaums Outlines Geometry (4th ed.) USA:
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Smith, S. A., Nelson, C.W., Koss, R. K., Keedy, M. L., & Bittinger, M. L.
(1992) Addison-Wesley Informal Geometry. USA: Addison-Wesley
Publishing Company, Inc.

PY

Wilson, P. S. (1993) Mathematics, Applications and Connections, Course I.,


Westerville, Ohio: Glencoe Division of Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Publishing Company.
Website Links as References and Source of for Learning Activities:

C
O

CK-12 Foundation. cK-12 Inscribed Angles. (2014). Retrieved from


http://www.ck12.org/book/CK-12-Geometry-Honors-Concepts/ section/8.7/

CK-12 Foundation. cK-12 Secant Lines to Circles. (2014). Retrieved from


http://www.ck12.org/book/CK-12-Geometry-Honors-Concepts/ section/8.8/

CK-12 Foundation. cK-12 Tangent Lines to Circles. (2014). Retrieved from


http://www.ck12.org/book/CK-12-Geometry-Honors-Concepts/ section/8.4/

EP
E

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Cliffs Notes. Arcs and Inscribed Angles. (2013).
Retrieved from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/math/geometry/circles/arcs-andinscribed-angles
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Cliffs Notes. Segments of Chords, Secants, and
Tangents. (2013). Retrieved from
http://www.cliffsnotes.com/math/geometry/circles/segments-of-chordssecants-tangents

Math Open Reference. Arc. (2009). Retrieved from


http://www.mathopenref.com/arc.html
Math Open Reference. Arc Length. (2009). Retrieved from
http://www.mathopenref.com/arclength.html
Math Open Reference. Central Angle. (2009). Retrieved from
http://www.mathopenref.com/circlecentral.html
Math Open Reference. Central Angle Theorem. (2009). Retrieved from
http://www.mathopenref.com/arccentralangletheorem.html

194

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Math Open Reference. Chord. (2009). Retrieved from


http://www.mathopenref.com/chord.html
Math Open Reference. Inscribed Angle. (2009). Retrieved from
http://www.mathopenref.com/circleinscribed.html
Math Open Reference. Intersecting Secants Theorem. (2009). Retrieved from
http://www.mathopenref.com/secantsintersecting.html
Math Open Reference. Sector. (2009). Retrieved from
http://www.mathopenref.com/arcsector.html

PY

Math Open Reference. Segment. (2009). Retrieved from


http://www.mathopenref.com/segment.html

C
O

math-worksheet.org. Free Math Worksheets. Arc Length and Sector Area.


(2014). Retrieved from http://www.math-worksheet.org/arc-length-and-sectorarea
math-worksheet.org. Free Math Worksheets. Inscribed Angles. (2014).
Retrieved from http://www.math-worksheet.org/inscribed-angles

math-worksheet.org. Free Math Worksheets. Secant-Tangent Angles. (2014).


Retrieved from http://www.math-worksheet.org/secant-tangent-angles

EP
E

math-worksheet.org. Free Math Worksheets. Tangents. (2014). Retrieved


from tangents
OnlineMathLearning.com. Circle Theorems. (2013). Retrieved from
http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/circle-theorems.html

Roberts, Donna. Oswego City School District Regents exam Prep Center.
Geometry Lesson Page. Formulas for Angles in Circles Formed by Radii,
Chords, Tangents, Secants. (2012). Retrieved from
http://www.regentsprep.org/Regents/math/geometry/ GP15/CircleAngles.htm

195

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Website Links for Videos:


Coach, Learn. NCEA Maths Level 1 Geometric reasoning: Angles Within
Circles. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jUAHwJIobc
Khan Academy. Equation for a circle using the Pythagorean Theorem.
Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org/math/geometry/cc-geometrycircles

PY

Schmidt, Larry. Angles and Arcs Formed by Tangents, Secants, and Chords.
(2013). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I-RyXI7h1bM

Website Links for Images:

C
O

Sophia.org. Geometry. Circles. (2014). Retrieved from


http://www.sophia.org/topics/circles

Cherry Valley Nursery and Landscape Supply. Seasonal Colors Flowers and
Plants. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.cherryvalleynursery.com/

EP
E

eBay Inc. Commodore Holden CSA Mullins pursuit mag wheel 17 inch
genuine - 4blok #34. (2014). Retrieved from
http://www.ebay.com.au/itm/Commodore-Holden-CSA-Mullins-pursuit-magwheel-17-inch-genuine-4blok-34-/221275049465
Fort Worth Weekly. Facebook Fact: Cowboys Are Worlds Team. (2012) .
Retrieved from http://www.fwweekly.com/2012/08/21/facebook-fact-cowboysnow-worlds-team/

GlobalMotion Media Inc. Circular Quay, Sydney Harbour to Historic Hunter's


Hill Photos. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.everytrail.com/ guide/circularquay-sydney-harbour-to-historic-hunters-hill/photos
HiSupplier.com Online Inc. Shandong Sun Paper Industry Joint Stock Co.,Ltd.
Retrieved from http://pappapers.en.hisupplier.com/product-66751-ArtBoards.html
Kable. Slip-Sliding Away. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.offshoretechnology.com/features/feature1674/feature1674-5.html
Materia Geek. Nikon D500 presentada officialmente. (2009). Retrieved from
http://materiageek.com/2009/04/nikon-d5000-presentada-oficialmente/

196

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Piatt, Andy. Dreamstime.com. Rainbow Stripe Hot Air Balloon. Retrieved from
http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/rainbow-stripe-hot-air-balloon-788611.jpg
Regents of the University of Colorado. Nautical Navigation. (2014). Retrieved
from http://www.teachengineering.org/view_activity.php?url=
collection/cub_/activities/cub_navigation/cub_navigation_lesson07_activity1.x
ml
Sambhav Transmission. Industrial Pulleys. Retrieved from
http://www.indiamart.com/sambhav-transmission/industrial-pulleys.html

PY

shadefxcanopies.com. Flower Picture Gallery, Garden Pergola Canopies.


Retrieved from http://www.flowerpicturegallery.com/v/halifax-publicgardens/Circular+mini+garden+with+white+red+flowers+and+dark+
grass+in+the+middle+at+Halifax+Public+Gardens.jpg.html

C
O

Tidwell, Jen. Home Sweet House. (2012). Retrieved from


http://youveneverheardofjentidwell.com/2012/03/02/home-sweet-house/

EP
E

Weston Digital Services. FWR Motorcycles LTD. CHAINS AND


SPROCKETS. (2014). Retrieved from
http://fwrm.co.uk/index.php?main_page=index&cPath=585&zenid=10omr4he
hmnbkktbl94th0mlp6

197

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Module 5:

Plane Coordinate Geometry

A. Learning Outcomes
Content Standard:
The learner demonstrates understanding of key concepts of
coordinate geometry.
Performance Standard:

PY

The learner is able to formulate and solve problems involving


geometric figures on the rectangular coordinate plane with perseverance and
accuracy.
Unpacking the Standards for Understanding

Learning Competencies

C
O

Subject:
Mathematics 10

Derive the distance formula

Quarter: Second
Quarter

Apply the distance formula to prove some geometric


properties

Topic: Plane
Coordinate Geometry

Illustrate the center-radius form of the equation of a


circle

Writer:

Determine the center and radius of a circle given its


equation and vice versa

EP
E

Lessons:
1. The Distance
Formula
2. The Equation of a
Circle

Melvin M. Callanta

Graph a circle and other geometric figures on the


coordinate plane

Solve problems involving geometric figures on the


coordinate plane

Essential
Understanding:

Essential
Question:

Students will understand that


the concepts involving plane
coordinate geometry are
useful tools in solving real-life
problems like finding
locations, distances,
mapping, etc.

How do the key


concepts of plane
coordinate geometry
facilitate finding
solutions to real-life
problems involving
geometric figures?

198

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Transfer Goal:
Students will be able to apply with perseverance and
accuracy the key concepts of plane coordinate
geometry in formulating and solving problems involving
geometric figures on the rectangular coordinate plane.
B. Planning for Assessment
Product/Performance

EP
E

C
O

PY

The following are products and performances that students are expected to
come up with in this module.
1. Ground Plan drawn on a grid with coordinates
2. Equations and problems involving mathematics concepts already learned
such as coordinate plane, slope and equation of a line, parallel and
perpendicular lines, polygons, distance, angles, etc
3. Finding the distance between a pair of points on the coordinate plane
4. Determining the missing coordinates of the endpoints of a segment
5. Finding the coordinates of the midpoint of the segment whose endpoints
are given
6. Describing the figure formed by a set of points on a coordinate plane
7. Determining the missing coordinates corresponding to the vertices of
some polygons
8. Solutions to problems involving the distance and the midpoint formulas
9. Coordinate Proofs of some geometric properties
10. Sketch of a municipal, city, or provincial map on a coordinate plane with
the coordinates of some important landmarks
11. Formulating and solving real-life problems involving the distance and the
midpoint formula
12. Finding the radius of a circle drawn on a coordinate plane
13. Determining the center and the radius of a circle given the equation
14. Graphing a circle given the equation
15. Writing the equation of a circle given the center and the radius
16. Writing the equation of a circle from standard form to general form and
vice-versa
17. Determining the equation that describes a circle
18. Solutions to problems involving the equation of a circle
19. Formulating and solving real-life problems involving the equation of a
circle

199

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Assessment Map
PROCESS/
SKILLS

UNDERSTANDING

Pre-Test:
Part I

Pre-Test:
Part I and Part II

Identifying the
distance
formula

Determining the
distance
between a pair
of points

Solving problems
involving the
Distance Formula
including the
Midpoint Formula,
and the Equation
of a Circle

Illustrating the
distance
between two
points on the
coordinate
plane
Illustrating the
midpoint
formula
Illustrating the
midpoint of a
segment
Defining
coordinate
proof

Determining the
coordinates of
the midpoint
and the
endpoints of a
segment

Describing the
figure formed by
a set of points
Determining the
coordinates of
the vertex of a
geometric figure

EP
E

Identifying an
equation of a
circle

Determining the
coordinate of a
point given its
distance from
another point

PY

Pre-Test:
Part I

PERFORMANCE

C
O

PreAssessment/
Diagnostic

KNOWLEDGE

TYPE

Finding the
length of the
radius of a circle
given the
endpoints of a
diameter
Finding the
center of a circle
given the
equation
Finding the
equation of a
circle given the
endpoints of a
radius

200

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Formative

PROCESS/
SKILLS

KNOWLEDGE

PERFORMANCE

Pre-Test:
Part III
Situational
Analysis

Pre-Test:
Part III
Situational
Analysis

Pre-Test:
Part III
Situational
Analysis

Pre-Test:
Part III
Situational
Analysis

Determining
the
mathematics
concepts or
principles
involved in a
prepared
ground plan

Illustrating the
locations of
objects or
groups

Explaining how to
prepare the ground
plan for the Boy
Scouts Jamboree

Making a
ground plan for
the Boy Scouts
Jamboree

Writing the
equations that
describe the
situations or
problems

Solving real-life
problems

Quiz:
Lesson 1

Finding the
distance
between each
pair of points on
the coordinate
plane

Finding the
coordinates of
the midpoint of
a segment given
the endpoints

EP
E
Identifying the
figures formed
by some sets
of points

Identifying
parts of some
geometric
figures and
their properties

Formulating
equations,
inequalities, and
problems

PY

Solving
equations
Quiz:
Lesson 1

Identifying the
coordinates of
points to be
substituted in
the distance
formula and in
the midpoint
formula

UNDERSTANDING

C
O

TYPE

Plotting some
sets of points on
the coordinate
plane
Naming the
missing
coordinates of
the vertices of
some geometric
figures

Quiz: Lesson 1
Explaining how to
find the distance
between two
points
Explaining how to
find the midpoint of
a segment
Describing figures
formed by some
sets of points
Explaining how to
find the missing
coordinates of
some geometric
figures
Solving real-life
problems involving
the distance
formula and the
midpoint formula
Using coordinate
proof to justify
claims

201

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TYPE

KNOWLEDGE

PROCESS/
SKILLS

UNDERSTANDING

PERFORMANCE

Writing a
coordinate proof to
prove geometric
properties
Quiz:
Lesson 2

Quiz: Lesson 2

Identifying the
equations of
circles in
center-radius
form or
standard form
and in general
form

Determining the
center and the
radius of a circle

Explaining how to
determine the
center of a circle

Graphing a
circle given the
equation written
in center-radius
form.

Explaining how to
graph circles given
the equations
written in centerradius form and
general form

C
O

PY

Quiz:
Lesson 2

Writing the
equation of a
circle given the
center and the
radius

EP
E

Writing the
equation of a
circle from
standard form to
general form
and vice-versa

Explaining how to
write the equation
of a circle from
standard form to
general form and
vice-versa
Solving problems
involving the
equation of a circle

Post-Test:
Part I

Post-Test:
Part I

Post-Test:
Part I and Part II

Post-Test:
Part III A and B

Identifying the
distance
formula

Determining the
distance
between a pair
of points

Solving problems
involving the
Distance Formula,
including the
Midpoint Formula,
and the Equation
of a Circle

Preparing
emergency
measures to be
undertaken in
times of natural
calamities and
disasters
particularly
typhoons and
floods

Summative

Explaining how to
write the equation
of a circle given
the center and the
radius

Illustrating the
distance
between two
points on the
coordinate
plane

Determining the
coordinate of a
point given its
distance from
another point

202

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PROCESS/
SKILLS

KNOWLEDGE

Illustrating the
midpoint
formula
Illustrating the
midpoint of a
segment

Determining the
coordinates of
the midpoint
and the
endpoints of a
segment
Describing the
figure formed by
a set of points
Determining the
coordinates of
the vertex of a
geometric figure
Finding the
length of the
radius of a circle
given the
endpoints of a
diameter

PERFORMANCE

Preparing a grid
map of a
municipality
Formulating and
solving problems
involving the key
concepts of
plane coordinate
geometry

C
O

Defining
coordinate
proof
Identifying an
equation of a
circle

UNDERSTANDING

PY

TYPE

Finding the
center of a circle
given the
equation

EP
E

Finding the
equation of a
circle given the
endpoints of a
radius

Journal Writing:
Expressing understanding of the distance formula, midpoint formula,
coordinate proof, and the equation of a circle.

SelfAssessment

203

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Assessment Matrix (Summative Test))

Process/Skills
25%

How Will I Score?

Part I items 1, 3,
4, 7, 8, and 13

1 point for every


correct response

Part I items 5, 6,
9, 10, 11, 12, 14,
16, 18, and 19

1 point for every


correct response

Part I items 2,
15, 17, and 20

1 point for every


correct response

Part II items 1
and 2

Rubric on Problem
Solving (maximum of 4
points for each
problem)

Part III A

Product/
Performance
30%

Rubric for the


Prepared Emergency
Measures
Rubric for Grip Map of
the Municipality
(Total Score: maximum
of 6 points )

EP
E

Understanding
30%

The learner
demonstrates
understanding of key
concepts of plane
coordinate geometry.
Derive the distance
formula.
Apply the distance
formula to prove some
geometric properties.
Illustrate the centerradius form of the
equation of a circle.
Determine the center
and radius of a circle
given its equation and
vice versa.
Graph a circle and
other geometric
figures on the
coordinate plane.
Solve problems
involving geometric
figures on the
coordinate plane.
The learner is able to
formulate and solve
problems involving
geometric figures on the
rectangular coordinate
plane with perseverance
and accuracy.

How will I
assess?
Paper and
Pencil Test

PY

Knowledge
15%

What will I assess?

C
O

Levels of
Assessment

Part III B

204

Rubric on Problems
Formulated and Solved
(Total Score: maximum
of 6 points )

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C. Planning for Teaching-Learning


This module covers key concepts of plane coordinate geometry. It is
divided into two lessons, namely: The Distance Formula and the Equation of
a Circle.

PY

In Lesson 1 of this module, the students will derive the distance


formula and apply it in proving geometric relationships and in solving
problems, particularly finding the distance between objects or points. They
will also learn about the midpoint formula and its applications. Moreover, the
students will graph and describe geometric figures on the coordinate plane.

C
O

The second lesson is about the equation of a circle. In this lesson, the
students will illustrate the center-radius form of the equation of a circle,
determine the center and the radius given its equation and vice-versa, and
show its graph on the coordinate plane (or by using the computer freeware,
GeoGebra). More importantly, the students will solve problems involving the
equation of a circle.

EP
E

In learning the equation of a circle, the students will use their prior
knowledge and skills through the different activities provided. This is to
connect and relate those mathematics concepts and skills that students
previously studied to their new lesson. They will also perform varied learning
tasks to process the knowledge and skills learned and to further deepen and
transfer their understanding of the different lessons in real-life situations.

Introduce the main lesson to the students by showing them the


pictures below, then ask them the questions that follow:

205

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Look around! What geometric figures do you see in your classroom,


school buildings, houses, bridges, roads, and other structures? Have you
ever asked yourself how geometric figures helped in planning the
construction of these structures?

PY

In your community or province, was there any instance when a


stranger or a tourist asked you about the location of a place or a
landmark? Were you able to give the right direction and its distance? If
not, could you give the right information the next time somebody asks you
the same question?

Objectives:

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Entice the students to find the answers to these questions and to


determine the vast applications of plane coordinate geometry through this
module.

After the learners have gone through the lessons contained in this module,
they are expected to:

1. derive the distance formula;

2. find the distance between points;

EP
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3. determine the coordinates of the midpoint of a segment;


4. name the missing coordinates of the vertices of some geometric figures;
5. write a coordinate proof to prove some geometric relationships;

6. give/write the center-radius form of the equation of a circle;


7. determine the center and radius of a circle given its equation and vice versa;
8. write the equation of a circle from standard form to general form and vice
versa;
9. graph a circle and other geometric figures on the coordinate plane; and
10. solve problems involving geometric figures on the coordinate plane.

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PRE-ASSESSMENT:

Assess students prior knowledge, skills, and understanding of mathematics


concepts related to the Distance Formula, the Midpoint Formula, the
Coordinate Proof, and the Equation of a Circle. These will facilitate teaching
and students understanding of the lessons in this module.
Answer Key

2.
3.
4.
5.

C
B
B
B

12. A
13. A
14. B
15. C

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

D
B
D
A
C

16. C
17. C
18. B
19. D
20. B

2.

PY

11. D

x 42 y 92 9

Part III (Use the rubric to rate students


works/outputs)

1. C

Part II (Use the rubric to rate students


works/outputs)
1. 100 km

C
O

Part I

EP
E

LEARNING GOALS AND TARGETS:

Students are expected to demonstrate understanding of key concepts of


plane coordinate geometry, formulate real-life problems involving these concepts,
and solve these with perseverance and accuracy.

Lesson 1: The Distance Formula, the Midpoint Formula, and the Coordinate
Proof
What to KNOW

Check students knowledge of the different mathematics concepts


previously studied and their skills in performing mathematical operations. These
will facilitate teaching and students understanding of the distance formula and
the midpoint formula and in writing coordinate proofs. Tell them that as they go
through this lesson, they have to think of this important question: How do the
distance formula, the midpoint formula, and the coordinate proof facilitate finding
solutions to real-life problems and making decisions?
Let the students start the lesson by doing Activity 1. Ask them to use the
given number line in determining the lengths of segments. Let them explain how

207

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they used the coordinates of points in finding each length. Emphasize in this
activity the relationships among the segments based on their lengths, the
distance between the endpoints of segments whose coordinates on the number
line are known, and the significance of these to the lesson.
Activity 1: How long is this part?
Answer Key

PY

4 units
4 units
6 units
2 units
3 units
1 unit
a. Counting the number of units from one point to the other point using
the number line or finding the absolute value of the difference of the
coordinates of the points
b. Yes. By counting the number of units from one point to the other
point using the number line or finding the absolute value of the
difference of the coordinates of the points
c. AB BC , AC CE , CD DG , AB EG . The two segments
have the same lengths.
d. d.1) AB + BC = AC;
d.2) AC + CE = AE
e. Yes. The absolute values of the difference of their coordinates are
equal.
AD = 10 4 = 14

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C
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

DA = 4 10 = 14
BF = 6 9 = 15

FB = 9 6 = 15

Students understanding of the relationships among the sides of a right


triangle is a prerequisite to the derivation of the Distance Formula. In Activity 2,
provide the students opportunity to recall Pythagorean theorem by asking them
to find the length of the unknown side of a right triangle. Tell them to explain how
they arrived at each length of a side.
Activity 2: Why am I right?
Answer Key
1.
2.
3.
4.

5 units
12 units
12 units
2 13 units 7.21 units
208

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5. 4 5 units 8.94 units


6. 2 63 units 15.87 units
The length of the unknown side of each right triangle is obtained by
applying the Pythagorean theorem.
Let students relate their understanding of the Pythagorean theorem to
finding the distance between objects or points on the coordinate plane. This
would help them understand the derivation of the distance formula.

PY

Ask the students to perform Activity 3. In this activity, they will be


presented with a situation involving distances of objects or points on a coordinate
plane. If possible, let the students find out how the coordinates of points can be
used in finding distances between objects.

C
O

Activity 3: Lets Exercise!


Answer Key

1. 10 km. By applying the Pythagorean theorem. That is, 6 2 8 2 c 2 ; c = 10


km.
2. 3 km. distance from City Hall 0,4 to Plaza 3,4 = 0 3 = 3
9 km. distance from City Hall 0,4 to Emilios house 9,4 = 0 9 = 9

0,0 Joses house


9,4 Emilios house
0,4 City Hall

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4.

3. 9 km. distance from Joses house 0,0 to Gasoline Station 9,0 = 0 9 = 9

3,12 Diegos house


3,4 Plaza
9,0 Gasoline Station

5.
6. By finding the absolute value of the difference of the coordinates of the
points corresponding to Emilios house and the City Hall and Joses house
and the Gasoline Station, respectively

Distance from Emilios house 9,4 to City Hall 0,4 = 0 9


=9

Answer: 9 km

Distance from Joses house 0,0 to Gasoline Station 9,0 = 9 0


= 9 km

Answer: 9 km

The distances of the houses of Jose, Emilio, and Diego from each other
can be determined by applying the Pythagorean Theorem.
Joses house 0,0 to Emilios house 9,4

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4 2 9 2 c 2 ; c = 97 km 9.85 km
Joses house 0,0 to Diegos house 3,12

3 2 122 c 2 ; c = 153 km 12.37 km


Emilios house 9,4 to Diegos house 3,12

6 2 8 2 c 2 ; c = 10 km

PY

Provide the students opportunity to derive the Distance Formula. Ask


them to perform Activity 4. In this activity, the students should be able to come up
with the Distance Formula starting from two given points on the coordinate plane.
Activity 4: Let Me Formulate!

Answer Key

C
O

2.

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1.

x
y

3. C 8,1 . By determining the coordinates


of the point of intersection of the
two lines
AC = 6 units
BC = 8 units
4. Right Triangle. BC AC . Hence,
the triangle contains a 90-degree
angle. Pythagorean Theorem can
be applied.
AB = 10 units

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5. C x1,y 2
AC = x1 x 2 or x 2 x1
BC = y1 y 2 or y 2 y1
2
2
2
AB = x 2 x1 y 2 y1

x2 x12 y 2 y12

PY

AB =

What to PROCESS

C
O

Before proceeding to the next activities, let the students give a brief
summary of the activities done. Provide them an opportunity to relate or connect
their responses in the activities given to their new lesson. Let the students read
and understand some important notes on the distance formula and the midpoint
formula and in writing coordinate proofs. Tell them to study carefully the
examples given.

EP
E

In this section, let the students apply the key concepts of the Distance
Formula, Midpoint Formula, and Coordinate Proof. Tell them to use the
mathematical ideas and the examples presented in the preceding section to
answer the activities provided.

Ask the students to perform Activity 5. In this activity, the students will
determine the distance between two points on the coordinate plane using the
Distance Formula. They should be able to explain how to find the distance
between points that are aligned horizontally, vertically, or neither.

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Activity 5: How far are we from each other?

Answer Key
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

8 units
15 units
11.4 units
13 units
6.4 units

6. 13 units
7. 10.3 units
8. 11.66 units
9. 13.6 units
10. 12.81 units

PY

a. Regardless of whether points are aligned horizontally or vertically,


the distance d between these points can be determined using the
Distance Formula, d x2 x12 y 2 y12 .
following formulas can also be used.

Moreover,

the

C
O

a.1) d = x 2 x1 , for the distance d between two points that are


aligned horizontally
a.2) d = y 2 y1 , for the distance d between two points that are
aligned vertically

EP
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b. The Distance Formula can be used to find the distance between two
points on a coordinate plane.
Let the students apply the Midpoint Formula in finding the coordinates of
the midpoint of a segment whose endpoints are given by doing Activity 6. This
activity will enhance their skill in proving geometric relationships using coordinate
proof and in solving real-life problems involving the midpoint formula.

Activity 6: Meet Me Halfway!

Answer Key

3.

9,9
7,8
4,4

4.

4,1

1.
2.

6.
7.

8,9
5,4

15 15
8. ,
2 2
9. 8,7

3 5
5. ,
2 2

10. 5,4

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Provide the students opportunity to relate the properties of some


geometric figures to the new lesson by performing Activity 7. Ask them to plot
some set of points on the coordinate plane. Then, connect the consecutive points
by a line segment to form a figure. Tell them to identify the figures formed and
use the distance formula to characterize or describe each. Emphasize to the
students the different properties of these geometric figures for they need this in
determining the missing coordinates of each figures vertices.
Activity 7: What figure am I?

2.

C
O

1.

PY

Answer Key

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3.

4.
y

x
x

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5.

6.
y

7.

8.

PY

C
O

9.

EP
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10.
y

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C
O

PY

a. The figures formed in #1, #2, and #3 are triangles. Each figure has three
sides.
The figures formed in #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, and #9 are quadrilaterals. Each
figure has four sides.
The figure formed in #10 is a pentagon. It has five sides.
b. ABC and FUN are isosceles triangles. GOT and FUN are right
triangles.
c. ABC and FUN are isosceles because each has two sides congruent or
with equal lengths.
GOT and FUN are right triangles because each contains a right angle.
d. Quadrilaterals LIKE and LOVE are squares.
Quadrilaterals LIKE, DATE, LOVE and SONG are rectangles.
Quadrilaterals LIKE, DATE, LOVE, SONG, and BEAT are parallelograms.
Quadrilateral WIND is a trapezoid.
e. Quadrilaterals LIKE and LOVE are squares because each has four sides
congruent and contains four right angles.
Quadrilaterals LIKE, DATE, LOVE, and SONG are rectangles because
each has two pairs of congruent and parallel sides and contains four right
angles.
Quadrilaterals LIKE, DATE, LOVE, SONG, and BEAT are parallelograms
because each has two pairs of congruent and parallel sides and has
opposite angles that are congruent.
Quadrilateral WIND is a trapezoid because it has a pair of parallel sides.

EP
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An important skill that students need in writing coordinate proof is to name


the missing coordinates of geometric figures drawn on a coordinate plane.
Activity 8 provides the students opportunity to develop such skill. In this activity,
the students will name the missing coordinates of the vertices of geometric
figures in terms of the given variables.

Activity 8: I Missed You But Now I Found You!

Answer Key
1. O a b, c
2. V a, b
3. V 3a,0
M 3a, b
4. W b, c

5. A a,0
D a, d
E b, c
6. S 0,0
P a, b

For questions a-d, evaluate


students responses.

What to REFLECT on and UNDERSTAND


215

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Ask the students to take a closer look at some aspects of the Distance
Formula, the Midpoint Formula, and the Coordinate Proof. Provide them with
opportunities to think deeply and test further their understanding of the lesson by
doing Activity 9. In this activity, the students will solve problems involving these
mathematics concepts and explain or justify their answers.
Activity 9: Think of This Over and Over and Over Again!

Answer Key
The values of x were obtained

EP
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C
O

PY

by using the distance formula


1. y = 15 or y = -9;
and the coordinates of the
2. a. x = 21 if N is in the first quadrant
midpoint were determined by
x = -3 if N is in the second quadrant
using the midpoint formula.
5

Students may further give


b. 3,
explanations to their answers
2

based
on
the
solutions
3. 7,4
presented.
4. 99 km
5. Luisa and Grace are both correct. If the expressions are evaluated,
Luisa and Grace will arrive at the same value.
6. a. Possible answer: To become more accessible to students coming
from both buildings.
b. 90,70
c. The distance between the two buildings is about 357.8 m.
Since the study shed is midway between the two school buildings,
then it is about 178.9 m away from each. This is obtained by dividing
357.8 by 2.
7. a. 100 km
b. 5 hours
8. No. The triangle is not an equilateral triangle. It is actually an isosceles
triangle. The distance between A and C is 2a while the distance
between A and B or B and C is a 2 .

c a2 b d 2

9. a. Yes. FS

and AT

a c 2 b d 2 .

2
2
Since a c c a , then FS = AT.
b. Rectangle; The quadrilateral has two pairs of opposite sides that are
parallel and congruent and has four right angles.

Develop further students understanding of Coordinate Proof by asking


them to perform Activity 10. Ask the students to write a coordinate proof to prove
the particular geometric relationship. Let them realize the significance of the
Distance Formula, the Midpoint Formula, and the different mathematics concepts
already studied in coming up with the coordinate proof.

216

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Activity 10: Prove that this is True!

Answer Key
1. Show that PR QS .
If PR QS , then PR QS .

PR

b a2 c 02

b2 2ab a2 c 2

QS

PY

PR a2 2ab b2 c 2

b a2 c 02
b a2 c 02

C
O

b2 2ab a2 c 2

QS a2 2ab b2 c 2

Therefore, PR QS and PR QS . Hence, the diagonals of an


isosceles trapezoid are congruent.

1
LG .
2
2
2
a

MC 0 0
2

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2. Show that MC

MC

LG

a2 b2

4
4
a2 b 2

0 a2 b 02

a2 b 2
1
LG
2

a2 b 2
2

1
LG . Hence, the median to the hypotenuse of a right
2
triangle is half the hypotenuse.
Therefore, MC

217

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3. Show that PQ QR RS PS .

2
2
b a
c

PQ 0
c
2
2

2
2
b a
c


2
2

b 2 2ab a2 c 2
2

PY

PQ

2
2
ba

QR
0 0
2

QR

b2 2ab a2 c 2
2

2
2
b a
c


2
2

C
O

2
2
b a
c


2
2

2
2
b a
c

RS 0
0
2
2

RS

b 2 2ab a2 c 2
2

EP
E

2
2
b a
c

PS 0
c
2
2

2
2
b a
c


2
2

PS

b2 2ab a2 c 2
2

Therefore, PQ QR RS PS and PQRS is a rhombus.

218

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4. Show that BT CS .
If BT CS , then BT CS .
2

b
a

BT a
0
2
2

a
b

a 0
2
2

9a2 b 2
2

C
O

BT

PY

2
2
3a
b

2
2

2
2
a
b

CS a 0
2
2

9a2 b 2
2

EP
E

CS

2
2
3a
b

2
2

Therefore, BT CS and BT CS .
Hence, the medians to the legs of an
isosceles triangle are congruent.

5. Equate the lengths AC and BD to


prove that ABCD is a rectangle.

AC BD
b a2 c 02 a b 02 c 02
b2 2ab a2 c 2 a2 2ab b2 c 2
b2 2ab a2 c 2 a2 2ab b2 c 2

2ab 2ab
4ab 0

Since a > 0, then b = 0. And that A is along the y axis. Also, B is along the
line parallel to the y-axis. Therefore, ADC is a right angle and ABCD is a
rectangle.

219

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6. Show that CG

LE

1
LE
2

b 02 c 02

LE b2 c 2
2
2
ab a
c

CG
0
2
2
2

b2 c 2
2

Therefore, CG

1
LE .
2

C
O

CG

PY

2
2
b
c

2
2

EP
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What to TRANSFER

Before the students move to the next section of this lesson, give a short
test (formative test) to find out how well they understood the lesson. Ask them
also to write a journal about their understanding of the distance formula, midpoint
formula, and the coordinate proof. Refer to the Assessment Map.

Give the students opportunities to demonstrate their understanding of the


Distance Formula, the Midpoint Formula, and the use of Coordinate Proofs by
doing a practical task. Let them perform Activity 11. You can ask the students to
work individually or in group. In this activity, the students will make a sketch of
the map of their municipality, city, or province on a coordinate plane. They will
indicate on the map some important landmarks, and then determine the
coordinates of each. Tell them to explain why the landmarks they have indicated
are significant in their community and to write a paragraph explaining how they
selected the coordinates of these landmarks. Using the coordinates assigned to
the different landmarks, the students will formulate then solve problems involving
the distance formula and the midpoint formula. They will also formulate problems
which require the use of coordinate proofs.
Activity 11: A Map of My Own

Answer Key
Evaluate students answers. You may use the rubric.

220

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Summary/Synthesis/Generalization:

PY

This lesson was about the distance formula, the midpoint formula, the use
of coordinate proofs, and the applications of these mathematical concepts in real
life. The lesson provided the students with opportunities to derive the distance
formula, find the distance between points, determine the coordinates of the
midpoint of a segment, name the missing coordinates of the vertices of some
geometric figures, write a coordinate proof to prove some geometric relationships,
and solve problems involving the different concepts learned in this lesson. Moreover,
the students were given the opportunities to formulate then solve problems
involving the distance formula, the midpoint formula, and the coordinate proof.
Lesson 2: The Equation of a Circle
What to KNOW

C
O

Find out how much the students have learned about the different
mathematics concepts previously studied and their skills in performing
mathematical operations. Checking these will facilitate teaching and students
understanding of the equation of a circle. Tell them that as they go through this
lesson, they have to think of this important question: How does the equation of a
circle facilitate finding solutions to real-life problems and making decisions?

EP
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Two of the essential mathematics concepts needed by the students in


understanding the equation of a circle are the perfect square trinomial and the
square of a binomial. Activity 1 of this lesson will provide them opportunity to
recall these concepts. In this activity, the students will determine the number that
must be added to a given expression to make it a perfect square trinomial and
then express the result as a square of a binomial. They should be able to explain
how they came up with the perfect square trinomial and the square of a binomial.
Emphasize to the students that the process they have done in producing a
perfect square trinomial is also referred to as completing the square.

Activity 1: Make It Perfect!

Answer Key

x 22
2
25; t 5
2
49; r 7
121; r 112
2
324; x 18

1. 4;
2.
3.
4.
5.

a. Add the square of one-half the


coefficient of the linear term.
b. Factor the perfect square trinomial.
c. Use the distributive property of
multiplication or FOIL Method.

221

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Answer Key

9
81
6.
; w
2
4

1
1
9.
; s
6
36
2

7.

11
121
; x
4
2

8.

25
625
; v

4
2

10.

9 3
; t
64 8

C
O

PY

Provide the students opportunity to develop their understanding of the


equation of a circle. Ask them to perform Activity 2. In this activity, the students
will be presented with a situation involving the equation of a circle. Let them find
the distance of the plane from the air traffic controller given the coordinates of the
point where it is located and the y-coordinate of the position of the plane at a
particular instance if its x-coordinate is given. Furthermore, ask them to describe
the path of the plane as it goes around the airport. Challenge them to determine
the equation that would define the path of the plane. Let them realize that the
distance formula is related to the equation defining the planes path around the
airport.

EP
E

Answer Key

Activity 2: Is there a traffic in the air?

1. 50 km
2. When x = 5, y = 49.75 or y = -49.75.
When x = 10, y = 48.99 or y = -48.99.
When x = 15, y = 47.7 or y = -47.4
When x = 15, y = 47.7 or y = -47.4
When x = -20, y = 45.83 or y = -45.83.
When x = -30, y = 40
or y = -40.
Answers Key
3. No. It is not possible for the plane to be at a point whose x coordinate
is 60 because its distance from the air traffic controller would be
greater than 50 km.
4. The path is circular. x 2 y 2 2500

Provide the students opportunity to come up with an equation that can be


used in finding the radius of a circle. Ask them to perform Activity 3. In this
activity, the students should be able to realize that the Distance Formula can be
used in finding the radius of a circle. And that the distance of a point from the
center of a circle is also the radius of the circle.

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Activity 3: How far am I from my point of rotation?


A.

Answer Key
y

C
O

PY

1. 8 units
2. Yes, the circle will pass through
0,8 , 8,0 , and 0,8 because
the distance from these points to
the center of the circle is 8 units.
x
3. No, because the distance from point
M 4,6 to the center of the circle
is less than 8 units.
No, because the distance from point
N 9,2 to the center of the circle is
more than 8 units.
4. 8 units; 8 0 = 8
5. If a point is on the circle, its distance from the center is equal to the
radius.
6. Since the distance d of a point from the center of the circle is
d x 2 y 2 and is equal to the radius r, then r x 2 y 2 or

EP
E

x2 y 2 r 2 .

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B.

Answer Key
61 units or approximately 7.81 units

2. Yes, the circle will pass through


2,7 , 8,7 , and 3,4 because
the distance from each of these points
to the center of the circle is 61 units
or approximately 7.81 units.

4.

C
O

3. No, because the distance from point


M 7,6 to the center of the circle is
more than 7.81 units.

PY

1.

61 units or approximately 7.81 units.


Note: Evaluate students explanations.

EP
E

5. If the center of the circle is not at the origin, its radius can be
determined by using the distance formula,
d x2 x12 y 2 y12 . Since the distance of the point from
the center of the circle is equal to the radius r, then

x2 x12 y2 y12 or x2 x12 y2 y12 r 2 . If


P x , y is a point on the circle and C h ,k is the center, then
x2 x12 y2 y12 r 2 becomes x h2 y k 2 r 2 .

Before proceeding to the next activities, let the students give a brief
summary of the activities they have done. Provide them with an opportunity to
relate or connect their responses in the activities given to their new lesson,
equation of a circle. Let the students read and understand some important notes
on equation of a circle. Tell them to study carefully the examples given.
What to PROCESS
Let the students use the mathematical ideas they have learned about the
equation of a circle and the examples presented in the preceding section to
perform the succeeding activities.

224

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In Activity 4, the students will determine the center and the radius of each
circle, given its equation. Then, the students will be asked to graph the circle. Ask
them to explain how they determined the center and the radius of the circle.
Furthermore, tell them to explain how to graph a circle given its equation in
different forms. Strengthen students understanding of the graphs of circles
through the use of available mathematics freeware like Geogebra.
Activity 4: Always Start at This Point!

Answer Key
3. Center: 0,0
Radius: 10 units

PY

1. Center: 0,0
Radius: 7 units
y

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EP
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2. Center: 5,6
Radius: 9 units

4. Center: 7,1
Radius: 7 units

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Answer Key

5. Center: 4,3
Radius: 8 units

6. Center: 5,8
Radius: 11 units

PY

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a. Note: Evaluate students responses.


b. Determine first the center and the radius of the circle defined by the
equation, then graph.

If the given equation is in the form x 2 y 2 r 2 , the center is at the


origin and the radius of the circle is r.

If the given equation is in the form x h y k r 2 , the center is


2

at h, k and the radius of the circle is r.

If the given equation is in the form x 2 y 2 Dx Ey F 0 ,


form x h y k r 2 . The center is at
2

EP
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transform it into the

h, k and the radius of the circle is r.

Ask the students to perform Activity 5. This time, the students will write the
equation of a circle given the center and the radius. Ask them to explain how to
determine the equation of a circle whether or not the center is the origin.

Activity 5: What defines me?

Answer Key
2

1. x y 144
2.
3.
4.
5.

x 22 y 62 81
x 72 y 22 225
x 42 y 52 50
x 102 y 82 27

a. Write the equation in the


2

form x y r where the origin is the


center and r is the radius of the circle.
Write the equation in the

form x h y k r where h, k is
the center and r is the radius of the circle.
b. No, because the two circles have different
radii.
2

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Activities 6 and 7 provide students opportunities to write equations of


circles from center-radius form or standard form to general form and vice-versa.
At this point, ask them to explain how to transform the equation of a circle from
one form to another form and discuss the mathematics concepts or principles
applied. Furthermore, challenge them to find a shorter way of transforming
equation of a circle from general form to standard form and vice-versa.
Activity 6: Turn Me into a General!
Answer Key

6.

x 2 y 2 14x 15 0

2. x 2 y 2 8 x 18y 47 0

7.

x 2 y 2 4y 45 0

3. x 2 y 2 12x 2y 44 0

8.

x 2 y 2 4 x 96 0

4. x 2 y 2 16x 14y 112 0

9.

x 2 y 2 10x 10y 23 0

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PY

1. x 2 y 2 4x 8y 16 0

5. x 2 y 2 10y 11 0
Note: Evaluate students explanations.

10. x 2 y 2 8 x 8y 0

Activity 7: Dont Treat this as a Demotion!

x 12 y 42 64
Center: 1,4

4. x 2 y 4 100

x 22 y 22 36

5. x

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1.

Answer Key

Radius: 8 units

2.

x 5

2
1

y 4
3
3

2 1
Center: ,
3 3
Radius: 2 units

Radius: 6 units

3.

Center: 0,4
Radius: 10 units

Center: 2,2

5
3

6. x y 9
2
2

5 3
Center: ,
2 2

y 2 32
2

Center: 5,2
Radius: 4 2 units

Radius: 3 units

a. Grouping the terms, then applying completing the square, addition


property of equality and factoring.

227

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b. Completing the square, Addition Property of Equality, Square of a


Binomial
c. Using the values of D, E, and F in the general equation of a circle,

x 2 y 2 Dx Ey F 0 , to find the center (h,k) and radius r. The

GeoGebra freeware can also be used for verification.


What to REFLECT on and UNDERSTAND:

PY

Ask the students to have a closer look at some aspects of the equation of
a circle. Provide them with opportunities to think deeply and test further their
understanding of the equation of a circle by doing Activities 8 and 9. Give more
focus on the real-life applications of the equation of a circle.
Activity 8: A Circle? Why not?

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Answer Key

1. No. x 2 y 2 2x 8y 26 0 can be written as x 12 y 42 9 .


Notice that -9 cannot be expressed as a square of another number.
2. Yes. x 2 y 2 9 4x 10y can be written as x 22 y 52 20 .

3. No. x 2 y 2 6x 8y 32 is not an equation of a circle. Its graph is not


also a circle.

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4. No. x 2 y 2 8x 14y 65 0 is merely a point. The radius must be


greater than 0 for a circle to exist.

Activity 9: Find Out More!


Answer Key

x 32 y 82 81
x 102 y 72 36 or x 102 y 52 36

1.

2.
3. 3x 5y 7
4.
5.

x 52 y 52 13
2
2
a. x 3 y 4 100
b. Yes, because point 11,6 is still within the critical area.
c. Follow the advice of PDRRMC.
d. (Evaluate students responses/explanations.)

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Answer Key

6. a. Wise Tower - x 5 y 3 81
2

Global Tower - x 3 y 6 16
2

Star Tower - x 12 y 3 36
2

b. 12,2 - Star Tower

6,7 - Wise Tower


2,8 - Global Tower
1,3 - Wise and Global Tower

PY

c. Many possible answers. Evaluate students responses.

What to TRANSFER

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Before the students move to the next section of this lesson, give a short
test (formative test) to find out how well they understood the lesson. Ask them
also to write a journal about their understanding of the equation of a circle. Refer
to the Assessment Map.

Give the students opportunities to demonstrate their understanding of the


equation of a circle by doing a practical task. Let them perform Activity 10. You
can ask the students to work individually or in a group.

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In Activity 10, the students will paste some small pictures of objects on
grid paper and position them at different coordinates. Then, the students will
draw circles that contain these pictures. Using the pictures and the circles drawn
on the grid, they will formulate problems involving the equation of the circle, and
then solve them.

Activity 10: Let This be a Part of My Scrapbook!

Answer Key
Evaluate students answers. You may use the rubric.

229

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Summary/Synthesis/Generalization:

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C
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PY

This lesson was about the equation of circles. The lesson provided the
students with opportunities to illustrate the center-radius form of the equation of a
circle, determine the center and the radius of a circle given its equation and vice
versa, write the equation of a circle from standard form to general form and viceversa, graph circles on the coordinate plane, and solve problems involving the
equation of circles. Moreover, they were given the opportunity to formulate and
solve real-life problems involving the equation of a circle through the practical task
performed. Their understanding of this lesson and other previously learned
mathematics concepts and principles will facilitate their learning of other related
mathematics concepts.

230

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SUMMATIVE TEST
Part I
Choose the letter that you think best answers the question.

1. Which of the following is NOT a formula for finding the distance between two
points on the coordinate plane?
C. d

x2 x12 y 2 y12

B. d y 2 y1

D. d

x2 x12 y 2 y12

PY

A. d x2 x1

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2. A map is drawn on a grid where 1 unit is equivalent to 2 km. On the same


map, the coordinates of the point corresponding to San Rafael is (1,4).
Suppose San Quintin is 20 km away from San Rafael. Which of the following
could be the coordinates of the point corresponding to San Rafael?
A. (17,16)
B. (17,10)
C. (9,10)
D. (-15,16)
3. Let M and N be points on the coordinate plane as shown in the figure below.

EP
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If the coordinates of M and N are 5,7 and 5,4 , which of the following
would give the distance between the two points?
A. 7 4
B. 7 5
C. 4 7
D. 4 5

4. Point Q is the midpoint of ST . Which of the following is true about ST?


A. ST QS QT
C. ST 2 QS QT
B. ST QS QT

D. ST 2 QS QT

5. The distance between points M x ,5 and C 5,1 is 10 units. What is the xcoordinate of M if it lies in the second quadrant?
A. -7
B. -3
C. -1
D. 13

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6. What is the distance between points D(-10,2) and E(6,10)?


D. 8 5
A. 16
B. 20
C. 10 2
7. Which of the following equation describes a circle on the coordinate plane
with a center at 2,3 and a radius of 5 units?
A.
B.

x 22 y 32 252
x 22 y 32 52

C.
D.

x 32 y 22 252
x 22 y 32 52

C
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PY

8. Which of the following would give the coordinates of the midpoint of P(-6,13)
and Q(9,6)?
6 13 9 6
6 13 9 6
,
,
A.
C.

2
2
2
2

6 9 13 6
6 9 13 6
,
,
B.
D.

2
2
2
2
9. The endpoints of a segment are (-5,2) and (9,12), respectively. What are the
coordinates of its midpoint?
A. (7,5)
B. (2,7)
C. (-7,5)
D. (7,2)
10. The coordinates of the vertices of a rectangle are W 2,6 , I 10,6 ,
A. 7.5

B. 9

N 10,3, and D 2,3 . What is the length of a diagonal of the rectangle?


C. 12

D. 15

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11. The coordinates of the vertices of a triangle are G 4,2 , O5,1 , and

T 10,8 . What is the length of the segment joining the midpoint of GT and

O?
A. 2 10

B.

58

C. 3 10

D.

106

12. The endpoints of a diameter of a circle are E 6,8 and G4,2 . What is the
length of the radius of the circle?
B. 5 2
C. 2 10
D.
A. 10 2
10
13. What proof uses figures on a coordinate plane to prove geometric properties?
A. Indirect Proof
C. Coordinate Proof
B. Direct Proof
D. Two-Column Proof
14. What figure is formed when the points K(-2,10), L(8,8), M(6,2), and N(-4,4)
are connected consecutively?
A. Trapezoid
B. Parallelogram C. Square
D. Rectangle

232

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15. Three speed cameras were installed at different points along an expressway.
On a map drawn on a coordinate plane, the coordinates of the first speed
camera are (-2,4). Suppose the second camera is exactly between the other
two and its coordinates are (12,8). What are the coordinates of the third speed
camera?
A. (26,12)
B. (26,16)
C. (22,12)
D. (22,16)
16. In the equilateral triangle below, what are the coordinates of P?
A. 0,2a

B. 2a,0


0,a 2

C
O

D.

PY

C. 0,a 3

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17. Jose, Andres, Emilio, and Juan live in different barangays of Magiting town as
shown on the coordinate plane below.
Andres

Jose

Town Hall

Juan

Emilio

Who lives the farthest from the Town Hall if it is located at the origin?
A. Jose
B. Andres
C. Emilio
D. Juan

233

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18. What is the center of the circle x 2 y 2 4x 6y 36 0 ?


A. (9,-3)
B. (3,-2)
C. (2,-3)
D. (2,-10)

, 2 . What is the equation


19. A radius of a circle has endpoints 4,3 and 1
that defines the circle if its center is at the second quadrant?
A. x 1 y 2 50

C.

B. x 1 y 2 50

D.

2
2

x 42 y 32 50
x 42 y 32 50

C.

2
2
B. x 2 y 7 5

D.

x 22 y 72 25
x 22 y 72 5

C
O

2
2
A. x 2 y 7 25

PY

20. A radio signal can transmit messages up to a distance of 5 km. If the radio
signals origin is located at a point whose coordinates are (-2,7). What is the
equation of the circle that defines the boundary up to which the messages
can be transmitted?

Part II

Directions: Solve each of the following problems. Show your complete solutions.

EP
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1. A tracking device that is installed in a mobile phone indicates that its user is
located at a point whose coordinates are (18,14). In the tracking device, each
unit on the grid is equivalent to 7 km. If the phone user came from a place
whose coordinates are (2,6)? How far has he travelled?
2. The equation that represents the transmission boundaries of a cellular phone
tower is x 2 y 2 10x 2y 199 0 . What is the greatest distance, in
kilometers, can the signal of the tower be transmitted?

Rubric for Problem Solving


4

Used an
appropriate
strategy to come
up with correct
solution and
arrived at a
correct answer

Used an
appropriate
strategy to come
up with a solution,
but a part of the
solution led to an
incorrect answer

Used an
appropriate
strategy but came
up with an entirely
wrong solution
that led to an
incorrect answer

234

1
Attempted to solve
the problem but
used an
inappropriate
strategy that led to
a wrong solution

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Part III A: GRASPS Assessment


Perform the following.
To prepare emergency measures to be undertaken in times of
natural calamities and disasters particularly typhoons and floods

Role:

Radio Group Chairman of the Municipal Disaster and Risk


Management Committee

Audience:

Municipal and Barangay Officials and Volunteers

Situation:

Typhoons and floods frequently affect your municipality during


rainy seasons. For the past years, losses of lives and damages to
properties have occurred. Because of this, your municipal mayor
designated you to chair the Radio Group of the Municipal Disaster
and Risk Management Committee to warn the residents of your
municipality of any imminent natural calamities and disasters like
typhoons and floods. The municipal government gave your group a
number of two-way radios and antennas to be installed in strategic
places in the municipality. These shall be used as the need arises.

C
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PY

Goal:

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As chairman of the Radio Group, you were tasked to prepare


emergency measures that you will undertake to reduce if not to
avoid losses of lives and damages to properties during rainy
seasons. These include the positioning of the different two-way
radios and antennas for communication and coordination among
the members of the Radio Group. You were also asked to prepare
a grid map of your municipality showing the positions of the twoway radios and antennas.

Products:

Standards:

1. Emergency Measures to be undertaken in times of natural


calamities and disasters
2.

Grid map of your municipality showing the locations of the


different two-way radios and antennas

The emergency measures must be clear, relevant, and systematic.


The grid map of the municipality must be accurate, presentable,
and appropriate.

235

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Rubric for the Prepared Emergency Measures


3
The emergency
measures are
clearly presented
and relevant to
the situation but
not systematic.

2
The emergency
measures are
clearly presented
but not relevant to
the situation and
not systematic.

Rubric for Grid Map of the Municipality


3
The grid map is
accurately made
and appropriate
but not
presentable.

2
The grid map is
not accurately
made but
appropriate.

1
The grid map is
not accurately
made and not
appropriate.

C
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4
The grid map is
accurately made,
appropriate, and
presentable.

1
The emergency
measures are not
clearly presented,
not relevant to the
situation, and not
systematic.

PY

4
The emergency
measures are
clearly presented,
relevant to the
situation, and
systematic.

Part III B

Use the prepared grid map of the municipality in Part III A in formulating
problems involving plane coordinate geometry, then solve.

EP
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Rubric on Problems Formulated and Solved


Score

Descriptors
Poses a more complex problem with 2 or more correct
possible solutions and communicates ideas unmistakably,
shows in-depth comprehension of the pertinent concepts
and/or processes, and provides explanations wherever
appropriate.
Poses a more complex problem and finishes all significant
parts of the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably,
shows in-depth comprehension of the pertinent concepts
and/or processes.
Poses a complex problem and finishes all significant parts of
the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably, shows indepth comprehension of the pertinent concepts and/or
processes.
Poses a complex problem and finishes most significant parts
of the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably, shows
comprehension of major concepts although neglects or

236

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Score

Descriptors
misinterprets less significant ideas or details.
Poses a problem and finishes some significant parts of the
solution and communicates ideas unmistakably but shows
gaps on theoretical comprehension.
Poses a problem but demonstrates minor comprehension, not
being able to develop an approach.

2
1

Source: D.O. #73, s. 2012

Answer Key
Part II (Use the rubric to rate students works/outputs)
1. 56 5 km
2. 15 km

Glossary of Terms

PY

11. A
12. B
13. C
14. B
15. A
16. C
17. C
18. C
19. C
20. C

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Part III A (Use the rubric to rate students works/outputs)


Part III B (Use the rubric to rate students works/outputs)

Part I
1. C
2. C
3. C
4. A
5. B
6. D
7. D
8. B
9. B
]10. D

EP
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Coordinate Proof a proof that uses figures on a coordinate plane to prove


geometric relationships.
Distance Formula an equation that can be used to find the distance between
any pair of points on the coordinate plane. The distance formula is

x2 x12 y2 y12

or PQ

x2 x12 y2 y12 ,

Qx2 , y 2 are points on a coordinate plane.

if P x1, y1 and

Horizontal Distance (between two points) the absolute value of the difference
of the x-coordinates of two points

Midpoint a point on a line segment that divides the same segment into two
equal parts.
Midpoint Formula a formula that can be used to find the coordinates of the
midpoint of a line segment on the coordinate plane. The midpoint of P x1, y1

x x2 y1 y 2
,
and Qx2 , y 2 is 1
.

237

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The General Equation of a Circle the equation of a circle obtained by


expanding

x h 2 y k 2 r 2 .

The general equation of a circle is

x 2 y 2 Dx Ey F 0 , where D, E, and F are real numbers.


The Standard Equation of a Circle the equation that defines a circle with
center at (h, k) and a radius of r units. It is given by

x h y k
2

r 2.

PY

Vertical Distance (between two points) the absolute value of the difference of
the y-coordinates of two points.
DepEd INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS THAT CAN BE USED AS ADDITIONAL
RESOURCES:

C
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1. Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao (BEAM) Learning Guide, Third


Year Mathematics. Plane Coordinate Geometry. Module 20: Distance and
Midpoint Formulae

2. Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao (BEAM) Learning Guide, Third


Year Mathematics. Plane Coordinate Geometry. Module 22: Equation of a
Circle
3. Distance Learning Module (DLM) 3, Module 3: Plane Coordinate Geometry.

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4. EASE Modules Year III, Module 2: Plane Coordinate Geometry


References and Website Links Used in This Module:
References:

Bass, L. E., Charles, R. I., Hall, B., Johnson, A., & Kennedy, D. (2008) Texas
Geometry. Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Bass, L. E., Hall, B.R., Johnson, A., & Wood, D. F. (1998) Prentice Hall
Geometry Tools for a Changing World. NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Boyd, C., Malloy, C. & Flores. (2008) Glencoe McGraw-Hill Geometry. USA: The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Callanta, M. M. (2012) Infinity, Worktext in Mathematics III. Makati City: EUREKA
Scholastic Publishing, Inc.

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Chapin, I., Landau, M. & McCracken. (1997) Prentice Hall Middle Grades Math,
Tools for Success. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Cifarelli, V. (2009) cK-12 Geometry, Flexbook Next Generation Textbooks. USA:
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike.
Clemens, S. R., ODaffer, P. G., Cooney, T. J., & Dossey, J. A. (1990) AddisonWesley Geometry. USA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.
Clements, D. H., Jones, K. W., Moseley, L.G., & Schulman, L. (1999) Math in my
World. New York: McGraw-Hill Division.

PY

Department of Education. (2012) K to 12 Curriculum Guide Mathematics.


Philippines.

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Gantert, A. X. (2008) AMSCOs Geometry. NY, USA: AMSCO School


Publications, Inc.
Renfro, F. L. (1992) Addison-Wesley Geometry Teachers Edition. USA:
Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.
Rich, B. & Thomas, C. (2009) Schaums Outlines Geometry Fourth Edition. USA:
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Smith, S. A., Nelson, C.W., Koss, R. K., Keedy, M. L., & Bittinger, M. L. (1992)
Addison-Wesley Informal Geometry. USA: Addison-Wesley Publishing
Company, Inc.

Wilson, P. S. (1993) Mathematics, Applications and Connections, Course I.


Westerville, Ohio: Glencoe Division of Macmillan/McGraw-Hill Publishing
Company.

239

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Website Links as References and Sources of Learning Activities:


CliffsNotes. Midpoint Formula. (2013). Retrieved from
http://www.cliffsnotes.com/math/geometry/coordinate-geometry/midpoint-formula
CliffsNotes. Distance Formula. (2013). Retrieved from
http://www.cliffsnotes.com/math/geometry/coordinate-geometry/distance-formula
Math Open Reference. Basic Equation of a Circle (Center at 0,0). (2009).
Retrieved from http://www.mathopenref.com/ coordbasiccircle.html

PY

Math Open Reference. Equation of a Circle, General Form (Center anywhere).


(2009). Retrieved from http://www.mathopenref.com/coordgeneralcircle.html

C
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Math-worksheet.org. Using equations of circles. (2014). Retrieved from


http://www.math-worksheet.org/using-equations-of-circles

Math-worksheet.org. Writing equations of circles. (2014). Retrieved from


http://www.math-worksheet.org/writing-equations-of-circles

Roberts, Donna. Oswego City School District Regents exam Prep Center.
Geometry Lesson Page. Midpoint of a Line Segment. (2012). Retrieved from
http://www.regentsprep.org/Regents/ math/geometry/GCG2/ Lmidpoint.htm

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Roberts, Donna. Oswego City School District Regents exam Prep Center.
Geometry Lesson Page. Midpoint of a Line Segment. (2012). Retrieved from
http://www.regentsprep.org/Regents/math/geometry/GCG3/ Ldistance.htm
Stapel, Elizabeth. "Conics: Circles: Introduction & Drawing." Purplemath.
Retrieved from http://www.purplemath.com/modules/ circle.htm
Website Links for Videos:

Khan Academy. Equation for a circle using the Pythagorean Theorem. Retrieved
from https://www.khanacademy.org/math/geometry/ cc-geometrycircles/equation-of-a-circle/v/equation-for-a-circle-using-the-pythagorean-theorem
Khan Academy. Completing the square to write equation in standard form of a
circle. Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org/math/ geometry/ccgeometry-circles/equation-of-a-circle/v/completing-the-square-to-write-equationin-standard-form-of-a-circle
Khan Academy. Equation for a circle using the Pythagorean Theorem. Retrieved
from https://www.khanacademy.org/math/geometry/ cc-geometrycircles/equation-of-a-circle/v/equation-for-a-circle-using-the-pythagorean-theorem

240

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Khan Academy. Equation for a circle using the Pythagorean Theorem. Retrieved
from https://www.khanacademy.org/math/geometry/ cc-geometrycircles/equation-of-a-circle/v/equation-for-a-circle-using-the-pythagorean-theorem
Ukmathsteacher. Core 1 Coordinate Geometry (3) Midpoint and distance
formula and Length of Line Segment. Retrieved from
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qTliFzj4wuc

PY

VividMaths.com. Distance Formula. Retrieved from


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QPIWrQyeuYw
Website Links for Images:

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asiatravel.com. Pangasinan Map. Retrieved from


http://www.asiatravel.com/philippines/pangasinan/pangasinanmap.jpg

DownTheRoad.org. Pictures of, Chengdu to Kangding, China Photo, Images,


Picture from. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.downtheroad.org/Asia/Photo/
9Sichuan_China_Image/3Chengdu_Kangding_China.htm

funcheap.com. globe-map-wallpapers_5921_1600[1]. Retrieved from


http://sf.funcheap.com/hostelling-internationals-world-travel-101-santaclara/globe-map-wallpapers_5921_16001/

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Hugh Odom Vertical Consultants. eleven40 theme on Genesis Framework


WordPress. Cell Tower Development How Are Cell Tower Locations Selected?
Retrieved from http://blog.thebrokerlist.com/cell-tower-development-how-are-celltower-locations-selected/
LiveViewGPS, Inc. GPS Tracking PT-10 Series. (2014). Retrieved from
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Sloan, Chris. Current "1991" Air Traffic Control Tower at Amsterdam Schiphol
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