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Geometric Applications

I.

Families of Curves

For the function y = f(x),

dy

dx

slope of the tangent line

dx

dy

y y2 y1

x x2 x1

slope =

Examples: Solve the following:

1. Find the equation of a family of curves and the equation of the

particular curve passing through (-2,1) if the slope of the tangent at

3

2

any point is 3x2 + 4x. ANS. y=x +2 x +C , C=1

2. Find the equation of a family of curves if its normal line at any point

passes through the origin.

3. What is the equation of the family of curves if the tangent line, from

the point of tangency to the point where it crosses the x-axis, is

bisected by the y axis.

II.

Orthogonal Trajectories

If a curve intersects each member of a family of curves at a constant angle of

90, then the curve is called an orthogonal trajectory of the family of curves.

dx

dy

dy

dx

If

is the slope of the family of curves, then is the slope of the

orthogonal trajectory.

1. Find the differential equation of the given family. (Eliminate the arbitrary

constants)

dx

dy

dy

dx

2. Replace

with . This is the differential equation of the orthogonal

trajectories.

3. Solve the resulting differential equation.

Example: Find the orthogonal trajectories of each of the following:

1. x 3y = C. Draw the figure.

2. Circles through the origin with centers on the x axis. Draw the figure. HW

3. y ( x2 + k ) + 2 = 0

x

4. x = C exp (-y2) Ans. y=C e .

2

5. Ellipses with centers at (0,0) and two vertices at (1,0) and (-1,0).

6. y = k ( csc x + cot x)

Physical Applications

III.

The rate at which the amount of a substance changes is proportional to the

quantity of substance present at any time.

t = time

k = proportionality constant

dx

dt

= rate of change

Rate Equation:

dx

dt

dx

dt

General Solution:

= kx

x = Cekt

1. The population of a city doubles in 50 years. In how many years will it

be four times as much? Assume that the rate of change is proportional

to the number of inhabitants. ANS 100 yrs.

2. A certain substance decomposes at a rate proportional to the to the

amount present. If one-third of it disappears after 1000 days, what is

the percentage lost in 100 days?

3. Thirty percent of a radioactive substance disappears in 15 years.

Find the half-life of the substance. ANS. 29.15 yrs

Note: Half-life

, t 1 /2

x=0.5 x o

unchanged. If there were 50 lb of sugar present initially and at the end

of 5 hours this is reduced to 20 lb, how long will it take until 90% of the

sugar is decomposed?

5. Water leaks from a cylinder at a rate proportional to the square root of

the volume remaining at any time. If initially there are 64 gallons

present and 15 gallons leak out on the first day, how much will be left

after 4 days? When will there be 25 gallons? HW

IV.

Newtons law of cooling or heating states that the rate at which the

temperature of a body decreases or increases is proportional to the

difference between the temperature of the body and that of the medium.

Let T = temperature of the body at any time t

t = time

k = proportionality constant

k =+ ( heating ) , k=( cooling)

dT

dt

= rate of change

Rate Equation:

General Solution:

dT

dt

(T Tm)

or

dT

dt

= k (T Tm)

T = Tm + Cekt

1.

taken from a room where the temperature is 35, and the

thermometer reading is 65 after 30 sec, a) how long after the

removal will the reading be 50? b) What will be the thermometer

reading 3 minutes after the removal?

2.

outside where

the air temperature is - 10 F. At 1:02 pm, the reading is 26 F. at 1:05

pm, the thermometer is taken back indoors where the air is at 70 F.

What is the thermometer reading at 1:09 pm? HW

3.

oven whose temperature is kept at 150 F. If after 10 minutes the

temperature of the body is 75 F, find an expression for the temperature

at any time and find the time required for the body to attain a

temperature that is within a half degree of the oven temperature.

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