3 views

Uploaded by Bruno Zapelli

EE

- Alpha Technical Shelters_Rev B
- Ctlg 3AF005-1303E Split Wallmounted Standard [Unlocked by Www.freemypdf.com]
- Sysvrf 252 Air Evo Hp r
- High Efficiency HVAC Eqp
- Ex Posicion
- Vishva Solar Energy
- split_air_conditioner.pdf
- Preventive maintenance
- Basis of Design
- CK-Albany-PM Contract 17 (Revised).docx
- Databook & Service Manual - 208~230V VRF IDU - Ver 1.3
- catalogue
- 801c9d4c7d38c06c354ca4e0871057aa
- Basic Installation GuideKFR32GW_ NEW 0409
- GE Manual
- Energy Plus Epl Bestest Hvac
- Fv4c_01pd Carrier Evaporadora
- hvac.pdf
- ACREX List of Exhibitors
- LG Owners Manual

You are on page 1of 9

CONDITIONING SYSTEM FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDING

ENERGY SAVING

V. Vakiloroaya*, J.G. Zhu, and Q.P. Ha

School of Electrical, Mechanical and Mechatronic Systems, University of Technology Sydney, Australia

* Corresponding author (vakiloroaya@engineer.com)

ABSTRACT: This paper presents a comprehensive refinement of system modeling and optimization study of air-cooled

direct expansion (DX) refrigeration systems for commercial buildings to address the energy saving problem. An actual DX

rooftop package of a commercial building in the hot and dry climate condition is used for experimentation and data

collection. Both inputs and outputs are known and measured from the field monitoring. The optimal supply air temperature

and refrigerant flow rate are calculated based on the cooling load and ambient dry-bulb temperature profiles in one typical

week in the summer. Optimization is performed by using empirically-based models of the refrigeration system components

for energy savings. The results are promising as approximately 9% saving of the average power consumption can be

achieved subject to a predetermined comfort constraint on the ambient temperature. The proposed approach will make an

attractive contribution to residential and commercial building HVAC applications in moving towards green automation.

Keywords: Direct Expansion, Empirical Method, Energy Saving, Optimization

1. INTRODUCTION

233

S7-2

results

air

demonstrated

that

varying

the

supply

model, a penalty function can be constructed to transform

2. MATHEMATICAL MODEL

2.1 DX Evaporator

conditioning systems.

and

, based on the principle of energy

(1)

1.005

0.001

2500

1.84

In (2),

2500

(2)

1.347

2500 1.84

1010

4.187

is

(3)

expressions of decision variables to facilitate the derivation

where

systems.

energy

Using

this

method,

the

overall

234

is the

(4)

S7-2

where

to

of the experimental data. The fan air flow rate is a function

of

the

supply

air

temperature,

ambient

dry-bulb

2.2 Air-Cooled Condenser

low fin tube type. For a specific heat rejection capacity, the

air flow rate of the condenser fan mainly depends on the

air-cooled condenser and the enthalpy difference between

air

entering

enthalpy

enthalpy

and

air

leaving

as:

,

(5)

In (4),

ambient air temperature:

,

where

(6)

coefficients

to

dry-bulb temperature.

The expansion valve is a refrigerant flow control device

refrigerant

mass

temperature

flow

rate

the

evaporator temperature

superheat

, the

) 2

input for a given refrigerant flow rate can be expressed as a

where

,

where

to

density,

is the refrigerant

is the downstream

refrigerant thermodynamical properties calculated by [6]:

1.1868

e.g. the least square method. The rating procedure and the

form of the equation are specified by ARI standard 540 [7].

The condensing temperature

pressure and

(7)

(8)

is influenced by the

235

10

In (10),

viscosity,

(9)

is the dynamic

is the inlet diameter.

S7-2

3. PROBLEM FORMULATION

3.2 Constraints

as follows:

must be less

dry-bulb temperature.

(13)

and

. The power consumption obtained

being

constraint as:

.

given as:

(14)

,

(10)

Subject to constraints.

20 .

(15)

system's instantaneous power consumption

10

, in terms

(16)

temperature T

and

relative

humidity

RH

during

22

(11)

26

40%

60% .

(17)

4. CASE STUDY

To fit the function to the real test data, the regression can

this purpose, a real-world test data were collected in testing

0,

0.

(12)

for measuring all operating variables. Manometers were

236

S7-2

measured by digital thermometer (precision: 0.8C ).

Powers of components were measured by a digital ac/dc

power clamp multimeter (precision: 3.5%). Therefore a

total fifty-six points of system power consumption and

other variables were measured for each fifteen-minute

period. The building sensible and latent cooling load, were

70

60

50

0.6

Building Cooling

Load

Supply Air

Temperature

Refrigerant Flow

Rate

0.5

0.4

40

0.3

30

0.2

20

0.1

10

0

0

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23

Time (Hour)

software [14] was used to calculate the coefficients of the

quadratic cost function. The regression process explains the

80

system energy consumption. The R-squared value of the

84.27

49.33

4.07

3682

13.13

0.02

0.16

0.03

4.63

2.19

control strategy.

10

24.69

0.028

25

(18)

0.07

0.03.

temperature and relative humidity. Results show that the

minimum, maximum and average values of the indoor

27.3

0.0028

,

0.0059

0.5002

0.2683

0.0881,

7.501.

derivatives:

,

(19)

ranges.

5. CONCLUSION

20

0,

0.04

0.

(20)

with respect to the controlled and uncontrolled variables

of cooling loads

experimentally-collected

data

and

empirically-based

were input into the

point values of the

,

,

proposed method.

237

S7-2

25

25

Common Method

Optimal Method

20

33, pp. 371378, 2001.

20

[5] Yao, Y., Lian, Z., Hou, Z, and Zhou, X., Optimal

15

15

10

10

10

13

16

19

22

Time (hour)

2008.

40

38

36

34

32

30

28

26

24

22

20

65

Indoor TemperatureWith Optimization

Indoor RH Without Optimization

Indoor RH With Optimization

60

55

50

45

40

Standard

Temperature (C)

Fig. 4

10

12

14 16 18

Time (Hour)

20

Positive

Displacement

1999.

[8] Huh, J.H., Brandemuehl, M.J., and Optimization of

Air-Conditioning System Operating Strategies for Hot

and Humid Climates, Energy and Building, Vol. 40,

pp. 12021213, 2008.

[9] Ghaddar, N., Mossolly, M., and Ghali, K., Optimal

35

8

540-1999

22

pp. 5866, 2009.

[10] Yan, Y., Zhou, J., Lin, Y., Yang, W., Wang, P., and

buildings.

[11] Beghi,

REFERENCES

A.,

Cecchinato,

L.,

Simulation

Algorithms

for

Electronic

Expansion

Valve,

17651775, 2009.

Air-Conditioning

System

Using

Decomposition-

238

- Alpha Technical Shelters_Rev BUploaded bynenaddejanovic
- Ctlg 3AF005-1303E Split Wallmounted Standard [Unlocked by Www.freemypdf.com]Uploaded byjaclee
- Sysvrf 252 Air Evo Hp rUploaded byAdades Safede Efd
- High Efficiency HVAC EqpUploaded byRyan Carter
- Ex PosicionUploaded byDavid Leonardo Duarte Cano
- Vishva Solar EnergyUploaded byAnand Trivedi
- split_air_conditioner.pdfUploaded byHaris Khan
- Preventive maintenanceUploaded byMdShafquat Azad
- Basis of DesignUploaded byMohsin Shaikh
- CK-Albany-PM Contract 17 (Revised).docxUploaded byMiles
- Databook & Service Manual - 208~230V VRF IDU - Ver 1.3Uploaded byrivasse
- catalogueUploaded bychinitn
- 801c9d4c7d38c06c354ca4e0871057aaUploaded byagusjorge
- Basic Installation GuideKFR32GW_ NEW 0409Uploaded byB_ogdan
- GE ManualUploaded bykdinesh55
- Energy Plus Epl Bestest HvacUploaded byanoopsg
- Fv4c_01pd Carrier EvaporadoraUploaded byportatil31164
- hvac.pdfUploaded byanoop
- ACREX List of ExhibitorsUploaded bydeepakraj2005
- LG Owners ManualUploaded bySS
- 13W06_tclass_80488_0115Uploaded byDavidR.ALfonso
- 08 EPG Climate ControlUploaded byRob
- Calc HVAC LG.docxUploaded byDevinta wardhani
- Carrier RLC 2006Uploaded byAryo Muhammad
- 20x25x1 air filterUploaded byairfilterpleated
- Hvac Training CourseUploaded bygkvmit
- Install ManualUploaded byChris Nolan
- Engineering GuideUploaded byJohnMerr
- kim-RWEUploaded byRobert Hughes
- Air-Conditioning Design for Medical BuildingsUploaded byCristobal Tardo

- PEE Projetos.xlsUploaded byBruno Zapelli
- PEE Projetos.xlsUploaded byBruno Zapelli
- Estratégias de ProduçãoUploaded byBruno Zapelli
- Roteiro entrevista Desenv e Aprend.docxUploaded byBruno Zapelli
- Projeto Usina FotovoltaicaUploaded byTházio Lima
- 10 Dicas de Bom Atendimento Que Criam Percepção de Valor Para Sua Marca _ Evernote WebUploaded byBruno Zapelli
- Superficies Seletivas e Medidores de Energia SolarUploaded byBruno Zapelli
- Aula 8 Analise NodalUploaded byFelipe Pinhelli
- SEP 1 - Cap 1 Circuitos TrifasicosUploaded byLucas Marinho
- aula_1Uploaded byBruno Zapelli
- testeUploaded byBruno Zapelli
- Resolução 09 - 16.01.2003 (ANVISA)Uploaded byBruno Ribeiro
- Apresentação.pptxUploaded byBruno Zapelli
- APNT1133Uploaded byBruno Zapelli
- Aula TA - 08 - Como Fazer Bons SlidesUploaded byBruno Zapelli
- Relatorio IpirangaUploaded byBruno Zapelli
- Chiller TeoriaUploaded byLeandro Buosi
- Livro Design Thinking - Inovao NegciosUploaded byBruno Zapelli
- semaforoUploaded byBruno Zapelli
- Eficiência Energética - Teoria e Prática - EletrobrasUploaded byPedro Gutman
- 397 Laminas Da Aula 1Uploaded byBruno Zapelli
- Aula 04Uploaded byBruno Zapelli
- Amplificador_Operacional-1-2Uploaded byBruno Zapelli
- 4xUploaded byBruno Zapelli
- Ficha 01Uploaded byBruno Zapelli

- LEV Calculation.pdfUploaded byBukhory Tajudin
- HVAC ZamboangaUploaded byDidy RobotIncorporated
- * NEW * Fastparts Air Conditioning TechnologyUploaded byFHFP2011
- R22 and R410a: a comparisonUploaded byatul randev
- JTL Book Hot Water SupplyUploaded bybendeni
- M 703- Model ExamUploaded byEr.Jayesh Isamaliya
- Extract From ABB Brochure 2CDC500060M0201 p 6 7 (1)Uploaded byYashveer Takoory
- Refrigeration System Performance Using Liquid-Suction Heat Ex ChangersUploaded byPattarin Temcharoen
- Chapter 05Uploaded byMougaliz Gales
- SINGLE Duct S for Europe_R410A_50Hz_Deluxe_Ver_1_4_TDBUploaded byCallany Anycall
- Magnetic Refrigeration AssignmentUploaded byAwais Asghar Khan
- Energy Code complianceUploaded byluissuazo
- 140280105022_2170507.pptxUploaded byAshish Makhija
- 425-8-Coil Load 2006Uploaded byDenise Koh Chin Hui
- important topics HVACUploaded byhimaniwatal
- Electronic Programmable ThermostatUploaded byreadytoexp
- 25410 Fug LerUploaded bytroscian7
- MEP Presentation - BSNLUploaded bykamal_muralikumar
- Rav4 AC Neural NetworkUploaded bynorbeck
- Fes Tbt HVAC Safety.pdfUploaded bysalem enwaiji
- ManualUploaded byelblinblinhotsauce
- Chapter 22Uploaded byKenneth Bryan Miguel Villagoneza
- 000 Itp-itr List_r11Uploaded byQii Bager
- m&e Design Brief_(23rdnov13)Uploaded by王越
- Samsung Multi Zone System ComponentsUploaded bye-ComfortUSA
- 39l-6pd-rUploaded byarq_ernest
- BOILER visit reportUploaded bySanket Koyate Speedster
- R744 Technicians Manual CETIAT GRETHUploaded byLuis Carlos
- OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE.docxUploaded byRupert Facunla Jr.
- Catalogue 1Uploaded byarvind