SET 1.

SUB CODE. SUBJECT. CENTER CODE. NAME. MK 008 E – Marketing 01561 PATIL YOGENDRA ASHOK ROLL NO. CLASS. 520837702 MBA 4th Sem ( MarketingWeekend) DATE. 6.05.10

SIGN.

Q.1 a. What constitutes an e-marketing plan? Briefly explain.
Ans. The e-marketing plan is built exactly on the same principles as the

classical plan. There is no different approach, but there might be some formal differences given by the uniqueness of the internet environment. Many of these differences come from the necessity to ensure a high rate of responsiveness from the customers, since the e-world is moving faster and requires faster reaction from its companies, compared to the traditional offline marketplace. In a broad sense, e-Marketers generally start by analyzing the current micro- and macro economic situation of the organization. E-Marketers must observe both internal and external factors when developing an eMarketing plan as trends in both micro and macro environment affect the organization’s ability to perform business. Examples of micro environment elements are: pricing, suppliers, customers. Examples or macro environment are: socioeconomic, political, demographic and legal factors. In order to produce a viable e-Marketing solution, e-Marketers must first understand the current situation of the company and its environment, profile, segment the target the right market and then strategically position the products as to achieve optimal response with the target market. This is generally achieved through SWOT analysis. By assessing organization’s strengths and weaknesses and looking at current opportunities and threats one can devise an e-Marketing strategy that can improve the organization’s bottom line. Even though it is perfectly acceptable and is a common practice to use the 8-stage classic model for the e-marketing plan as well, you might want to consider the simplified version , which identifies four major steps to build the e-marketing plan:  Strategic analysis: consists in continuous scanning of the macro- and micro-environment. The accent should fall on the consumers’ needs that change very rapidly in the online market, as well as on surveying the competitors’ actions and evaluating the opportunities offered by new technologies.  Defining strategic objectives: the organization must have a clear vision and establish if the media channels will complement the traditional ones, or will replace them. We must define specific objectives (don’t forget to check if they are SMART!) and we must also specify the contribution of the online activities to the organization’s turnover.

 Formulating strategies: we do that by addressing the following essential issues: - develop strategies towards the target markets; - positioning and differentiating strategies; - establish priorities of online activities; - focus attention and efforts on CRM and financial control; - formulate strategies for product development; - develop business models with well-established strategies for new products or services, as well as pr icing policies; - necessity for some organizational restructuring; - changes in the structure of communication channels.  Implementing strategies: includes careful execution of all necessary steps to achieve established objectives. It could refer re-launching of a website, promo campaigns for a new or rewritten site, monitoring website efficiency and many more.

b. Write a note on web analytics.
Ans. Web analytics is the study of the behaviour of website visitors. In a commercial context, web analytics especially refers to the use of data collected from a web site to determine which aspects of the website work towards the business objectives; for example, which landing pages encourage people to make a purchase. Data collected almost always includes web traffic reports. It may also include e-mail response rates, direct mail campaign data, sales and lead information, user performance data such as click heat mapping, or other custom metrics as needed. This data is typically compared against key performance indicators for performance, and used to improve a web site or marketing campaign’s audience response. Many different vendors provide web analytics software and services. Web analytics technologies There are two main technological approaches to collecting web analytics data. The first method, logfile analysis, reads the logfiles in which the web server records all its transactions. The second method, page tagging, uses JavaScript on each page to notify a third-party server when a page is rendered by a web browser. Web server logfile analysis (Server Side Data Collection) Web servers have always recorded all their transactions in a logfile. It was soon realised that these logfiles could be read by a program to provide data on the popularity of the website. Thus arose web log analysis software. In the early 1990s, web site statistics consisted primarily of counting the number of client requests made to the web server. Two units of measure were introduced in the mid 1990s to gauge more accurately the amount of human activity on web servers. These were page views and visits (or sessions). A page view was defined as a request made to the web server for a page, as opposed to a graphic, while a visit

was defined as a sequence of requests from a uniquely identified client that expired after a certain amount of inactivity, usually 30 minutes. The emergence of search engine spiders and robots in the late 1990s, along with web proxies and dynamically assigned IP addresses for large companies and ISPs, made it more difficult to identify unique human visitors to a website. Log analyzers responded by tracking visits by cookies, and by ignoring requests from known spiders. Page tagging (Client Side Data Collection) Concerns about the accuracy of logfile analysis led to the second data collection method, page tagging or ‘Web bugs’. A Web bug is an object that is embedded in a web page or e-mail and is usually invisible to the user but allows checking that a user has viewed the page or e-mail. One common use is in e-mail tracking. A web bug is one of a number of techniques used to track who is reading a web page or e-mail, when, and from what computer. They can also be used to see if an e-mail was forwarded to someone else or if a web page was copied to another website. Web bugs are typically used by third parties to monitor the activity of customers at a site. Turning off the browser’s cookies can prevent some web bugs from tracking a customer’s specific activity. The web site logs will still record a page request from the customer’s IP address, but unique information associated with a cookie cannot be recorded. In the mid 1990s, Web counters were commonly seen , these were images included in a web page that showed the number of times the image had been requested, which was an estimate of the number of visits to that page. In the late 1990s this concept evolved to include a small invisible image instead of a visible one, and, by using JavaScript, to pass along with the image request certain information about the page and the visitor. This information can then be processed remotely by a web analytics company, and extensive statistics generated. The web analytics service also manages the process of assigning a cookie to the user, which can uniquely identify them during their visit and in subsequent visits. Logfile analysis vs. page tagging: Both logfile analysis programs and page tagging solutions are readily available to companies that wish to perform web analytics. In many cases, the same web analytics company will offer both approaches. The question then arises of which method a company should choose. There are advantages and disadvantages to each approach. Advantages of logfile analysis The main advantages of logfile analysis over page tagging are as follows.

 The web server normally already produces logfiles, so the raw data is already available. To collect data via page tagging requires changes to the website.  The web server reliably records every transaction it makes. Page tagging relies on the visitors’ browsers co-operating, which a certain proportion may not do (for example, if JavaScript is disabled).  The data is on the company’s own servers, and is in a standard, rather than a proprietary, format. This makes it easy for a company to switch programs later, use several different programs, and analyze historical data with a new program. Page tagging solutions involve vendor lock-in.  Logfiles contain information on visits from search engine spiders. Although these should not be reported as part of the human activity, it is important data for performing search engine optimization.  Logfiles contain information on failed requests; page tagging only records an event if the page is successfully viewed. Advantages of page tagging The main advantages of page tagging over logfile analysis are as follows.  The JavaScript is automatically run every time the page is loaded. Thus there are fewer worries about caching.  It is easier to add additional information to the JavaScript, which can then be collected by the remote server. For example, information about the visitors’ screen sizes, or the price of the goods they purchased, can be added in this way. With logfile analysis, information not normally collected by the web server can only be recorded by modifying the URL.  Page tagging can report on events which do not involve a request to the web server, such as interactions within Flash movies.  The page tagging service manages the process of assigning cookies to visitors; with logfile analysis, the server has to be configured to do this.  Page tagging is available to companies who do not run their own web servers. Economic factors: Logfile analysis is almost always performed in-house. Page tagging can be performed in-house, but it is more often provided as a third-party service. The economic difference between these two models can also be a consideration for a company deciding which to purchase.  Logfile analysis typically involves a one-off software purchase; however, some vendors are introducing maximum annual page views with additional costs to process additional information.  Page tagging most often involves a monthly fee, although some vendors offer installable page tagging solutions with no additional page view costs. Which solution is cheaper often depends on the amount of technical expertise within the company, the vendor chosen, the amount of activity

seen on the web sites, the depth and type of information sought, and the number of distinct web sites needing statistics. Hybrid & Other methods: Some companies are now producing programs which collect data through both logfiles and page tagging. By using a hybrid method, they aim to produce more accurate statistics than either method on its own. Other methods of data collection have been used, but are not currently widely deployed. These include integrating the web analytics program into the web server, and collecting data by sniffing the network traffic passing between the web server and the outside world. Packet Sniffing is used by some of the largest e-commerce sites because it involves no changes to the site or servers and cannot compromise operation. It also provides better data in real-time or in log file format and it is easy to feed data warehouses and join the data with CRM, and enterprise data. There is also another method of the page tagging analysis. Instead of getting the information from the user side, when he / she opens the page, it’s also possible to let the script work on the server side. Right before a page is sent to a user it then sends the data.

Q.2 a. Trace the aspects in moving towards electronic strategy.
Ans. Speed of Information Distribution The Internet is unlike any other sales channel allows companies to distribute information at the speed of light and at almost zero cost, to reach customers with both reach and range, to introduce new and innovative business models, to reduce costs and generate savings, and many more differences. However, the Internet also creates more bargaining power for the customer, creates a more perfect information market to the customer’s benefit, and makes it easier for competitors to invade a company’s marketplace. So the first, and biggest, difference in estrategic planning is the need for the entrepreneur to recognize the different and unique capabilities of the Internet and begin to think differently, and creatively, about the opportunities and problems the Internet presents.

The Internet is global Being on the Web means your business will be visible to an international audience. This introduces complexity for payment options (e.g., show prices in US dollars or local currency?), distribution channels, Web site design, and returns. 24/7 Business Web storefronts never close. Being on the Web means your store will be open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Your e-strategic plan must account for this difference in Web hosting and customer service requirements. Customerization: The Web allows greater opportunities for personalization of content, oneto-one marketing, and customer self-service. Because the Web allows these and other customer service features, your competitors can make them part of their e-commerce strategy, so you must too. Decisions at Internet Speed E-commerce is conducted at Internet speed. This means Web site deployment must be planned in months, or even weeks, not years. Firstmover advantage will be lost if companies are unable to move at Internet speed, and business plan readers will know that. Customer focused Business has always been about "getting close to the customer" but that was in a world without the potential of personalization, one-on-one marketing, data mining, concurrent reach and range, and customer relationship management. The Internet, and the customer-oriented applications that the Internet makes possible, means that the every e-business must be totally focused on the customer. This belief is evident with requirements for clearly defining the value proposition the business offers to the customer, identify target markets, and a competitor analysis from a customer point-of-view.

b. What challenges or opportunities exist in e-marketing at present and in future?
Ans: Having goods and services marketed on the internet seems second nature now, but actually internet marketing is a relatively new phenomenon. When the internet first started and more of the public began to access it, companies began to realize that they could utilize the internet to provide information to potential customers. The first examples of internet marketing were simply text websites. They were very basic and simple with no pictures or graphics. As the internet started to develop, more and more companies realized that they had a global

audience at their disposal. Websites became more complex. They contained pictures of products and graphics intended to keep the customer interested. When businesses first started going online in the early to mid 1990s, commercial web sites were often nothing more than online brochures and product catalogues. Although credit card payment processing was available, Internet users were concerned about putting their credit card details on the net, so relatively few transactions occurred online. By our standards today, these first websites seem archaic. However, they served their purpose as people began to turn to the internet for information about companies and what they had to offer. If someone wanted to buy something, they would call the company on a phone number provided by the website. Eventually, the technology existed so that companies could sell their products right from their website. All these have changed with the development of new encryption methods and secure site technology. Online purchasing has exploded in the past three years and is expected to grow exponentially over the coming decade. Many of the Internet marketing pioneers who began selling online five years ago have become millionaires. Books and courses that reveal their Internet marketing secrets are readily available for purchase. There’s never been an easier time for starting an Internet business. E-commerce began to grow very quickly once methods to securely provide your credit card number became available. Consumers could now order products right from their home. Companies could reach customers all over the world. Online auction sites became very popular as people could sell their items to each other for a small fee. There also was an increased use of the internet as a source of advertising. Companies began to place ads on other websites to promote their products. Today pay per click advertisements benefit both the publishers of the websites and the company which has goods to sell. Affiliate programs are also very popular. They allow website owners to advertise products on their website and if a customer purchases the item, then the website owner gets a percentage of the sale. The internet has even been used as a primary source of advertising. Companies have created innovative advertising programs, sometimes referred to as viral marketing. Viral marketing seeks to create a buzz about a product through word of mouth. Some viral marketing plans even use alternate reality games in order to promote a particular product. The Internet is changing the way we do business, the way we market, sell, service, distribute, communicate, and work. Businesses are already beginning to communicate with customers, distributors, suppliers, shareholders, and employees in a way that is truly one-to-one and realtime. “Personalized” web sites are delivering tailored messages to an infinite number of target markets. These sites can change based on the user’s buying and surfing habits, past usage of the site, demographics, relationship to the company, and a multitude of other attributes which

could be collected from the users online or culled from corporate legacy databases. The Internet has also become the most economical distribution system of information available. Companies can ship “bits” weightless electrons around the world at the speed of light, for a fraction of what it costs to ship heavy “atoms” at the speed of freight. In just a few years the Internet will be as essential of a business tool as what the phone and FAX are today. Intranets, real-time transaction processing, and “customer self-service” are just the beginning. We are transitioning from static sites to dynamic and personalized sites, from broadcasting to narrow Casting, from information dissemination to actual commerce. But, we can also look forward to an “information glut” of unimaginable proportions, Web sites that run into the millions of dollars to build and maintain, and massive data warehouses about consumers that are networked together across companies and continents. The big story of the past few years has been the incredible rise in the mobile user base in India. Growth now in terms of new user additions is the fastest in the world. And there are plenty of new consumers still waiting to be tapped. India has the potential to lead in mobile data usage. Given that PC-based Internet growth has been slow (even though that is now changing), the mobile Internet offers a great opportunity for service providers in India. India has excellent mobile data networks on both the GSM and CDMA platforms. In fact, given that the focus for the operators is on new subscriber acquisition, the mobile data networks potential has been largely untapped. Mobile phones with WiFi are already available for less than Rs.18,000. These prices will fall further. Get a wireless access point at home and combine with a broadband connection, and suddenly, the mobile can now access data networks bypassing the operator and data charges. This will create the opportunity for an increasing array of data services. It is the incremental web which will be the driver for the mobile. If one stops thinking of the mobile as a poor man’s computer and instead thinks of it as a new interactive device, then the potential of what is possible starts to become apparent. The future will see the emergence of such innovative data services in India.

Q.3 Suggest some ways to avoid or minimize the various threats to internet privacy. Do you think internet is a safe place to undertake all business transactions? State your reasons.
Ans.: Internet privacy consists of privacy over the media of the Internet, the ability to control what information one reveals about oneself over the Internet, and to control who can access that information. Internet privacy forms a subset of computer privacy. Experts in the field of Internet privacy have a consensus that Internet privacy does not really exist. Privacy advocates believe that it should exist. People with only a casual interest in Internet privacy need not achieve total anonymity. Regular Internet users with an eye to privacy may succeed in achieving a desirable level of privacy through careful disclosure of personal information and by avoiding spyware. On the other hand, some people desire much stronger privacy. In that case, they may use Internet anonymity to ensure privacy use of the Internet without giving any third parties the ability to link the Internet activities to personally-identifiable information of the Internet user. Those concerned about Internet privacy often cite a number of privacy risks, events that can compromise privacy , which one may encounter through Internet use. Unfortunately, given the complexity of Internet privacy, many people do not understand the issues. Privacy measures are provided on several, if not all, social networking sites. On Orkut for example, a site especially popular among teens, privacy settings are available for all registered users. The utilization of these settings is simple and quick, although their availability is not always taken advantage of. The settings available on Orkut include the ability to block certain individuals from seeing your profile, the ability to choose your "friends," and the ability to limit who has access to your pictures and videos. While privacy on the internet is a very real concern, social networking sites are taking adequate precautionary measures to provide protection for their users. Now that safety settings have been made easily accessible on many sites, it is the responsibility of the user to apply them when providing personal information and pictures on the internet. There are other means by which there is infringement of privacy on the net. Some of them are discussed here: Cookies Cookies have become perhaps the most widely-recognized privacy risk, receiving a great deal of attention. Although HTML-writers most commonly use cookies for legitimate, desirable purposes, cases of abuse do occur. A

HTTP cookie consists of a piece of information stored on a user’s computer to add statefulness to web-browsing. Systems do not generally make the user explicitly aware of the storing of a cookie. The original developers of cookies intended that only the website that originally sent them would retrieve them, therefore giving back only data already possessed by the website. However, in actual practice programmers can circumvent this intended restriction. Possible consequences include:  the possible placing of a personally-identifiable tag in a browser to facilitate web profiling, OR  possible use in some circumstances of cross-site scripting or of other techniques to steal information from a user’s cookies. Some users choose to disable cookies in their web browsers. This eliminates the potential privacy risks, but may severely limit or prevent the functionality of many websites. All significant web browsers have this disabling ability built-in, with no external program required. As an alternative, users may frequently delete any stored cookies. Some browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox and Opera) have an option to have the system clear cookies automatically whenever the user closes the browser. A third option involves allowing cookies in general, but preventing their abuse. There are also a host of wrapper applications that will redirect cookies and cache data to some other location. Browsing profiles The process of profiling (also known as "tracking") assembles and analyzes several events, each attributable to a single originating entity, in order to gain information (especially patterns of activity) relating to the originating entity. On the Internet, certain organizations employ profiling of people’s web browsing, collecting the URLs of sites visited. The resulting profiles may or may not link with information that personally identifies the people who did the browsing. Some web-oriented marketing-research organizations may use this practice legitimately, for example: in order to construct profiles of ‘typical Internet users’. Such profiles, which describe average trends of large groups of Internet users rather than of actual individuals, can then prove useful for market analysis. Although the aggregate data does not constitute a privacy violation, some people believe that the initial profiling does. Profiling becomes a more contentious privacy issue, on the other hand, when data-matching associates the profile of an individual with personally-identifiable information of the individual. Governments and organizations may set up honeypot websites – featuring controversial topics – with the purpose of attracting and tracking unwary people. This constitutes a potential danger for individuals.

Internet Service Providers Consumers obtain Internet access through an Internet Service Provider (ISP). All Internet data to and from the consumer must pass through the consumer’s ISP. Given this, any ISP has the capability of observing anything and everything about the consumer’s (unencrypted) Internet activities; however, ISPs presumably do not do this (or at least not fully) due to legal, ethical, business, and technical considerations. ISPs do, however, collect at least some information about the consumers using their services. From a privacy standpoint, the ideal ISP would collect only as much information as it requires in order to provide Internet connectivity (IP address, billing information if applicable, etc). A common belief exists that most ISPs collect additional information, such as aggregate browsing habits or even personally-identifiable URL histories. What information an ISP collects, what it does with that information, and whether it informs its consumers, can pose significant privacy issues. Beyond usages of collected information typical of third parties, ISPs sometimes state that they will make their information available to government authorities upon request. In the US and other countries, such a request need not involve a warrant. Data logging Many programs and operating systems are set up to perform data logging of usage. This may include recording times when the computer is in use, or which web sites are visited. If a third party has sufficient access to the computer, legitimately or not, this may be used to lessen the user’s privacy. This could be avoided by disabling logging, or clearing logs regularly. Spyware Spyware is computer software that is installed surreptitiously on a personal computer to intercept or take partial control over the user’s interaction with the computer, without the user’s informed consent. While the term spyware suggests software that secretly monitors the user’s behavior, the functions of spyware extend well beyond simple monitoring. Spyware programs can collect various types of personal information, but can also interfere with user control of the computer in other ways, such as installing additional software, redirecting Web browser activity, or diverting advertising revenue to a third party. In an attempt to increase the understanding of spyware, a more formal classification of its included software types is captured under the term privacy-invasive software. In response to the emergence of spyware, a small industry has sprung up dealing in anti-spyware software. Running anti-spyware software has become a widely recognized element of computer security best practices for Microsoft Windows desktop computers. A number of jurisdictions have passed anti-spyware laws, which usually target any software that is surreptitiously installed to control a user’s computer.

Malware Malware is software designed to infiltrate or damage a computer system without the owner’s informed consent. It is a combination of the words "malicious" and "software". The expression is a general term used by computer professionals to mean a variety of forms of hostile, intrusive, or annoying software or program code. Software is considered malware based on the perceived intent of the creator rather than any particular features. It includes computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, spyware, dishonest adware, and other malicious and unwanted software. In law, malware is sometimes known as a computer contaminant, for instance in the legal codes of California, West Virginia, and several other U.S. states. Malware should not be confused with defective software, that is, software which has a legitimate purpose but contains harmful bugs.

Web bug A Web bug is an object that is embedded in a web page or e-mail and is usually invisible to the user but allows checking that a user has viewed the page or e-mail. One common use is in e-mail tracking. A web bug is any one of a number of techniques used to track who is reading a web page or e-mail, when, and from what computer. They can also be used to see if an e-mail was forwarded to someone else or if a web page was copied to another website. The first web bugs were small images. Some e-mails and web pages are not wholly self-contained. They may refer to content on another server, rather than including the content directly. When an e-mail client or web browser prepares such an e-mail or web page for display, it ordinarily sends a request to the server to send the additional content. These requests typically include the IP address of the requesting computer; the time the content was requested; the type of web browser that made the request; and the existence of cookies previously set by that server. The server can store all of this information, and associate it with a unique tracking token attached to the content request. Web bugs are typically used by third parties to monitor the activity of customers at a site. Turning off the browser’s cookies can prevent some web bugs from tracking a customer’s specific activity. The web site logs will still record a page request from the customer’s IP address, but unique information associated with a cookie cannot be recorded. However, web site server techniques that do not use cookies can be employed to help track a site’s cookie-blocking users.

Social Engineering Social engineering is a collection of techniques used to manipulate people into performing actions or divulging confidential information. While similar to a confidence trick or simple fraud, the term typically applies to trickery for information gathering or computer system access and in most cases the attacker never comes face-to-face with the victim. Social engineering techniques and terms. All social engineering techniques are based on flaws in human logic known as cognitive biases. These bias flaws are used in various combinations to create attack techniques, some of which are as follows: Pretexting Pretexting is the act of creating and using an invented scenario (the pretext) to persuade a target to release information or perform an action and is typically done over the telephone. It’s more than a simple lie as it most often involves some prior research or set up and the use of pieces of known information (e.g., for impersonation: date of birth, Social Security Number, last bill amount) to establish legitimacy in the mind of the target. This technique is often used to trick a business into disclosing customer information, and is used by private investigators to obtain telephone records, utility records, banking records and other information directly from junior company service representatives. The information can then be used to establish even greater legitimacy under tougher questioning with a manager (e.g., to make account changes, get specific balances, etc). Pretexting can also be used to impersonate co-workers, police, bank, tax authorities or insurance investigators or any other individual who could have perceived authority or right-to-know in the mind of the target. The pretexter must simply prepare answers to questions that might be asked by the target. In some cases all that is needed is a voice of the right gender, an earnest tone and an ability to think on one’s feet. Phishing Phishing is a technique of fraudulently obtaining private information. Typically, the phisher sends an email that appears to come from a legitimate business ,a bank, or credit card company requesting "verification" of information and warning of some dire consequence if it is not done. The letter usually contains a link to a fraudulent web page that looks legitimate with company logos and content and has a form requesting everything from a home address to an ATM card’s PIN. Phone phishing This technique uses a rogue Interactive voice response (IVR) system to recreate a legitimate sounding copy of a bank or other institution’s IVR system. The victim is prompted (typically via a phishing email) to call in to the "bank" (via a provided toll free number) and verify information. A typical system will continually reject logins ensuring the victim enters PINs

or passwords multiple times. More advanced systems will even transfer the victim to the attacker posing as a customer service agent for further questioning. Trojan horse This takes advantage of curiosity or greed to deliver malware. The Trojan horse can arrive as an email attachment promising anything from a "cool" or "sexy" screen saver, an important anti-virus or system upgrade, or even the latest gossip on an employee. The recipient is expected to give in to the need to see the program and open the attachment. In addition, many users will blindly click on any attachments they receive that seem even mildly legitimate. Road apple A road apple is a real-world variation of a Trojan Horse that uses physical media and relies on the curiosity of the victim. The attacker leaves a malware infected floppy disc, CD ROM or USB flash drive in a location sure to be found (bathroom, elevator, sidewalk), gives it a legitimate looking and curiosity piquing label, and simply waits. For example: An attacker might create a disk featuring a corporate logo, readily available off the target’s web site, and write "Executive Salary Summary Q1 2007" on the front. The attacker would then leave the disk on the floor of an elevator or somewhere in the lobby of the target company. An unknowing employee might find it and subsequently insert the disk into a computer to satisfy their curiosity, or a Good Samaritan might find it and turn it in to the company. In either case as a consequence of merely inserting the disk to see the contents, the user would unknowingly install malware on their computer, likely giving an attacker unfettered access to the target company’s internal computer network. Quid pro quo (Something for something ) An attacker calls random numbers at a company claiming to be calling back from technical support. Eventually they will hit someone with a legitimate problem, grateful that someone is calling back to help them. The attacker will "help" solve the problem and in the process have the user type commands that give the attacker access and/or launch malware. In an information security survey, 90% of office workers outside of their building gave away what they claimed was their password in answer to a survey question in exchange for a cheap pen.

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