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1. German Revolution
November 26, 2009
On November 9, 1918, Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany abdicated and left Germany to the Netherlands. The events that preceded this decision: i. The Kaiser did not accept the Treaty’s conditions because he did not want to make Germany more democratic. o This caused revolts around the country. Even the Kaiser’s armed forces were revolting against this. o The revolts began because they were sick and tired of the war. They thought it was bad enough, they didn’t want more. o The Kaiser stepped down because he didn’t want to give the parliament a lot of power. SUMMARY: Peace under certain conditions: i. Germany to become more democratic. o Kaiser refused. o Revolts began and growing fear of socialist/communist revolution. Friedrich Ebert i. Elected to Reichstag in 1912. ii. Leader of Social Democratic Party since 1913. iii. Elected President in January 1919. Weimar Republic i. Weimar constitution was written in July 1919. ii. Extremely democratic constitution. Shown: o All Germans over 20 could vote. o The president is elected.
• • •
o The system had proportional representation. Proportional representation: the more votes you get, the more seats you get in the Reichstag. Example: 10% of votes=5 seats. 50% of votes=50 seats. iii. Some non-democratic laws: o The president could rule the country for six months without any role of the Reichstag. iv. This was made to be used in emergency situations and crises such as war etc. Democracy: Power of the people; the leader is elected by the people. In the Weimar Republic, the people vote for seats in Reichstag, and majority of representatives vote for Chancellor. Challenges for the Weimar Republic. i. The national income was about 1/3rd of what it was in 1913. ii. Industrial production was 2/3rd of what it was in 1913. iii. Threatened by revolution – unstable. How close was Germany to a Communist revolution? What stopped it? i. An ‘alliance’ was formed between Ebert’s Social Democratic Party, and right-wing Freikorps to stop and crush the imminent communist revolution. Left-wing party: communist, and socialist. i. Communist: equal rights, equal income, and equal rights. Some countries wanted this because of a huge gap in wealth between the classes. This would diminish the whole point of classes and everyone would be equal. Right-wing party: conservatives who like to keep things the way they are. Severe right-wing party would be fascist. After Ebert signed the Treaty of Versailles, he was almost overthrown by the rightists but the people in cities saved him because they did not want a conservative government, they needed things to change. They were sick of wars, whether civil or foreign. Enough is enough, NO MORE PROBLEMS.
December 3, 2009
• In which parts of the Weimar Republic were there right-wing supporters? i. In the army ii. In the bureaucracy iii. In the judiciary system iv. Industrialists, businessman, financiers v. Religious establishments What stopped a right-wing takeover? i. The people The Ruhr invasion and hyperinflation i. 1922: Germany did not pay reparations ii. France and Belgium invaded the industrial heartland of Germany, the Ruhr. iii. The German workers went on a government requested strike. iv. Invasion turned violent. v. Halt in industrial production caused a collapse of the German economy and currency. vi. Hyperinflation as a result of too much money in circulation. The Effects of Hyperinflation i. The middle class became poor. o Because the middle class had savings, and since the value of money went down, what they had became pointless. ii. The working class – nothing changed o Their life was paycheck every week, and lived like that. No savings, no nothing, so no effect. Stresemann i. Took over as Chancellor in August 1923. ii. Called off the strike. iii. Replaced the worthless currency. iv. Negotiated US loans (Dawes plan). v. Reparation payments renegotiated. vi. HOWEVER, long term damage had been done: the Weimar Republic had lost the support of the middle class. German Economy
i. Was now based on American loans, as was the rest of the world. ii. GET CHART OF DAWES PLAN, VERY IMPORTANT. Documentary on Germany in Inter-War Period i. After the war, people were ecstatic and they all celebrated peace and end of bloodshed. ii. Although the defeated have to pay price of peace iii. Treaty of Versailles o Took place in January 1919, in Versailles, France. o Most important people there were, Lloyd George (PM of Britain), Woodrow Wilson (US President), and George Clemenceau (French Premier). o Woodrow Wilson wanted long and ever-lasting peace, not revenge. His 14 points put some moral rules into government. Although while he was working, the people in the U.S. lost interest and decided they did not want anything to do with European problems. o Lloyd George was working most to recover Germany and get it ready to be a steady trading partner. o While Germany were fighting for their existence at the conference, it was the allies who were setting the fate of Germany. o Here, the map of Europe was changed many times. o Consequences of Treaty of Versailles: Germany was not allowed to place any troops in the Rhineland, it was to be kept by allied forces until 1935. Germany had to limit their troops to 100,000 men Germany had to accept full responsibility for starting the war. Since Germany was in no position to decline of even negotiate the terms, they were forced to sign. o During the communist revolution, the army did not shoot at the Friekorps, and it was the strike that saves the German government. 4
o In 1921, the allies were still discussing how much Germany should pay. France: repairing the war crushed country was extremely expensive and they believed that they could just squeeze the money out of Germany. Germany argued that reparation would be a terrible burden on Germany and the people. o On January 1923, the reparations were still not paid so French and Belgian troops entered and invaded the Ruhr. The French then believed that the German workers there would now work for them, but unexpectedly, the German troops and industrialists united and striked against this. The French then decided to get some of its own workers. Tensions grew and soon enough Germans started killing some French soldiers. It was a united hatred against the French. o 1923 was a terrible year for Germany. The Ruhr was invaded and Hyperinflation hit Germany with a boom. o In Germany, the left wings were mostly treated and sentenced harshly and right winged people were treated and sentenced very leniently. This shows how the German’s mindset was. iv. Stresemann was then elected as chancellor. o He decided that Germany would pay the reparations as the only way to get France out. o The inflation became under control. o And Stresemann created the Dawes plan which was accepted among the Big Three. o German industry returned to normal as the French decided to pull out because of the Dawes Plan. o All hostilities seemed to be disappearing. o And in 1926, Germany became a member of the League of Nations. 5
o Life in Germany seemed to be returning to normal.
1. Russian Revolution
December 4, 2009
• Russia, around the 1900s, was in transition (changing) evidence: i. Middle class emerged which shows a change in the social makeup of the country. Shown as a social change. o Russia began to industrialize. Would be categorized as an economic change. This is what caused the middle class to grow. They got a lot more money. This shows that they were finally in the same financial standing and mental standing as the aristocrats yet they were still treated as 3rd class citizens. ii. Political opposition wanted more democracy and some even wanted revolution. iii. There was a continuation of the Autocracy (tsars rule). o Thought a divine ruler. Not a religious leader. It is just thought that their family were handpicked by god to be the rulers of Russia. o The middle class began challenging this way of legitimizing the rule because they wanted a democracy. They wanted this for equal rights, say in the economy, the ability to vote, and they basically wanted a say for the way that they are living. o People in good positions in the government were basically there because of their connection, or wasta. iv. Position of aristocracy and peasants had not changed at all throughout the war. The poor stayed very poor and the rich stayed very rich. v. Population growth occurred in Russia. Population grew a lot faster. Shows that there is a decrease of death which shows that there was better food, better medicine, etc. vi. Large majority of the population were peasants. Urbanization began and many people began going to the cities to find jobs.
i. The working class, coal miners, etc, was a new social class that emerged in Russia. o Very similar to peasants because they were given low living conditions and were extremely poor. o Working class wanted higher salaries, improved working conditions, although did not care much about democracy. o Although there is a conflict between peasants and working class. A competition over food. Since the peasants are selling the food, and the working class are buying them, there is a problem because the peasants want to sell them at the highest price possible and the working class want to buy at the lowest price possible. MINOR So all had problems with the government except the aristocrats and clergy.
Source A: Population 1900 (in millions)
Russia Germany Austria-Hungary Great Britain France
103 56 45 41 39
Source B: Railways – kilometers of track in 1900 (in thousands)
Russia Germany France Austria-Hungary Great Britain
53 52 38 36 35
Source C: Coal production in 1900 (in million tones); figures in brackets refer to percentage in production since 1890
Russia Germany Austria-Hungary France Great Britain
16 (170%) 149 (67%) 39 (50%) 33 (28%) 225 (24%)
Source D: Steel production (in million tones)
Countries Russia Germany Austria-Hungary France
1890 0.4 2.3 0.5 0.7
1900 1.5 6.7 1.2 1.6
WHAT IS ABOVE IS NOT IMPORTANT, NO CONCERN
December 8, 2009 • Russian Revolution of 1905
i. Notes last time are FACTS about Russia at the time. ii. Causes of the Revolution o LONG TERM CAUSES Industrialization which caused: • Rise of middle class where they became as wealthy as the aristocrats but were still considered a lot less important and powerful. o This angered them to a great
extent and they began going against the government. Peasants were living under terrible conditions where they had to deal with low food, extreme cold, etc. As well as the working class, basically living in POVERTY, so got completely against the government. The form of government, being an autocratic government, caused a lot of trouble between the classes. Stated above. o SHORT TERM CAUSES The government eased censorship. Basically less censorship. • Government saying, you wanna speak freely then speak freely. There was the war with Japan in which they lost badly. • The Russians showed how confident they were and how they were going to kill the “yellow little monkeys” and then they were crushed. Trade unions were allowed. • ‘You wanna be organized then be organized.’ 18
This helped how the revolution started. They got organized and basically organized how they were going to revolt. Facilitated the revolution. o TRIGGER CAUSE Bloody Sunday • In January of 1905, 200,000 protesters marched on the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg to give a petition to the Tsar. Although the Tsar’s soldiers opened fire. o Not clear who ordered the shooting. Not necessarily the Tsar but he is still responsible over the situation. o This caused the Tsar to lose a lot of respect from many people in Russia. • Tsar’s government lost control over the country; rebellions, strikes and mutinies dominated Russia for the following 10 months. Soviets set up in the town. iii. The Revolution o The Tsar offered Russia a Duma (elected parliament), the right to free speech and the right to form political parties. o November: financial help for peasants announced. o The opposition divided because he gave the Middle Class what they wanted. This left the workers and the peasants. o He made peace with Japan and the best troops were brought back to Russia to crush the revolts. o February: the Middle Class formally denounced the strikes, the land seizures and the Moscow uprising and distanced themselves from the revolution. o By March 1906: the revolution was completely crushed by the army. o By May 1906: powers of the Duma were severely limited. 19
December 9, 2009
• Middle class calling for democracy, working class pushing for better working conditions, and peasants pushing for ownership of land.
1905 - The revolution was crushed by the army in May of 1906. 1917 - The army would not listen to the Tsar.
In 1917, his army did not obey him because of his failure in the war, their sympathy with the cause of the opposition, and because he took personal control of the army during WWI so any failures in the war were blamed on him. • The difference between the war in Japan in 1905 and the Great War of 1914, WWI was a total war. The treatment of the soldiers was terrible and if they retreated, they were shot. • Also in 1917, he lost support of the aristocracy because of the Tsar’s friendship with Rasputin. While in 1905, they were completely supporting the Tsar. • The middle class, in 1917, realized and had learned that the Tsar cannot be trusted, especially with the introductions of the Duma back in 1906, then a year later became completely limited. • Similarities between both revolutions are strikes and unrest among the people, breakdown of the supply system (railroads a.k.a. transportation), famine among the lower classes, and the Duma was in existence. December 14, 2009 • The March Revolution i. In January, strikes broke out all over Russia. In February, they spread. ii. They were supported then members of the army even joined. iii. On the 7th of March, workers in Petrograd went on strike. They were then joined by thousands of women, all demanding for bread.
o From the 7th to the 10th, the number of people striking rose to 250,000 workers. Industry came to a standstill. o At this time, the Duma set up a Provisional Government to take over the government. iv. On the 12th of March, the Tsar ordered his army to crush the revolt by force, they refused. v. The marchers marched to the Duma and told them to take over the government. They accepted. vi. On the same day, revolutionaries set up the Petrograd Soviets again, and began taking control of food supplies to the city – On the 15th of March, the Tsar abdicated… the Tsars were finished. The Provisional Government i. The Duma’s provisional Committee took over the government. ii. It faced three overwhelming decisions: o To continue the war or make peace. o To distribute land to the peasants (who had already started taking it) or ask them to wait until elections had been held. o How best to get food to the starving workers in the cities. iii. Included lawyer Alexander Kerensky. o Was the Justice Minister in the Provisional Government who then became head of it. o As well as a respected member of the Petrograd Soviet. iv. The provisional government promised Russia’s allies that it would continue the war, while trying to settle the situation in Russia. v. It also urged the peasants to be restrained and wait for elections before taking any land. vi. The idea was that the provisional government could stand down, and allow free elections to take place to elect a new Constituent Assembly that would fairly and democratically represent the people of Russia. The Petrograd Soviet 21
i. Was a possible government to take over, apart from the Provisional Government. ii. They were very popular among the working class and in key industries such as coal mining and water. They also had great support among soldiers in the army. iii. During the crisis back in the spring of 1917, the Soviet and Provisional Government worked together. Kornilov offensive (July offensive). i. In September 1917, Kornilov marched his troops towards Moscow, intending to get rid of the Bolsheviks and the provisional government. As well as restoring order.
HOMEWORK Timeline of Lenin’s Rule • 1917 i. Nov 8 o Church land handed to peasants o Russia ask for peace with Germany ii. Nov 12 o Work day limited to 8 hours iii. Nov 14 o Workers given rights and healthcare iv. Dec 1 o All non-Bolshevik newspapers burnt v. Dec 11 o All cadets (opposition) banned and arrested vi. Dec 20 o Secret police fight opposition vii. Dec 27 o Workers Comitee o Borks under Bolshevik control • 1918 i. Jan 18 o Constituent Assembly dissolves ii. March o Treaty of Brest-Litovsk signed CONTINUE AT HOME
January 13, 2010 • Single-party rulers we are going to study this year i. Lenin ii. Stalin iii. Mussolini iv. Hitler v. Mao vi. Castro • Most questions would be like: What methods did (ruler x) use to rise to power and what where the conditions at the time? SEE DOWN • Any single power ruler divided into three parts i. Rise to power o Methods o Conditions ii. Consolidation: early phase of his rule iii. Rule o Domestic Economy Social Woman Minorities Policy towards the youth o Foreign • Lenin’s Rise To Power i. Methods used: o Relating to the public Message • “Peace, Bread, and Land” Appearance • He made himself look like the public o Wearing a peasant hat o Messed up tie, etc. Charisma • Was a very convincing speaker • He was very persuasive and a good speaker. o Used The Party (Bolsheviks) 23
Were in the Petrograd Soviets • Supported the working class to a great extent (see notes above) • Helped a gradual Bolshevik take-over & support for revolution o Leadership / Organization Trotsky: No military experience • Created the Red Guards to fight off Kornilov’s army in September 1917. o Was their military force before they got into power of the country. o Were created in the summer of 1917. o Had great tactics and strategy and were very well organized. ii. Conditions: o Instability in Russia Socio-economic situation WWI o Provisional Government had become weak and unpopular. Lenin’s Consolidation i. November 1917: Land given to peasants, armistice, and workers got control of factories. ii. December 1917: Cheka established, oppositions were banned and arrested, and all non-Bolshevik newspapers were burned. iii. January 18, 1918: Constituent Assembly Dissolved o If he let it stay, it would be a threat to his party because the Constituent Assembly was in control by another party. He eliminated a rival; no sharing of power. iv. March 1918: Brest-Litovsk Treaty v. July 19: Tsar executed o Was afraid that the white army would take the tsar and use him as a symbol for them to promote themselves. vi. November 1920: Civil War Won by Bolsheviks 24
• i. Red Army: United and well organized ii. Red Terror: Fear Factor iii. War Communism: Government took control of markets, banks, factories, agriculture, etc. iv. Propaganda to gain support for themselves and lose support for others. v. March 1921: Created a new economic policy which temporarily introduced capitalism. January 14, 2010 • Why was the “New Economic Policy” a controversial economic policy for the Communist Party? i. The NEP was basically war communism. (Mentioned above) o This led to a production decrease. Industrial Agricultural o This led to famine (7-8 million died) o Also led to inflation Because they produced less, the prices would go up and the government would print money to buy it. ii. Kronstadt Rebellion o The sailors rebelled against strong Bolshevik supporters and armed forces because the situation had become terrible. o This woke Lenin up about the situation which caused him to create the NEP. Communist Party
January 21, 2010 • Stalin: one of the most important single-party ruler of the 20th century i. Died in 1953 of natural causes. ii. USSR (United Social Soviet Republic) iii. ANYWAY…STALIN iv. 1941-Hitler invades Soviet Union o Violated a Russia-Germany peace pact 26
v. Became members of the league of nations in the 1930s but never became important internationally. vi. Russian economic policy o Industrialization o Collectivization Of agriculture • i. Domestic Policies o Purges o Propaganda ii. Stalin evolved the country from being an underdeveloped country to a superpower that has nuclear weapons o He took the country a long way o It became an industrial power o Advanced to such an extent that it should have taken 100 years but took a lot less January 26, 2010 • Totalitarian State i. Censorship ii. Propaganda iii. Limited Access to Archives iv. Limited or No Freedom of Speech
1. The Great Depression
February 10, 2010 • US Economy:
i. Causes why it was so dominant in the 1920s: o Natural Resources Oil, Coal Agriculture Raw Material o Population Growth o WWI Europe was weakened US supplied Europe + Former European markets overseas (colonies) o US became financial centre of the world ii. Strengths of the US economy in the 1920s: o Confidence in the market o Increased demand for consumer goods o Easy access to credit o Republican Policies Called Laissez Faire Tariffs US production protected Low Taxation iii. Weaknesses of the US economy in the 1920s:
o Europe increased tariffs Less export from US o Unfair distribution of wealth Trusts Agricultural prices plummeted Person makes a loan from the bank to invest in stocks therefore takes money from someone else’s bank account The stocks drops and wall street crashes – person loses his money and still owes money to the bank – they take his house and he loses his job He loses his job because the company is overproducing their products. Everyone loses in this situation.
3. The Invasion of Abyssinia
February 15, 2010 • The documentary i. Benito Mussolini thought he was the heir to the ‘New Roman Empire’. ii. Haile Selassie was King of Abyssinia. iii. By 1934, Mussolini had one of the most powerful armies in Europe. iv. Being defeated by Abyssinia in the past, Mussolini decided to regain their pride. v. To Mussolini: “War is to men, as maternity is to women.” vi. Italy began by attacking Abyssinia. Starting with the city of Wawa. • i. Abyssinia begged the League to punish Italy for their actions, while Italy said they were provoked and they should punish Abyssinia.
June 28, 1919: The treaty of Versailles is Signed The Treaty of Versailles ends World War One and imposes heavy reparations payments on Germany.
November 1920: The First Meeting of the League of Nations The Assembly of the League of Nations meets for the first time in Geneva, Switzerland. The US is notably absent, the Senate having voted against joining the League in November 1919. November 1921: The Washington Conference is Held The United States convenes the Washington Conference, attended by Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, China, Japan, and Portugal. The Conference results in a naval armaments treaty that sets a ratio for tonnage of capital ships (over 10,000 tons, with guns bigger than eight inches) for Great Britain, the US, Japan, France, and Italy. The ratio agreed upon, in that order, is 5:5:3:1.67:1.67. October 30, 1922: Benito Mussolini is Made Italian Premier King Victor Emmanuel declares Mussolini premier in an attempt to head off violent conflict between the Fascists and the Communists. November 9, 1923: The Beer Hall Putsch Adolf Hitler and General Ludendorf, a World War One hero, lead a small contingent of followers in a harmless, comical attempt at rebellion, for which Hitler is imprisoned for two years. January 21, 1924: Vladimir Lenin Dies Lenin's death leaves some question as to who will be his successor. Joseph Stalin eventually beats out Leon Trotsky to take control of the Soviet government. May 11, 1924: The Cartel des Gauches wins the French Election The Cartel displaces the ruling Bloc National, in a marked victory for the left, but proves unable to govern effectively. August 27, 1924: The German Chamber of Deputies Accepts the Dawes Plan The Dawes Plan restructures the schedule of German reparations payments so as to reduce the amount of annual payments, and grants Germany a large loan. December 1, 1925: The Locarno Pacts are Signed The Locarno Pacts are signed in efforts to stabilize relations with Germany and its neighbors. The pacts usher in a period of peace and prosperity. 1926: Joseph Pilsudski Becomes Virtual Dictator in Poland Pilsudski maintains this position until his death in May 1935
March 1926: The Samuel Commission in England Releases Its Report on Coal Mining The Samuel Commission, under the Conservative government, releases a report which advises wage cuts for miners. The Triple Alliance responds by striking, which is emulated by many other industries in England to protest he Conservative government's policies. April 14, 1931: The Spanish Monarchy is Overthrown and The Republic Is Born A provisional government is established to take Spain from monarchy to republicanism. 1932: General Gyula Gombos Comes to Power in Hungary Gombos becomes prime minister, an office he uses like a dictatorship, setting the tone for Hungarian government during the remaining inter-war years. February - July 1932: The final League of Nations Disarmament Conference is Held The last major League of Nations-sponsored disarmament conference meets from February to July 1932 at Geneva, with 60 nations in attendance, including the United States. However, this conference, like it's predecessors, fails to secure any agreement, and organized disarmament remains an unaccomplished goal. 1933 - 1934: 1,140,000 Communist Party Members are Expelled by Stalin Stalin's Central Purge Commission, created in 1933, publicly investigates and tries many party members for treason as Stalin seeks to rid the party of oppositon. January 30, 1933: Hitler is Appointed Chancellor of Germany In an attempt to reel in the chaos of the German government, President Paul von Hindenburg declares Hitler chancellor, the first major step in Hitler's ascent to dictatorship. March 23, 1933: The German Reichstag Passes the Enabling Act The Enabling Act gives Hitler the power to issue decrees with the status of law. June 3, 1936: Leon Blum's Popular Front Government Comes to Power in France The Popular Front, a leftist party, institutes social legislation and allows wide public participation in the government, but ultimately fails to curtail the depreciating economy. July 17, 1936: The Spanish Nationalists Begin the Spanish Civil War Generals Goded, Mola, and Francisco Franco lead troops in rebellion against the republic, sparking the Spanish Civil War.
April 25, 1937: Spanish Nationalists Bomb Guernica The small northern town of Guernica is bombed, and civilians are gunned down as they flee the scene. In this brutal massacre 1500 die and 800 are wounded, but the military targets in the town remain intact. September 18, 1938: The Munich Pact is Signed Britain and France appease Hitler by signing the Munich Pact, which grants Hitler control of the Czech Sudetenland. March 30, 1939: The Spanish Civil War Ends Madrid falls to Francisco Franco's forces, effectively ending the Spanish Civil War. Franco's oppressive dictatorship begins. September 3, 1939: Britain and France Declare War on Germany In response to Hitler's continued aggression in Eastern Europe, Britain and France go to war with Germany in an attempt to stop Hitler's bid for global hegemony.
Paper 1 Help
Paper One on Stalin
Question 1 is always divided into 2 questions. Total of 5 points. i. It needs to be kept brief and all I need to do is paraphrase. ii. 2-3 sentences max per question. iii. Should get full score on this. Question 2 is always a compare/contrast question on two or sometimes, but rarely, three sources. Total of 6 points. i. Lets say talking about Sources A and B. We don’t write it like “Source A says (blank), while Source B says (blank)”. It should be like “Source A and B both agree on…diagree on…etc.” OPVL: Origin, Purpose, Value, and Limitations. Total of 6 points. i. Don’t interpret/analyze the context or sources! Separate evaluations and must be written in paragraph source. ii. Origin: What, when, where, and who iii. Purpose: Why and to whom was the source intended for? iv. Value and Limitation is sort of based on the origin and purpose. v. Value: is it useful for me as a historian. vi. Limitation: Is it biased? What are the limitations of the source. Mini-Essay: Use sources & own knowledge. Total of 8 points. i. Must use both sources and own-knowledge to get full parks. If a person only uses the sources or only ownknowledge, will get max 5 points. ii. Should be written thematically and be written like an essay. Intro-Body-Conclusion. Don’t summarize each source in paragraphs.
Chapter 11 – The USSR Under Stalin: Industrialization
1. Do you think the businessmen listening to Stalin in Source A liked what he was saying? Give reasons for your answers. I think some businessmen listening to Stalin in Source A did not like what he was saying while some did. The ones that did not like what he was saying was because this fast tempo is already stressing them as it is. They need the tempo to go a little slower to make their work a lot easier. While the ones who liked what he was saying did because they would enjoy a more flourishing business. 2. Read Source B. What evidence is there in the extract to show that it is from an official source? Does this mean that it is reliable? The evidence that shows that this extract is taken from an official source is where it says that it was from History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks) and most importantly written during Stalin’s time. But, it is not reliable whatsoever because it is most likely biased. Also, a Commission of the Central Committee edited it, which is a governmental agency. 3. Read Sources C and D carefully. a. How do these sources differ in explaining why some of the USSR’s industries failed? Source C, written by a British historian, blames the industry failing in the USSR on the ‘Komsomol’. This was the League of Communist Youth and was judged by this western historian to be inexperienced and inefficient with many administrative problems. Thus placing young people in positions of high authority and responsibility. While source D, an extract from the communist party’s official history, claiming that the failure of the industries was due to a large organization of wreckers – suspected of being bourgeois experts. These ‘wreckers’ aimed to restore capitalism in the USSR. Therefore Bolshevik businessmen were to be thoroughly trained in the technique of production. b. Which source do you think is likely to be the more reliable? Give reasons for your choice.
Source C would definitely be the most reliable source because it was written by a British historian while source D was written by pro-Bolshevik members. Source D was also taken from the communist party’s official history. 2. Look at Sources E and J. What do they tell you about the reasons for the poor efficiency of Soviet industry at the time? Source E illustrates that the reasons for poor efficiency of Soviet industry at the time were due to ‘slackers’ which in this campaign were portrayed as small, slim, and weak compared to the efficient, hard-working workers. The campaign encourages workers to point out the ‘slackers’ in order to achieve a more productive work force. This could result in the elimination of many hard-workers who fell out of favor by other laborers. Source J critically analyses Stalin’s Five-Year Plans by judging Stalin as incompetent and adventurous, making the process of industrialization much more difficult. Roy Medvedev claimed Stalin was the cause for the poor efficiency of Soviet industry at the time further stating that the result would have been far greater without Stalin. 3. a. Using Source B to help you, explain why the government issued the poster in source E. With compliment to Source B, the poster in Source E encouraged a more efficient work force by instilling fear within the common worker to achieve the goals stated in Source B such as the increase of agricultural productions and well as industrialization. b. Do you think the poster would have helped to increase production? As mentioned previously, the issuing of the poster instilled fear in the workers’ minds that consequently brought more efficiency and better results. Workers would have to work harder and faster to ensure their job as well as their lives. 4. Study the figures in Source G. a. Which industries achieved the target of the first Five-Year Plan? Based on Source G, Oil was the only industry during the first Five-Year Plan
to have achieved its target. b. Which industries achieved the target of the second Five-Year Plan? Steel was the only industry during the second Five-Year Plan to have achieved its target.
c. Which industry increased its production seven-fold from 1927 to 1937? Electricity was the only industry to have increased its production seven-fold from 1927 to 1937. d. What does the information you now have tell you about the success or failure of the Five-Year Plans? First off, it must be stated that each industry doubled in a ten year span which implies that on that note, Stalin was successful in managing to increase production in five industries. However, it can be argued that he set unrealistic goals and rarely achieved his target production, but nonetheless, drastically improved the USSR’s production. 5. Read Sources H, I and J and decide, giving your reasons, which of the following statements you agree with. a. The results of the first Five-Year Plan were not as good as they could have been. b. The ordinary people of the USSR benefited more from the second than the first Five-Year Plan. Source H, describing the achievements of the first Five-Year Plan, claims that the results have been met. This would prompt me to disagree with ‘Statement A’. While Source J claims that the results would have been far greater without Stalin thus prompting me to agree with ‘Statement A’. Source H neglects the needs of ordinary people as it was focused on the industrialization of the USSR while Source I agrees with statement be
claiming that the second Five-Year Plan focused on the provision of consumer goods which implies better standards of living by providing cars and mediocre footwear. 6. Read Source K a. What reasons does the extract give for the patients being in the hospital? The reasons the extract gives for the patients being in the hospital are due to malnutrition, cold, and lack of hygiene. This is illustrated by the subject eating a little black bread and egg soup, being in the ‘gangrenous’ department of the hospital, and peasants with frozen limbs, and belies empty. b. If you had been living in these conditions, how far do you think you would have blamed Stalin’s policies for your situation? To a great extent I would blame Stalin’s policies for my situation because it was his policies that led to the abolition of bread-rationing and the reevaluation of the Rouble which led to the poor state I would be in. 7. Read Source L and explain the meaning of the following words: norm, bootlicking and parasites. a. What does each of these words tell you about life in a labor camp? These words tell me that life in a labor camp was extremely difficult and the people could not care less about the workers, or ‘parasites’; they just wanted them to do the work. b. What do they tell you about the attitude of the writer towards her overseers? The writer’s tone shows that she was not that scared anymore. She was almost mocking them. She did not like the overseers one bit because they kept showing them how to fell the tree using better footwear than they had etc. 8. Using all the extracts (a) make a list of all the advantages and achievements of the Five-Year Plans and then (b) make a list of all the disadvantages and hardships. Do you think rapid industrialization was worth all the suffering?
Sources Source A
Advantages Need to compete with the rest of the world. Specific industries to develop in order to excel in the process of industrializat ion. None
• • • •
Source D Source E Source F Source G
• • • •
None Getting rid of the Slackers None Increase in production for 5 industries Development of the highly industrial country Standard of living improved None
• • • •
Laziness, inexperience, too much youth. None None None None
Source I Source J
None Stalin’s incompetence and adventurism. Results would have been far greater without Stalin
Famine, lack of hygiene and poor standards of living. Many intellectuals were falsely accused of plotting against the government.
The rapid industrialization helped the country flourish to become one of the most industrial countries in the world, but it affected the people terribly. In the short run, I think the rapid industrialization was not worth all the suffering but on the long run I think it was. Many died of famine during these Five-Year Plans, but many more could have died in the future because the country would have stayed undeveloped.
Jack Robert Seikaly 1439 Words
• • • • • •
Official ideology Single mass party Terroristic control led by the police Monopolistic control over the media Monopoly of arms Central control of the economy
1. Benito Mussolini
February 19, 2010 • Fascism: Mussolini’s personal definition i. Anti-Pacifist o Glorification of war o “War is to men, what maternity is to women.” ii. Individual duty towards the society o Against suicide iii. Anti-Marxist iv. Pro-Heroic v. Anti-Democratic o NO 1 vote, 1 count. Some people are more valuable than others and should count for more. vi. Authoritarian vii. (Limited) individual liberty
viii. Expansionism ix. Nationalism
2. Adolf Hitler
March 12, 2010 • Impact of WWI on Germany by 1918 i. Germany was virtually bankrupt o War left 600,000 widows and 2 million children without fathers – by 1925 the state was spending about one-third of its budget in war pensions. o Industrial production was about two-thirds of what it had been in 1913. o National income was about one-third of what it had been in 1913. ii. The war had deepened divisions in German society o There were huge gaps between the living standards of the rich and the poor. o Many German workers were bitter at the restrictions placed on their earnings during the war while the factory owners made vast fortunes from the war. o During the war women were called up to work in the factories. Many people saw this as damaging to traditional family values and society as a whole. iii. Germany had a revolution and became an unstable democratic republic o Stresses of war led to a revolution in OctoberNovember 1918. o Many ex-soldiers and civilians despised the new democratic leaders and came to believe that the heroic leader Field Marshal Hindenburg had been betrayed by weak politicians. • After WWI, Germany had to claim responsibility of starting the war, pay enormous reparations, and were told to become more democratic. i. This was very embarrassing for the people as well as the government of Germany.
On November 9, 1918, the Kaiser abdicated his throne and left Germany. i. The next day, Friedrich Ebert became the new leader of the Republic of Germany. He immediately signed an armistice with the Allies. He also gave the new Republic freedom of speech, freedom of worship and better working conditions. The people’s reaction of everything was skeptical. i. They were pleased that the war was over but were also anxious. They were not sure that an armistice would be the end to all their troubles. In January of 1919, Germany had their very first free elections. Ebert won the majority and became president of the Weimar Republic. i. The Weimar Republic was the republic that was put into place in Germany right after the First World War. From the very start, Ebert faced violent opposition from both left-wing and right-wing opponents. Nearly all of the Kaiser’s former advisors remained in their positions in the army, judiciary, civil service and industry. i. The threat from the left o One left-wing group was a communist party known as Spartacus. They were very similar to Lenin’s Bolshevik party. They were very against Ebert’s plans for a democratic Germany. They wanted a Germany ruled by workers’ councils or soviets. Early in 1919, they launched their bid for power and set up soviets in many towns. Ebert made an agreement with the commanders of the army and Freikorps, anticommunist ex-soldiers who form themselves into vigilante groups, to put down the rebellion. The Freikorps won and put down this attempted communist revolution. o Another communist attempted takeover was the one in Bavaria-South of Germany. Again, the Freikorps crushed this rebellion. Around 600 communists were killed. 42
o In 1920, again another communist rebellion. It was in the Ruhr industrial area and police, army and Freikorps clashed with the communists. There were 2000 casualties. o All these disputes with the communists caused a bitterness between Ebert and the Socialist party. Although many Germans, when it came to this issue, agreed with Ebert. Ebert, along with many Germans, feared a bloody communist takeover like what happened in Russia. o Despite these communist defeats, they still remained a powerful anti-government force in Germany throughout the 1920s. ii. The threat from the right o The right-wing opponents were largely people who had grown up in the successful days of the Kaiser’s Germany. o They liked Germany having a strong army, wanted Germany to expand its territory, and were proud of Germany’s powerful industry. o In March 1920, 5000 Freikorps were led into Berlin in a rebellion known as the Kapp Putsh. The army refused to fire at them. Ebert’s government seemed doomed. • Although the country was saved by the people, especially the industrial workers of Berlin, who declared a strike which brought the capital to a halt with no transport, power or water. Economic Disaster i. The Treaty of Versailles forced Germany to pay reparations of 6600 million pounds. In 1921, they paid 50 million pounds. In 1922, nothing. o French got pissed and invaded the Ruhr and took materials they thought they deserved so they could sell them.
o The workers protested and the French killed over 100 and expelled 100,000. o More importantly, this occupation caused the collapse of the German currency. ii. Hyperinflation o Because they had no goods to trade, the German government started printing money. This paid off many of Germany’s war loans and paid off many industrialists’ debts too. o This set off a chain reaction because with so much money in circulation, prices and wages rocketed. The money became worthless. The richer Germans, with savings, were the most effected from this. The ones who could buy a house in 1921, could barely buy a loaf of bread in 1923. As if they had no savings. The rising cost of a loaf of bread in Berlin • 1918: 0.63 Marks • 1922: 163 Marks • January 1923: 250 Marks • July 1923: 3465 Marks • September 1923: 1,512,000 Marks • November 1923: 201,000,000,000 Marks iii. Economic Solution o In August 1923, s new government under Gustav Stresemann took over. He called in worthless marks and burned them, replacing them with a new currency called the Rentenmark. He renegotiated the reparations payments. And he negotiated to receive American loans under the Dawes plan. o The hyperinflation had now ended but caused great political damage to the Weimar government. They had lost the support of the whole middle-class.
World War Two
March 19, 2010 • Causes
i. Systemic/Context o Europe’s situation; balance/imbalance. o Recovery of Germany likely post WWI. o Nobody could stop the recovery of Germany GB/France had been weakened by WWI National cooperation had failed (LON) Empires disintegrated into weak and unstable successor states. (ex Austro-Hungarian Empire, Ottoman Empire) ii. Germany/Hitler o Was Hitler a planner or an opportunist (gambler)? Planner: Intentionalist, planned it step-bystep. Opportunist: Structuralist, used/toned by domestic situation. It is most likely a combination of the two. Four Power Pact, July 1933 (GB, F, I, Germany) i. Cooperation to preserve peace ii. Acknowledged principle of ‘reasonable revision’ of the peace treaties. iii. This pact never materialized o Germany left the Disarmament conference as well as the LON o Re-introduced conscription, March 1935 iv. Negative effects: o Eastern European states were shocked Sought alliances:
• • •
Franco-Soviet Pact, 1935 Polish German Non-Aggression Pact, 1934.
Events: i. Saar Plebiscite, 1935 o Propaganda victory for Hitler ii. Stresa Front, April 1935 o Italy, GB, France and Germany o Oppose unilateral revision o Deterrent to Hitler iii. Abyssinia, Oct. 1935 o Stresa Front DISCRDETED o LON iv. Remilitarization of the Rhineland, March 1936 o Succeeded because: France miscalculated Hitler was bold and unpredictable
March 21, 2010 • Movie on Hitler’s developments and moving towards the Second World War i. He was an amazing speaker and people loved him and sometimes seemed to fall into his ‘spell’. o People become hysterical when in the presence of Hitler. o Whoever had touched Hitler’s hands was perceived as a saint in their village, town, etc. o Videos of Hitler hugging children, petting dogs, and chilling with friends were all at one point or another, shown to the public. Being an ‘ordinary’ person like everyone else.
ii. He revolutionized weaponry o Tanks a lot more advanced than World War One o Planes were better o New German Navy was advanced iii. In 1936, the Germans walked through the Rhineland and re-militarized it. iv. Hitler then marched into Austria in 1938, and made it a province of Germany. v. Then Hitler moved in and took over Czechoslovakia. o All this with no resistance whatsoever. Must put on timeline: i. Spanish Civil War – 1936 to 1939 ii. Anti-Comintern Pact o Comintern was the ‘Third International’ which was a communist organization from 1919 to 1943. iii. Anschluss o The German annexation of Austria in 1938. iv. Appeasement o Sudetenland o Munich Agreement – September 29, 1938 o Czechoslovakia o Nazi-Soviet Pact v. Hitler Invades Poland
Began in 1945 and ended in 1990.
Conferences in Tehran (1943), Yalta (1945), and Postdam (1945) show the beginnings of the conflict between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. • Tehran Conference, 1943 i. State of War: o The Allies had begun to win the War. o The USSR was now pushing the Germans into retreat. o The US and the UK invaded Italy and drove the Germans out of North Africa. ii. Germany: o They were planning what to do with Germany once it is defeated. o It had to be an ‘unconditional surrender.’ iii. Poland: o They discussed the shape pf Poland’s post-war borders. o Stalin wanted a lot of territory. o They agreed that the USSR was to keep land seized in 1939 and Poland would get land from Eastern Germany. o A puppet regime was needed to be set up in Poland. iv. Eastern Europe: o The USSR is to keep territory seized from ’39 to ’40. v. Japan: o The US and the UK wanted the USSR to join the war against Japan in the Pacific. vi. United Nations: o The US, UK, and USSR agreed to create a successor to the League of Nations. o They learned from their mistakes with the LON. • Yalta Conference, February 1945
of War: Germany was on the verge of being defeated. The USSR have driven Europe from Eastern Europe. The UK and US forced the Germans out of France. Japan are under heavy aerial bombardment from the US. ii. Germany: o The Allies decided that Germany would be disarmed, demilitarized, de-nazified, and divided. o Germany would be divided into four zones occupied by the USA, the USSR, the UK, and France. o An ACC would run be set up to run the country temporarily. o Germany to be forced to pay $20 billion with 50% of it going to the USSR> iii. Poland: o The borders of Poland were established. o Stalin got what he wanted territorially. iv. Eastern Europe: o They would be able to decide who governed them. This became a known deal between the USSR and the UK, and US. v. Japan: o USSR agreed to join the war against Japan only if they gain certain land from Germany. vi. United Nations: o The USSR decided to join the UN. o They decided there should be five permanent members with veto power. Postdam Conference, July 1945 i. State of War: o Germany had surrendered unconditionally.
i. State o o o o
o The war in the Pacific was still going on. o The US had planned to use the Nuclear Bomb by this point. ii. Germany: o Germany agreed to be disarmed, demilitarized, denazified, and divided. The allies decided how this was going to be done. iii. Poland: o New US president challenged the Western Frontier. o The Polish Government should be re-organized. iv. Eastern Europe: o Truman challenged the ‘Percentages Agreement’ which he thought gave Stalin too much power in the area. o It looked to the US that the USSR was planning a communist takeover. v. Japan: o The Atomic Bomb was dropped and was successful. o The US told the USSR not to join the war in the pacific . vi. United Nations: o The UN was officially created. o The Big Five became: USSR, UK, US, France and China. Origins of the Cold War • Orthodox View i. USSR responsible ii. Ideological explanation: o Communist expansionism (“World Revolution”) • Late 60s/early 70s: Revisionist Views
i. USA caused the Cold War because their foreign policy is dictated by economic/capitalist needs o They need secure markets and free trade Containment ii. US refused to understand USSR’s need for security Post-Revisionist view (1980s) i. Action-Reaction ii. Improvisation rather than plan of action iii. Misunderstandings, misperceptions Post Cold War: i. Stalin’s role was crucial ii. Persons important
Ideological Differences • USA i. Limited government ii. Multi-party politics iii. Individual rights iv. Free enterprise economy v. Open society vi. No tradition of left-wing politics in the US • USSR/Russia i. Strong central state ii. One-party government iii. Command economy
iv. Closed society Visions for Post-War World • USA/Roosevelt i. Program for peace; UN ii. No empires/spheres of influence iii. Democracy to flourish in self-determined states iv. Free trade economy; “Open Door” policy o This led to the IMF and World Bank • USSR/Stalin i. Security of the USSR; 1914 borders to be restored and belt of friendly states to be created on the western border. ii. Fear of Germany iii. Less concerned about world peace and recovery of world economy. Wartime Cooperation • Lend-lease agreement between USA and USSR from November 1941 (before Pearl Harbor). 10 million tons of equipment supplied to USSR • An alliance of necessity brought about by German and Japanese aggression. • Americans adopted a more positive attitude towards the Russians as a result of the war effort on the Eastern Front. Timeline • 1945 i. February 4: Yalta Conference. ii. April 12: FDR dies. iii. July 24: US President Harry S. Truman tells Stalin that the US has nuclear weapons.
iv. August 2: Potsdam Conference v. August 6: US drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima vi. August 8: USSR invades Manchuria as well as a couple of Japanese islands vii. August 9: US drops atomic bomb on Nagasaki viii. September 2: Japan surrenders unconditionally to the US. 1946 i. February 22: George F. Kennan writes his long telegram. ii. March 5: Winston Churchill’s ‘Iron Curtain’ speech 1947 i. January 1: President Truman announces the Truman Doctorine. ii. June 5: George Marshall outlines the Marshall Plan 1948 i. February 26: Communist Party takes control of Czechoslovakia. ii. April 3: Marshall plan is put into effect. iii. June 24: Stalin blockades all land routes from West Germany to Berlin. iv. June 28 to May 11, 1949: Berlin Blockade 1949 i. April 4: NATO is created ii. August 29: USSR tests its first atomic bomb. iii. October 7: The USSR declares their part of Germany as the German Democratic Republic.
NATO • •
Was created in 1949 Stands for North Atlantic Treaty Organization
It was a defense alliance Communist countries retaliated by creating the Warsaw Pact six years later in 1955
Nuclear Power • The USSR got the a-bomb in September 1949 • Re-established the balance of power China • •
It became communist in December 1949 Came under the rule of Mao Zedong i. As a result of a civil war that was going on from 1946 to 1949 o Nationalist vs. communists Since 1911, 1912, China had become in some type of turmoil i. In 1937, the Japanese invaded Manchuria ii. WWII: China vs. Japan iii. Civil war ‘46-‘49 iv. Etc.
NSC-68: ‘Total Commitment’ • It was a report of the U.S. National Security Council produced in 1950. i. Seen as one of the key documents of the Cold War • It warned of how all communist activity everywhere could be traced back to Moscow. i. Now they could get as much public support as they wanted against the communists. ii. It encouraged military and economic aid to be given to any country the US thinks is resisting communism.
Korean War • Background i. Japanese victories weakening of Nationalist governments of China and colonial governments in Asia ii. Japanese defeat vacuum in areas Japan had invaded iii. Unilateral US occupation of Japan; MacArthur in charge (“one of the least consultative leaders in modern history”) created a democratic Japan. • Korea i. Jointly occupied by USSR and USA; border at the 38th parallel ii. 1945-1950; Korea a peripheral concern for both superpowers – they maintained their zones only to restrain each other. iii. US and USSR troops withdrawn in 48/49 iv. Ho Chi Minh and Vietnam already a concern for US supported the French colonial government • North v. South i. North o Kim II Sung; Russian trained communist o Nationalist o Claimed right to lead entire Korea o Despised Syngman Rhee o Led undemocratic communist government ii. South o Syngman Rhee; elderly rebel brought back from exile o Nationalist o Claimed right to lead entire Korea o Despised Kim II Sung o Led undemocratic anti-communist government
Cuba • • In 1895, there was a war between Cuba and Spain because the Cubans wanted independence. In 1898, the USS Maine blew up and the U.S. blamed the Spanish. This attack on American forces gave them enough reason and public support to enter the war. They did so on the side of the Cubans. i. That same year, the U.S. won the war and had military occupation of Cuba. o The U.S. military withdrew when the Cuban government signed the Platt Amendment. By the 1950s i. Economy o Americans were still owning the fruit companies, tobacco companies, and sugar companies. Their economy was basically owned by the US. ii. Political o US influence/control (“puppet” president”) iii. Social o Lower class and farm-workers were pissed because everything they work for (sugar, tobacco and fruit) was going to the US. o The middle class were angry too.
Topic 1 World War I World War II Chinese Revolution
Topic 3 Mussolini Mao
Topic 4 League of Nations
1900: “The Boxer Rebellion”. Rebellion against Western occupation and Christians 1905: Sun Yatsen’s formation of the Alliance League (forerunner of GMD) in Japan 1911: “The Double Tenth”. The spark of the Chinese revolution On this day, troops in Wuhan province refused to obey an order 1912: Fall of the Manchu Dynasty. Sun Yatsen then Yuan Shikai President 1914: Start of WW1 Causes: System of Alliances (why the war became a world war)/Imperial rivalry Economic rivalry War was seen as morally correct – the public was enthusiastic and anticipating a war – acceptable tool of diplomacy Fierce nationalism – independence movements (such as within the Austro-Hungarian Empire)
Secret diplomacy – raised suspicion Arms race (i.e.Germany wanted to become a naval power – this created a threat to other empires) Vigorous foreign policy of Germany Practice/ Nature of warfare: Changed popular perceptions of warfare Industrial Revolution: Weapons could now be manufactured on a vast scale Development of weaponry Easy mobilization – as a result of a population that was largely concentrated Influence of nationalism It stopped people from negotiating, and led to wanting complete victory Elements of total war Entire population became involved – conscription Industry was geared towards war production Women were used in industry – took over men’s jobs Nobody was safe – everything is dispensable – all vulnerable to casualties, especially with weapons that had the capability to kill citizens Economic warfare Destroying the enemy’s capacity to supply huge armies – i.e. blocking ports Use of propaganda Development of mass media Maintain enthusiasm for the war Pressure those who did not support the war Convince world opinion of the justness of one’s cause Weaken enemy moral Loss of individual freedom
Conscription Gearing of industries Censorship of press Casualties were appallingly high Fighting tended to be static Trench warfare Conditions were appalling Effect of War: Domestic Effects: Changes in population structure: Most of those killed were of ages 18-38. Fall in the birth rate 1914-1918. The ‘baby boom’ that followed the war meant huge demand for school places. Manpower shortage during 1930s. Changes in society: Social barriers undermined b/c of the emphasis on national unity during the war years. Status of women enhanced. Increased role of Governments: Increased intervention in areas of health and education. Gov. had taken over areas of the private sector during the war; some of these remained under Gov. control. Belief in the need for economic self-sufficiency: Normal trade was disrupted. Countries had tried during the war to develop alternative home supplies. Promoted the idea of autarky
Major changes in the internal economies of states: European powers entered the war as creditor nations but ended the war as debtor nations. International Effects: Nationalism reached its highest point (i.e.: through treaties that took into account the ‘right of self determination’ of Woodrow Wilson. (yet there were many exceptions) Spreading of democratic ideals: new states that emerged from war initially dedicated to democracy (in practice not always the case) Creation of the world’s first communist state (single most important consequence?) Economic life and world trade dislocated: prewar trading patterns had changed during the war and were never restored. Major post war programmes began with ‘re’: reconstruction, reparations, repayment, recovery, restoration…indication of the desire to turn back the clock rather than rebuild with new thinking and initiative. Left a tangle of war debts and reparation payments: all the victorious Allies (except US)heavily in debt countries like France did not take active measures and waited for reparation to start flowing. Shift away from Europe as the center of the world (this trend was evident by the end of WWII) Development in the area of international organizations: to prevent the horrors of war (i.e.: League of Nations, ILO) 1917: Turning point of WW1. Russia withdraws; US joins 1919: January-Paris Peace Conference (Treaty of Versailles) Benito Mussolini forms the Fascist movement in Milan Italy. Characteristics: Strongly nationalistic Strongly/Violently anti-Communist Anti-Liberal-democratic Opposed to international org. Elitist and Authoritarian (‘Obedience not discussion’ — Mussolini) Close identity btw the party and the state Strongly anti-Semitic Glorified war (promoted Social Darwinism) Profoundly racist 60
Had a paramilitary wing (ie: Blackshirts / S.A.) Promoted the myth of the race (use victories of the past) Placed emphasis on the myth of the predestined leader Made great use of symbolism (ie: swastika) Did not have a clear doctrinal base League of Nations formed (Woodrow Wilson) Aims: Deal with disputes among nations and encourage cooperation Prevent war (learned lesson of WWI) Protect the independence of countries and their borders Encourage the reducing of armaments Enforce Treaty of Versailles Structure: Secretariat The staff of the League's secretariat was responsible for preparing the agenda for the Council and Assembly and publishing reports of the meetings and other routine matters, effectively acting as the civil service for the League. Too few secretariats ∴ slow and ineffective Council The League Council had the authority to deal with any matter affecting world peace. The Council began with four permanent members (Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan) and four non-permanent members elected by the Assembly every three years. The first four non-permanent members were Belgium, Brazil, Greece and Spain. China took the place of the United States, which was originally to be the fifth permanent member, after the United States Senate, dominated by the Republican Party since the 1918 election, voted on March 19, 1920 against the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles. Subsequently, the composition and the number of members of the Council were changed as Germany was added as a permanent member and the number of non-permanent members was increased to nine for a total of fifteen members. The Council met in ordinary sessions four times a year, and in extraordinary sessions when required. In total, 107 public sessions were held between 1920 and 1939. Assembly
Each member was represented and had one vote in the League Assembly. Individual member states did not always have representatives in Geneva. The Assembly held its sessions once a year in September and decisions were made unanimously Committees Court of International Justice Health Committee
International Labour Organization Refugee Committee Mandates Commission Slavery Commission Successes: Silesia 1921 Aaland Islands 1921 Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928 Failures: Vilna 1920 Corfu 1923 Manchuria 1931 Abyssinia (Ethiopia) 1935 Disarmament Britain objected to 1923 1932-1934 Hitler breaks meetings Treaties: Washington 1921 Dawes Plan 1924 The Geneva Protocol 1924 Overall Failures: Membership Not all the great powers were members of the League (U.S, Germany 1926, Russia 1934) Organization
Ineffective meetings and slow decision making Sanctions Britain and France did not strongly impose them ∴ never successful or made a difference + last option of military force never imposed The Treaty of Versailles Terms were not satisfactory (i.e. complete disarmament of Germany) Britain and France Had their own interests in mind and, themselves, defied terms of the League The will to make it work 1919 post-war mood of idealism disappeared + mood changed by Depression Economic Depression Caused all countries to focus on own economic suffering and interest ∴ League was ignored GMD formed by Sun Yatsen May 4th Movement, series of anti-foreigner demonstration 1920: Appeal of Fascism to Italy (1920-1922) Fascism was not clearly developed in theory and could appeal to all groups irrespective of status The emphasis upon law and order was appealing (it was seen as an alternative to social unrest) People were turning to other forms of Gov. due to immense economic problems. Weak governments were easy preys for the fascists The fear of communism led to support for the fascists who were violently anti-Communist Fascism gave its members a sense of identity Fascism made great use of the potentials of the newly developed mass media Traditional parties lacked inspiration and the fascists: Represented a dynamic alternative Were not opposed by the Gov. which they sought to bring down
Rise of Fascism (1920-1922) Disgust in Italy at the terms of the peace treaties (didn’t obtain A.H. territory) The Fascists represented a means to stop the socialists and the communists (in the eyes of conservative politicians, who sought to moderate and control Fascism to their purposes) Mussolini was backed by wealthy industrialists and landowners (b/c of their fear of socialist reforms) Support from Pope Pius XI and the Vatican (who saw the Fascists as an opportunity to normalize State-Church relationships) Lack of faith in Italy’s institutions (failures of WWI, post-war violence, high U…) After the March on Rome (October 22) the King offered the post of Prime Minister to Mussolini The violence of the Fascists (i.e.: blackshirts) intimidated opponents The complicity of the police and the army (who didn’t suppress Fascist violence) League of Nations in business/action Vilna border Dispute (Poles seized Vilna; League cannot persuade them to leave) (1920-1921)War between Russia and Poland(Poland invades land held by Russians, Russians forced to sign treaty of Riga which doubled the size of Poland; league didn’t help Russia because it was Communist; bias decisions) 1921: CCP is formed (Mao cofounder) Aaland Island land disputes between Finland and Sweden (League gave islands to Finland, Sweden accepted this verdict) Upper Silesia border disputes between Germany and Poland (League divided land between two countries and they agreed upon it) 1921 Washington Conference (US, France, Britain, Japan forced to limit navies) 1922: First united front between CCP and GMD to fight warlords King hands over position of Prime Minister to Mussolini 1922-1924 Fascism in Italy is strengthened. Establishment of a dictatorship: Excluding Socialists from the coalition 65
Continuing to attract members (weakening opponents at the same time) Continuing violence against political opponents The fact that the Vatican became increasingly pro-Fascist The lack of unity amongst opponents The Acerbo Law (July 1923) which stated that the party of coalition which won an election was to be automatically awarded 2/3 of the seats in parliament (this made strong Gov. possible) Winning the April 1924 election w/ 374 out of 535 seats in parliament Use of electoral fraud in the south of Italy (to ensure Fascist victory) League fails to stop war between Greece and Turkey between 1921-1922 but gives help to refugees 1923: Acerbo Law winning party gets 2/3 of seats in government, therefore strengthens government Corfu Incident. During boundary disputes between Greece and Albania, General Tellini murdered, so Italy occupied Corfu. The Conference of Ambassadors overruled the League’s order to Mussolini to leave – forced Greece to pay compensations to Italy. 1924: Fascists win elections and Mussolini becomes dictator. A move toward dictatorship: December 25: a law passed complete power in Mussolini’s hands and introduced several repressive measures: Political parties were banned Trade unions were banned Free press was ended (through takeover by Fascists or censorship) Elected local officials were replaced by officials appointed by the central Gov. Increased power of arrest and detention w/out trial Scope of death penalty widened (to include action against the authorities) Setting up a special court to deal w/ ‘political crimes’ Creation of a secret police force (OVRA) These strengthened Mussolini and the State rather then the Fascists. Mussolini disallows all non-fascist work unions. Geneva Protocol claims that if 2 members in dispute they would have to ask the League to sort out the disagreement and they would have to accept the Council’s decision. Failure because Britain refused to sign it
Dawes Plan USA lent money to Germany to avert the economic crisis, as set by treaty of Versailles. 1925: Mussolini dissolves Italian parliament/becomes dictator Chiang Kaishek succeeds Sun Yatsen (1925-1949) Locarno Treaties Germany accepts Western borders set by treaty of Versailles 1926: 1st Northern Expedition Germany became a member of the League 1927: White Terror/Shanghai massacre Chinese civil war Red Army formed 1928: Mussolini ends woman's rights in Italy Jiangxi Soviet : Mao fully establishes teachings and power 2nd Northern expedition Kellogg- Briand Pact signed by 65 nations agreeing not to use force to settle disputes Optimism- recovering relationships and economic recovery 1929: The Great Depression/Wall Street Crash (1929-1939) ∴ End of Locarno Honeymoon France begins construction of Maginot Line (defense from Germany) 1931: Japanese invasion of Manchuria 1930:
Chiang Kai-shek organized five extermination campaigns against Jiangxi Soviet (1930-1934) 1932: World Disarmament Conference in Geneva (Hitler walks out because members failed to agree on German rearmament) 1933: Second World Disarmament Conference (leading to Hitler withdraws) Hitler withdrew Germany from the League Japanese withdrew from League 1934: Mao led the Long March to flee Jiangxi Province to go to Yanan Italian invasion of Ethiopia (1934-1935) 1935: CCP set to work to educate peasants and their children Britain makes secret deal with Germany about force of its navy. Break terms of Versailles Treaty because done without consulting allies Hoare-Laval Pact signed between Britain and France to appease Mussolini in Ethiopia (2/3rds) 1936: 2nd United Front formed. CCP capture Chiang Kai-shek and force him to agree to Front against Japanese invasion of China Germany remilitarizes Rhineland (defies Treaty of Versailles) Rome-Berlin Axis formed between Hitler and Mussolini 1937: Open war between Japan and China (1937-1945)
Italy leaves League of Nations + completes takeover of Ethiopia 1938: Hitler annexes Austria Munich Pact signed. Germany, Italy, France, and Britain give Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia to Germany (high point of appeasement) 1939: German-Italian alliance formed Nazi-Soviet Pact singed Start of World War II. Germany invades Poland (The Phony War) Causes: The Versailles Settlement: It was an uneasy compromise. Redrawn boundaries of Europe did not satisfy all. Drew frontiers avoiding completely the minority problem. The whole idea of the reparations ‘contained the seeds of future disputes’. Isolation of both the USA and USSR: US refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles and join the League of Nations. USSR was treated like the defeated Central Powers (with the creation of the Cordon Sanitaire) Neither power had an interest in maintaining the peace settlement of 1919-20. Nationalism: New states determined by the concept of ‘self-determination of peoples’ (i.e.: Poland) proved aggressive and expansionary. Reorganization of Europe did not produce more democratic states: Dictatorships in Poland, Hungary, Rumania, Italy, Germany.
Only Czechoslovakia established a stable democracy. The World Depression: Led to the rise of extremists to power. (i.e.: Rise of the Nazi party) Led Gov. to focus on short-term nationalistic measures due to economic depression (international co-operation suffered) The belief that war was a legitimate means of implementing national policy continued. (i.e.: Mussolini and Hitler were ‘Social Darwinists’. They opposed org. like the League of Nations b/c of association w/ Versailles and b/c they ‘protect the weak’.) Weakness of the western democracies of Britain and France: French and British failure to support the League of Nations The appeasement policies. Led other countries to see dictatorship as a stronger and more effective from of government / to come to terms with the dictators in the hope of securing neutral status. Too much of the ‘old war order’ survived: a second war was needed to complete the transfer of values of the 19th century to those of the 20th. Practices: Many more countries involved / combat spread around the globe (i.e.: the Pacific theater…) First mechanized war (tank as key land weapon) which meant that the areas involved were much greater than in 1914-18 German forces (prepared for mechanized warfare) enjoyed great success from 1939-41 Civilian casualties were very high (i.e.: through the use of heavy bomber aircraft / the use of ‘terror bombing’ i.e. Dresden / use of atomic bombs / or b/c of the forced labor in the areas occupied by the Axis forces / racial policies of the Nazis ) Total War w/ civilian slave labor, mass deportations, execution of hostages, extermination camps… Great deal of activity by partisans or resistance movements. (i.e.: French resistance, and Tito) Use of aircraft (i.e.: German failure to gain control of British skies meant failure to invade Britain / Massive bombing to destroy industry, communications, and morale) Characterized as an ideological conflict (Democracy vs. fascism / left vs. right) the Axis powers were fascists but the distinction is less clear w/ Allies. 70
THE FIRST AND ONLY NUCLEAR WAR Effects: Eclipse of Europe (control of world affairs moves to the USA and USSR who emerged as superpowers) International relations after the war come to be characterized by their bipolarity. Sweeping Social changes (Prof. Thomson: ‘Modern War is revolution’) i.e.: right to vote to women, demands for social change (i.e.: through election of Labor party) Completed the work of WWI: final destruction of the ‘old order’ w/ abolition of monarchies and ending of the power of the traditional elite. Gave great impetus to decolonialisation à both new superpowers opposed to colonialism, major colonial powers exhausted by the war, break up of the Myth of European superiority and invincibility. Rapid spread of Communism: b/c of occupation of eastern and central Europe by the USSR and communism had played a leading role in the struggle against Nazism. Rapid growth in regional and world organizations: attempt to create a more co-operative world order (UN / EEC) Boost for economic principles (through discrediting of fascism) à meant a continuation of human right violations but that democracy was not challenged in the way it had been in 1930s War became condemned as morally wrong à attempts to limit the use of warfare in international relations, conventions on use of certain weapons (since 1945 no country actually declared war on another!) Brought in the Nuclear Age with the changing of the ‘balance of power’ into the ‘balance of terror’. Other less important effects: Massive refugee problem (i.e.: Stalin expelled minorities) Major Boundary Changes Constitutional changes imposed by the Allies War Crime Trials
1940: Hitler lunched Blitzkrieg (lightning war) westward. Surrender of Dutch and Belgium + fall of France.
Battle of Britain. Hitler-Churchill. Hitler unable to establish superiority ∴ stopped invasion Mussolini joins Hitler in Germany's war and Italy declares war against France & Britain Mussolini struck British in Egypt + Greece, both ending in failure (example of axis lack of coordination & setback for Hitler) Mao published “On New Democracy”, broadening CCP appeal to landed and business classes “Three-thirds” system introduced by CCP (allowed locals in local administrations) 1941: Operation Barbarossa/ “The Great Patriotic War”. Hitler breaks NaziSoviet Pact and invades Russia (Napoleon’s mistake) ended in great German loss Russia joins war German troops arrive in North Africa to aid Italians against British. Ends in 1943 with Axis defeat. Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor Germany declares war on the U.S U.S joins war 2nd United Front broken with Anhwei Incident. GMD attack of CCP. Mao launches production drive to prevent starvation of CCP due to GMD blockade and Japanese scorched earth policy. Succeeds in achieving selfsufficiency. 1942: U.S and Britain land in French North Africa 1943: Desert battle won by Allies Allied troops landed in Sicily, the Fascist Grand Council denounced Mussolini’s actions, and the King dismissed Mussolini Mussolini was then arrested + Italy surrendered Cairo Conference: FDR, Churchill, Chiang Kai-shek pledge defeat of Japan Tehran Conference: FDR, Churchill, Stalin agree on invasion plans 1944: Paris liberated 1945: 72
World War II ends Yalta Agreement signed by FDR, Churchill, Stalin—establishes basis for occupation of Germany, returns to Soviet Union lands taken by Germany and Japan; USSR agrees to friendship pact with China Mussolini hanged by pro-Allied Italians. Evaluating Fascism in Italy: Failure in that it meant Italian involvement in WWII on Germany’s side, loss of colonies, and Allied occupation. The desire for empire was more of a burden than an advantage. (i.e.: Ethiopia did not bring Italy any economic benefits) The relationship w/ Germany meant that Italian interest were of secondary importance, and post-1943 that Germany invaded Northern Italy, used Italian workers as forced labor… Fascism caused economic stagnation in Italy. A high lira damaged exports, wages fell, and there was massive U. (partly b/c of the Great Depression) Fascism brought little social reforms and sided w/ the employers against the employees. The reality of the Corporate State was that Fascists sided w/ employers and this system did little to represent the interests of the workers. This system was effectively only a disguise for exploitation of labor. Fascist rule was corrupt, and much needed reforms were not carried out. Propaganda was used to claim successes, but remained propaganda. Successes included improvements in public transport, success in the campaign against the Mafia… The one major success was the ending of the conflict btw State and Church. (the establishment of the Vatican as an independent state) Hitler commits suicide Berlin falls Potsdam Conference—Truman, Churchill, Atlee (after July 28), Stalin establish council of foreign ministers to prepare peace treaties; plan German postwar government and reparations A-bomb dropped on Hiroshima by U.S. USSR declares war on Japan Nagasaki hit by A-bomb Japanese surrender from China CCP implemented reforms in land they occupied. Success meant they were welcome to any new area occupied
General Marshall sent to China to prevent civil war and discuss idea of coalition government GMD refused and attacks Lin Biao’s troops Outbreak of civil war 1946: CCP land policy oscillated (1946-1948). Land taken by landlords and rich peasants GMD troops suffered desertion and corruption ∴ weak Marshall arranged another truce but civil war broke out again (19461949) + decided to stop further aid to GMD because of CCP complaints GMD weaknesses: Corruption in government Inflation Ruthlessness Starvation and hardship Weakness and corruption of army CCP strengths: Favorable treatment of Red Army (PLA in 1946) Discipline of army Establishment of self-sufficiency Educational reforms Low taxation in occupied areas Local councils were elected to deal with local affairs Red Army becomes known as the PLA (People’s Liberation Army) 1947: PLA switches to open warfare against GMD successfully 1948: GMD progressively loosing and positions desperate ∴ US Congress passed Save China Act to financially aid GMD, however by the time it reached the GMD it was too late GMD had lost military conflict and battle of hearts and minds of the people CCP land policy moderated because it was too harsh 1949:
Chiang Kai-shek resigns as president and surrendered to CCP and GMD fled to Taiwan Mao proclaimed the People’s Republic of China Organic Law “On the People’s Democratic Dictatorship” National Capitalism Ideology Peasant revolution Mass Line Rectification of revolution Constant revolution 1950: PLA continued occupation of unoccupied Chinese territories (i.e. Tibet) Korean War broke out (first war of Cold War). China intervened on North Korea’s side Mao initiated social reform * Land Reform Law Marriage Reform Law Campaigns against prostitution, gambling, and drug addiction Sino-Soviet Treaty: Economic deal and treaty of friendship between Russia and China 1951: Inflation successfully tackled in China with introduction of new currency The “three-antis” campaign 1952: Economic policies succeeding in China. Industrial and agricultural production increased greatly CCP reliant on Soviet help in developing higher education (1952-1958) The “five-antis” campaign
1953: End of Korean War. Created great national pride + proved how effective Mao could mobilize troops and country The First Five Year Plan (1953-1957) 1954: 1954 Constitutions introduced. CCP became the sole legal party of the PRC + People’s National Congress was set up (laws made represented will of the Party) Party created huge networks of mass organizations (i.e. National Women’s Association and the Youth League) Agricultural Producers Co-operatives (APCs) were introduced under the FYP 1957: Hundred Flowers Campaign 1958: The Great Leap Forward (1958-1960). Enormous economic failure 1960: Abandonment of the Great Leap Forward. Responsibility given to Liu and Deng 1961: The power struggle (1961-1966). Lin Biao, Jiang, Qing, and the PLA all played a role in restoring Mao to power post-Great Leap Forward 1962: The Third Five Year Plan (1962-1966)
1966: The Cultural Revolution Targeting the ‘Four Olds’ Old Thought Old Habits Old Culture Old Customs Victims were the ‘Five Categories’ Landlords Rich peasants Bad elements Reactionaries Rightists 1976: Death of Mao
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