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EE 560 MOS INVERTERS: STATIC

CHARACTERISTICS
continued

Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

VDD
+

VGS,L = 0

IL
ID

Vin
VGS,L = 0 > VT,L

DEPLETION-LOAD INVERTER
IL = ID

Vout= VDS,d

31

ADVANTAGES wrt ENH LOADS


(i) Sharper VTC transition & higher
Noise Margins
(ii) Single Power Supply
(iii) Smaller Overall Layout

VSB,d = 0 => VT,d = VT0,n


VSB,L = Vout => VT,L = VT0,L

ENHANCEMENT DRIVER:
CUT: VGS = Vin < VT0,n => ID = 0
SAT: VGS = Vin > VT0,n , VDS = Vout > Vin - VT0,n
k'n,d W
2
ID =
[ Vin VT 0 , n]

2 L d
LIN: VGS = Vin > VT0,n , VDS = Vout < Vin - VT0,n
k'n,d W
ID =
[2(Vin VT 0 , n)Vout (Vout )2 ]
2 L d
Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

VDD
+

VGS,L = 0
Vin

IL
ID

IL = ID

Vout
VOH
VDD + VT,L

Vout
VOL

dVout
dVin

LIN
SAT
A

Vout = Vin - VT0,n32

=-1

SAT LIN

D
dVout
dVin

C
=-1

VSB,L = Vout => VT,L = VT0,L


VIL
VIH VOH
VT0,n
VT,L = VT 0 , L+ ( | 2F | + Vout | 2F |)
DEPLETION LOAD
SAT: VDS,L = VDD - Vout > 0 - VT,L => Vout < VDD + VT,L
k 'n , L W
2
IL =
[ 0 VT,L (Vout )]

2 L L
LIN: VDS,L = VDD - Vout < 0 - VT,L => Vout > VDD + VT,L

Vin

k 'n , L W
IL =
[ 2(0 VT,L (Vout ))(VDD Vout ) (VDD Vout )2 ]
2 L L
Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

VDD
+

VGS,L = 0
Vin

IL
ID

Vout
IL = ID

VOH
VDD + VT,L

Vout

dVout

=-1

A dVin
SAT LIN
B
LIN
SAT
D
C
A
dVout
dVin

VOL

VBS,L = -Vout => VT,L = VT0,L


VT,L = VT 0 , L+ ( | 2F | + Vout | 2F |)

Vout = Vin - VT0,n33

VIL

VT0,n

VIH

=-1

VOH

Vin Vout DRIVER OP REGION LOAD OP REGION


VOL VOH
linear
cut-off
linear
VIL VOH
saturation
saturation
linear
VIH small
saturation
linear
VOH VOL

Vin

A
B
C
C

Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

VDD
+

VGS,L = 0
Vin

IL
ID

IL = ID

Vout
VOH
VDD + VT,L

Vout
VOL

dVout

Vout = Vin - VT0,n34

=-1

A dVin
SAT LIN
B
LIN
SAT
D
C
A
dVout
dVin

=-1

Vin

VIL
VIH VOH
CALCULATION OF VOH: A
VT0,n
Vin = VOL < VT0,n
=0
=0
k 'n , L W
IL =
[ 2(0 VT,L (VOH ))(VDD VOH ) (VDD VOH )2 ] = 0
2 L L
VDD
A
VOH = VDD
IL = 0
Vout
Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

VDD
+

VGS,L = 0

Vout
IL = ID

IL
ID

Vin

VOH
VDD + VT,L

Vout

dVout

Vout = Vin - VT0,n

=-1

A dVin
SAT LIN
B
LIN
SAT
D
C
A
dVout
=-1

dVin

VOL
VT0,nVIL

CALCULATION OF VOL: C
Vin = VOH = VDD
k'n , d W
[2(VOH VT 0 , n)VOL (VOL )2 ]
2 L d

VIH

Vin

VOH
VDD
C

IL

k 'n , L W
2
=
[ VT,L (VOL )]

2 L L
VOL = VOH VT 0,n

(VOH VT 0 , n)

Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

35

ID V
out
2

k 'n , L(W/L ) L
2
'
VT,L (VOL )]
[
k n,d (W/L )d

VDD
+

VGS,L = 0
Vin

IL
ID

Vout
IL = ID

VOH
VDD + VT,L

Vout

CALCULATION OF VIL: B
dVout/dVin = -1 @ Vin = VIL

dVout

Vout = Vin - VT0,n

=-1

A dVin
SAT LIN
B
LIN
SAT
D
C
A
dVout
dVin

VOL
VT0,nVIL

VIH

'
n,d

k W
2
[Vin VT 0 , n]

2 L d
k 'n , L W
=
[2( VT,L (Vout ))(VDD Vout ) (VDD Vout )2 ]
2 L L

Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

36

=-1

Vin

VOH
B

VDD
IL
ID Vout

CALCULATION OF VIL CONT: B


Vin = VIL and dVout/dVin = -1
k'n , d W
2
[Vin VT 0 , n]

2 L d

37

(5.39)

k 'n , L W
=
[2( VT,L (Vout ))(VDD Vout ) (VDD Vout )2 ]
2 L L
Differentiating wrt Vin and setting Vin = VIL:
-(-1)
'
dVout
k n , L W
' W
k n , d [VIL VT 0 , n] =
2( VT , L(Vout ))

L d

2 L L
dVin -(-1)
dVT,L (Vout ) dVout (-1)
dVout
+2(VDD Vout )
2(VDD Vout )

0
dVout dVin

dVin
dVT , L (Vout )
(VDD
Vout)
=
2(VDD Vout)
SOLVING FOR VIL:
dVout
2 | 2F | + Vout
k 'n , L( W/L) L
VIL = VT 0 , n+ '
Vout VDD VT,L (Vout )]
[
(5.41)
k n,d ( W/L) d
Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

38

START Vout = VOH = VDD


CALCULATE VT,L(VOH)
EQ. (1)
CALCULATE Vout,VIL
EQs. (5.39) and (5.41)
UPDATE VT,L(Vout)
EQ. (1)
YES

|VT,L| > ?

CALCULATE VIL
THROUGH
NUMERICAL
ITERATIONS

CONTINUE
ITERATION ?

NO
VIL

VT,L = VT 0 , L+ ( | 2F | + Vout | 2F |)
Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

(1)

39

VDD
+

VGS,L = 0
Vin

IL
ID

Vout
IL = ID

VOH
VDD + VT,L

Vout

Vin = VIH and dVout/dVin = -1


k'n , d W
[2(Vin VT 0 , n)Vout (Vout )2 ]
2 L d

Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

dVin

LIN
SAT
A

Vout = Vin - VT0,n

=-1

SAT LIN

D
dVout

C
=-1

dVin

VOL

CALCULATION OF VIH: C

k 'n , L W
2
=
[ VT,L (Vout )]

2 L L

dVout

VT0,nVIL

VIH

Vin

VOH
VDD
C

IL
ID V
out

CALCULATION OF VIH: C

40

Vin = VIH and dVout/dVin = -1


'
k'n , d W
k
2
2
n , L W
[2(Vin VT 0 , n)Vout (Vout ) ] =
[ VT,L (Vout )]

2 L d
2 L L

Differentiating wrt Vin and setting Vin = VIH:


(-1)
dVout
dVout
k'n , d W
2 Vout
2 Vout + 2(VIH VT 0,n )

2 L d
dVin
dVin
dVT,L (Vout ) dVout (-1)
k 'n , L W
=
2[ VT,L (Vout )]

2 L L
dVout dVin
SOLVING FOR VIH:

dVT , L (Vout )
dVout

(-1)

2 | 2F | + Vout

dVT,L (Vout )
k'n,L ( W/L )L
VIH = VT 0,n + 2 Vout + '
VT , L(Vout )]
[

k n , d( W/L )d
dVout
Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

(5.42)

(5.45)

(5.44)

START Vout = VOL

41

CALCULATE
VT,L(Vout) EQ. (1)
dVT , L(Vout )
EQ.(5.45)
dVout
CALCULATE Vout, VIH
EQs. (5.42) and (5.44)

CALCULATE VIH
THROUGH
NUMERICAL
ITERATIONS

UPDATE
dVT , L(Vout )
VT,L(Vout) &
dVout
YES

|VT,L| > ?
dVT,L
| dV | > ?
out

CONTINUE
ITERATION ?

NO

VIH

Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

42

TYPICAL VTCs FOR DEPLETION LOAD INVERTERS FOR


DIFFERENT kR VALUES
Vout
5V

VDD = 5V
VT0,n = 1 V
VT0,L = -3V
kn,d = kn,L = 40 A/V2

kR = 2
kR = 4
kR= 10
5V

Vin

where
k'n,d (W/L )d
kR = '
k n , L(W/L ) L

In GENERAL:
k'n , d k 'n , L

Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

43

DESIGN OF DEPLETION LOAD INVERTERS


FOR GIVEN SET OF PROCESS PARAMETERS: VOH, VOL => VIH, VIL
VOH = VDD
VOL = VOH VT 0,n

(VOH VT 0 , n)

= VOH VT 0 , n

( VOH VT 0,n )

k 'n , L(W/L ) L
2
'
VT,L (VOL )]
[
k n,d (W/L )d
2

2
1
[ VT , L(VOL )]
kR

Solving for kR:

VT,L (Vout )]
k (W/L )d
[
kR =
=
2
k (W/L ) L 2(VOH VT 0,n ) VOL (VOL )
'
n,d
'
n,L

where Vin = VOH = VDD


Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

44
POWER DISSIPATION CONSIDERATIONS
VDD
P(Vin = 0) + P(Vin = 1)
PDC =
[ I DC (Vin ="0")+ I DC (Vin ="1")] =
2
2
VDD
WHEN Vin = VOL: DRIVER CUT-OFF, LOAD LIN A
IL = 0
IL = ID = 0 => P(Vin = 0) = 0

WHEN Vin = VOH: DRIVER LIN, LOAD SAT


k 'n , L( W/L) L
2
I DC (Vin = VDD ) =
VT,L (VOL )]
[
2
k 'n,d ( W/L )d
2
=
2(VOH VT 0,n ) VOL (VOL )
2
k 'n , L(W/L ) L
2
P(Vin = 1) = VDD
VT,L (VOL )]
[
2

Vout
VDD

'
k
2
VDD n , L( W/L) L
PDC (average) =
VT,L (VOL )]
[
2
2
Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

IL
ID V
out

45

DIE AREA CONSIDERATIONS


Vin
Wd

LL

WL
Ld

n+
Depletion Implant
Polysilicon (doped)
Metal 1
Local Interconnect
(Buried Contact)

GND

VDD
Vout
Vin

Wd

LL

WL

Ld
GND
Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

Vout VDD

EXAMPLE 5.3:
Consider a depletion load inverter with parameters:
VDD = 5 V
VDD
VT0,n = 1.0 V
IL = ID
+
VT0,L = -3.0 V
IL
(W/L)d =2, (W/L)L = 1/3
VGS,L = 0
ID
kn,d = kn,L = 25 A/V2
Vout
Vin
= 0.4 V1/2
F = -0.3 V
Calculate VOL, VOH, VIL, VIH on the VTC and the noise margins.
Terminate iterations when |VT,L| 0.1V and |dVT,L/dVou|t 20%
1). VOH = VDD = 5 V

k 'n , L(W/L ) L
2
2). VOL = VOH VT 0,n (VOH VT 0 , n ) '
VT,L (VOL )]
[
k n,d (W/L )d
START Iteration with VT,L(VOL) = VT,L = -3 V
2

Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

46

2). VOL = VOH VT 0,n

(VOH VT 0 , n)

k 'n , L(W/L ) L
2
'
VT,L (VOL )]
[
k n,d (W/L )d

START Iteration with VT,L(VOL) = VT0,L = -3 V


1 /3
VOL = 5 1.0 (5 1.0) 2
[3.0]2 = 0.192 V

2
USE VOL= 0.192 V To UPDATE VT,L(VOL)
VT,L (VOL ) = VT 0 , L+ ( | 2F | + VOL | 2F |)
= 3.0 V+ 0.4 V1 /2 ( 0.6 V+ 0.192 V 0.6V) = 2.95V
TERMINATE ITERATION IF |VT,L| ( = 0.1 V) YES
1 /3
VOL = 5 1.0 (5 1.0) 2
[3.0]2 = 0.192 V

Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

47

3). Vin = VIL k'n , d W


2
[Vin VT 0 , n]

2 L d

48

(5.39)

k 'n , L W
=
[2( VT,L (Vout ))(VDD Vout ) (VDD Vout )2 ]
2 L L
k 'n , L( W/L) L
VIL = VT 0 , n+ '
Vout VDD VT,L (Vout )]
(5.41)
[
k n,d ( W/L) d
VT,L = VT 0 , L+ ( | 2F | + Vout | 2F |)

(1)

Vin = VIL => Vout > VOH = VDD


START with Vout = VOH = 5 V
VT,L (Vout ) = 3.0 V+ 0.4 V1 /2 ( 0.6 V+ 5 V 0.6 V ) = 2.36 V
SUBSTITUTE VT,L(Vout) into VIL EQ. (5.41)
1
VIL = 1.0 V+ [Vout 5 V 2.36V] = 0.167 Vout + 0.56 V
6
==> Vout = 6 VIL 3.35
Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

49

SUBSTITUTE Vout into IL = ID EQ. (5.39) , SOLVE for VIL


'
k'n , d
k
( W/L )d (VIL VT 0 , n)2 = n , L [2 | VT , L(Vout ) | ( VDD 6 VIL + 3.35)
2
2
2
(VDD 6 VIL + 3.35)

1
1/ 3
2
2
(2)(VIL 1.0) =
2 | 2.36 | (5 6 VIL + 3.35) (5 6 VIL + 3.35)
[
2
2
SOLVING FOR VIL
VIL = 0.98 V, 1.36 V

NOTE: VIL > VT0,n = 1.0 V

SUBSTITUTE VIL to Vout Vout = 6 VIL 3.35


Vout = 6(1.36) 3.35 = 4.81V PREV Vout VALUE = 5 V
USE Vout to UPDATE VT,L (Vout) PREV VT,L VALUE = -2.36 V
VT,L (Vout ) = 3.0 V+ 0.4 V1 /2 ( 0.6 V+ 4.81V 0.6V) = 2.38 V
TERMINATE ITERATION IF |VT,L| ( = 0.1V) YES
VIL = 1.36 V
Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

TERMINATE ITERATION

4). Vin = VIH


START with Vout = VOL = 0.192 V
VT,L (Vout ) = 3.0 V+ 0.4 V1 /2 ( 0.6 V+ 0.192 V 0.6 V ) = 2.95V
dVT , L(Vout )

0.4
=
=
= 0.22
dVout
2 | 2F | + Vout 2 0.6 + 0.192
SUBSTITUTE VT,L(Vout), dVT,L(Vout)/dVout into VIH EQ. (5.44)
dVT,L (Vout )
k'n,L ( W/L )L
VIH = VT 0,n + 2 Vout + '
VT , L(Vout )]
[

k n , d( W/L )d
dV

out
1
= 1 + 2 Vout + [ (2.95) ](0.22 ) = 2 Vout + 1.1
6
==> Vout = 0.5VIH 0.55
SUBSTITUTE Vout into IL = ID EQ. (5.42) , SOLVE for VIH
'
k'n , d W
k
2
2
n , L W
[2(Vin VT 0 , n)Vout (Vout ) ] =
[ VT,L (Vout )]

2 L d
2 L L
Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

50

'
k'n , d W
k
2
2
n , L W
[2(Vin VT 0 , n)Vout (Vout ) ] =
[ VT,L (Vout )]
2 L d
2 L L
1
1 1
2
(2 ) 2( VIH 1.0)( 0.5VIH 0.55) ( 0.5VIH 0.55) = [ 2.95]2
2
2 3
SOLVING FOR VIH
VIH = 0.10 V, 1.96 V
NOTE: VIH > VT0,n = 1.0 V

51

SUBSTITUTE VIH to Vout Vout = 0.5VIH 0.55


Vout = 0.5(1.96) 0.55 = 0.43V

PREV Vout VALUE = 0.192 V

USE Vout to UPDATE VT,L (Vout), dVT,L(Vout)/dVou)


PREV VALUES = -2.95 V, 0.22
VT,L (Vout ) = 3.0 V+ 0.4 V1 /2 ( 0.6 V+ 0.43V 0.6 V ) = 2.90 V
dVT , L(Vout )
0.4
=
= 0.19
dVout
2 0.6 + 0.43
TERMINATE ITERATION IF |VT,L| 0.1V & |dVT,L/dVou|t 20% YES
VIH = 1.96 V
TERMINATE ITERATION
Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

52

5) NOISE MARGINS
VIH = 1.96 V VOL = 0.186 V
VOH = 5 V
V = 1.36 V
IL

NMH = VOH - VIH = 5 - 1.96 = 3.04 V


NML = VIL - VOL = 1.36 - 0.186 = 1.17 V

Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

VDD

CMOS INVERTER - STATIC CHARACTERISTICS

53

S
G

Vin

B
D

IDp

IDn

Vin = Vgsn = Vgsp + VDD


Vout

Vout = Vdsn = Vdsp + VDD

VSSCUTOFF

NONSATURATED

SATURATED

VGSp < VTp

VGSp < VTp

Vin < VT,p + VDD

Vin < VTp + VDD

Vin > VTp + VDD

VDSp > VGSp - VTp


Vout > Vin - VTp

VDSp < VGSp - VTp


Vout < Vin - VTp

VGSn < VTn

VGSn > VTn

VGSn > VTn

Vin > VTn

Vin > VTn

VDSn < VGSn - VTn


Vout < Vin - VTn

VDSn > VGSn - VTn


Vout > Vin - VTn

VGSp > VTp


p-device

n-device
Vin < VTn
Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

V DD
S
G

I Dn
dsn

V in

Vout = Vdsn = Vdsp + VDD

I Dp
dsp

54

Vin = Vgsn = Vgsp + VDD

VDD

VDD
A
A

BB

V out

BB

CC

D
D

VDD

SAT
VDD /2

EE

SAT

CC

Vin - VT0n

Dn
IIdsn

DD

- VT0p

VDD /2

VDD+VT0pVDD
V +V

I dsp
Dp
Vout

VDD

LIN

T0n

Vout

VDD

Vin==-VVVT0p
V
-- V
Vout
VTp
in
out
in
Tp

LIN

VVTn

Dn
IIdsn

Vout

V
out
VVout
A
ASS

I dsp
Dp

IIdsp
= 00
Dp

Vin
V
in

VDD
IIdsp
Dp

Dn
I dsn

Vout

EE
I dsn
IDn==00

Vout

Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

55

CALCULATE VOH
VDD
A
A

IDp = IDn = 0

IIDp== 00
dsp

VOH = VDD

Vout

CALCULATE VOL
VDD
E
E

IIDn
==00
dsn

IDp = IDn = 0
VOL = 0
Vout

Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

56

CALCULATE VIL

VDD

V DD

B
B

S
G

I Dp
dsp

D
D

V in

Idsp
Dp

I Dn
dsn

Idn
V out

IIdsn
Dn

Vout

IDp = IDn

V SS

k W
2
V

V
( GSn
T 0 n)

2 L n
'
n

k'p W
2
= 2(VGSp VT 0 p ) VDSp VDSp
2 L p

VGSn = Vin, VGSp = Vin - VDD, VDSp = Vout - VDD


k'n W
2
( Vin VT 0 n )

2 L n

k 'p W
2
= 2( Vin VDD VT 0 p )( Vout VDD ) ( Vout VDD )
2 L p
Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

k'n W
2
( Vin VT 0 n )

2 L n

57

k 'p W
2
= 2( Vin VDD VT 0 p )( Vout VDD ) ( Vout VDD )
2 L p

(1)

DIFFERENTIATING wrt Vin


(-1)
VIL
VIL
dVout
' W
' W
k n ( Vin VT 0 n ) = k p (Vout VDD ) + ( Vin VDD VT 0 p )
L n
L p
dVin
(-1)
dVout
(Vout VDD )

dVin
' W
' W
k n ( VIL VT 0 n ) = k p 2 Vout VIL + VT 0 p VDD
L n
L p
SOLVING FOR VIL
2 Vout + VT 0 p VDD + k R VT 0 n
k 'n ( W/L ) n
VIL =
(2)
where k R = '
k p ( W/L ) p
1 + kR
SOLVE (1) and (2) for Vout and VIL

Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

58

CALCULATE VIH
V DD

VDD
D
D

S
G

I Dp
dsp

D
D

V in

I Dn
dsn
B

V out

IIdsp
Dp

IDn
I dsn

Vout

V SS

IDp = IDn
'
k
2
k W
p W
2
[2(VGSn VT 0 n ) VDSn VDSn ] = (VGSp VT 0 p )

2 L n
2 L p
'
n

VGSn = Vin, VDSn = Vout,VGSp = Vin - VDD


'
k
2
k W
p W
2
[2(Vin VT 0 n ) Vout Vout ] = (Vin VDD VT 0 p )

2 L n
2 L p
'
n

Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

'
p

k W
2
k W
2
[2(Vin VT 0 n ) Vout Vout ] = (Vin VDD VT 0 p )
2 L n
2 L p
'
n

59

(3)

DIFFERENTIATING wrt Vin


(-1)
VIH
VIH
(-1)
dVout
dVout
' W
' W
k n ( Vin VT 0 n )
+ Vout Vout
=
k
Vin VDD VT 0 p )

p
L n
L p
dVin
dVin

SOLVING FOR VIH

VDD + VT 0 p + k R ( 2 Vout + VT 0 n )
VIH =
1 + kR

where

k 'n ( W/L ) n
kR = '
k p ( W/L ) p

SOLVE (3) and (4) for Vout and VIH

Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

(4)

60

CALCULATE Vth

VDD

V DD

C
C

S
G

I Dp
dsp

D
D

V in

I dsp
Dp

I Dn
dsn
B

V out

IDn
I dsn

Vout

V SS

IDp = IDn
'
k
2
k'n W
2
p W
( VGSn VT 0 n ) = ( VGSp VT 0 p )

2 L n
2 L p
VGSn = Vin, VGSp = Vin - VDD
'
k
2
k'n W
2
p W
( Vin VT 0 n ) = ( Vin VDD VT 0 p )

2 L n
2 L p

Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

k W
2
V

V
( in
T 0 n)

2 L n
'
n

out
Vout

VDD

k'p W
2
= ( Vin VDD VT 0 p )
2 L p

61

1
VT 0 n +
VDD + VT 0 p )
(
SOLVING for Vth = Vin
kR
Vin = Vth =

1
1+

C
B
D
A
A
B C
D
EE
k R

Vin==-VVVT0p
V
-- V
V
VTp
out
in
LIN
out
in
Tp
SAT

VDD /2

SAT

Vin - VT0n

Vth = Vin = Vout

LIN

Vth - VT0n < Vout < Vth - VT0p

- VT0p
VVTn

T0n

VDD /2

VDD+VT0pVDD
VDD + VTp

Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

NOTE THAT

Vin
V
in

62

POWER SUPPLY CURRENT VS VIN


Vout
VDD
IDp = IDn

VT0n

Vin - Vout

Vth

Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

VDD + VT0p

IDC = 0, Vin < VT0n


IDC = 0, Vin > VDD + VT0p
IDC = MAX, Vin = Vth

Vin

DESIGN OF CMOS INVERTERS


VT 0 n +
Vin = Vth =

1
VDD + VT 0 p )
(
kR

1
1 + k

SOLVING FOR kR

VDD + VT 0 p Vth
kR =

Vth VT 0 n

FOR IDEAL INVERTER


( k R ) ideal

Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

1
Vth = VDD
2

0.5VDD + VT 0 p
=

0.5VDD VT 0 n

IF VT0 = VT0n = - VT0p

=1
( k R )symmetric
inverter

63

k 'n ( W/L ) n n C ox ( W/L) n n (W/L ) n


kR = '
=
=
k p ( W/L ) p p C ox ( W/L) p p (W/L ) p
FOR SYMMETRIC INVERTER VT0 = VT0n = -VT0p

=1
( k R )symmetric
inverter

( W/L )n p
=
( W/L ) p n
( W/L )n p 230 cm 2 /Vs
( W/L )p = 2.5( W/L )n
=
=
2
( W/L ) p n 580 cm /Vs
1
VIL = (3 VDD 2 VT 0 )
8
VIL + VIH = VDD
1
VIH = (5 VDD 2 VT 0 )
8
NMH = VOH - VIH = VDD - VIH
NML = VIL - VOL = VIL
Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

64

POWER DISSIPATION CONSIDERATIONS


VDD

A
A

IIdsp==00
Dp

Vout

PDC

VDD

IIDn
== 00
dsn

Vout

VDD
P(Vin = 0) + P(Vin = 1)
=
[ I DC (Vin ="0")+ I DC (Vin ="1")] =
2
2

WHEN Vin = VOL:

IL = ID = 0 => P(Vin = 0) = 0

WHEN Vin = VOH: IL = ID = 0 => P(Vin = 1) = 0


PDC = 0

Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

65

DIE AREA CONSIDERATIONS


Vin
COLOR LEGEND
n-Well
n+
Polysilicon
p+
Metal 1

VDD

Contact/via

Vout

GND

Vin
GND

VDD

Vout
Kenneth R. Laker, University of Pennsylvania

66