Journal of Coastal Research

SI 50

990 - 994

ICS2007 (Proceedings)

Australia

ISSN 0749.0208

Fine-fraction mineralogy and geochemistry of beach sediments of SW Portugal as markers of sedimentary dynamics
C.C. Jesus†, P. Miranda‡, F. Rocha† and A. Oliveira∞
†MIA, Departamento de Geociências Universidade de Aveiro; 3810-193 Aveiro; Portugal cjesus@geo.ua.pt; frocha@geo.ua.pt ‡ Departamento de Geociências Universidade de Aveiro; 3810-193 Aveiro; Portugal pmiranda@gmail.com ∞ Departamento da Geologia Marinha Instituto Hidrográfico – Rua das Trinas, 49 1249-093 Lisboa, Portugal anabela.oliveira@hidrografico.pt

ABSTRACT JESUS, C.C., MIRANDA, P., ROCHA, F. AND OLIVEIRA, A., 2007. Fine-fraction mineralogy and geochemistry of beach sediments of SW Portugal as markers of sedimentary dynamics. Journal of Coastal Research, SI 50 (Proceedings of the 9th International Coastal Symposium), 990 – 994. Gold Coast, Australia, ISSN 0749.0208 Mineralogy and geochemistry of fine-grained sediment fractions have been used since the 1960-ies to identify sediment source. Along the Tróia-Sines littoral-arc (SW Portugal) 126 beach-dune profiles have been sampled as well as sea-cliffs and watercourses located close to the study area. Mineralogical analysis of the fine sediment fraction was carried out by XRD, and multi-elemental analysis by ICP-MS was used to determine total Fe, Al, Mg, Ca, K, Sr and Mn. For all fine-fractions only eight different minerals were identified. Their percentages vary significantly: quartz (8-85%), phyllosilicates (1-68%), K-feldspars (2-32%), plagioclases (0-21%), magnesium enriched calcite (0-28%), calcite (0-46%), aragonite (0-32%) and goethite (0-18%). On the basis of mineralogy and geochemistry the studied area can be subdivided into three sectors: 1) northern sector between Tróia and the Carvalhal beach where the Sado estuary, benthic macrofauna communities and the littoral drift constitute the main sediment sources; 2) central sector between Carvalhal and the Melides beach where sea-cliffs are the only identified sediment source; 3) southern sector from Melides to Cape Sines where the volcanic massif and the seacliffs were identified as the main sediment sources to the beach system. We conclude that the mineralogical and geochemical composition of the fine sediment fraction provides provenance information for beach and dune sediments, complementing traditional provenance studies with coarser fractions. ADDITIONAL INDEX WORDS: fine-fraction, mineralogy, geochemistry, sediment sources

INTRODUCTION
Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of beach and dune sediments are closely related to the geology and hydrology of adjacent basin areas as well as to the local climate. Studies of the composition of such sediments can provide valuable insight into the regional hydrodynamics, patterns of sediment source, transport and distribution. Silt and clay fraction mineralogy and geochemistry have been used for identification of sediment source since the 1960-ies (e.g BISCAYE, 1965) until present (e.g KAIRYTÉ, et al. 2005). However, this approach is usually applied to marine sediments from continental margins, slopes and abyssal plains and not to sandy beach and dune sediments. Studies on high wave energy littorals are normally focussed on the sand fraction. Clay and silt sized sediments are generally too fine to remain on the beach and are carried offshore into deep water. Nevertheless this fine-fraction occurs as a trace component (lower than 1 Wt %) of sandy sediments, and since it has greater mineralogical and geochemical variability than coarser fractions or bulk sediments, it provides an interesting alternative to distinguish sediment sources. In addition a suspension-transported fine-grained fraction is efficiently mixed, thereby limiting the risks of modification during transport due to selective sorting. Consequently a mud-derived provenance signal should be much more reliable than sand-based ones. The main goals of the present study are to: 1) determine the fine-fraction mineralogy and geochemistry of beach and dune

sediments from the SW of Portugal; 2) identify the sources, transport and distributions of the fine-fraction of beach and dune sediments; 3) discuss the benefits and limitations of the study of fine-fractions from sandy deposits as provenance markers.

REGIONAL SETTINGS
The coast between Tróia and Cape Sines, located in the southwest of Portugal, has a continuous sand beach that extends over a length of 65 km. It is limited to the north by the Sado river inlet and Arrábida Mountains, which extend to the west until Cape Espichel (Figure 1) and to the south by Cape Sines (a sub-volcanic massif). On the southern half of the Tróia-Sines there are three important littoral lagoons: Melides, St. André and Sancha. These lagoons share as common features a narrow, linear and reflective sand barrier which is attached to the mainland at both ends. The St. André and Melides lagoons are artificially and regularly opened to promote water exchange. These ephemeral inlets close by natural means. Beaches between Tróia and Sines present variable width (from 30m to 200m) and are differently limited landwards along the littoral-arc. In the north part between Tróia and Carvalhal, the coast has continuous dune bars. Southwards between the Carvalhal and Melides lagoon there are segments of unconsolidated Mio-Pleistocene sea-cliffs covered by dune sands. In some places these outcrops can reach 40 m height. Southwards from the Melides lagoon, coastal dunes predominate until the

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Fine sediments as markers of sedimentary dynamics

991

southern end where both unconsolidated Mio-Pleistocene seacliffs and the Sines sub-volcanic massif are outcropping. The Sines intrusive massif is composed of a set of basic and intermediate igneous rocks (gabbros, diorites and syenites) surrounded by a dense field of igneous basic dykes. The geology of the Sado basin is dominated by Tertiary consolidated sediments and Plio-Quaternary deposits with Jurassic calcareous on the Arrábida Mountains.
100000 120000 140000

METHODS
Along the Tróia-Sines littoral-arc 126 beach-dune profiles were selected, spaced 500 metres from each other. In every profile the sediments were sampled (at least 1000 cm3 per sample) at three different points: beachface (at Bascom point), berm (at half width of the higher berm) and foredune (seaside slope) completing a total amount of 378 samples. Each sample was taken from the uppermost sand layers to preserve the textural signature of the last depositional events. Samples from several possible sediment sources were also collected: ten samples from sea-cliffs outcropping along the Tróia-Sines arc; nine bottom sediments from water bodies (rivers, lagoons and streams) close the study area and one sample from the Vasco da Gama beach (pocket beach within the Sines massif) at the beachface (Figure 3). Samples were collected in a single campaign held in December 1998. After ultrasonic processing (1 min.) of the total sample the finegrained fraction (<63µm) was extracted by wet sieving and its weight was determined. All fine-fraction samples were split in three parts for grain size analysis, X-ray diffraction and ICP-MS. 107 samples were selected for grain size analysis of the finegrained sediments using laser Malvern 2000 equipment. The moment method was used to determine textural parameters. The mineralogical analyses were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) on a Phillips X’Pert PW3040/60, using X’Pert software 2.0. The determination of the fine-fraction mineralogy was done using the powder method. Semi-quantitative estimates of peak areas from basal reflections of minerals were made using MacDiff software (PETSCHICK, 2000). 145 fine sediments were analysed by ICP-MS in an international certified laboratory (ACME Analytical Laboratories Ltd – ISSO-9002 Accredited Co) in order to determine their total elemental composition for Fe, Al, Mg, Ca, K, Sr and Mn. The method used 0.25g of sample destructed by a four-acid mixture (HCl-HNO3-HF-HClO4).

Setubal
#

N

bid Arra
160000

Sa in do unta Es a Mo Tróia tu ary
#

Espichel Cape

160000

Comporta Beach

#

Atlantic Ocean
140000

Carvalhal Beach

#

140000

Melides Lagoon Grandola Mountain St Andre Lagoon
120000

120000

Sancha Lagoon

0

5

10 Kilometers

Sines
#

100000

120000

140000

Quaternary (Sand, sandstones and conglomerates) Tertiary (Sandstones and conglomerates) Mesozoic (Calcareous and marls) Mesozoic (Gabbros and Diorites) Paleozoic (Greywackes and schists)

RESULTS Grain size analysis
The fine-fractions of the studied beach and dune sediments (<63µm) consist essentially of medium silt, with a mean grain size between 6.59φ (beachface) and 6.82φ (dune). The fine fractions of the central sea-cliffs and the St. André lagoon consist of fine silt (7.65φ and 7.17φ, respectively) and those of the southern sea-cliffs sediments of very fine silt (8.24φ).

Figure 1. Location and geology of the study area. This coastal area is exposed to the highly energetic north Atlantic swells. According to COSTA et al., (2001), the dominant wave directions are from NW and W (97%), with the SW direction representing only 3% of the observations. Waves with heights of 1-2 m and periods of 5-7 s represent almost half of the observations (49% and 44%, respectively). During storm events (3 % of the observations) waves are as high as 5-6 m with peak periods of 9-13 s. From Sines to Tróia there is an increasing sheltering effect of Cape Espichel which reduces the wave energy and deflects the incoming waves from the NW. According to GAMA (2004) and other previous authors, waves arrive parallel to the coast with no significant littoral drift on small timescales. In the north part of the Tróia peninsula the waves are deflected to arrive from SW directions, causing a northwards littoral drift. On a long time scale, all of the Tróia – Sines littoral-arc in considered to have a northward littoral drift caused by episodic energetic events from the SW.

Mineralogical analysis
Fine-fraction bulk mineralogy of all studied sediments (beach, dune, sea-cliffs and watercourses) is qualitatively monotonous. Only eight different minerals or groups of minerals were identified however, their percentages vary significantly: Phyllosilicates – Phy (1-68%), Quartz – Qz (8-85%), K Feldspars – Fk (2-32%), Plagioclases – Plg (0-21%), Magnesium enriched Calcite – CalMg (0-28%), Calcite - Cal (0-46%) and Aragonite – Arg (0-32%) and Goethite – Gt (0-18%).

Beach and dune sediments
For the beach and dune sediments Qz is the most abundant mineral ranging from 55% (dune) to 61% (berm) on average. Phy contents increase landwards in the studied geomorphologic units (beachface, berm and dune): 5%, 8%, 13%, respectively (Table 1). Both types of feldspars show the same cross-shore trend: higher

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Jesus et al.

Table 1: Mean values of the predominant minerals identified in the fine-fraction of beach and dune sediments between Tróia and Sines. G.U. – Geomorphologic units; Bf – beachface; B – berm; D – dune.

G.U. Minerals Quartz Phyllosilicates K-feldspars Plagioclases Calcite Mg-calcite Aragonite Goethite

Bf B D (n = 123) (n = 110) (n = 117) Mean (%) Mean (%) Mean (%) 58.0 61.0 55.0 5.0 8.0 13.0 12.0 8.0 8.0 5.0 4.0 4.0 7.0 5.0 13.0 8.0 9.0 0.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 0.0 0.1 0.3

Marateca stream in the north part of the estuary is characterised by high contents of feldspars (32% of Fk and 10% of Plg) and Qz (33%). The Outão stream in the Arrabida Mountains is enriched in Carb (46% - especially in Cal) and Qz (21%). In the central area of the littoral arc, two more watercourses were studied, namely the St. André lagoon and Fontainhas stream. This last one is characterised by a mineralogical suite similar to the one found in the surrounding sea-cliffs excepted for the absence of Gt due probably to its instability in aquatic environments. Samples from St. André lagoon have the same mineralogical suite with great variability in their abundances: Phy (36-58%), Qz (19-33%), Cal (3-15%), Plg (2-11%) and Fk (25%).

100 80 60

Fk Carb Plg Qz Phy Gt

values in the beachface than on the berm and dune units. Fk change from 12% in the beachface to 8% on both berm and dune units and Plg from 5% (beachface) to 4% (berm and dune). Each type of carbonate – Carb (Arg + Cal + CalMg) mineral shows a different cross-shore pattern, however their alongshore behaviour is quite similar. The mean value of Cal is higher in the dune however the highest values are found at the beachface (42%). Regarding CalMg it is mainly identified at the beach (beachface and berm) where it reaches 28%. Arg is monotonous in its crossshore variation, representing 2% of the mineral contents in all studied units. Gt was only identified in some of the berm and dune samples reaching at the most 7% of the total mineral content. The along-shore variation of the mineralogy is consistent for the three studied geomorphologic units (Figure 2). Close to Tróia, beaches have higher contents of Carb, Plg and Phy. Southwards until Carvalhal beach (25 km from Tróia) the percentages of these minerals tend to decrease while the percentage of Qz increases. Between Carvalhal and the Melides lagoon the beach is limited to the east by silty-clayey sea-cliffs and beach and dune sediments have higher contents of Phy and Qz with lower contents of Carb and Plg. This section of the littoral-arc is also characterised by the appearance of Gt in dune and berm fine sediments. Comparing all studied units it is clear that these patterns become less distinct with increasing distance to the sea-cliffs. Southwards from the Melides lagoon until Cape Sines, Carb and Plg contents tend to increase and Qz tends to decrease. Phy tend to be stable but there is a small increase in the southern end of the studied area (especially in the dune) where silty-clayey sea-cliffs outcrop once again.

% 40 20 0

2

6

10

14 18 23 27

31 35 39

43 47 51 55

59 62

Km (distance to Troia)

Dune

100 80 Fk 60 % 40 20 0 3 7 10 14 17 21 24 28 31 35 38 42 45 49 52 56 59 62 Km (distance to Troia) 100 80 60 % 40 20 Fk Carb Plg Qz Phy Carb Plg Qz Phy Gt

Berm

Sediments of sea-cliffs and watercourses
Sea-cliffs outcropping along the study area display a similar suite of minerals. This mineralogy is characteristic for mature sediments with high contents of Phy (mean value 56%) and Qz (28%). Fk (8%) and Gt (5%) also appear as accessory minerals (Figure 3). Plg and Carb are almost absent (less than 1%). Along the outcrops Phy contents increase southward and consequently the contents of Qz decrease in the same direction. Concerning the studied four watercourses discharging into the Sado estuary a great variability of sediment mineralogy is visible even though they are proximate. Sediments from the Sado River and Comporta stream have higher contents in Phy (59 and 66%, respectively) and Qz (23% for both). Sediments from the Sado River have higher contents of feldspars (Plg and Fk). The

0 2 5 9 12 16 19 23 26 30 34 37 41 45 48 52 55 59 62 Km (distance to Troia)

Beachface

Figure 2. Mineral composition of dune, berm and beachface fine-fractions along the Troia – Sines littoral-arc; dashed lines indicate Carvalhal beach at 25 km and Melides beach at 45 km.

Geochemical analysis
Ca is the dominant element in the beach and dune sediments (6.9%), followed by Al (3.5%), K (1.6%) and Fe and Mg (1.3 and

Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue 50, 2007

Fine sediments as markers of sedimentary dynamics

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Ca / Mean size

2 1.5 1 0.5

0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.2 9.7 19.8 29.3 39.3 49.8 59.9

Marateca brook
0 5 10 Kilometers

Outão brook
N
#

#

0

Km (distance to Troia)
3.5 Ca/MS 3 Fe/MS

Dune
0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 -0.10

Sado River
Ca / Mean size
#

Comporta brook

#

Phy Carb Fk Qz Plg Gt
[ %

2 1.5 1 0.5

-0.20 -0.30
0.2 5.6 11.8

[ %
#

0

Fontainhas brook St. André Lagoon
Ca / Mean size
3.5

17.7

25.8

31.8

39.8

45.8

55.9

61.9

[ %
#

Km (distance to Troia)

Berm
0.30 Ca/MS 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 -0.05 -0.10 -0.15 Fe/MS

3 2.5 2 1.5 1

[ %

Vasco da Gama beach

Figure 3. Fine-fraction mineralogy of sea-cliffs and watercourses. Sea-cliffs are represented as histograms and watercourses as pie graphs. decrease of Ca for all the units. This pattern is also observed for Fe but only in the beachface and berm. On the dune, Fe appears rather constant for this stretch of coast. Between Carvalhal beach and Melides lagoon (45 km) there is a sudden increase of Fe and decrease of Ca for all the studied units although it’s more pronounced in the dune. South from Melides, Ca increases in the berm and dune and stabilises in the beachface. In this southern sector Fe is lower than on the central one but constant in the dune and beachface while in the berm it decreases southwards. Alongshore variations of Al, Mn and K are similar to Fe. Sr varies similarly to Ca along beaches and dunes. The higher concentrations of Mg are found in the extremes of the study area for the beachface and berm. At the dune Mg is relatively constant along the littoral-arc. Figure 5 shows the mean-size normalised concentrations of the analysed elements for the studied sea-cliffs and watercourses sediments. All sea-cliffs sediments display a similar geochemistry characterised by high contents of Al and Fe. Fe contents increase towards north in the sea-cliffs along with Mn. The Sado River and Comporta stream show similar concentrations for all studied

0.5 0.2 5.6 11.8 17.7 25.8 31.8 39.8 45.8 55.9

Km (distance to Troia)

Beachface

Figure 4. Mean-size normalised Ca and Fe contents in the beach and dune fine-fractions along the Tróia – Sines littoral arc; dashed lines indicate Carvalhal beach at 25 km and Melides beach at 45 km.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS
The mineralogy and geochemistry of the fine-fraction of beach and dune sediments confirmed the subdivision of the study area into three sections as was earlier suggested by GAMA (2004) on basis of sand fraction granulometry and carbonates content: 1) northern sector between Tróia and the Carvalhal beach (25Km); 2) central sector between the Carvalhal beach and the Melides lagoon (45 km); 3) southern sector from Melides to the Cape Sines. Each one of these sectors has different active sediment sources and different exposure to the swell related to the sheltering effect of Cape Espichel to the dominant NW wave direction. 1. The sediment characteristics of the northern sector are specially related to the low hydrodynamic energy and productivity of this coastal sector. A considerable part of the high Carb (Ca, Sr

Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue 50, 2007

Fe / Mean size

Fe / Mean size

2.5

Fe / Mean size

0.9%, respectively). Sr and Mn occur with mean concentrations of 538 ppm and 213 ppm, respectively. Spearman correlations between these elements show that there are three main patterns of variation: (1) Ca and Sr have a correlation coefficient of 0.94; (2) Mg shows no high correlations with any of the other elements; and (3) K, Al, Fe and Mn form a group with negative correlations with Ca and Sr. Inside the group, Al has the highest correlations with all others. Figure 4 shows the variation of two negatively correlated elements (Ca and Fe) along the three studied geomorphologic units. Mean-size normalisation of geochemical data was used to subtract grain-size effects. Southwards along the Troia peninsula until Carvalhal beach (25 km from Troia) there is a continuous

elements except Mn and Fe which have higher concentrations in the Sado River. The Marateca stream is enriched in Mn, Al and K while the Outão stream is enriched in Ca and Mn. The highest concentration of Fe for all studied samples was found in the Fontainhas stream (15.8%). The bottom sediments of the St. André lagoon are enriched in Al and have moderately high concentrations of Fe, Ca, Mn and Sr (Figure 5).
3.5 Ca/MS 3 2.5 Fe/MS 0.90 0.80 0.70

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Jesus et al.

Marateca brook
0 5 10 Kilometers

Outão brook
N
Mn -972 Sr - 31 Mn -360 Sr - 53

Sado River Comporta brook
Mn -34 Sr -25 Mn -175 Sr -25

Fe Mg Ca Al K
Mn -326 Sr - 17 Mn -16 Sr - 5 Mn -18 Sr - 13

[ %

[ %

Fontainhas brook
[ %

Mn -116 Sr -25

St. André Lagoon
Mn - 99 Sr - 62

Mn -10 Sr - 8

[ %

also identified in reasonable quantities in the sea-cliff sediments. This similarity between beach, dune and sea-cliff mineralogy and the fact that this pattern becomes less pronounced with increasing distance to the sea-cliffs clearly reflects the role of these structures as a sediment source to the beach system. MARQUES (1999) shows considerable rates of sea-cliff erosion in the central area with a maximum value for this sector of 0.50 m/year and mean value of 0.16 m/year. 3. The mineralogy of the southern sector is characterised by high contents of Plg. This is probably related to the Cape Sines volcanic massif signature which is formed by Plg-rich rocks. There is also a slight increase in the Phy contents at the southern end of the study area. This increase could perhaps be explained by sea-cliffs erosion. According to MARQUES (1999) the highest erosion rates of the littoral-arc were measured in the southern extreme with values of 1.25 m/year. The study of the fine-fraction mineralogy and geochemistry allowed to identify sediment sources acting in the Tróia-Sines littoral-arc and to evaluate the dispersal range of the same sediment sources. We conclude that the mineralogical and geochemical composition of the fine fraction does provide provenance information for beach and dune sediments complementing traditional provenance studies with coarser fractions.

Vasco da Gama beach
Mn -66 Sr - 133

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We wish to thank João Cascalho for his constructive review of the manuscript. We are also grateful to Henko de Stigter for English improvement. This work is being funded by FCT with a PhD grant to the first author. The manuscript has been improved by suggestions of three anonymous referees.

Figure 5. Mean size normalized element concentrations in the seacliffs and watercourses sediments. Squares along the coast represent the location of the sea-cliff sampling sites. and Mg) contents at the Tróia peninsula is explained by dense communities of local intertidal benthonic macrofauna. The most abundant species of the intertidal area at the northern peninsula is Ervilia castanea and empty shells of this bivalve can be seen at the beachface which sometimes give a red shade to the sediments (ANDRADE & FERREIRA, 2001). On the other hand the nearby Jurassic calcareous outcrops at the Arrábida Mountains can also nourish Carb to the beach and dune sediments of the Tróia peninsula. These detritic carbonates were identified in the Outão stream in the Arrábida area, taking into account that shells are absent in the streambed sediments (Figures 3 and 5). High Phy, Plg, Al, K, Fe and Mg contents in the fine-fraction sediments of the northern sector are probably associated with the suspended particulate matter transported through the Sado estuary. According to JOUANNEAU et al. (1998), the estuarine water shows a dominant grain size mode of 5.4 µm that mainly corresponds to suspended fine terrigenous material transported by the Sado River throughout the seasons. FREITAS et al. (2002) consider two sectors with different evolution patterns: the north part of the arc where accretion predominates and the southern part where erosion predominates. This agrees with the northward littoral drift on a long time scale and could explain together with the influence of the Sado estuary, the accumulation of Phy at the Tróia peninsula. In this scenario Phy are sourced by the sea-cliffs and then transported northwards by the littoral drift. The low hydrodynamic energy of the northern sector allows Phy to settle and accumulate in the beach and dune sediments (Figure 2). 2. In spite of the southward increase in wave energy, there is a slight increase in the Phy (Fe, Al, K, Mn) contents of the beach and dune fine-fractions at the central sector. In this sector beach and dune sediments have high contents of Qz and low contents of Carb (Ca, Sr, Mg) and Plg. Gt was identified in the fine sediments from the berm and dune of the central sector. This mineral was

LITERATURE CITED
ANDRADE, F. and FERREIRA, A., 2001. Estudo de impacte ambiental da marina e novo cais dos “ferries” do Tróia resort. In: In: Andrade, F. and Joanaz de Melo, J. VB (eds.), Ambientes Intertidais II(7). pp. 184-223. BISCAYE, P.E., 1965. Mineralogy and sedimentation of recent deep sea clay in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas and oceans: Geol. Soc. America Bull., v. 76, pp. 803-832. COSTA, M., SILVA, R., VITORINO, J., 2001. Contribuição para o estudo do clima de agitação marítima na costa portuguesa. 2as Jornadas Portuguesas de Engenharia Costeira e Portuária. Associação Internacional de Navegação. Sines. FREITAS, MC., ANDRADE, C., CRUCES, A., 2002. Estudo integrado do sistema Lagunar de Santo André-Monte Velho. Colecção estudos sobre o Alentejo. 1ªEdição DRAOT/AlentejoCEGUL, 80p. GAMA, C., (2004). Dinâmica de sistemas sedimentares do litoral ocidental português a sul do cabo Espichel. Portugal: University of Évora, Ph.D. thesis, 359p. JOUANNEAU, J.M., GARCIA, C., OLIVEIRA, A., RODRIGUES, A., DIAS, J.M., WEBER, O., 1998. Dispersal and deposition of suspended sediment on the shelf off Tagus and Sado estuaries, SW Portugal. Progress in Oceanography, 42, pp. 233-257. KAIRYTÉ, M., STEVENS, R.L., TRIMONIS, E., 2005. Provenance of silt and clay within sandy deposits of the Lithuanian coastal zone (Baltic Sea). Marine Geology, 218, pp. 97-112. MARQUES, F., 1999. Evolução das arribas e da linha de costa no arco litoral Tróia-Sines (Portugal). Actas, Seminário A Zona Costeira do Alentejo (Sines, Portugal), pp. 69-80. PETSCHICK, R., 2000. MacDiff 4.2.2.

Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue 50, 2007