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(May 5th2016- June 1st 201h)


T No: VT-98/2016
Addl. General Manager



This is to certify that report titled Steam & water turbine,transformers and
traction motors manufacturing has been successfully presented byPIYUSH
SHARMA(B. Tech, III year) under my guidance in the partial fulfilment of
Bachelors Degree in Electrical Engineering from Maulana Azad National Institute
of Technology, Bhopal during the summer vacation industrial training from
05/05/2016 to 01/06/2016 at BHEL, Bhopal.

Date: 27/05/2016

Mr.S.K. Sharma
WTM(QC) Dept.
BHEL, Bhopal


I,PIYUSH SHARMA, university scholar no. 131113087, student of MAULANA

declare that the report entitled STEAM AND WATER TURBINE
MANUFACTURING is my own work conducted under the supervision of
Mr.S.K. Sharma. I have put 3weeks attendance with the supervisor at the Centre.
I further declare that, the project & project report, which has been submitted for
the award of degree in this university is an original and authenticated work done by


I express my deep gratitude and deep indebtedness for the HRD departmentfor
granting me the permission as summer trainee.
I own my gratitude to BHEL BHOPAL for providing me the opportunity to
undergo training and allowing me to gain vast knowledge about the industry and
the other aspects of the organization during our training period.
It is my foremost duty to express my deep sense of gratitude and respect to MrS.K.
Sharmafor his valuable guidance as well as uplifting tendency and inspiring me
for taking up training and completing it successfully..
I am also very thankful to all staff members of BHEL BHOPAL who gave their
support during the training


I was appointed to do 3 weeks training at this esteemed
organization from 08May 11 2015 to May 30 2015. I was assigned
to visit various division of plant, which were:



These 3 weeks of training was a very educational adventure for

me. It was really amazing to see the manufacturing of hydro
turbines and steam turbines comprises of huge components by
yourself and learn how massive, an elemental component could
be, and isproduced. This report has been made by my experience
at BHEL, Bhopal.
The material inthis report has been gathered from my textbook,
senior student reports and trainersmanuals and journals provided
by training department. The specification and principles are as
learned by me from the employees of each division of plant.


Bharat HeavyElectrical Plant , Bhopal is the mother plant of

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, the largest engineering and
manufacturing enterprise in India in the energy related and
infrastructure sector, today. It is located at about 7 km. From
Bhopal Railway station, about 5 km. fromHabibganj Railway
station and about 18 km from RajaBhoj, Airport. With technical
assistance from Associated Electricals (India) Ltd., a UK based
company; it came into existence on 29th of August, 1956. Pt.
Jawaharlal Nehru, first Prime minister of India dedicated this plant
to the nation on 6th of November, 1960.
BHEL, Bhopal with state-of-the-art facilities, manufactures wide
range of electrical equipment. Its product range includes Hydro,
Steam, Marine & Nuclear Turbines, Heat Exchangers, Hydro
&Turbo Generators, Transformers, and Switchgears, Control gears,
Transportation, Equipment, Capacitors, Bushings, Electrical
Motors, Rectifiers, Oil Drilling Rig Equipment and Diesel
Generating sets. BHEL, Bhopal certified to ISO: 9001, ISO 14001
and OHSAS 18001, is moving towards excellence by adopting
TQM as per EFQM / CII model of Business Excellence. Heat
Exchanger Division is accredited with ASME U Stamp. With the
slogan of Kadamkadammilanahai, grahaksafal banana hai,
it is committed to the customers
BHEL Bhopal has its own Laboratories for material testing and
instrument calibration which are accredited with ISO17025 by

NABL. The Hydro Laboratory, Ultra High Voltage laboratory and

Centre for Electric Transportation are the only laboratories of its
in this part of the world.
BHEL Bhopals strength is its employees. The company
continuously invests in Human Resources and pays utmost
attention to their needs. The plant's Township, well known for its
greenery is spread over an area of around 20 sq. km and provides
all facilities to the residents like, parks, community halls, library,
shopping centres, banks, post offices etc. Besides, free health
service is extended to all the employees through 350 bedded
(inclusive of 50 floating beds) Kasturba Hospital and chain of


Today is the largest Engineering Enterprise of its kind in India with
excellent track record of performance, making profits
continuously since 1971-72.
BHEL's operations are organized around three business sectors,
namely Power, Industry -including Transmission, Transportation,
Tele communication & Renewable Energy and Overseas
Business. This enables BHEL to have a strong customer
orientation, to be sensitive to his needs and respond quickly to
the changes in the market.

Defences etc.

The greatest strength of BHEL is its highly skilled and committed

42,600 employees. Every employee is given an equal opportunity
to develop himself and grow in his career. Continuous training and
retraining, career planning, a positive work culture and

participative style of management all these have engendered

development of a committed and motivated workforce setting
new benchmarks in terms of productivity, quality and

o Power Utilisation
AC Motors & Alternators
o Transportation
Transportation Equipment
o Power Generation
Hydro Turbines
Hydro Generators
Heat Exchangers
Excitation Control Equipment
Steam Turbines
o Miscellaneous
Oil Rigs
o Power Transmission
o Switchgear
On-Load Tap Changer
Large Current Rectifiers
Control & Relay Panels

o Renovation & Maintenance

Thermal Power Plants

Steam turbines, boilers and generators of up to 800 MW capacity
for utility and combined-cycle applications ; Capacity to
manufacture boilers and steam turbines with supercritical system
cycle parameter and matching generator up to 1000 MW unit
size. Steam turbines, boilers and generators of CPP applications;
capacity to manufacture condensing, extraction, back pressure,
injection or any combination of these types of steam turbines.
Nuclear Power Plants
Steam generator & Turbine generator up to 700 MW capacities.
Gas-Based Power Plants Gas turbines of up to 280 MW (ISO)
advance class rating. Gas turbine-based co-generation and
combined-cycle systems of industry and utility applications. There
are other products given as follows Hydro Power Plants, DG Power
Plants, Industrial Sets, Boiler, Boiler Auxiliaries,Piping System,
Heat Exchangers and Pressure Vessels Pumps, Power Station
Control Equipment, Switchgear, Bus Ducts, Transformers,
Insulators, Industrial and Special Ceramics, Capacitors, Electrical
Machines, Compressors, Control Gear, Silicon Rectifiers, Thruster
GTO/IGBT Equipment , Power Devices, Transportation Equipment,
Oil Field Equipment, Casting and Forgings, Seamless Steel Tubes,
Distributed Power Generation and Small Hydro Plants.


Supplied to all major utilities in India:
National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC)
ALL State Electricity Boards (SEBs)
TNB, Malaysia,

Trinidad & Tobago, New Zealand, Tanzania etc .

HCM-heat and condenser manufacturing .
hydro turbine
WTM- water turbine manufacturing.
FBM- fabrication manufacturing.
EM- electric manufacturing.
LEM- large electric motor manufacturing.
PLM- plant large motor.
HRP- heavy rotor plant.
IMM- industrial motor manufacturing.
TAM- traction alternator motor
TXM- traction motor.
TCB-transformer capacitor and bushing.
SCR- switch gear, control gear and rectifier.
FYM- foundry manufacturing.
STM- steam turbine manufacturing.
MOD & WEX modernisation & work engineering
CIM- coil & insulation mgf.
TXM- traction motor &mgf.
PRM- press shop mgf.
TGM- tool & gauge mgf.
In it heavy transformer are manufactured. No workers are required in it.

UHV- ultra high voltage. It is used for testing the turbine and and equipment
comes from all over Asia.
HLX- hydro turbine testing lab.



Steam Turbines are prime movers used to drive Turbo Generators for Power Generation and for
Pump, Compressors, Blowers& Propellers of Ship. BHEL Bhopal has manufactured & supplied
Turbine & Generator of various rating such as 30 MW, 120 MW & 210 MW for conventional
thermal power station, 236 MW Nuclear Turbine for Atomic Power Plant marine turbines for
Indian Navel Frigates. Also we are supplying RE Joints and Flash Tanks for various 500 MW

projects. Small rating Industrial turbine of 3 to 8 MW for co-generation have also been
manufactured & supplied as per following details





Single cylinder /



Three cylinder /
impulse / reheat




Three cylinder /
reaction / reheat




Two cylinder /
impulse / reheat



15000 SHP

Marine Turbine /
impulse / non




Condensing /
Back pressure

2. STEAM TURBINE: Product Profile


Renovation and Modernization of steam Turbine Power plants.

Design, manufacturing, erection, commissioning and services of 30 MW, 120MW,
210 MW, 250 MW & 270 MW Steam turbines.236 MW Nuclear Turbines,
15000 SHP Marine turbines,2 to 10 MW Industrial Steam Turbines
Life Assessment Studies for BHEL and NON-BHEL TG sets.
Repair of Turbine components for BHEL and NON_ BHEL TG Sets.
Repair of bent rotor of steam turbine by thermal stabilization and hot press / jacking.

For IPR and ISRO: Manufacturing of various components. Hydro gates.







Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of
electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the
most widely used form of renewable energy, accounting for 16 percent of global electricity
generation 3,427 terawatt-hours of electricity production in 2010, and is expected to increase
about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years.

Generating methods

Water turbines are generally divided into two categories:
(1) Impulse turbines used for high heads of water and low flow rates and

(2) Reaction turbines normally employed for heads below about 300 metres and moderate or
high flow rates.
These two classes include the main types in common usenamely, the Pelton impulse
turbine and the reaction turbines of the Francis, propeller, Kaplan, and Deriaz variety. Turbines
can be arranged with either horizontal or, more commonly, vertical shafts. Wide design variations
are possible within each type to meet the specific local hydraulic conditions. Today, most
hydraulic turbines are used for generating electricity in hydroelectric installations.

Reaction turbineReaction turbines are acted on by water, which changes pressure as it moves through the turbine
and gives up its energy. They must be encased to contain the water pressure (or suction), or they
must be fully submerged in the water flow.
Newton's third law describes the transfer of energy for reaction turbines.
Most water turbines in use are reaction turbines and are used in low (<30 m or 100 ft.) and
medium (30300 m or 1001,000 ft.) head applications. In reaction turbine pressure drop occurs
in both fixed and moving blades. It is largely used in dam and large power plants.
In a reaction turbine, forces driving the rotor are achieved by the reaction of an accelerating
water flow in the runner while the pressure drops. The reaction principle can be observed in a
rotary lawn sprinkler where the emerging jet drives the rotor in the opposite direction. Due to the
great variety of possible runner designs, reaction turbines can be used over a much larger range
of heads and flow rates than impulse turbines. Reaction turbines typically have a spiral inlet
casing that includes control gates to regulate the water flow. In the inlet a fraction of the potential
energy of the water may be converted to kinetic energy as the flow accelerates. The water energy
is subsequently extracted in the rotor.
There are, as noted above, four major kinds of reaction turbines in wide use: the Kaplan, Francis,
Deriaz, and propeller type. In fixed-blade propeller and adjustable-blade Kaplan turbines (named
after the Austrian inventor Victor Kaplan), there is essentially an axial flow through the machine.
The Francis- and Deriaz -type turbines (after the British-born American inventor James B.
Francis and the Swiss engineer Paul Deriaz, respectively) use a mixed flow, where the water

enters radially inward and discharges axially. Runner blades on Francis and propeller turbines
consist of fixed blading, while in Kaplan and Deriaz turbines the blades can be rotated about
their axis, which is at right angles to the main shaft.

Impulse turbineImpulse turbines change the velocity of a water jet. The jet pushes on the turbine's curved blades
which changes the direction of the flow. The resulting change in momentum (impulse) causes a
force on the turbine blades. Since the turbine is spinning, the force acts through a distance (work)
and the diverted water flow is left with diminished energy. An impulse turbine is one which the
pressure of the fluid flowing over the rotor blades is constant and all the work output is due to
the change in kinetic energy of the fluid.
Prior to hitting the turbine blades, the water's pressure (potential energy) is converted to kinetic
energy by a nozzle and focused on the turbine. No pressure change occurs at the turbine blades,
and the turbine doesn't require housing for operation.
Newton's second law describes the transfer of energy for impulse turbines.
Impulse turbines are often used in very high (>300m/1000 ft) head applications.
Modern impulse turbines are based on a design patented in 1889 by the American engineer
Lester Allen Pelton. The free water jet strikes the turbine buckets tangentially. Each bucket has a
high centre ridge so that the flow is divided to leave the runner at both sides. Pelton wheels are
suitable for high heads, typically above about 450 metres with relatively low water flow rates.
For maximum efficiency the runner tip speed should equal about one-half the striking jet
velocity. The efficiency (work produced by the turbine divided by the kinetic energy of the free
jet) can exceed 91 percent when operating at 6080 percent of full load.
The power of a given wheel can be increased by using more than one jet. Two-jet arrangements
are common for horizontal shafts. Sometimes two separate runners are mounted on one shaft
driving a single electric generator. Vertical-shaft units may have four or more separate jets.


Theory of operationThe Kaplan turbine is an inward flow reaction turbine, which means that the working
fluid changes pressure as it moves through the turbine and gives up its energy. Power is
recovered from both the hydrostatic head and from the kinetic energy of the flowing water. The
design combines features of radial and axial turbines.
The inlet is a scroll-shaped tube that wraps around the turbine's wicket gate. Water is directed
tangentially through the wicket gate and spirals on to a propeller shaped runner, causing it to
The outlet is a specially shaped draft tube that helps decelerate the water and recover kinetic
energy. The turbine does not need to be at the lowest point of water flow as long as the draft
tube remains full of water. A higher turbine location, however, increases the suction that is
imparted on the turbine blades by the draft tube. The resulting pressure drop may lead
to cavitation.
Variable geometry of the wicket gate and turbine blades allows efficient operation for a range of
flow conditions. Kaplan turbine efficiencies are typically over 90%, but may be lower in very
low head applications.
Current areas of research include CFD driven efficiency improvements and new designs that
raise survival rates of fish passing through.
Because the propeller blades are rotated on high-pressure hydraulic oil bearings, a critical
element of Kaplan design is to maintain a positive seal to prevent emission of oil into the
waterway. Discharge of oil into rivers is not desirable because of the waste of resources and
resulting ecological damage.

ApplicationsKaplan turbines are widely used throughout the world for electrical power production. They
cover the lowest head hydro sites and are especially suited for high flow conditions.

Inexpensive micro turbines on the Kaplan turbine model are manufactured for individual power
production with as little as two feet of head.

FRANCIS TURBINEThe Francis turbine is a type of water turbine that was developed by James B.
Francis in Lowell, Massachusetts.[1] It is an inward-flow reaction turbine that combines radial
and axial flow concepts.
Francis turbines are the most common water turbine in use today. They operate in a water
head from 40 to 600 m (130 to 2,000 ft) and are primarily used for electrical power production.
The generators which most often use this type of turbine, have a power output which generally
ranges just a few kilowatts up to 800 MW, though mini-hydro installations may be
lower. Penstock (input pipes) diameters are between 3 and 33 feet (0.91 and 10.06 metres). The
speed range of the turbine is from 83 to 1000 rpm. Wicket gates around the outside of the
turbine's rotating runner control the rate of water flow through the turbine for different power
production rates. Francis turbines are almost always mounted with the shaft vertical to keep

water away from the attached generator and to facilitate installation and maintenance access to it
and the turbine.

COMPONENTSA Francis turbine consists of the following main parts:

Spiral Casing:
The spiral casing around the runner of the turbine is known as the volute casing or scroll case.
All throughout its length, it has numerous openings at regular intervals to allow the working fluid
to impound on the blades of the runner. These openings convert the pressure energy of the fluid
into momentum energy just before the fluid impound on the blades to maintain a constant flow
rate despite the fact that numerous openings have been provided for the fluid to gain entry to the
blades, the cross-sectional area of this casing decreases uniformly along the circumference.
Guide or Stay VanesThe primary functions of the guide or stay vanes is to convert the pressure energy of the fluid
into the momentum energy. It also serves to direct the flow at design angles to the runner blades.

Runner BladesRunner blades are the heart of any turbine as these are the canters where the fluid strikes and the
tangential force of the impact causes the shaft of the turbine to rotate and hence electricity is
produced. In this part one has to be very careful about the blade angles at inlet and outlet as these
are the major parameters affecting the power production.
Draft tubeThe draft tube is a conduit which connects the runner exit to the tail race where the water is
being finally discharged from the turbine. The primary function of the draft tube is to reduce the
velocity of the discharged water to minimize the loss of kinetic energy at the outlet. This permits
the turbine to be set above the tail water without any appreciable drop of available head.

Theory of operationThe Francis turbine is a type of reaction turbine, a category of turbine in which the working fluid
comes to the turbine under immense pressure and the energy is extracted by the turbine blades
from the working fluid. A part of the energy is given up by the fluid because of pressure changes
occurring in the blades of the turbine, quantified by the expression of Degree of reaction, while
the remaining part of the energy is extracted by the volute casing of the turbine. At the exit, water
acts on the spinning cup-shaped runner features, leaving at low velocity and low swirl with very
little kinetic or potential energy left. The turbine's exit tube is shaped to help decelerate the water
flow and recover the pressure.

ApplicationsFrancis turbines may be designed for a wide range of heads and flows. This, along with their
high efficiency, has made them the most widely used turbine in the world. Francis type units
cover a head range from 40 to 600 m (130 to 2,000 ft.), and their connected generator output
power varies from just a few kilowatts up to 800 MW. Large Francis turbines are individually
designed for each site to operate with the given water supply and water head at the highest
possible efficiency, typically over 90%.

In addition to electrical production, they may also be used for pumped storage, where a reservoir
is filled by the turbine (acting as a pump) driven by the generator acting as a large electrical
motor during periods of low power demand, and then reversed and used to generate power
during peak demand. These pump storage reservoirs, etc. act as large energy storage sources to
store "excess" electrical energy in the form of water in elevated reservoirs. This is one of only a
few ways that temporary excess electrical capacity can be stored for later utilization.

PELTON WHEEL TURBINE The Pelton wheel is an impulse type water turbine. It was invented by Lester Allan Pelton in the
1870s. The Pelton wheel extracts energyfrom the impulse of moving water, as opposed to water's
dead weight like the traditional overshot water wheel. Many variations of impulse turbines
existed prior to Pelton's design, but they were less efficientthan Pelton's design. Water leaving
those wheels typically still had high speed, carrying away much of the dynamic energy brought
to the wheels. Pelton's paddle geometry was designed so that when the rim ran at half the speed
of the water jet, the water left the wheel with very little speed; thus his design extracted almost
all of the water's impulse energywhich allowed for a very efficient turbine.

FunctionNozzles direct forceful, high-speed streams of water against a rotary series of spoon-shaped
buckets, also known as impulse blades, which are mounted around the circumferential rim of a
drive wheelalso called a runner (see photo, 'Old Pelton wheel..'). As the water jet impinges
upon the contoured bucket-blades, the direction of water velocity is changed to follow the
contours of the bucket. Water impulse energy exerts torque on the bucket-and-wheel system,
spinning the wheel; the water stream itself does a "u-turn" and exits at the outer sides of the
bucket, decelerated to a low velocity. In the process, the water jet's momentum is transferred to
the wheel and thence to a turbine. Thus, "impulse" energy does work on the turbine. For
maximum power and efficiency, the wheel and turbine system is designed such that the water jet
velocity is twice the velocity of the rotating buckets. A very small percentage of the water jet's
original kinetic energy will remain in the water, which causes the bucket to be emptied at the
same rate it is filled, (see conservation of mass) and thereby allows the high-pressure input flow
to continue uninterrupted and without waste of energy. Typically two buckets are mounted sideby-side on the wheel, which permits splitting the water jet into two equal streams (see photo).
This balances the side-load forces on the wheel and helps to ensure smooth, efficient transfer of
momentum of the fluid jet of water to the turbine wheel.

Because water and most liquids are nearly incompressible, almost all of the available energy is
extracted in the first stage of the hydraulic turbine. Therefore, Pelton wheels have only one
turbine stage, unlike gas turbines that operate with compressible fluid.

System componentThe conduit bringing high-pressure water to the impulse wheel is called the penstock. Originally
the penstock was the name of the valve, but the term has been extended to include all of the fluid
supply hydraulics. Penstock is now used as a general term for a water passage and control that is
under pressure, whether it supplies an impulse turbine or not.

ApplicationPelton wheels are the preferred turbine for hydro-power, when the available water source has
relatively high hydraulic head at low flow rates, where the Pelton wheel is most efficient. Thus,
more power can be extracted from a water source with high-pressure and low-flow than from a
source with low-pressure and high-flow, even when the two flows theoretically contain the same
power. Also a comparable amount of pipe material is required for each of the two sources, one
requiring a long thin pipe, and the other a short wide pipe. Pelton wheels are made in all sizes.
There exist multi-ton Pelton wheels mounted on vertical OIL pad bearings in hydroelectric
plants. The largest units can be up to 200 megawatts. The smallest Pelton wheels are only a few
inches across, and can be used to tap power from mountain streams having flows of a few
gallons per minute. Some of these systems use household plumbing fixtures for water delivery.
These small units are recommended for use with 30 feet (9.1 m) or more of head, in order to
generate significant power levels. Depending on water flow and design, Pelton wheels operate
best with heads from 495,905 feet (14.91,799.8 m), although there is no theoretical limit.

MAINTENANCE OF TURBINETurbines are designed to run for decades with very little maintenance of the main elements;
overhaul intervals are on the order of several years. Maintenance of the runners and parts
exposed to water include removal, inspection, and repair of worn parts.
Normal wear and tear includes pitting corrosion from cavitation, fatigue cracking,
and abrasion from suspended solids in the water. Steel elements are repaired by welding, usually

with stainless steel rods. Damaged areas are cut or ground out, then welded back up to their
original or an improved profile. Old turbine runners may have a significant amount of stainless
steel added this way by the end of their lifetime. Elaborate welding procedures may be used to
achieve the highest quality repairs.
Other elements requiring inspection and repair during overhauls include bearings, packing box
and shaft sleeves, servomotors, cooling systems for the bearings and generator coils, seal rings,
wicket gate linkage elements and all surfaces.


A transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy between two or more circuits
through electromagnetic induction. Commonly, transformers are used to increase or decrease the
voltages of alternating current in electric power applications. A varying current in the
transformer's primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer core and a
varying magnetic field impinging on the transformer's secondary winding. This varying magnetic
field at the secondary winding induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or voltage in the
secondary winding. Making use of Faraday's Law in conjunction with high magnetic
permeability core properties, transformers can thus be designed to efficiently
change AC voltages from one voltage level to another within power networks.Since the
invention of the first constant potential transformer in 1885, transformers have become essential
for the AC transmission,distribution, and utilization of electrical energy.[3] A wide range of
transformer designs is encountered in electronic and electric power applications. Transformers
range in size from RF transformers less than a cubic centimetre in volume to units
interconnecting the power grid weighing hundreds of tons.
It is the section of storage of raw material.
Fabrication is nothing but production.It is basically a machine / preparation shop. This section

has following machines:

Pacific Hydraulic Shear & pressure: Hydraulically operated machine to cut to

sheet of different thickness. It contain pressure holder which is used to flatten the
CNC (Computerized Numerical control) Flame cutting machine: Used to cut
complicated shaft item using OXY-ACETYLENE flame. Maximum 6 torches are
used in it. Cutting is done on the basis of computer programming.
Rolling Machine: used for making cylindrical shape from a sheet.
Bending Machine: Hydraulically operated machine used to bend the job.
Hydraulic power press: Has the capacity of 100 tons used to flatten the object.
Nibbling Machine: used to do various tasks like straight cutting, circle cutting,
nibbling, slot cutting, circular and square punching.
Hydraulic Guillotine Shear: It is to cut the sheet which has maximum cross
section area of (3200*13
Butler machine: used for facing, tapering, & slot cutting.
Plasma Cutting Machine: used for non ferrous metal
It is an assembly shop where different part of tank comes . Hear welding processes are used for
assembly, after which a rough surface is obtained and is eliminated by grinding. Grinding
operates at 1200 RPM.
It is assembly shop dealing with making different objects like.

Tank Assembly
Tank cover assembly
End frame assembly
Cross feed assembly
Core Clamp assembly
Pin & pad assembly
Before assembly, short blasting is done on different part of jobs to clean the surface before
After assembly some tests are done as non-destructive tests like.
1. Ultrasonic Test: To detect the winding fault on CRO. At the fault place high
amplitude waves are obtain.
2. Die Penetration Test: Red solution is put at the welding and then cleaned. After
some time white solution is put. Appearance of red spot indicates a fault at the
3. Magnetic crack detection: magnetic field is created and then iron powder is put on
the welding. Sticking of the iron powder in the welding indicates the fault.
4. X-Ray Test: It is same as human testing and a fault is seen in X-ray.
5. Air / Vacuum Test: the air is filled inside the body of transformer, than soap

solution is produced outside the body. If the holes appear, it is indicate the fault.
To operation to form small components of power and traction transformer are done is this
section. The shop consists of following machines.
CENTRAL LATHE: It consist one tail stock, head stock. Lower part of tail stock
is fixed and tail stock spindle is moving. On this machine is facing, turning and
threading is done.
TURRET LATHE: Its function is same as central lathe machine but it is used for
mass production. Here turret head is used in presence of tail stock because turret
head contains many tailstocks around six.
CAPSTAN LATHE: It is belt driven.
RADIAL ARM DRILLING MACHINE: Used for drilling and boring.
HORIZONTAL BORING MACHINE: It is computerized and used for making
bore, facing etc.
a. HORIZONTAL MILLING MACHINE: Used for making gear and
cutting operations.
b. VERTICAL MILLING MACHINE: The machine does facing, slot
cutting and T-slot cutting.
o Tube slitting Machine: used for cutting the tube along its length and across the
o HYDRAULIC SHEARING MACHINE: It is hydraulically operated and its
blade has V-shape and a thickness 15 mm.
o WATER COOLED BRAZING MACHINE: It contains two carbon brushes.
The sheet is put along with sulfas sheet and the carbon brushes are heated. A lap
joint is formed between the sheets as the sulfas sheets melts.
o LINCING BELT MACHINE: It creates a smooth surface.
o SOLDER POT MACHINE: It has a pot that contains solder. Solder has
composition of 60 % Zn and 40 % Pb.
TOOLING MACHING: In this section the servicing of tools is done.

Blade sharp machine

Mini surface grinding Machine(used for grinding purpose)

Tool and surface grinding Machine(used to grind the tool)

Drill grinding Machine (to grid the drills)

Reverse section winding

Helical winding
Spiral winding
Interleaved winding
Half section winding
The type of winding depends upon the job requirement. Also, the width and thickness of
conductors designed and decided by design department.


Low voltage coil

High voltage coil
Tertiary coil
Tap coil


Belly type
Link type
Cone type


The lamination used in power, dry and ESP transformer etc. for making core is cut in this
section. CRGO (cold rolled grain oriented) silicon steel is used for lamination, which is imported
in India from Japan, U.K and Germany. It is available in 0.27&0.28 mm.
For the purpose of cutting and punching the core three machines are installed in the shop.
Slitting machine (used to cut CRGO sheets in different width)
CNC cropping line pneumatic
CNC cropping line hydraulic
Various type of insulation are:

AWWW: all wood water washed press paper. The paper is 0.2-0.5 mm thick

cellulose paper is bound on conductor for insulation.

Pre-Compressed Board: this is widely used for general insulation and
separation of conductors in the form of blocks.
Press Board: this is used for separation of coil e.g. LV from HV. It is up to 38 mm
Fiber Glass: this is resin material and is used in fire prone area.
Gasket: used for protection against leakage.
Silicon Rubber Sheet: It is used for dry type transformer.

Insulation between windings:The great majority of transformers are constructed with two or
more windings which are electrically insulated from each other. In some cases a single winding
is employed, parts of the winding functioning as both primary and secondary. These transformers
are called autotransformers. They are frequently used when the voltage ratio is small.
Autotransformers should never be used for high voltage ratios, as the low-voltage winding is not
insulated from the high-voltage one, so that in case of trouble it would be dangerous to both life
and equipment.
Machine used for shaping the insulation material are:
1. Cylindrical machine
2. Circular cutting machine
3. Bending machine
4. Punching press machine
5. Drilling machine
6. Guillotine machine
7. Bench saw
8. Jig saw
9. Circular saw
10.Lansing machine



Power Systems transformers are of the Core Form design. All cores are stacked,
using high-quality grain-oriented silicon steel laminations, purchased slit-to-width and coated
with carlite to increase the interlamination resistance and to reduce eddy current losses.
Where loss evaluations justify its use, laser or mechanically scribed or plasma treated silicon
steel will be used.

All cores utilize the step lap principle in the corner joints to reduce losses,
magnetizing current and sound level. The cores are fully-mitered on all joints in order to
improve the flux distribution.
Ultra modern computerized core shears supply fully-mitered, high-efficiency cores. These
machines are able to shear the maximum width of core steel currently available.
Some machines automatically stack the legs and yokes to minimize steel handling and
mechanical stresses, helping to guarantee the designed loss level.
The laminations are stacked in steps, resulting in a circular core shape which gives the
windings optimum radial support, especially during short-circuit conditions.

The exposed edges of all finished cores are bonded with low viscosity, highstrength epoxy resin on the legs and bottom yoke to help lower the sound level. The
temperature rise of the core is designed to be low and is controlled, if necessary, by careful
placement of vertical oil ducts within the core packets.

The core is clamped using structural steel clamps which provide high strength under both static (lifting and clamping) and dynamic (short-circuit) mechanical loads. The
clamps are very lightweight for their strength and provide a smooth surface facing the
winding ends, eliminating regions of high local electrical stress.
Under this process bonded core design is used to eliminate hold notching clamp and to minimize
fixed losses and magnetizing current. The clamping frames for top and bottom yokes are
incorporated into the still age but this must also provide support rigidity for the limbs until the
core has been lifted in the vertical positions for assembling of the winding.
Coil windings is of two Types:The precise details of the winding arrangements will be varied
according to the rating of the transformers. The general principles remain the same throughout
most the range of transformer. The copper or Alluminium strips/wires used in winding are
meticulously selected for its quality to give the best output.
1. L.V.Coil
2. H. V. Coil
1. L. V. COIL WINDING:The Low Voltage coil is designed to approximately match the
current rating of the available low-voltage (LV). The L.V. coil is normally wound on
robust tube of insulation material and this is almost invariably of synthetic resin-bonded
paper. This material has high mechanical strength and is capable of withstanding the high
loading. Electrically it will probably have sufficient dielectric strength to withstand the
relatively modest test voltage applied to the L.V. winding during the repairing without
any additional insulation.
3.H. V. COIL COIL WINDING: The second process is H.V. Coil Winding, which are wound
with strip conductor and it usually consists of continuous disc type. The coils are usually created
in layers and ideally all the joints are extremely well brazen and insulated in order to withstand
difficult service conditions and tests.

The LV windings are made from Paper covered Copper Strip and placed nearest to the
core. The HV winding are wound with Super Enamelled Copper Wire or Alluminium wire or
Paper covered Round wire or paper covered Strip depending upon the reting of the transformers.
The cross section of the conductor is also chosen to keep the thermal gradiet in the winding to a
minium and thus increase the life of transformer.
The coils are assembled with the best insulating material avail and they are adequately clamped
by the use of permawood rings where necessary to give required mechanical strength.
The tappings are provided o the external HV windings. The off circuit tapping swich is gang
operated type and good contact is maintained by means of floating spring pressure. Teh tapping
swich can be looked in ay desired position. The transformer preferably off capacity 2000 KVA
and above can be supplied with on load tap changer alongwith the desired controls as per the
A part of the transformer manufacturing process, the core and coil assembly aspect plays a
significant role where the core assembly is vertically placed where the foot plate touches the
ground and the top yoke is removed. The limbs of the core are tightly wrapped with cotton tape
and then varnished during the manufacturing and even repairing process.

First, the individual windings are assembled one over the other to form the entire phase
The radial gaps between the windings are subdivided by means of solid transformer board
Stress rings and angle rings are placed on top and bottom of the windings to achieve a
contoured end insulation design for optimal control of the oil gaps and creepage stresses.
The complete phase assemblies are then carefully lowered over the separate core legs and
solidly packed towards the core to assure optimal short circuit capability.
The top core yoke is then repacked and the complete core and coil assembly is clamped.
The lead exits (if applicable) and the lead supports and beams are installed. All winding
connections and tap lead connections to the tap changer(s) are made before drying the
complete core and coil assembly in the vapor phase oven.


The completed core and coil assembly is thoroughly dried to pre-determined power factor
readings by the vapor phase drying process , providing the fastest, most efficient and most
effective drying of the transformer insulation available. The vapor phase process uses the
standard kerosene cycle method. In this system, kerosene is vaporized and drawn by vacuum into
a heated autoclave where the transformer has been placed. Condensation of the vapor on the core

and coil assembly rapidly causes the temperature to rise and allows moisture to be drawn out of
the insulation by the vacuum. High temperature and pressure are used to accelerate the drying
When the power factor measurements and the removal rate of moisture have reached the required
levels, the flow of kerosene vapor is stopped and a high vacuum is used to boil off the remaining
moisture and kerosene. Because so much water is removed in this process, the insulation
physically shrinks in size. Following removal from the autoclave, the transformer is repacked as
required and then undergoes its final hydraulic clamping to ensure maximum short-circuit
strength in the finished product.

Power Systems transformers can be equipped with either a de-energised tap changer or a load tap
changer or with both.Should load tap changing be required, BHEL can provide a resistive
bridging type or reactor type LTC. Both types offer up to 500,000 operations between contact
replacement and substantially reduce maintenance intervals.The LTC can be installed in the
transformer tank with the diverter switch in its own oil compartment, so that no contamination of
the transformer oil occurs due to arcing during switching, or can be mounted on the main tank.
To prevent voltage surges on the tap changer during switching MOV surge suppressors can be


In order to ensure power supply is completely reliable it depends on high performance
transformers and in order to achieve that the drying out process is extremely important. Under
this process, the paper insulation and pressboard material, which make up a significant
proportion by volume of transformer winding, have the capacity to absorb large amounts of
moisture from atmosphere. The presence of this moisture brings about the reduction in the
dielectric strength of the material and also an increase in its noise.


The tanks are made of high quality steel and can withstand vacuum and pressure test as specified
in IS as well as by the customers. All welds are checked ensuring 100 % leak proof seems and
mechanical strength. All tanks are pressure tested before tanking the active part.
The Pressed steel radiators are used to dissipate heat generated at rated load. The fin height and
length are calculated according to the rating of transformers as well as customers' specifications.
The fins can be plain or embossed. The radiators are fitted variably according to the rating of

transformer. For smaller rating radiators are directed welded to the main tank while for higher
rating detachable type radiators are provided with valves to facilitate during transportation and
handling at site.

The tanks are fabricated from MS plates and isweldwd construction. They are tested at a pressure
of 0.35 Kg./Sq. cm. for oil leakage output and they are normally welded directly to the tank.
How ever, transformers, can be supplied with detachable radiators.

After vaccum drying process the active part is removed from the Oven and all components
subject to the shrinkage are tightened again. The core & coil assembly is then placed into the
tank and properly lacked up during the transformer manufacturing process. The temperature and
exposure time is monitored during this time to ensure that the transformer is not too cool by the
time it is get off from the oven. While in higher rating transformer, the vacuum is drawn for a
period of time dependent on the voltage of the unit and time for which the active part was
exposed to the atmosphere and the humidity at the time. The vacuum period is between 12 to 35
hours. Meanwhile the external wiring and termination work to be completed as per customer
The outside surface of tank including all fittings and accessories are cleaned properly. Necessary
chipping and grinding applied for smooth surface and finishing. After cleaning of the tank, one
coat of hoi oil resistance pint is applied on the internal surface of the tank during the transformer
manufacturing process. The outside surface is painted with one coat of Red Oxide Primer and
subsequently one coat of enamel paint as per customer's requirement.

The transformers are fitted with Bare Porcelain Bushings and metal parts conforming to IS
specification 3347 "Dimension for Procelain transformer Bushings." The electricals
characteristics of the bushings conform to IS 2099 "Specification for High Voltage Porcelain
Bushings". Alternatively transformers are supplied, fitted with Cable Box either with Wiping
type of glands suitable for PVC/XLP cables.
Paintings :
The inside of the transformer tank and frame parts are given a coating of Oil and heat resistance
paint. The transformer is given an external anticorrosive primer coat and two fiising coats usually

of admirally grey


The testing room is climatically controlled and is fully equipped with facilities for conducting all
routine tests and temperature- rise tests. The transformers are tested at various stages of
manufacture and various rating transformers are tested at independent institution to establish
short circuit and insulating capacity of the transformers and also the impluse withstanding
withstanding capacity.
Prior to shipment, all transformers manufactured BHEL are tested in accordance with the latest
applicable standards according to customer specifications. All industry standard and optional
tests with the exception of short-circuit tests, can be performed in-house by trained personnel
using accurate and modern test equipment.

Impulse Testing
A state-of-the-art digital impulse recording system, the Haefely HIAS system, provides the most
accurate analysis of impulse results available today. Electronic recording of the impulse current
and voltage waveforms allows quick mathematical comparisons to be made, including the
difference between the two waveforms under scrutiny. Accurate printed and plotted final results
are quickly available. If required, photographic transparencies from the impulse oscilloscope can
be supplied. The construction of the test area incorporates a complete copper mesh ground mat
system, with extensive grounding points provided. This eliminates high impedance grounds and
provides exceptionally clean test records. The impulse generator is rated at 200 kV per stage for
a total of 2.8 MV, with 210 kJ total stored energy. For precise triggering, this generator is
equipped with a pressurized polytrigatron gap in each stage. For chopped wave tests, a Haefely
multiple chopping gap is used. Our plants are fully capable of performing lightning impulse,
switching impulse and front-of-wave tests as required.

Induced Testing :For induced testing, a variable voltage alternator, rated 1500/1000 kVA, 3/1phase, 170/240 Hz, is used. Voltage control is by solid state automatic voltage regulator, and
solid state speed control of the 1000 kW DC driving motor. During the induced test, partial

discharge measurements both in pC and V are taken and equipment is available to locate
internal partial discharges by the triangulation method.
Loss Measurement:Power is provided to the loss measuring system by a 5/10 MVA regulating
transformer feeding three single-phase 10 MVA variable ratio transformers and a 110 MVAR
capacitor bank. Losses are measured by an automated system using CTs for current and gas
capacitors for voltage. This system has a fully automated digital readout and printer.
AC Testing :A test supply with an output voltage infinitely adjustable from 3-350 kV is
available for high voltage AC testing. To measure the applied voltage level, a digital peakresponding RMS calibrated voltmeter capable of measuring up to 1600 kV is used.
Short-circuit testing


Depending on transportation considerations, BHEL Power Systems transformers may be
shipped either with or without bushings, radiators, fans, conservator and oil.
BHEL experience in delivering power transformers to over countries throughout the world
guarantees fast and reliable transportation.
Installation of the transformer can either be done by the customer or by an experienced
BHEL Field Service.


Traction refers to max. frictional force that can be produce b/w surface without slipping.
Oruniform pulling railways.
The traction motor manufacturing division consists of various sectionwhich are as followsa)STATOR M/C SHOP b) COMM & CORE. c) WINDING .
Manufacturing process

1) Casting 2)Marking 3)Vertical Boring 4)Marking 5)Drilling 6)Tapping

7)All Round 8)Machining 9)Pole Pad Machining- 10)Axle Bore Facing11)Spot Facing or counter bore 12)Final Boring 13)Deburring
14)Block Welding 15)Main pole and Inter-pole assembly.
All Round machining perform various function.
a) Pole hole machining.
b) The facing of dust and other openings (for brush changing etc.)
c) Milling of suspension Pad.
d) Axle tube milling.
e) Pole pad milling
f) Joint Face Machining.
g) Gang Machining.
h) Resting Pad Machining.
I) Brush Gear Pad Machining.
k) Joint Hole.
L) Cover Machining.
j) Cable Hole.
k) Cable Clit.
2.COMM& CORE section
In this section COMM. is made by using COMM. bar. COMM. bar is mainly copper bar having
two part align at 90 deg. One part of bar is used for making slot means to form gap between
copper bar .slit is basically made so that mica sheet is placed between it for proper insulation.
Slitting saw milling machine is used for making slot in bar. The slot is made of 1.6 thickness and
47mm diameter. The cutter used is made up of high speed steel and are in circular shape.

Various process
STENNING process
In this process turning of COMM. is done so that good and smooth finishing may obtain. It is
done on lathe.
CNC machining

In the cnc machining mainly COMM.hub and bearing sleeve, v-rings are finished. Bearing sleeve
is used at pinion side of magnetic frame. Basically bearing sleeve has groove made by grooving
tool on cnc having hydraulic chuck and turret lathe. different sectional views of bearing sleeve
are shown in figure:

it is basically used at COMM. side to support it. It is being manufactured in cnc machine.
Specification of CNC
SBCNC latheMax. swing bed-800mm
Max. swing in centre-600mmCentral distance-1250mm
Max. spindle speed-2000rpm
BRUSh holder
it is basically a carbon brush which used for carrying current. It is placed at the pinion part.It has
slot done on a slotting m/c by slotting tool.
Seasoning area
In this basically rotation of COMM BAR ASSEMBLY.Is done. Around 3000rpm is checked
according to rotation of railway engine shaft. we rotate the COMM double the train movement
and also temperature is checked. if the COMM get effective then the rpm get locked.
Testing of COMM
There are two type of testing:Bar to bar testing ,FT testing

Bar to bar testing

This is the testing in which short circuit between the copper bars of COMM checked. if there
is any breakage in mica sheet then short circuit will occur.
FT testing
This the testing between COMM hub and COMM BAR. If there is any breakage in mica sheet
between COMM hub and COMM bar siren sound will heard. The process of testing is that one
end of the testing(+ve) is placed on copper wire surround COMM bar and other end is placed at
COMM hub.
Final shipment
In this section COMM & core assembly is done. The core is made up of different sectors having
material of CRNGO(cold rolled non-green oriented) silicon steel. After assembly of different
section of sector heating is done in oven for pressing purpose. Then pressing is done. After that
COMM is placed and finally assembly get completed.

In this section of winding basically winding is done on core with COMM, basically two wire is
for winding. The first one is main wire which is placed on core gap section. This wire is of larger
in thickness than second wire. Its purpose is to generate continuous magnetic field. The main
wire is made up of copper material. The second wire is called equivalent coil which is of smaller
thickness than main coil. This wire is attached with COMM. & CORE.
Dropping areaIn this area the armature and stator is assembled together Bush holder and fixture
are attached. Clearance is also checked which is 4.30mm. to spark COMM carbon wire is used.
Testing areaVarious testing like vibration, temperature, sound, rpm is tested.
LR testing- it is a light reader testing used to test vibration, temperature, sound, rpm. For
measuring rpm optical tachometer is used. In this process of testing radium placed on armature
shaft and optical tachometer is placed in front of it.
Overall testing in this AC and DC motor testing is done. in this testing generator and motor are
coupled. In this area vibration, temperature, sound is checked by mechanical mean.
Cold resistance measurement->One Hour run test->over Speed Test->Commutation Test>Characteristics Test->Dielectric->Hot Internal resistance test->H.V Test ->Hot Internal Test>Ovality test


The objective of studying turbines so as to get information regarding their structure, design
prospective, working is achieved. All sections of water turbine division are visited. Along with
it, I also understand varieties of machining operations carried out in the production process.
I have also visited and studied the transformer and traction motor manufacturing process.

Fluid mechanics and hydraulic machines by R.K. Bansal
Hydraulic and fluid mechanics by Modi and Seth.
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Alan Hendrickson, Colin Buckhurst Mechanical design for the stage Focal Press,
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1996 ISBN 0-8376-0333-1, page 813