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Cantor-Bernstein theorem is a fundamental theorem in set theory, which is important for proving two sets having equal cardinality

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THEOREM

LEO GOLDMAKHER

B injects into A, then there is a bijection between A and B. This seemingly obvious statement is

surprisingly difficult to prove. The proof presented here is modeled on the argument given in section

2.6 of [1]; the only differences are expository.

Given two sets X and Y , we will write X Y to denote the existence of a bijection from X to

Y . One easily checks that is transitive, i.e. if X Y and Y Z, then X Z. The purpose of

this note is to prove the following result:

Theorem 1 (Cantor-Schroder-Bernstein). If f : A B and g : B A are both injections, then

A B.

Heres the strategy of the proof. First, we apply f to all of A to obtain a set B1 B. Next, apply

g to all of B1 to get a set A2 A. Iterating this, we keep bouncing back and forth between smaller

and smaller subsets of A and B until the process stabilizes and we end up with some sets A A

and B B for which f (A) = B and g(B) = A. This implies that A B. The next task is to

show that A A B B, which turns out to be not so hard. Finally, we conclude that A B.

2. P ROOF OF THE THEOREM

Let

A0 = A

A1 = g(B0 )

A2 = g(B1 )

..

.

An = g(Bn1 )

..

.

B0 = B

B1 = f (A0 )

B2 = f (A1 )

..

.

Bn = f (An1 )

..

.

Lemma 2.

A = A0 B1 A2 B3 A4

B = B0 A1 B2 A3 B4

Lemma 3.

A0 A1 A2

B0 B1 B2

therefore assume that the inclusions in Lemma 3 are all strict.

At this point, it may seem that we have all the tools necessary to prove the theorem. Indeed,

Lemma 2 implies that A B1 and A1 B, whence we might be tempted to deduce that A A1

B B1 ; since A A1 and B B1 , this would immediately imply that A B. The problem with

this approach is that the two conditions X1 Y1 and X2 Y2 do not imply X1 X2 Y1 Y2 in

general. However, we have the following result.

Lemma 4. Suppose we have sets {Xi } and {Yi } satisfying Xi Yi for all i. If all the Xi are

pairwise disjoint, and all the Yi are pairwise disjoint, then

[

[

Xi

Yi .

i

Thus, to continue our line of argument, we require analogues of the sets Ai which are pairwise

disjoint. Fortunately, this isnt difficult to cook up. For each n, set An := An An+1 . By the

remark directly after Lemma 3, we see that all of the sets An are nonempty; moreover, they are

pairwise disjoint. Similarly defining sets Bn , we have the following analogue of Lemma 2:

Lemma 2*.

A0 B1 A2 B3 A4

B0 A1 B2 A3 B4

We can now carry out our prior attack. Since A0 B1 and A1 B0 , Lemma 4 implies that

A0 A1 B0 B1 .

More generally, we deduce that

B2n+1

for all n. Taking the union over all n and once again applying Lemma 4, we conclude that

[

[

An

Bn .

n0

n0

At this point, were nearly finished; the left hand side looks a lot like A, and the right hand side

e and the right hand side by B,

e so that we have

like B. For brevity, denote the left hand side by A

e B.

e

A

(1)

Does A = A?

\

\

An and B =

Bn . We have the following result:

introduce one final notation: set A =

n0

n0

e is a partition of A, and B = B B

e is a partition of B.

Lemma 5. A = A A

Once again by Lemma 4, we see that to conclude the proof of the theorem it suffices to show that

A B. This is an immediate consequence of the following:

Lemma 6. f (A) = B and g(B) = A.

This concludes the proof of the theorem.

R EFERENCES

[1] A. N. Kolmogorov and S. V. Fomin, Introductory Real Analysis, translated by R. A. Silverman, Dover Publications, New York, 1975. 1

D EPARTMENT OF M ATHEMATICS , U NIVERSITY OF T ORONTO , T ORONTO , ON, C ANADA

E-mail address: lgoldmak@math.toronto.edu

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