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Copyright 2009 by Rikk E. Watts. Unauthorized reproduction of this material is prohibited by law.

REGENT COLLEGE
Distance Education
BIBL 543: THE NEW TESTAMENT USE OF THE OLD:
WHAT WERE THE NEW TESTAMENT AUTHORS UP TO?
Professor: Rikk Watts
Course Grader & Tutor: Brenton Dickieson
Course email: de-bibl543@regent-college.edu
2 or 3 graduate credit hours
Prerequisites: none
Course Website (extra resources, discussion, announcements):
www.regent-college.edu/classesonline

Your due date: ___________________


(See the last page of your Student Handbook for setting your due date)
A course may be dropped within two weeks of the course start date for a 100% refund (less a $25
drop fee). A course may be dropped between two and four weeks of the course start date for a 75%
refund (less a $25 drop fee). A course may be dropped between four and eight weeks of the course
start date for no refund; after this time the student is committed to receiving a grade for the course.
All course materials must be returned in original condition before a drop or refund will be
approved.

Course Description
No documents exercised as much influence on the writers of the NT as did Israels Scriptures (our Old
Testament). Yet few matters are the subject of such impassioned and wide-ranging debate as is the
question of how the NT authors interpret the OT, particularly in the light of Jesus and his gospel.
Questions abound: What, if at all, is the role of the OT context? How do we explain the significant
variations and sometimes remarkable differences between the OT text and its supposed quotation in the
NT? How can a text that was not even considered a prophecy be fulfilled? Are the NT authors reliable
guides or must we admit that they use methods that no modern bible reader could accept?
This lecture series will progress through three main topic areas
a) the lay of the land in which we will:
i) introduce the nature of the problem through the lens of several parade ground examples,
ii) then given the importance of history
- briefly survey the history of Christian interpretation of the OT before
- focusing on those modern scholars whose work has contributed to the present debate as a
way of laying out the issues,
iii) return to the first century
- to examine various examples of the interpretation of the OT
- to offer some comments on the literary awareness of the kinds of audiences the NT authors
might reasonably assume.
b) into the text in which we will look at particular uses of the OT in the NT
i) beginning with some relatively simple examples, and
ii) progressing through larger complexes of OT citations in chapters and entire NT books,

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Copyright 2009 by Rikk E. Watts. Unauthorized reproduction of this material is prohibited by law.

iii) to the influence of particular OT works (e.g. Isaiah), and


iv) finally with respect to particular theological issues (e.g. NT Christology).
- our aim here is to understand the hermeneutic employed and particularly its underlying
assumptions vis--vis Israels story and the meaning of Jesus.
c) a proposal in which on the basis of the foregoing we seek to articulate the NT authors hermeneutic,
offer some remarks on typology/analogy/rhetorical theology, discuss the implications for some recent
(rhetorical) and more ancient (allegorical) approaches, and conclude with comments on what this means
for doing NT theology.
Please note:
a) the lectures do not require knowledge of the biblical languages though on occasion certain points will
necessitate some discussion of this kind.
b) major assignments: the topic range is designed to accommodate those with or without facility in the
languages.

Time Investment
Lectures
Book Review
Reading
Major Assignment
TOTAL

2 cr. hrs
25 hrs
15 hrs (1200 wds)
34 hrs (680 pp.)
16 hrs (2000 wds)
90 hrs

3 cr. hrs
25 hrs
15 hrs (1200 wds)
63 hrs (1300 pp.)
32 hrs (4000 wds)
135 hrs

Assignments
1. Reading
Two credit students are expected to read a total of 680 pages for this class, including the required text.
Three credit students are expected to read a total of 1300 pages and this should include the classic,
F.F. Bruce, This is That, and also S.L. Johnson, The Old Testament in the New (see bibliography
below).
2. Book review
Students are expected to write a 1200 word book review of Dumbrell, End of the Beginning.
3. Major Assignment
Students are to write a major assignment. For two credit students, the assignment should be 2000
words (including notes). For three credit students, the total length should be 4000 words (including
notes). Students should select one of the following on which to write:
A. A NT passage which appeals to an OT text with a view to analyzing the NT
authors hermeneutical approach and its biblical theological implications (see
method as per class).
B. How the NT develops a particular OT theme, e.g. son of man, Israel/the church,
creation/new creation, righteousness, exodus/new exodus, etc.
C. One or more aspects of the present debate discussing its implications for the
understanding the NT use of the OT.

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Copyright 2009 by Rikk E. Watts. Unauthorized reproduction of this material is prohibited by law.

Assignments are to be typewritten, and should conform to proper standards, including spacing,
margins (1 on left and 1.5 on right), bibliographic citations, foot/end notes (where appropriate), be
in readily legible print, and in good English style commensurate with graduate level studies. ESL
students are encouraged to have their work proof-read.
It is wise to keep either an electronic and/or hard copy of your assignments until the submitted copies
are duly returned. This will facilitate grading in the rare event that the originals go astray.
Late Policy and Extensions (please read carefully!)
For every week that your course requirements are submitted late, there will be a deduction of a
third of a letter grade per assignment accordingly. Only under circumstances that are both
unavoidable and unforeseeable are extensions considered (please refer to your student handbook for
specific details
http://www.regent-college.edu/academics/cstudies/documents/StudentHandbook.pdf .
Weddings and births do not count as unavoidable and unforeseeable. If you need to go beyond the
six-month time limit, you must contact the Coordinator first for an extension. Contact information
is provided in your Student Handbook. Please note that extensions are not automatically granted,
and must be applied for before your original due date.
ACADEMIC HONOUR Regent College upholds the highest standards of academic responsibility
as part of our commitment to Christ in all of life. Students are required to familiarize themselves
especially with the discussion of Academic Integrity in the College Catalogue.

Evaluation
Major Assignment
Book review

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2 cr.
70%
30%

3 cr.
80%
20%

Revised December 3, 2009

Copyright 2009 by Rikk E. Watts. Unauthorized reproduction of this material is prohibited by law.

Bibliography
Required Texts:
Dumbrell, W.J., The End of the Beginning. (Wipf & Stock, 2001).
Helpful guides on Method/Approach:
Beale. G. and Don Carson, Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids:
Baker, 2007). Covers every NT book examining its use of OT.
Johnson, S. Lewis, The Old Testament in the New (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1980).
LaRondelle, Hans K., The Israel of God in Prophecy: Principles of Prophetic Interpretation AUMSR XIII
(Michigan: Andrews University, 1983).
Select Bibliography (see also ALTA, OTA, NTA for texts on your particular passages)
Baker, D.L., Two Testaments, One Bible. (Leicester: IVP, 1992).
Barrera, J. Trebolle, The Jewish Bible and the Christian Bible: an introduction to the history of the Bible.
(Leiden: Brill, 1998) 423-513.
Barrett, C.K., The Interpretation of the Old Testament in the New, in The Cambridge History of the
Bible, Vol. 1 (Cambridge, 1970) 377-411.
Beale, G., ed., The Right Doctrine from the Wrong Texts? Essays on the Use of the Old Testament in the
New (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1994).
Black, M., The Christological Use of the Old Testament in the New Testament, NTS 18 (1971) 1-14.
Blomberg, Craig L., Interpreting Old Testament Prophetic Literature in Mathew: Double Fulfillment,
TrinJ 23 (2002): 17-33.
Bruce, F.F., This is That. (Exeter: Paternoster, 1968). Also known as The New Testament Development of
Old Testament Themes (Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2004)
Carson, D. and Williamson, H.G.M., eds, It Is Written: Scripture Citing Scripture, Essays in Honor of
Barnabas Lindars SSF. (Cambridge: University, 1988).
Chilton, B.D., A Galilean Rabbi and his Bible: Jesus Own Interpretation of Isaiah (London: SPCK,
1984).
Chilton, Bruce, and Evans, Craig A., Jesus and Israels Scriptures in Studying the Historical Jesus:
Evaluations of the State of Current Research, eds. Bruce Chilton and Craig A. Evans, (Leiden: Brill,
1994), 281-335.
Daube, David, The Exodus Pattern in the Bible (London, 1963).
Dodd, C.H., According to the Scriptures. (London: Nisbet, 1952).
Ellis, E.E., Pauls Use of the Old Testament. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1985) espec. pp. 10-84.
Ellis, E.E., The Old Testament in Early Christianity: Canon and Interpretation in the Light of Modern
Research (Grand Rapids: Michigan, 1992).
Ellis, E.E., Biblical Interpretation in the New Testament Church, in Mikra: Text, Translation, Reading
and Interpretation of the Hebrew Bible in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity, ed. Martin Jan
Mulder CINT 2 (Assen: Van Gorcum; Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1988) 691-725.
Evans, C.A., and Stegner, W. Richard, eds., The Gospels and the Scriptures of Israel JSNTSupp 104
(Sheffield: JSOT, 1994).
Evans, Craig A., Ancient texts for New Testament studies : a guide to the background literature, (Peabody,
Mass: Hendrickson Publishers, 2005).
Evans, Craig A., From Prophecy to Testament: An Introduction, in From Prophecy to Testament : The
Function of the Old Testament in the New, ed. C. A. Evans, (Peabody, MA Hendrickson: 2004), 122.
Fishbane, M., Biblical Interpretation in Ancient Israel (Oxford: , 1985).
Fitzmyer, J.A., The Use of Explicit Old Testament Quotations in Qumran Literature and in the New
Testament, NTS 7 (1961) 297-333.

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Copyright 2009 by Rikk E. Watts. Unauthorized reproduction of this material is prohibited by law.

Foulkes, F., The Acts of God (London: Tyndale, 1958).


*France, R.T., Jesus and the Old Testament. (Reprint, Grand Rapids: Baker, 1982).
Goppelt, L., Typos: The Typological Interpretation of the Old Testament in the New Testament. (Grand
Rapids: Eerdmans, 1982) espec. 11-19, 42-58, 97-116, 125-6, 129-30, 136-152, 181-184, 198-205,
218, 237.
Hatina, T., ed., Biblical Interpretation in Early Christian Gospels. Volume 1: The Gospel of Mark LNTS
304 (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 2006).
Hays, R.B., Echoes of Scripture in the Letters of Paul (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989).
Hays, R.B., and J.B. Green, The Use of the Old Testament by New Testament Writers in Hearing the
New Testament: Strategies for Interpretation, ed. J.B. Green (Carlisle: Paternoster, 1995) 223-35.
Johnson, S.L., The Old Testament in the New Testament. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980).
Kugel, J.L., and Greer, Rowan A., Early Biblical Interpretation (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1986).
*Juel, D., Messianic Exegesis: Christological Interpretation of the OT in Early Christianity. (Philadelphia:
Fortress, 1988).
Kaiser, W., The Use of the Old Testament in the New Testament (Chicago: Moody, 1985).
Kugel, J.L. and Greer, R.A., Early Biblical Interpretation. (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1986).
LaRondelle, H.K., The Israel of God in Prophecy. (Berrien Springs: Andrews University, 1983) espec. 1164, 207-210.
Lindars, B., New Testament Apologetic: The Doctrinal Significance of the Old Testament Quotations.
(London: SCM, 1961).
Longenecker, R., Biblical Exegesis in the Apostolic Period. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1974).
Marcus, J., The Way of the Lord: Christological Exegesis of the Old Testament in the Gospel of Mark
(Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster/John Knox, 1992).
Moyise, S., Evoking Scripture: Seeing the Old Testament in the New (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 2008).
Moyise, Steve, and Maarten J.J. Menken, eds., Isaiah in the New Testament (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clarke,
2005).
Moyise, Steve, and Maarten J.J. Menken, eds., The Psalms in the New Testament (Edinburgh: T. & T.
Clarke, 2004).
Moo, D.J., The Old Testament in the Gospel Passion Narratives (Sheffield: Almond, 1983).
Moo, D.J., The Problem of Sensus Plenior, in eds. D.A. Carson and J.D. Woodbridge Hermeneutics,
Authority and Canon (Leicester: IVP, 1986) 175-211.
Nixon, R.E., The Exodus in the New Testament (London, 1963).
Porter, Stanley E., ed., Hearing the Old Testament in the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2006).
Porter, Stanley E., The Use of the Old Testament in the New Testament: A Brief Comment on Method
and Terminology, in Early Christian Interpretation of the Scriptures of Israel: Investigation and
Proposals, eds. C.A. Evans and J.A. Sanders, JSNTSup 148; SSEJC (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic
Press, 1997) 79-96.
Porter, Stanley E., and Christopher D. Stanley, eds., As It is Written: Studying Pauls Use of Scripture
Symposium 50 (Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2008).
Stanley, Christopher D., Arguing with Scripture: The Rhetoric of Quotations in the Letters of Paul,
(London: T. & T. Clarke, 2004).
Stanley, C.D., Paul and the Language of Scripture: Citation Technique in the Pauline Epistles and
Contemporary Literature SNTSMS 74 (Cambridge: University, 1992) 342-53.
Stanley, C.D., Pearls before Swine : Did Paul's Audiences Understand His Biblical Quotations?, NovT
41 (1999): 124-144.
Strom, M., Days are Coming: Exploring Biblical Patterns (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1989).
Swartley, W.M., Israel's Scripture Tradition and the Synoptic Gospels: Story Shaping Story (Peabody,
MA: Hendrickson, 1994).
Watson, Francis, Paul and the Hermeneutics of Faith, (London: T. & T. Clarke, 2004).
Watts, R.E., Cunning, Lies, and Rhetorical Deceit? How the NT uses the OT Crux 44 (2008) 24-35.

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Copyright 2009 by Rikk E. Watts. Unauthorized reproduction of this material is prohibited by law.

Watts, R.E., Isaiah's New Exodus in Mark, Biblical Studies Library (Grand Rapids Baker: 2000).
Web Resources
Some valuable (and some not so valuable) articles can be found at:
http://www.monergism.com/directory/link_category/Relationship%20Between%20the%20OT%2
0and%20the%20NT/
http://paulandscripture.westmont.edu/wikindx/
Primary Sources of which the student should be aware:
Septuaginta: Vetus Testamentum Graecum Auctoritate Academiae Scientiarum Gottingensis editum 16
vols. (Gttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1931-). The textual apparatus here includes textual
data on later Greek versions of the OT (most volumes available in the library), as listed in ...
Origenis Hexaplorum quae Supersunt; sive veterum interpretum graecorum in totum Vetus Testamentum
fragmenta ed. F. Field, 2 vols. (Oxonii: Clarendoniano, 1875). See also critical editions of the
LXX.
Part 1: http://rosetta.reltech.org/cgi-bin/Ebind2html/TC/FieldOrigenv1
Part 2: http://rosetta.reltech.org/cgi-bin/Ebind2html/TC/FieldOrigenv2
The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated: The Qumran Texts in English F. R. Martnez trans. Wilfred G. E.
Watson (Leiden: Brill, 1996; 2nd ed.). (available on Accordance in the Library).
The Targums in English as translated and annotated in T. & T. Clarkes Aramaic Bible series and
electronic versions of the Targum (in Aramaic, though some have English versions) can be found
at:
http://cal1.cn.huc.edu/searching/targumsearch.html
Note: Accordance 8.2.2 (Bible Software) now has the Mishnah, various Targums, all of the secular DSS
tagged, with translation, and an MT/LXX index that provides the MT and LXX equivalent in
columns. Other suppliers should have similar modules.
The Mishnah, Talmud, and Midrashim (Heb/Ar. with Eng.) are available for purchase for both PC and
Mac at: http://www.davka.com/cgi-bin/product.cgi?product=443
The Mekilta Rabbi Ishmael, Pesikta Rab Kahana, Pirke Rabbi Eliazer, Tanna Debe Eliyyahu, and
Ginsberg's Legends of the Jews, searchable PDF and integrated with a JPS Torah are available on
computer in the library and can be purchased from:
http://www.publishersrow.com/ebookshuk/cart/shoppacketdetail.asp?id=239&l=0&pg=1&o=112
6631398984

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