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64 Appendixes Appendix A. Experiment No.....SX...g0 .. .....4 Specific Gravity and Absorption of .. D. .11 2l Aggregates....... Experiment 51 ..Experiment No... ............... References Appendix 1 ...40 ... ......... 6 Design of Concrete Mix.......... Appendix E.... .... 91 ...... 1 Machine. ......... ....74 ....89 . ...... .. .... 2 No. Experiinent No...87 .. x. 1 . ...51 57 .30 ... . . ....3 Experiment Bend Test of Reinforcing Steel l fi Bar. 40 No. ExperimentNo. .... .23 30 Sieve Analysis of Aggregates. . ......Contents Preface Acknowledgement.57 64 Nuts..8 Tensile Test of Welded Joints.v Physical Study of Universal Testing Experiment No... ( Test................ Experirnent No.. ME-UTM Guidelines Experiment No. 7 Brinell Hardness Proof Strength / Load Test of Bolts and ..

i*rfl::: F. The level is ippropriate for mechanical engineering courses particularly in the subject oJ engineering materials. induded to assist the students in researching library. The authors express their appreciation to the many organizations and and illustrations in accordance informations supplied who firms manufacturing with nowadaYs Practiees. and proof strengttr / load of bolts and nuts in ri'hich most delicate and overlook testing in mechanical engineering practices are included. and strength of materials. is helpful in solving the Problem. tensile strength of welded and unwelded bars and plates. shop praclices. euestions and problems are provided at the end of each experiment to give the students an insight to mechanical testing. . Hardness using Brinell tester .discusses the common and standard testings of engineering materials used in commercial and industrial purposes. A good background in engineering materials. Due to new development mechanical dents must read cunent technical journals io know new develoPments.T. Galera ME Faculty llembers Mapua lnstitute of Technology Randy M.Preface This manual presents and. Ratay UTM-Engineer Mapua lnstitute of fechnology . The testing is based on standards and is useful for future mechanical engineers as they encounter mechanical practices in the field. w. Shimadzu Universal Testing Machine with computer controlled hydraulic servo system is the major apparatus used in mechanical testings. mechanics.

Acknowledgement This laboratory manual was a team effort flom the beginning.) Facul$ of EMSE Department e. Judilla. Thi. Mapua lnstitute of Technology.s manual relied also on the coordination skills of Prof. The ideas for the designs accompanied with some advices were contributed by the following: a.) Prof. Dean of Mechanical Engineering Department.) Faculty of Mechanical Engineering DeparEnent Sincere appreciations are owed to the following organizations for informations an d il lustratipns thefsupBlied. Rafael De Vera of MIT Mechanical Engineering Department b. JMA VvSE FTG RMR . Florante Catalan of MIRDC Mechanical Testing Department c.) Faculty of Civil Engineering Department d.) Engr. RoelJohn C. of course. every organism needs a head to guide it.

UTM Technician will be the one who wil! be responsible for the key and operation of the UTM. B. Reservatiofr forms are available at the ME .Bringing in of office fu. 10. Note: Reservation must be Two (2) days before the request schedule. 9. Stucients should observe the proper use of the UTM Room . drinks and school bags are not allowed inside the UTM Room. Users of the UTM are expected to observe total cleanliness and orderliness. 2. Food. Only five (5) students are allowed to enter the room during experiments.GUIDELINES FOR THE USE OF THE FACILITIES OF UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE 1. The instructor shall be responsible for ihe concjuct of their students. Door must not be left open. . first served basis. 5. Students will not be allowed to enter the UTM Room without an accompanying Faculty Member and UTM Technician. 3. No one is allowed to use the UTM without the required permit. . 4. Reservation forms must be fully accomplished in order for the request to be processed.UTM Office.. Note : Reservation is on a first @me. 7. Any damage and/or loss of property shall be the responsibility of the requesting faculty/dePartrhent.rniture and equipment must have pnor approval from the Dean of School of Mechanical Engineering.

D'SCUSS'ON OF PRINCIPLES It is necessary to have a knowledge of mechanicat properties of engineering materials in order to use in design. which is then computed in terms . An electro hydraulic servo valve precisely controls the flow rate of pressurized oil pump to pump out the feeding oilinto the loading cylinder. UTM is a testing machine that determines the behaviour of a materials under the application of extemal force. control measuring unit and hydraulic unit for loading. metallic concrete. The extemal force given by UTM contains thiee main elements namely: loading unit. This analog signal is then converted into a digital signal. The machine's hydraulic loading system has'a wide control range of loading speeds and permits smooth loading. . lt is also used in compression of wood. 1 PHYSIGAL STUDY OF UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE OBJECTIVE To familiarize on the ditferent parts and operation of the Universal Testing Machine.EXPERIMENT NO. UTM is a state-of-the art hydraulic system where it is developed as a new model nowadays based on the latest mechanical-electronics system lt periorms the tension. fabrication and constructbn. These are properties determined in the testing laboratory under fixed rules of procedure which govem the art of mechanical testing in which all of the variables affecting a given property are controlled and the property in question is measured under fixed conditions. ceramics and (mechatronics). lt is then translated into a voltage signal by a high-precision pressure cell and high-performance amplifier. transverse and bending tests on materials. when a load applied on a specimeh it is being detected by a change in oil pressure in the loading cylinder.

The load measuring system provides both the digital and analog displays. 2. The automatic load control unit excels in ease of operation.of the applied load in the unit of kN. Computer Controlled Hydraulic Servo System. Sketch the machine.0 4.of the full scale. APPARATUS Shimadzu Universal Testing Machine UH-A-C Series. 2. 1. Label the parts of the machine. and others.2 Discuss the operation of the machine. (see Figure 1) . and strain. 1. lt incorporates a microprocessor to control the closed-loop-system electro hydraulic servo valve for accurate and efficient load control in metal-tension testing specified in Ameican Society for Testing and Mateial (ASTM).1 Discuss the'parts of the machine. METHODS OF STUDY Tick each step if tf has been performed. as well as for constant-speed regulation of ram stroke.0 . load.2 Pertorm Compression Tests as per Appendix B (see page 77) 2.0 Demonstration 2.0 Discussion 1.3 Perform Cold Bend Tests as perAppendix C (see page 81).1 Perform Tensile Tests as per Appendix A (-"ee page 72). 3.

-=.SET.UP OF APPARATUS Loading Unit -r--r----.t zori x 1D) 80Q Fig.---==I'--l - si i . Control / Measuring Unit (unit: mm) 1w.i itC{ri rr'l rri tt ttl tt T'-.t-'-'r I -l -t-_:l!'---t . 1-1 UniversalTesting Machine ( Modet UH-1000kNA ) .r | .

I Column 10 Tension Nut Cap @--:- @ 12 Dnve Screw Fixino Nut 15 Elevation Motor 19 Table Roller Guide 23 Table Cover 24 @ Bed Cover 26 Table Too Protective Mat G)----v @---- @- Fig.1 Loadinq Cvlinder 2 Ram 3 Bed 4 Table 5 Lower Crosshead 6 Upper Crosshead 7 Drive Screw @.. 1-2 Universal Testing Machine Loading Unit (Model 1000 kN) .

1-3 Control / Measuring Unit : Appearance 1 .-Cr ----@ @ -@ @ @ (D @- -@ -soo 101 Upper Rear Cover 107 Manual Operation Panel 102 Lower Rear Cover 108 Automatic Control Panel 103 Power Switch 109 Zero-Span Adjustment Panel 104 Casing 1 106 Front Cover 111 Load Display Meter 101 Power Control Unit 162 Memory Card ( Model UH-C ) 10 Load Range Selector Panel Fig.CONTROL / MEASURING UNIT @ -.

REFEREA'CES ( use anothersfieef af pper ) .QUESITOTVS ( answers on ano*iirer sheel of paper ) 1. DTSCUSSTOi. ( use another sheet of Fpr ) coructr usrofl ( use anothq shee/' of Fper ) a a. Give the functions of each single part. Enumerate the uses of UniversalTesting Machine. 3. lllustrate the Urliversalrestirp Machine and labetthe parts. 2.

mm 70 mm diameter with a gage length of 200 mm' The applied axial - loads. is called nominal stress. To get the true strain. and hard. . ln our test. The initial cross-sectional area used to calculate the stress.EXPERIMENT NO. based on standard tensile test of American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM). A more exact value of the axial stress is known as the true stress. b. 2 TENSTLE TEST OF REINFORC!NG STEEL BARS OBJECTIVE To determine the suitability of reinforcing steel bars for concrete reinforcement by performance of tensile test using ASTM Designation A 370. The standard sizes of plain are designate<l by'their nominal diameters. the initial lerrgth is used in the calculation. Plain and Deformed are the two classes of steel bars that - are commonly used. For nominal strain. we use nominal stress and strain. To determine the grade of steel bars. The intent is to measure the inherent material behaviour. ln this exercise. the tensile loads are applied to a specimen of 500 mm in length and 10. the diagram for stress-strain is obtainable. From the stress and strain data. deformation. stresses and strains shall be calculated during the process. These are further classified into three grades structural intermediate. lt conveys important information about the mechanical properties and type of behavioqr of the material' " There are tests in which specified deformation and tensile force are applied and measured respectively. D'SGUSS'O N OF PRINCIPLES The tensile test is the most widely used in mechanical property test. Standard sizes of deformed bars are listed in Table l. the actual length should be used. The test is used much less often than the applied loading test. which is calculated by using the actual area of the specimen.

8% d>25mm. Tensib Reguirements Plain & Deformed Round Bars lntermediate Hard Grade Stnrctura! Grade Grade (Grade 415) (Grade 230) (Grade 275) Ultimate Strength.62 a o. Where : d is the nominal diameter of the deformed bar. 10% d<25mm.410 Elongation d<25mm. 1C. 18% d<25mm. KN 0.275 0.48 o.23 o.T# l.8% d>25mm.160/o D25mm.39 0. .{ (Minimum Value) * Tabteis Dased on Phitippine National standard yovided by MIRDC.7o/o mm' (Minimum Value) Yield Strength.

Raymond) Figurc 2-1: Stress and Strain Diagram 'Engineering stress-strain diagram (Figure 1) are use to relate stress and strain of a material in which the engineering strain and stress are plotted as ordinate and abscissa. The true stress acting on the specimen at any instant is computed by dividing the load acting at thai instant by the'actual cross-sectional area. Strain :. the diameter of the cross section ciecreases appreciably as elongation occurs. Therefore.Clark .-'l '- Suess lt lax.. The stresses are computed by dividing the load by the initial area of the specimen. the area at the beginning of the test At quite high stresses. i. Srrcss Uppi yieLdlimit h@6Iioilal limit Strain - 'Propefties of Engineing Mateials ( Higgins. respectively. Engineering Materials and Processes by Donakl S.e.. the stress based on the initial area of the specimen will not give a true stress.Stress Vs.