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6.SEED(SubscriberEndEncryptionDevice)Itiscompact,fullduplexsecrecydeice.Description:1)SEEDProcessorcard...

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8.HUD(Headupdisplay)TheprojectionunitinatypicalHUDisanopticalcollimatorsetup:aconvexlensorconcavemir...

Combinersmayhavespecialcoatingsthatreflectthemonochromaticlightprojectedontoitfromtheprojectorunitwhilea...

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9.BHARANIRADARLowlevelLightWeight2DRadarBHARANI:isalightweight,batterypoweredandcompactsensorwhichpr...

10.ROHINIRADARLowlevelLightWeight3DRadarROHINI:ROHINIisamultifacetedgroundbasedSBand3DLowLevelLight...

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Asallthemainradarsubsystemsareontherotatingplatform,thisradararchitectureobviatesthetwomostcommonsingle...

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CHAPTER628

DEPARTMENTS&FUNCTIONSBELPanchkulahasdifferentdivisionswhicharefurtherdividedintodepartments1.D&E(Develo...

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3.MM(MATERIALMANAGEMENT):Itisthemanagementofthematerials.PUR(PURCHASEDEPARTMENT)Thisdepartmentpurchases...

6.P&S(PLANTANDSERVICES):Itisthedepartmentforprovidingtheservicestocompany.Servicesarewatersupply,electr...

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10.QM(QUALITYMANAGEMENT):ISO(INTERNATIONALSTANDARDSORGANISATION)Itistosellourproductsintheinternational...

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CHAPTER733

SUBDEPARTMENTSPRODUCTIONPLANNINGANDCONTROLThissubdepartmentformsthemostimportantsectionamongtheotherspre...

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PCBassemblysectionCoilwindingsectionFinalassemblysectionFirstwewilldiscussindetailabouttheAMFsectionwh...

SURFACEMOUNTTECHNOLOGYSurfacemounttechnologywasdevelopedinthe1960sandbecamewidelyusedinthelate1980s.Muc...

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1.LoaderMODEL:LSIZEMAKE:AUTOVEYORLoaderasthenamesuggestloadthepcbonwhichcomponentaretobemounted....

mm(forSP600L).VerticalSeparationofStencilfromPCB4cornerballscrewsystemprovidesexcellentseparationcontro...

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3.PickandplacemachineMake:siemensModel:SIPLACEHFComponenthandlingcapacity:Flipchip,BGA,BGA,MELF,m...

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4.ReflowsolderingmachineMake:SEHO(Germany)Model:MAXIPOWER2.7ReflowovenisthatpartofSMTprocesswherea...

PLCCs(PlasticLoadedChipCarrier)i.e.IChavingJprofilepinsalongeachfoursidesandithasmorethan28pins....

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6.WaveSolderingMachineWavesolderingmachineconsistsofthePCBcarrierstand,whichcanhold10PCBsatatime.This...

WORKASSEMBLYItisanimportantdepartmentofthemanufacturingdivision.Theassemblyofthedifferentcomponentstakes...

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TESTING&INSPECTIONTesting&InspectionisdoneineverystageofPCBnamelyat:ModulestageSubassemblyFinalstage...

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ThePCBissenttoassemblysectionbackandtheycomeoutclearfromtestjigs.Nowinassemblysectionallcomponentsar...

CHAPTER846

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RESULTS&DISCUSSIONSTheindustrialtrainingatB.E.L.hasgivenmeanexposureoftheactivitiesofadefenseunit.Thi...

CONCLUSIONThesixweeksofsummertrainingatBEL,PKLunitgeneratedalotmoreinterestinmysubject.Itmadememor...

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BIBLIOGRAPHY[1]THEMAINRESOURCESOFTHEWORKWERETHEFACULTYOFHRDDEPARTMENT.[2]WEBSITE:http://www.bel
india.co...

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BharatElectronicsLimited(BEL):TrainingReport
1.1.TRAININGREPORTOFSIXWEEKSINDUSTRIALTRAINING,UNDERTAKENATBHARATELECTRONICSLIMITED,Panchkula
SUBMITTEDINPARTIALFULFILLMENTOFTHEDEGREEOFBACHELOROFTECHNOLOGYINELECTRONICSAND
COMMUNICATIONENGG.SubmittedBy:Name:AmberBhaumikUPTNo.:5594/13College:ChitkaraInst.ofEngg.&Tech.,RajpuraUnderthe
Guidanceof:Name:AnishChauhanDesig.:Sr.Asstt.EngineerDepartment:HRDBHARATELECTRONICSLIMITED(AGOVT.OFINDIA
ENTERPRISE,MINISTRYOFDEFENCE)405,INDUSTRIALAREA,PHASEIIIPANCHKULA134113(HARYANA)
2.2.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTIamhighlygratefultoBharatElectronicsLimitedPanchkula,oneoftheleadingdefenseorganizationsofthenation,for
providingmeanopportunitytoundertakesixweekstrainingattheirmanufacturingpremisesatPanchkula,Haryana.Itwasagreatlearningexperience
asIwasintroducedtovariousaspectsoftheworkingoftheorganization,thelateststateofthearttechnologies&machinesusedinthemanufacturing
processes.Itwaswonderfultoseethecompanystrivinghardtokeepupthenationalsecurityatparwiththerestoftheworld.Iwouldliketoexpress
mysincerestgratitudetowardsMr.AnishChauhan(Sr.AssistantEngineer)andMr.PankajSinghal(Manager,WorkAssemblySection)fortheirregular
supportandguidancethathelpedmeinsuccessfulcompletionofmysixweekstraining.AttheendIwouldliketothankallthestaffmembersofBEL,
Panchkulawhomadethistrainingarichlearningexperience.i
3.3.PREFACEWiththeongoingrevolutioninelectronic&communicationwhereinnovationsaretakingattheblinkofeye,itisimpossibletokeepthe
pacewiththeemergingtrends.Excellenceisanattitudethatwholeofhumanraceisbornwith.Itistheenvironmentthatmakessurethatwhetherthe
resultofthisattitudeisvisibleorotherwise.Awellplanned,properlyexecutedandevaluatedindustrialtraininghelpsalotinincludingaprofessional
attitude.Itprovidesalinkageb/wthestudentandindustrytodevelopanawarenessofindustrialapproachtoproblemsolving,basedonbroad
understandingofprocessandmodeofoperationoforganization.Duringthisperiod,thestudentgetstherealexperienceforworkingintheactual
industryenvironment.Mostofthetheoreticalknowledgethathasbeengainedduringthecourseoftheirstudiesisputtotesthere.Apartfromthisthe
studentgetsanopportunitytolearnthelatesttechnology,whichisimmenselyhelpsintheminbuildingtheircarrier.Ihadtheopportunitytohaveareal
experienceonmanyventures,whichincreasedmysphereofknowledgetogreatextent.Igotachancetolearnmanynewtechnologiesandwasalso
interfacedtomanyinstruments.AndallthiscreditgoestoorganizationBharatElectronicsLtd.ii
4.4.CONTENTSCHAPTERPAGENO.1.INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................22.COMPANY
PROFILE...............................................................................................................43.MAUFACTURING
UNITS........................................................................................................84.PRODUCTS&MARKETOFBEL
.........................................................................................125.BELPANCHKULA&ITSPRODUCTS
................................................................................166.DEPARTMENTS&FUNCTIONS..........................................................................................29
6.1DEVLOPMENTANDENGINEERING.......................................................................296.2MANUFACTURING
.....................................................................................................296.3MATERIALMANAGEMENT
......................................................................................306.4MARKETING................................................................................................................30
6.5QUALITYASSURANCE..............................................................................................306.6PLANT&SERVICES
...................................................................................................316.7HUMANRESOURCE&ADMINISTRATION
...........................................................316.8FINANCE&ACCOUNTS............................................................................................316.9
INFORMATIONSYSTEMS.........................................................................................316.10QUALITY
MANAGEMENT........................................................................................327.SUB
DEPARTMENTS.............................................................................................................347.1PRODUCTION,PLANNING&CONTROL
.................................................................347.2ADVANCEDMANUFACTURINGFACILITY...........................................................347.3WORK
ASSEMBLY.......................................................................................................437.4TESTING&INSPECTION
............................................................................................448.RESULTS&DISCUSSIONS
..................................................................................................46CONCLUSIONBIBLIOGRAPHYiii
5.5.CHAPTER11
6.6.INTRODUCTIONWiththeongoingrevolutioninthefieldofelectronics&communicationswhereinnovationsaretakingplaceattheblinkofan
eye,itisimpossibletokeepthepacewiththeemergingtrends.Excellenceisanattitudethatwholeofhumanraceisbornwith.Itistheenvironment
thatmakessurethatwhethertheresultofthisattitudeisvisibleorotherwise.Awellplanned,properlyexecutedandevaluatedindustrialtraininghelpsa
lotinincludingaprofessionalattitude.Itprovidesalinkagebetweenthestudentandindustrytodevelopanawarenessofindustrialapproachtoproblem
solving,basedonbroadunderstandingofprocessandmodeofoperationoforganization.Duringthisperiod,thestudentgetstherealexperiencefor
workingintheactualindustryenvironment.Mostofthetheoreticalknowledgethathasbeengainedduringthecourseoftheirstudiesisputtotesthere.
Apartfromthisthestudentgetsanopportunitytolearnthelatesttechnology,whichisimmenselyhelpsintheminbuildingtheircarrier.Ihadthe
opportunitytohavearealexperienceonmanyventures,whichincreasedmysphereofknowledgetogreatextent.Igotachancetolearnmanynew
technologiesandwasalsointerfacedtomanyinstruments.Thewordqualityholdsoutdifferentmeaningfordifferentpeople,butforanindustryitis
mostimportantandcanbedefinedasThetotalityoffeaturesandcharacteristicsofaproduct/servicesthatbearonitsabilitytosatisfygivenneeds.
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AndallthecreditgoestoorganizationBharatElectronicsLtd.2
7.7.CHAPTER23
8.8.COMPANYPROFILEBharatElectronicsLimited(BEL)isastateownedelectronicscompanywithaboutninefactories,andfewregionalofficesin
India.ItisownedbytheIndianGovernment&primarilymanufacturesadvancedelectronicproductsfortheIndianArmedForces.BELisoneofthe
eightPSUsunderMinistryofDefence,GovernmentOfIndia.Ithasevenearnedthegovernment'sNavratnastatus.BharatElectronicsLimited(BEL)
wassetupatBangalore,India,bytheGovernmentofIndiaundertheMinistryofDefencein1954tomeetthespecialisedelectronicneedsoftheIndian
defenceservices.Overtheyears,ithasgrownintoamultiproduct,multitechnology,multiunitcompanyservingtheneedsofcustomersindiverse
fieldsinIndiaandabroad.BELisamonganelitegroupofpublicsectorundertakingswhichhavebeenconferredtheNavratnastatusbythe
GovernmentofIndia.ThegrowthanddiversificationofBELovertheyearsmirrorstheadvancesintheelectronicstechnology,withwhichBELhas
keptpace.Startingwiththemanufactureofafewcommunicationequipmentin1956,BELwentontoproduceReceivingValvesin1961,Germanium
Semiconductorsin1962andRadioTransmittersforAIRin1964.In1966,BELsetupaRadarmanufacturingfacilityfortheArmyandinhouseR&D,
whichhasbeennurturedovertheyears.ManufactureofTransmittingTubes,SiliconDevicesandIntegratedCircuitsstartedin1967.ThePCB
manufacturingfacilitywasestablishedin1968.In1970,manufactureofBlack&WhiteTVPictureTube,XrayTubeandMicrowaveTubesstarted.
Thefollowingyear,facilitiesformanufactureofIntegratedCircuitsandHybridMicroCircuitsweresetup.1972sawBELmanufacturingTV
TransmittersforDoordarshan.Thefollowingyear,manufactureofFrigateRadarsfortheNavybegan.Underthegovernment'spolicyof
decentralizationandduetostrategicreasons,BELventuredtosetupnewUnitsatvariousplaces.ThesecondUnitofBELwassetupatGhaziabadin
1974tomanufactureRadarsandTropocommunicationequipmentfortheIndianAirForce.ThethirdUnitwasestablishedatPunein1979to
manufactureImageConverterandImageIntensifierTubes.In1980,BEL'sfirst4
9.9.overseasofficewassetupatNewYorkforprocurementofcomponentsandmaterials.In1981,amanufacturingfacilityforMagnesiumManganese
DioxidebatterieswassetupatthePuneUnit.TheSpaceElectronicDivisionwassetupatBangaloretosupportthesatelliteprogrammein1982.The
sameyearsawBELachieveaturnoverofRs.100crores.In1983,anailingAndhraScientificCompany(ASCO)wastakenoverbyBELasthefourth
manufacturingUnitatMachilipatnam.In1985,thefifthUnitwassetupinChennaiforsupplyofTankElectronics,withproximitytoHVF,Avadi.The
sixthUnitwassetupatPanchkulathesameyeartomanufactureMilitaryCommunicationequipment.1985alsosawBELmanufacturingonalarge
scaleLowPowerTVTransmittersandTVROsfortheexpansionofDoordarshan'scoverage.1986witnessedthesettingupoftheseventhUnitat
KotdwaratomanufactureSwitchingEquipment,theeighthUnittomanufactureTVGlassShellatTaloja(NaviMumbai)andtheninthUnitat
HyderabadtomanufactureElectronicWarfareEquipment.In1987,aseparateNavalEquipmentDivisionwassetupatBangaloretogivegreaterfocus
toNavalprojects.ThefirstCentralResearchLaboratorywasestablishedatBangalorein1988tofocusonfuturisticR&D.1989sawthemanufactureof
TelecomSwitchingandTransmissionSystemsasalsothesettingupoftheMassManufacturingFacilityinBangaloreandthemanufactureofthefirst
batchof75,000ElectronicVotingMachines.TheagreementforsettingupBEL'sfirstJointVentureCompany,BEDELFT,withM/sDelftofHolland
wassignedin1990.RecentlythisbecameasubsidiaryofBELwiththeexitoftheforeignpartnerandhasbeenrenamedBELOptronicDevices
Limited.ThesecondCentralResearchLaboratorywasestablishedatGhaziabadin1992.Thefirstdisinvestment(20%)andlistingoftheCompany's
sharesinBangaloreandMumbaiStockExchangestookplacethesameyear.BELUnitsobtainedISO9000certificationin199394.Thesecond
disinvestment(4.14%)tookplacein1994.In1996,BELachievedRs.1,000croresturnover.In1997,GEBEL,theJointVentureCompanywithM/s
GE,USA,wasformed.In1998,BELsetupitssecondoverseasofficeatSingaporetosourcecomponentsfromSouthEastAsia.The5
10.10.year2000sawtheBangaloreUnit,whichhadgrownverylarge,beingreorganizedintoStrategicBusinessUnits(SBUs).TherearesevenSBUsin
BangaloreUnit.Thesameyear,BELshareswerelistedintheNationalStockExchange.In2002,BELbecamethefirstdefencePSUtogetoperational
MiniRatnaCategoryIstatus.InJune2007,BELwasconferredtheprestigiousNavratnastatusbasedonitsconsistentperformance.6
11.11.CHAPTER37
12.12.MANUFACTURINGUNITSBELhasatotalofninemanufacturingcomplexesspreadthroughoutthenationwithBanglorebeingthebiggestof
them.ThedetailsaboutthedifferentmanufacturingunitsofBELalongwiththeirproductspecialitiesareasfollows:Sr.No.1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.
COMPLEXGhaziabadPanchkulaNaviMumabiKotdwaraPuneHyderabadBangloreMachlipatnamChennaiSTATEUttarPradeshHaryana
MaharashtraUttaranchalMaharashtraAndhraPradeshKarnatkaAndhraPradeshTamilnadu8
13.13.In1954withafactoryofJallahali,BharatElectronicsgrewintonineunits,spreadalloverIndia.Thelocations&productsoftheunitsaregiven
below:1.BANGALORE:ThisisalsocalledBGComplex.JallahaliunitwhichisthemotherunitisnowapartoftheBGComplex.Thisisthebiggest
unitwithapprox.10,000employeesworkinghere.Amongtheproductshere,theimportantonesare:CommunicationequipmentAir&Doordarshan
equipmentlikemobilevanforlivetelecastetc.Radarmobile,onedimensional,3dimensional&multidimensionalRadarsaremanufacturedhere.
DifferentrangeofsemiconductordeviceslikeICs.Resistors&black&whitecolorTVpicturetubeglasses.ISROsrequirementsaremetatspace
electronicsdepartmentatBangalore.Satellitelaunchvehiclewasalsomanufacturedhere.2.GHAZIABAD:Thisisthesecondunitwhichwassetupin
1974,&approx.2500employeesworkinghere.Radars&somecommunicationequipmentareTheproductsmanufacturedhereare:RadarsSATCOM
Microwavecomponents3.PUNE:Todiversifyfurtheronemorebranchwasadded1979&thiswasinPune.Inthisbrancharound700800employees
areworking.Theproductprofileincludes:Imageconvertor,imageintensifier,XraytubesBatteriesElectrooptics9
14.14.4.MACHLIPATNAM:TherewasoneAndhrascientificcompany,whichwasasickunit.ThiswastakenoverbyBEL&iscalledASCOunitin
1983.Theproductsinclude:Optical&optoelectronicequipmentlikebinoculars,microscopesMedicalElectronics5.NAVIMUMBAI:Thisisan
industrialplacenearMumbai.Thisunitmakes:Glassshellsforblack&whiteTVpicturetubesSheltersforElectronicEquipmentTrainActuated
WarningSystemElectronicEquipmentAssembly6.PANCHKULA:Panchkula&KotdwarawereproposedsimultaneouslybytheGovernmentin
1985.ItwasproposedtosetuponeuniteachinHaryana&UttarPradesh.ButtheplaceinU.P.forsettingupaBELunitcouldnotbedecidedwhile
thatatHaryanawasdecided&hencethisunitstartedearlier.ThisunitmanufacturesonlytacticalcommunicationequipmentlikeVHF,UHF
transceiversetc.7.KOTDWARA:ThisisaunitinGarhwaldistrictofUttaranchal.Thisunitmanufacturesradiorelay,multiplexequipments&
exchangesetc.8.CHENNAI:TheeightunitofBELwasestablishedinChennai.Thisunitmanufactures:TankrelatedelectronicequipmentsOptical
firecontrolsystems9.HYDERABAD:ThisisanotherunitofBELwhichmanufactureselectronicwarfareequipments.10
15.15.CHAPTER411
16.16.PRODUCTS&MARKETOFBELBharatElectronicsLimitedisamajorsupplierofproductsandturnkeysystemstotheIndianDefenceServices.
Overtheyears,BELhasdiversifiedintomanufacturingmanycivilianproductsaswell.Largeturnkeytelecommunicationsolutionsarealsobeing
offeredtocivilianmarket.BELhasbeeninvolvedinprovidingstateoftheartcommunicationequipmenttotheIndianArmy,beithandheldmobile
radiosandterminals,groundbasedsystems,airborneandevenshipborneequipmentandsystems.Thecommunicationequipmentdevelopedherecover
HF,VHF,UHF,andV/UHFfrequencybands.ThemostimportantprojectofBELunderthecommunicationequipmentisSTARSVwhichprovides
securemodeofdatatransfer.InSTARSV,thedatatobetransferredisfirstencryptedusingamicroprocessorwhichcouldbereadonlybyasimilar
devicewithsamecoding.Nowthelatesttechnologyoffrequencyhoppingisbeingimplementedwhichisaveryusefultoolinmakingasecuredata
transfersystem.BELmanufacturesalotofproductwhichisverydifficulttolistbutsomeofthemajorproductswereasfollows:Integratedcircuitsand
microcircuitsRadarsXraytubesandmagnetronsSTARSVHF&broadcastequipmentSECTELACMEMKIICNRSPACEGUIDING
EQUIPMENTSHUDAIRBORNEGPSRECEIVER(UA429)LUPSRAXTIDEXSECURETELEPHONESECUREFAX12
17.17.DOMESTICMARKETSr.No.PRODUCTCUSTOMER1.DefenceCommunicationIndianDefenceServices,ParaMilitaryForces2.Radars&
SonarsIndianDefenceServices,CivilAviation,MeteorologicalDepartment,ISRO3.TelecommunicationDepartmentofTelecommunication,Para
militaryforces,PowerSector,OilIndustry,Railways4.BroadcastingEquipmentAllIndiaRadio,Doordarshan,(NationalRadio&TVandStudio
SystemsBroadcasters)5.ElectronicVotingMachineElectionCommissionOfIndia6.SolarProducts&SystemsIndividuals,PrivateandGovernment
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Organizations7.TurnkeyGovernanceSystems,EPolice,StateGovernments,PublicSectorUndertakingsNetworks8.ComponentsAllIndiaRadio
andDoordarshantheNationalRadio&TVBroadcasters,InstrumentationIndustry,SwitchingIndustry,EntertainmentIndustry,TelephoneIndustry.13
18.18.ExportsplayakeyroleinBEL'sstrategicperspective.AnumberofInternationalcompaniesareusingthefacilitiesatBELforcontract
Manufacturing..Thebroadlistofproductsandservicesbeingexportedisgivenbelow:Sr.No.EXPORTS/INTERNATIONALMARKETPRODUCT
CUSTOMER1.DefenceCommunicationequipmentBotswana,Indonesia,Suriname,Malaysiaandspareparts2.Radars&SubsystemsIndonesia,
Egypt,Switzerland3.ElectronicWarfareproductsRussia,Brazilandservices4.OptoelectronicsproductsSriLanka,Nepal,Israel,SouthAfrica5.
Semiconductordevices,Malaysia,Singapore,Turkey,MicrowaveNetherlands,UK,USA,France,HongTubesandTransmittingKongTubes6.Solar
Products&SystemsSuriname,Germany,Zimbabwe,Botswana,Kenya,Nigeria7.TelecomandSATCOMNigeria,Kenyasystems8.Radio&TV
BroadcastingNepal,MauritiusproductsandSystems9.ElectronicVotingSystemsSriLanka,Uganda,Malawi,SouthAfrica10.VacuumInterrupters
Malaysia,UAE,Uganda,Turkey,UK,Azerbaijan14
19.19.CHAPTER515
20.20.BELPANCHKULA&ITSPRODUCTSPanchkulaisaplannedcityinPanchkulaDistrict,Haryana,India.ItisasatellitecityoftheUnion
TerritoryofChandigarh.TheprestigiousChandimandirCantonmentHeadquartersoftheIndianWesternCommand,isalsolocatedinPanchkulacity.
TherearefivetownsinthedistrictnamedPanchkula,BarwalaPinjore,KalkaandRaipurRani.TheonlyHillstationinHaryanacalledMorniisalsoin
thisDistrict.TheestimatedpopulationofPanchkulacity,in2006,is2,00,000.PanchkulaandMohali(inPunjab)aretwosatellitecitiesofChandigarh.
ThesethreecitiesarecollectivelyknownasChandigarhTricity.ThecomplexatPanchkulaisspreadoveranareaof63acres.Ithasatotalemployee
strengthof600.ItspecialisesindefencecommunicationproductsandhasrecentlystartedthemanufacturingofRADARsalso.Followingaresomeof
theimportantproductsmanufacturedbyBELPanchkula:1.ElectronicVotingMachines:Theworld'slargestdemocracywith671millionvoterswentto
pollsinAprilMay2004andelectedaGovernmentoftheirchoiceusingthemostpowerfulmeansofdecisionmakingintheworld,TheElectronic
VotingMachine(EVM).ExclusiveuseofEVMsacrossthelengthandbreadthofahugecountrylikeIndiacameoffsplendidlyandtheunparalleled
successofthisboldandprogressiveexperimentdemonstratedtotherestoftheworld,thecountry'stechnologicalaswellasgrassrootsdemocratic
capabilities.AbouthalfamillionoftheEVMsdeployedintheseelectionsweredesigned,manufacturedanddeliveredbyBharatElectronicsLimited
(BEL),aPublicSectorEnterpriseoftheGovernmentofIndia.Today,theElectronicVotingMachineshavemadeaneasypassagetoIndia'shundredsof
thousandsofvillages.Thereiswidespreadawarenessofitsreliabilityandadaptability,soalsothepoliticalrecognition.Allthesehavebeenachieved
throughaseriesofmeticulouslyplannedeventslikeexhaustivetrainingtothepollingofficials,massawarenessprogrammestoeducatevoters,
especiallytheoverwhelmingmajorityofthosewholiveintheremotevillagesofIndia,etc.TechnicalexpertsfromBharatElectronicsLtd.worked
untiringlyalongsidetheIndianElectionCommissionofficialsofferingsupportandassistancefortheseactivitiesandalsoduringtheelections,ensuring
thatthewholeprocess16
21.21.succeededanditisremarkablethattherehavebeennoproblemswiththemachinesworthspeakingabout.The2004generalelectionsinIndia,
wheremillionsofvoterscasttheirvotesthroughtheelectronicvotingmachinesandtheresultsofwhichweredeclaredinonesingleday,wasindeeda
landmarksuccessfortheapplicationoftechnologyforsustaineddevelopmentofsociety.2.STARSV(SecureTacticalArmyRadioSystem):STARSV
(SecureTacticalArmyRadioSystemVHF)isafamilyoffixedfrequencyandfrequencyhoppingradiosetsavailablein5Wand25Wpoweroutput
configurations.Theradiosprovidecommunicationinvoiceclear,voicesecureanddatamodes.Theycanbecontrolledfromaremotelocationupto2
km.Allfrontpanelcontrols(exceptON/OFF)areextendedusing2wirecablestoaRemoteControlUnit(RCU)attheremotelocation.Intercom
operationbetweenradiosetandRCUisalsoprovided.Theradiosetcanbeconfiguredforfullyautomaticrebroadcastoperation.Itisalsopossibleto
setuprebroadcastovertwowiresforvoiceclearmodeonly.Externaldatainterfaceisprovidedonthefrontpaneltofacilitatedatacommunicationwith
suitablemodem.Theradiosarefullymodularinconstruction.TheyaredesignedtoperforminconformancetoMIL461classofEMI/EMC
specifications.STARSVradiosfindusein17
22.22.ManpackaswellasvehicularapplicationsforprovidingvoiceanddatacommunicationsinVHFfrequencyrangeof3088MHzThereistwotypes
ofSTARSV:1.MARKI:ThisisthefirststageofSTARSV.Thissetisheavyandtheifanyneedrepairthendifficultytofindoutthefault.Andthe
majordifferenceisfrequencyhoppingisnotpossible.Therearetwopowermode5W,25Wandthefrequencyrangeonlyusedbyarmyis(30
87.97MHz)2.MARKII:ThisisthemodifiedstageoftheMARKI.ItislightinweightthentheMARKI.Andthemajordifferenceisfrequency
hoppingispossible.itconsistofsevenmodulesaregivenasA2PoweramplifierA4ReceivercardA5SynthesizerCardA11Fequencyhopingcard
A6controllercardA7securecardA8displaycard18
23.23.3.CNR(CompositeNetRadio)VHFTransrecievers(CNR)isasoftwarecontrolledfrequencyhoppingradio(TransmitterandReceiver)intheVHF
frequencybandof3088MHzthedesignoftheradioisbasedonDigitalSignalProcessor(DSP)technologymakinguseofDirectDigitalFrequency
Synthesis(DDFX).TheradioworksinAntijamfrequencyhoppingandfixedfrequencymodeswithbuiltinhighgradedigitalsecrecy.Theradio
supportsbothVoiceandDatacommunicationinclearaswellassecuremode.VHFfrequencyrangeof3088MHz2320channelswith25KHz
spacing1W/2W/5W/25WpoweroutputsDifferentmodels250hopspersecSpecificationsManpack/VehicularrolesRadioisbasedonDSP
technologyFrequencyrangeof3088MHzwith25KHzchannelspacingSupports2320channelswith10presetchannelsand10hopsetsScanand
BITEfacilityAutomaticrebroadcastfacilityDirectserialdatainterface(RS232C)Modularconstruction.19
24.24.4.SECTEL(SecureTelephone)SecureTelephoneisacompact,fullduplexdigitalSubscriberEndSecrecyDevice(SESD)providinghighestgrade
ofsecrecyonnormaltelephonelines.Itreplacessubscribersnormaltelephoneinstruments.Itcanoperateoveranystandardvoicechannelof
telephonenetworkslikeDOThiredmiltrunksinglelinkcircuitsandSTDchannels.Itoperatesfrom230VACmainsusingACDCadapter.Key
managementissupportedbyFillgun.SpeechisdigitizedusingLinearPredictiveCoding(LPC)techniqueanddigitallyencryptedbyahighlycomplex
cryptoalgorithmwhichensureshighestgradeofsecrecy.TheencryptedspeechistransmittedoverthetelephonelineusingaFullDuplexQASmodem.
Atthereceiverend,theencrypteddatastreamisdemodulateddecryptedandtheoriginalspeechissynthesized.Theusercanswitchbetweenclearand
securemodeduringthesamecall.20
25.25.5.SECUREUHFHANDHELDRADIO(LUP291)HighgradespeechsecrecyFullduplextransmissioninSecureandClearmodeDatarate2.4
kbpsfullduplexMemorydiallingof10storednumbersMultifunctionkeypadfordifferentfunctionsSimpleconnectivityoverstandardtwowire
telephonelines2x16characterLCDdisplaytoshowthestatusLUP291isaUHFhandheldradiowithinbuilthighgradedigitalsecrecy.Theradioset
isstateoftheartdesign,compactandlightweight.InterfaceisprovidedforHeadgearandCryptokeyloading.Theoperatorinterfaceisuser
friendlywithminimumnumberofcontrols.Theradiosetisprovidedwithhelicalandmagneticmountantennas.Theradiosethasinbuiltmicand
speaker.VOXheadgearisalsoavailableasoptionalaccessoryforhandsfreeoperation.ContinuousTonecodedsquelches(CTCSS)RFPowerOutput:
5W/1W(selectable).VariousprogrammablefeatureslikeScan,CTCSSfrequencyselection,PowerSave,Passwordetc.InbuiltPowerfulDiagnosis
feature(BITE)TXInhibit(Sulk),Clone,EraseandWhisperfacilities7.2VPrimary&SecondarybatteriesAntennas:Helicalandmagneticmount
ComplainttoMIL461EMI.21
26.26.6.SEED(SubscriberEndEncryptionDevice)Itiscompact,fullduplexsecrecydeice.Description:1)SEEDProcessorcardPRGMD2)Power
supplycard3)Batterycharger4)FrontpanelcardApplication:1)Executetheapplicationfileprovidedfordatacommunication.2)Secretcomporton
whichtheSEEDconnectedtothepcandthemainmenuwillbedisplayed.3)Gototelephonedairy.4)Totransmitafile,gototransmitfilemenu.7.
SMILE(SecureMultiInterfaceLinkEncrypter)Itisabulkdatatrafficandradiorelaywithvariabledataratesof64,128,256,384,512,1024,2048
kbps.Description:1)Motherfillgun2)ChildfillgunVariouscardconsistofSMILE:1)PRGMDcontrollercard2)PSUcard3)Frontpanelcard4)
V.35maleinterfacecard5)V.35femaleinterfacecard22
27.27.8.HUD(Headupdisplay)TheprojectionunitinatypicalHUDisanopticalcollimatorsetup:aconvexlensorconcavemirrorwithaCathodeRay
Tube,lightemittingdiode,orliquidcrystaldisplayatitsfocus.Thissetup(adesignthathasbeenaroundsincetheinventionofthereflectorsightin
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1900)producesanimagewherethelightisparalleli.e.perceivedtobeatinfinity.Thecombineristypicallyanangledflatpieceofglass(abeam
splitter)locateddirectlyinfrontoftheviewer,thatredirectstheprojectedimagefromprojectorinsuchawayastoseethefieldofviewandthe
projectedinfinityimageatthesametime.23
28.28.Combinersmayhavespecialcoatingsthatreflectthemonochromaticlightprojectedontoitfromtheprojectorunitwhileallowingallother
wavelengthsoflighttopassthrough.Insomeopticallayoutscombinersmayalsohaveacurvedsurfacetorefocustheimagefromtheprojector.The
computerprovidestheinterfacebetweentheHUD(i.e.theprojectionunitandthesystems/datatobedisplayedandgeneratestheimageryandsymbols
tobedisplayedbytheprojectionunit.GenerationsHUDsaresplitintofourgenerationsreflectingthetechnologyusedtogeneratetheimages.First
GenerationUseaCRTtogenerateanimageonaphosphorscreen,havingthedisadvantageofthephosphorscreencoatingdegradingovertime.The
majorityofHUDsinoperationtodayareofthistype.SecondGenerationUseasolidstatelightsource,forexampleLED,whichismodulatedbyan
LCDscreentodisplayanimage.Thesesystemsdonotfadeorrequirethehighvoltagesoffirstgenerationsystems.Thesesystemsareoncommercial
aircraft.ThirdGenerationUseopticalwaveguidestoproduceimagesdirectlyinthecombinerratherthanuseaprojectionsystem.FourthGeneration
Useascanninglasertodisplayimagesandevenvideoimageryonacleartransparentmedium.Newermicrodisplayimagingtechnologiesarebeing
introducedincluding1.Liquidcrystaldisplay(LCD),2.Liquidcrystalonsilicon(LCoS),3.Digitalmicromirrors(DMD),4.Organiclightemitting
diode(OLED).24
29.29.9.BHARANIRADARLowlevelLightWeight2DRadarBHARANI:isalightweight,batterypoweredandcompactsensorwhichprovides2D
surveillancesolutiontoalertArmyAirDefenceWeaponSystemsmainlyinmountainousterrainagainsthostileaerialtargetslikeUAVs,RPVs,
helicoptersandfixedwingaircraftflyingatlowandmediumaltitudes.Theradarcanbetransportedbyvehicles,animaltransportorgroupofmenoras
helislungloads.Itcanbedismantledintopackagestofacilitatequickinstallationandrelocationinmountainousterrain.Itwillactasanearlywarnerto
airdefenceweaponsystemsemployedtoprovideprotectiontovulnerableareasorvulnerablepoints.Thesystemconsistsofradar,CommanderDisplay
Unit(CDU)andmessagingunitTargetDesignationUnit(TDU)andTargetDataReceivers(TDR).Oneradarcanserviceupto10TDRsusingexisting
combatradioresources/network.TheCDUcanbelocatedupto750mfromtheradar.Theradarwithmodulararchitecture,advancedECCMfeatures,
ruggednessasperMilstandardscanbeoperatedinvariedconditionsincludingextremeclimaticandgeographicalconditionsandinbattlefield
situations,especiallyoffensiveEWenvironment.Theradardetectsandtracksshortrangeairtogroundthreatswithahighprobabilityofdetection.The
radarhasanintegratedIFFthatcandetect,confirm,classifyandattainIFFstatusoneverytargetinthebattlespaceundersurveillance.Ithasarangeof
50KMsandcanoperateatanaltitudeof75mtrsto5400mtrs.ItoperatesinLband.25
30.30.10.ROHINIRADARLowlevelLightWeight3DRadarROHINI:ROHINIisamultifacetedgroundbasedSBand3DLowLevelLightWeight
SurveillanceRadarfordeploymentindiverseterrainslikeplains,deserts,mountaintopsandhighaltituderegions.Rohinidetectsandtracks
heterogeneousairtargets,includinghelicopters,fightersandUAVsatlowandmediumaltitudes.Theradarcanscanthevalley.Itprovidesaccurate
range,azimuthandheightinformationforeachtargetwithelectronicallysteerablemultibeamtechnologyinelevation.Theradarsweeps360in
azimuthand30inelevationtoprovideairspaceawareness.SemidistributedactiveapertureradarusesadvancedVLSIandhighspeeddigital
technologieslikehighefficiencyT/Rmodules,DDS,digitalreceiverandprogrammablesignalprocessortoprovide3Dairspaceawarenesswithhigh
accuracy,resolutionandreliability.26
31.31.Asallthemainradarsubsystemsareontherotatingplatform,thisradararchitectureobviatesthetwomostcommonsinglepointfailuresby
dispensingwithhighpowerrotaryjointsandcentraltransmittertherebymakingtheradarsystemextremelyreliable.Theradariseasilyrelocatable
andcanbedeployedordecampedinlessthan15minutes.Theradarisengineeredinmultiplepackagestoenableeasytransportabilityinmountainous
terrainbyvehicles,groupofmen,orasanunderslungcarriagebyahelicopter.TheremoteoperationoftheradarthroughCommander'sDisplayUnit
(CDU)upto1kmfromtheradarprovidessafetytothecrewduringoperation.ThefacilityalsoenablestheCommandertodeploytheradarata
tacticallyfavourablepoint.Thequadripodmountedradarisbuilttooperateinnetworkedorstandalonemodetosupportjointorindependent
operationsbyAirForce.MultiECCMfeatureshelptheradartodeliverintendedperformanceevenunderintensehostileEMenvironment.Rohinibeing
compact,lightweightandmodular,canbeusedindifferentinnovativeroleslikeairspacesurveillanceinurbanareasforVVIPs,largecritical
installations.27
32.32.CHAPTER628
33.33.DEPARTMENTS&FUNCTIONSBELPanchkulahasdifferentdivisionswhicharefurtherdividedintodepartments1.D&E(Developmentand
Engineering)Thisisadivisionwhichisfurtherdividedintodepartments.Theyare:D&E(DEVELOPMENT&ENGINEERING)Itistodesignthe
project,makethemodificationstopreparedesignandrelateddocuments.D&ECRYPTOItisfordesigningofsecurecommunication.TIC(Technical
InformationCentre)TICisalibraryfordesigningpurpose.DRAOFFICEItistheDrawingoffice.STDS(STANDARDS)Thesearethestandards
forDrafting,Designmanure,Qualitystandards.2.MFG(MANUFACTURING):WA(WORKASSEMBLY)Therearedifferenttypesofwork
assemblyi.ePCBassembly,Moduleassembly,Finalassembly.WF(WORKFABRICATION)Itisthedepartmentforthemechanicalwork.AMF
(ADVANCEDMANUFACTURINGFACILITIES)AdvancedmachinesareusedinthemanufacturingoftheprojectsasSMT(SurfaceMounted
Technology),itisanautomaticsystemtomounttheitemonthePCB.PE(PRODUCTIONENGINEERING)Itisfortheinstallationofthenew
machinery.PPC(PRODUCTION,PLANNINGandCONTROL)Inthistheworkisplanned.SC(SUBCONTRACT)29
34.34.3.MM(MATERIALMANAGEMENT):Itisthemanagementofthematerials.PUR(PURCHASEDEPARTMENT)Thisdepartmentpurchases
thematerials.ISM(INTEGRATEDSTOREMANAGEMENT)HS(HOLDINGSTORE)Ithasdifferentbinsthatholdsitemsafterinspection.IGS
(INCOMINGGOODSSTORE)MC(MATERIALCONTROL)4.MKTG/PA(MARKETING/PRODUCTASSURANCE):MKTG(Marketing
Division)SalesItistoprepareESOequipmentsourceorder.FGS(FINISHGOODSSTORE)AfterfinishingtheprojectitissenttoFGSforfinal
packing.TL(TechnicalLiterature)Itisthebookletwiththeprojecthavinginstructions.PR(PUBLICRELATION)Itistherelationwiththe
customers.TESTINGProductsaretestedbydifferenttestsCTEST(CIPHERTEST)Itisthetestforthesecrecy.PS(PRODUCTSUPPORT)Itis
doneaftersaleservices.SELFCERT(SELFCERTIFICATION)Itisthedepartmentwhichvisitstheplacewhereworkisgoingon.5.QA
(QUALITYASSURANCE):Itdealswiththequalityofthematerial.INSP(WA){INSPECTIONINWORKASSEMBLY)INSP(WF){INSPECTION
INWORKFABRICATION)R&E(RELIABILITY&EVALUATION)Thematerialsarecheckedbeforegivingittocustomers.30
35.35.6.P&S(PLANTANDSERVICES):Itisthedepartmentforprovidingtheservicestocompany.Servicesarewatersupply,electricalsupply,
transport,horticulture.7.HR&A(HUMANRESOURCES&ADMINISTRATION):PERSON.(PERSONNEL)Inthisdepartmenttherecruitment
ofemployeesisdone.ESTD.(ESTABLISHMENT)Itistousemanpowerindifferentareas.MEDICALMedicalfacilitiesarealsoavailable.
CRECHECANTEENWELFARE8.F&A(FINANCE&ACCOUNT):FINANCEDepartmentforthesanctionofmoney.PAYROLLItisthesalary
oftheemployees.BUDGETItismadeforoneyear.ACCOUNTSItistherecordofthemoney.AUDITSurveyofthesystems.9.IS/MS
(INFORMATIONSYSTEMS):MRPAllProductionRelatedworkrelatedtoassy,stores,purchaseetc.PAYROLLRelatedtoSalary.FINANCE
Concernedwithledgers,subsidaryledgers,Generalledgeretc.31
36.36.10.QM(QUALITYMANAGEMENT):ISO(INTERNATIONALSTANDARDSORGANISATION)Itistosellourproductsintheinternational
market.6SIGMAItisthestatisticalTechniqueformaintainingQuality.TES(TESTEQUIPMENTANDSUPPORT)Calibrationormeasuringof
instruments.IGI(INCOMINGGOODSINSPECTION)QCC(QUALITYCONTROLCIRCLE)Inthisdepartmentthereisagroupofemployees
whodiscusstheproblems,findoutitssolutionandpresentittomanager.32
37.37.CHAPTER733
38.38.SUBDEPARTMENTSPRODUCTIONPLANNINGANDCONTROLThissubdepartmentformsthemostimportantsectionamongtheothers
presentbecauseitformsthebackbone.Rightfromthebeginningtilltheendoftheproductionofaparticularset,theresponsibilityliesinthehandsof
thissection,itmainlyperformsthreefunctionsnamely:SchedulingLaunchingControlThemarketsectiontakestheorderfromthecustomerandgives
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theequipmentstockordertoPPC.ThemanagementservicingdepartmentpreparestheworkorderandgivesittoPPC.NowPPCmakesthelistofeach
componentinvolvedinproduct.ThisiscalledScheduling.NextfunctionthatcomesislaunchedPPCpreparesshoporderandengineering
documentssuchasdrawings.ThisfunctioniscalledLaunching.Nowcomesmaterialcontrol.HerethePPCkeepstrackofproductioni.e.the
purchaserequisitionisgiventopurchasedepartmentandsubcontactdepartment.ThepurchasenowcomestotheIGS(InwardsGoodsSection)where
itistestedinIGI.Thepiecesthatareokayedarethenstoredinholdingstores.ASSEMBLYSECTION/AMF(AdvancedManufacturingFacility)As
thenamesuggests,inthisdepartmentallthecomponentsaremountedonPCBs.ThesePCBsarethensatproperlyinthecompleteset.Itisoneofthe
mostimportantandtechnologicallyadvanceddepartmentatBELPanchkula.Itisdividedintothreesections:34
39.39.PCBassemblysectionCoilwindingsectionFinalassemblysectionFirstwewilldiscussindetailabouttheAMFsectionwhichusesthesurface
mountingtechnologytomountcomponentsonthePCBsadetailedstructureofthecompleteAMFlineisexplainedasfollows:THESMTLINEThe
variousstagesinvolvedintheSMTinsequencearecalledtheSMTline.Thestagesinvolvedare:35
40.40.SURFACEMOUNTTECHNOLOGYSurfacemounttechnologywasdevelopedinthe1960sandbecamewidelyusedinthelate1980s.Muchof
thepioneeringworkinthistechnologywasbyIBM.ThedesignapproachfirstdemonstratedbyIBMin1960inasmallscalecomputerwaslater
appliedintheLaunchVehicleDigitalComputerusedintheInstrumentUnitthatguidedallSaturnIBandSaturnVvehicles.Componentswere
mechanicallyredesignedtohavesmallmetaltabsorendcapsthatcouldbedirectlysolderedtothesurfaceofthePCB.Componentsbecamemuch
smallerandcomponentplacementonbothsidesofaboardbecamefarmorecommonwithsurfacemountingthanthroughholemounting,allowing
muchhighercircuitdensities.Oftenonlythesolderjointsholdthepartstotheboard,althoughpartsonthebottomor"second"sideoftheboardare
temporarilysecuredwithadotofadhesiveaswell.Surfacemounteddevices(SMDs)areusuallymadephysicallysmallandlightweightforthisreason.
Surfacemountinglendsitselfwelltoahighdegreeofautomation,reducinglabourcostandgreatlyincreasingproductionrates.SMDscanbeone
quartertoonetenththesizeandweight,andonehalftoonequarterthecostofequivalentthroughholeparts.ExpandedFormsSMDSurfacemount
devices(active,passiveandelectromechanicalcomponents)SMTSurfacemounttechnology(assemblingandmountingtechnology)SMASurface
mountassembly(moduleassembledwithSMT)SMCSurfacemountcomponents(componentsforSMT)SMPSurfacemountpackages(SMDcase
forms)SMESurfacemountequipment(SMTassemblingmachines)36
41.41.1.LoaderMODEL:LSIZEMAKE:AUTOVEYORLoaderasthenamesuggestloadthepcbonwhichcomponentaretobemounted.Thisis
thefirststepofSMTlineIthasfivemagazinetoloadpcbandeachmagazinehasamaximumcapacityof50pcb.Theheightis930mmfromthe
ground2.StencilPrinterMake:DEKModel:ELAVIHugeprintareacapabilityThehugeprintareacapabilityallowsprintingupto1200mmx
400mm.ItacceptsstandardSMTframesizesfrom350x350mmto1480x500mm(forSP1200),or350x350mmto736x73637
42.42.mm(forSP600L).VerticalSeparationofStencilfromPCB4cornerballscrewsystemprovidesexcellentseparationcontrolofstencilforhigh
qualitysolderpasteprintingProgrammableSpeedControlforbothsqueegeemovementandstencilseparationDualCamerasystemforquickPCB
alignment.38
43.43.3.PickandplacemachineMake:siemensModel:SIPLACEHFComponenthandlingcapacity:Flipchip,BGA,BGA,MELF,miniMELF,
CPSFinepitchcomponentupto12MILHeads:HydraHead(8Nozzles)morespeedMidasHead(1MasterHead)moreaccurate.Chip
component=24000CPHFinepitchcomponent=3500CPHPlacementaccuracy:45mat6sigmafinepitchcomponent39
44.44.4.ReflowsolderingmachineMake:SEHO(Germany)Model:MAXIPOWER2.7ReflowovenisthatpartofSMTprocesswhereallsolder
pasteisreheatedandcomponentsareassumedtobeproperlyconnected.InthisprocessthePCBispassedthroughdifferenttemperature.Numberof
heatingzoneissixActivecoolingmoduleFluxmanufacturingsystemAllconvectionheatingtypeDoublepeakinreflowzone5.Automaticoptical
inspectionMake:AGILENTModel:SJ50SERIESIIPCBisinspectedcarefullyfortheircomponents.DuetosmallsizeofcomponentsSMT
boardrequiresverycarefulinspectionparticularlyforsolderball,improperlysolderedjointsandmissedsolderconnections,etc.Somecomponentsare
speciallydifficulttoinspectlikequad40
45.45.PLCCs(PlasticLoadedChipCarrier)i.e.IChavingJprofilepinsalongeachfoursidesandithasmorethan28pins.Opticalcharacter
recognition(OCR)Opticalcharacterverification(OCV)41
46.46.6.WaveSolderingMachineWavesolderingmachineconsistsofthePCBcarrierstand,whichcanhold10PCBsatatime.Thisstandmovesover
theconveyerbeltwhosespeedis6080cm/sec.ThefluxusedforsolderingisRosionR8.Thethinnerisaddedtothefluxsoastomaketheflux
thinner.Thenextcomponentinthismachineisairknifewheretheexcessfluxisremoved.Nextcomesthepreheaterzone.Itconsistsof6perheaters.
Thetemperatureforthefirst2heatersis100degreeCelsius,fornexttwopreheatersthetemperatureis140degreeCelsius,andthetemperatureforlast
twochambersis180degreeCelsius.Theboxcontainingthesolderiscalledthesolderbath,whichhasthecapacityof400kg.Thetemperatureofthe
solderbathis250270degreeCelsius.Whilethesolderisheatedupinsidethesolderbath,thepumparrangementprovidesforthehotsoldertoflow.
Thesoldernozzlethenproducesasolderwave.Afterthesolderbath,theconveyorbeltissetontheangleof47degrees.Thismachinecostsaround
30lakhs.ThismachinealsoconsistsofthesensorswhichsensethegreenmaskaswellasthespotmaskonthePCBsuchthatthesolderdoesnotstays
onit.Thewastematerialofthemachineisknownasdross.ThesoldertemperatureiscontinuouslycontrolledbythePIDcontrolleranditsthermo
couples.42
47.47.WORKASSEMBLYItisanimportantdepartmentofthemanufacturingdivision.Theassemblyofthedifferentcomponentstakesplacehereto
makeacompleteproduct.Manyoftheaccessoriesrelatedtotheproductsarealsomanufacturedhere.Someofthemareasfollows:1.Handsets2.Data
Cables3.FillGunsItisbasicallydividedintotwopartswiz:1.PCBAssembling:inthissectionPCBaremanuallyassembledandcomponentsare
mountedusingmanualsoldering.Thisisinthecaseoflargecomponents.Therefourlinesdedicatedtothiswork.2.Integration:inthissectionthe
integrationofthedifferentcomponentstoformthecompleteproducttakesplaceisalsocalledasfinalassembly.Theworkscarriedoutinthissection
canbedescribedasfollows:1.CableForming2.CableAssembly3.ModulesAssembly4.StagIntegration5.CableHarness6.FinalIntegration7.RF
&DataCablesFormingThedevicesorproductsafterbeingdispatchedfromthissectionarethenforwardedtothetestingsectionwheretheyaretested
fordifferentparametersandfinallytheinstrumentswhichpassthetestarefurthersenttotheotherdepartments.Thetestingprocessisexplainedinthe
nextsection.43
48.48.TESTING&INSPECTIONTesting&InspectionisdoneineverystageofPCBnamelyat:ModulestageSubassemblyFinalstageItisdoneafter
theenvironmentaltestingandbeforesendingfortesting.Themostimportantparametersthataretobefollowedduringtheinspectionareasfollows:1)
Thevaluesofthevariouscomponents2)Thevisiblecharacteristicsofvariousactivedevices3)Variousinterconnections4)WhethertheBELstandards
aremaintainedornotTestingisveryimportantintheproduction.InPGImanufacturingofSTARSVisthemainjob.TestingofSTARSVisdonein
twomainstagesonly.PCBleveltestingMaintestingPCBleveltestingtakesplaceinmanystages.Firstly,thePCBSarekeptinchamberwithatemp.
of+50Cand30C.ThisisdonetocheckthestabilityofcharacteristicofPCBaswellasitscomponents.Thisprocessisdoneforapprox.80hours.
Thisiscalledageingprocess.ThePCBthatpassesoutoftheageingprocessarethenbroughtoutintheblocktoputthemthroughtestjigs.Thesetest
jigsprovideperfectenvironmentIntermsofsignalsthatactualsetwillfaceinthefield.Intesting,productissubjectedtoadverseconditiontocheckthe
reliabilityofproductunderconditiondefenceforceswilluse.44
49.49.ThePCBissenttoassemblysectionbackandtheycomeoutclearfromtestjigs.Nowinassemblysectionallcomponentsarepackedfinally.These
packedsetsarenowsentformaintesting.Themaintestingincludesmanytests.ThefirsttestisBUMPTEST.Thisisdonetochecktheresistanceofset
againstmechanicalbumpsandvibrations.NextisTHERMALSHOCKtesttochecktheadaptabilityofsettosuddenchangeintemperature.Thermal
shocksaregiven.Thesetsaresubjectedtotemp.Rangeof40C70C.LEAKAGETESTisdonetocheckthesetforanyleakage.Inthistheradioset
isimmersedinwater.Theairisfilledinsidesetthroughanozzleatapressureof3PSI.ifairbubblesappear,setissentforrepairing.Thereisaspatial
sectionintestingbythenameCIPHER.HeretheencryptionpartofPCBisenabledandchecked.Entryinthissectionisstrictlyrestrictedforanyone,
apartfromauthorizedpersonnel.45
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50.50.CHAPTER846
51.51.RESULTS&DISCUSSIONSTheindustrialtrainingatB.E.L.hasgivenmeanexposureoftheactivitiesofadefenseunit.Thisbeingalarge
organizationdealswithwidespectrumoftechnologies.DuringmytraininginB.E.L,Icametoknowaboutdifferentrangeofproducts,rangingfrom
communicationequipmentstohardwaretosoftwareequipmentsanditgoesineverystrataofsocietylikeitisnowusuallyusedinmilitarytraining
academies.APPLICATIONSOFPRODUCTS:1.STARSVTheseradiosareusedinManpackaswellasvehicularapplicationsforprovidingvoice
anddatacommunicationsinVHFfrequencyrangeof3088MHZ.2.CNRThisradioworksinAntijamfrequencyhoppingandfixedfrequency
modeswithbuiltinhighgradedigitalsecrecy.3.SECTELHeretheencryptedspeechistransmittedoverthetelephonelineusingaFULLDuplex
QASKmodem.Atthereceiverend,theencrypteddatastreamisdemodulated/decryptedandtheorinalspeechissynthesized.Theusercanswitch
betweenclearandsecuremodeduringthesamecall.4.SECUREUHFHANDHELDRADIOthisradiosetisprovidedwithhelicalandmagnetic
mountantennas.Theradiosethasinbuiltmicandspeaker.VOXheadgearisalsoavailableasoptionalaccessoryforhandsfreeoperation.5.DBCIt
istochargethetwobatteriesatthesametimewhichisusedinVPSset.ItcanworkwithACaswellasdcinputalso.Itisalsoshockproof.47
52.52.CONCLUSIONThesixweeksofsummertrainingatBEL,PKLunitgeneratedalotmoreinterestinmysubject.Itmadememoreawareofthe
scopeofElectronics&CommunicationEngineering.Ithasalsomademeappreciativeofanindustrialworkenvironment.Undergoingtrainingonthe
indoorsubstationhashelpedmeintegrateconceptualknowledgewithreallifeapplication.Iwasfortunatetohavepersonalguidancefromexperienced
professionalswhotookbeeninterestinexplainingtheworkingdetailsofvariousequipments.Ifeelthatwithoutthisopportunity,myown
understandingofthissubjectandalsothemotivationtoacquiremoreknowledgewouldhaveremainedincomplete.Well,regardingfuturescopeIthink
mytraininghasgivenmeenoughmotivationandanexposurethatIwilltrytojoindefenceservicesorgetlinkedupwiththedefenceofthecountry.
Toknowthetechnicalknowhow,industrialtrainingisthebestwaytomoveforward.48
53.53.BIBLIOGRAPHY[1]THEMAINRESOURCESOFTHEWORKWERETHEFACULTYOFHRDDEPARTMENT.[2]WEBSITE:
http://www.belindia.com/49
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