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Parabolic Trough 2007 Workshop

Overview on Direct Steam Generation (DSG)


and
Experience at the Plataforma Solar de Almera (PSA)

Eduardo Zarza
CIEMAT-Plataforma Solar de Almera,
Apartado 22, Tabernas, E-04200 Almera, Spain
Phone (+34) 950387931
Fax: (+34) 950365015
E-mail: eduardo.zarza@psa.es
March 8-9, 2007 (Denver)

Parabolic Trough 2007 Workshop


Overview on Direct Steam Generation
&
PSA experience

Advantages and disadvantages of the DSG process

R+D activities related to DSG since 1980

State-of-the-art of the DSG technology

March 8-9, 2007 (Denver)

The Direct Steam Generation Process

Comparison between the DSG technology and the HTF (oil) technology

Advantages of the DSG technology:

&
&
&
&

Smaller environmental risks because oil is replaced by water


Higher steam temperature (maximum steam temperature with oil = 380C)
The overall plant configuration is more simple
Lower investment and O&M costs and higher plant efficiency

DSG-related potential problems:

Solar field control under solar radiation transients

Instability of the two-phase flow inside the receiver tubes

Temperature gradients at the receiver pipes

March 8-9, 2007 (Denver)

The Direct Steam Generation Process

DSG-related projects and studies since 1980

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Theoretical studies by SERI (1982)

The ATS (Advance Trough System) project by LUZ,(1987-1991)

Experiments by ZSW at the HIPRESS test facility (1992-1994)

The GUDE project experiments at Erlangen (1992-1995)

The project PRODISS

The project ARDISS (1994-1997)

R+D activities at UNAM (Mexico, 1976- up to date)

The DISS project (1996-2001)

The INDITEP project (2002-2005)

March 8-9, 2007 (Denver)

The Direct Steam Generation Process

State-of-the-art of the DSG technology

Technical feasibility of the DSG process in horizontal PTs has been proven. More
than 5500 hours of operation have been accumulated at the DISS test facility

Accurate simulation&design tools for DSG solar fields have been developed

The best configuration for commercial DSG solar fields is a mixture of injection
and recirculation. This configuration has been experimentally evaluated at PSA

It is easy to keep the temperature gradients in the receiver pipes within safe limits.
Maximum stress obtained at PSA during operation has been 47% of the limit allowed

Compact and cost-effective water/steam separators have been developed

Ball-joints for water/steam at 100bar/400C have been successfully tested.


Testing of ball-joints for steam at 100bar/550C currently underway.

A Spanish Consortium is promoting a 3 MWe DSG power plants to be installed at PSA


Several projects related to DSG are currently underway in Europe
A suitable thermal energy storage technology for DSG still to be developed
March 8-9, 2007 (Denver)

Overview on DSG

End of Presentation
! Many thanks for your attention
March 8-9, 2007 (Denver)

Direct Steam Generation

Typical Temperature profile in a HTF Solar thermal Power Plant


Steam at 104 bar/371 C
Oil at 390 C

Steam Turbine
Sobrecalentador

Solar Field

Oil circuit

G
Steam generator
Evaporator
Condenser

Pre-heater

Auxiliary heater
Oil at 295 C

Steam at 17 bar/371 C

Re-heater
Oil expansion tank
March 8-9, 2007 (Denver)

Direct Steam Generation

Simplified Scheme of typical HFT and DSG solar thermal power plants
Steam at 104 bar/371 C

Solar Field

Oil circuit

Oil at 390 C

Steam turbine

Super-heater

Condenser
Steam Generator

DSG Plant
Steam at 104 bar/400 C

Steam turbine
Auxiliary heater
Oil at 295 C

Degasifier
Re-heater
Oil expansion tank

HTF Plant

So

d
iel
f
lar

Auxiliary heater

Condenser
De-gasifier
Water at 114 bar / 200 C
March 8-9, 2007 (Denver)

Direct Steam Generation

The Ledinegg instability

Pressure drop, P

Characteristic curve of a row of DSG


Parabolic troughs (constant Tin, Pout and Ed)

(P )
) E =cte < 0
qm d

100% steam

P
P

Characteristic curve of
a centrifugal pump

100% liquid

Mass feed flow


March 8-9, 2007 (Denver)

Direct Steam Generation

Different sections in the rows of a DSG solar field

Solar Radiation

qm

T
L1

Preheating

L2

Evaporation

L3

Sperheating

March 8-9, 2007 (Denver)

Direct Steam Generation

Uneven heat transfer at the steel absorber pipe

hliquid

Receiver pipe

hliquid
Parabolic trough
concentrator

March 8-9, 2007 (Denver)

Direct Steam Generation

The DSG test facility implemented by LUZ for the ATS project

March 8-9, 2007 (Denver)

Direct Steam Generation

The HIPRESS test facility implemented by ZSW to study the DSG process

March 8-9, 2007 (Denver)

Direct Steam Generation

The DSG test facility implemented by SIEMENS for the GUDE project

March 8-9, 2007 (Denver)

Direct Steam Generation


The DISS test facility implemented at the PSA
Aerial view of the DISS facility

Row of collectors

B.O.P. building

The DISS solar field (south)


March 8-9, 2007 (Denver)

Direct Steam Generation


The DISS test facility implemented at the PSA
Water evaporation (Cont.)

Steam superheating
Special test collector

0-2-4

0-2-4

0-2-4

0-2-4

0-2-4

0-2-4

0-2-4

0-2-4

0 to 8

10

11

Water injection circuit

TK-4
Recirculation
pump

Water pre-heating and beginning


of evaporation
0

100 m

Water/steam
separator

Feedwater
valve

Water
(40-108 bar)

Power Block

100 m

Control
valves

Superheated steam
(30 - 100 bar)

Feedwater
pump

March 8-9, 2007 (Denver)

Direct Steam Generation

Scheme proposed for commercial DSG solar fields

V2

Water preheating (3 collectors) + boiling ( 5 collectors)


Feedwater

Water recirculation

V1

Water
injector

March 8-9, 2007 (Denver)

Direct Steam Generation

Beam solar radiation

Outlet steam pressure (bar)

Inlet tem perature

Steam flow *100 (kg/s)

Outlet temperature

110

900

100

800

90
80

700

70

600

60
500
50
400

40

300

30

200

20

100

10

Steam flow *100 (kg/s)

1000

Steam pressure (bar)

Inlet and Outlet Temperatures (C)

Solar Radiation (W /m )

Experimental data collected at the DISS facility

0
10:00

12:00

14:00

16:00

18:00

20:00

Local tim e (hh:mm )

Steam Production at 100bar/350C (05/07/2001)


March 8-9, 2007 (Denver)

Direct Steam Generation

Water/steam separators for DSG

Classic water/steam separator

Compact water/steam separator

March 8-9, 2007 (Denver)

Direct Steam Generation

Simplified Scheme of the DSG Solar Field to be installed at PSA


505 m

17.5 m

125 m

17.5 m

Recirculation pump

Feed pump

Power
Bolck

Technical parameters
Number of parallel rows: 4

Number of collectors per row: 10 ET-100 collectors

Lenght of every collector: 98,5 m

Parabola width: 5.76 m

Total aperture area: 21934 m2

Peak Thermal power (Ed=1kW/m2): 14,3 MW

March 8-9, 2007 (Denver)

Direct Steam Generation

Simplified Scheme of the Power block for the PSA DSG plant
P = 70 bar
T = 411C

P = 65 bar
T = 400C

Steam turbine

HP

Solar field
P = 5,6 bar
T = 172 C

P = 2,44 bar
T = 127 C

P = 80 bar
T = 115 C

P = 85 bar
T = 126 C

Generator

LP

G
P = 0,1 bar
T = 46 C

Hot air

Aero-condenser
Degasifier +
Storage water tank

March 8-9, 2007 (Denver)

Direct Steam Generation


Temperature gradients in the steel absorber pipes

March 8-9, 2007 (Denver)