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# 1.

## Compare Bandwidth and power requirement in terms of carrier power PC , for

AM, DSB-SC and SSB?
Ans:
Description
AM with carrier
DSB-SC AM
SSB-SC-AM
Bandwidth
2fm
2fm
Fm
Power Saving
33.33%
66.66%
83.3%
2. What is meant by frequency translation?
Ans: Moving a modulated radio-frequency carrier signal to a new location in the frequency
spectrum without disturbing the relationship of the carrier to its sidebands.
3. What are the advantages of Vestigial Side Band?
Ans: *) Offers a compromise between SSB and DSB-SC
*) VSB is standard for transmission of TV and similar signals
*) Bandwidth saving can be significant if modulating signals are of large bandwidth as
in TV and wide band data signals.
4. Define the modulation index of FM.
Ans: It is defined as the ratio of maximum frequency deviation to the modulating frequency.
= f/fm
5. How is the narrow band FM converted into wide band FM?
Ans: The narrowband FM signal can be converted to a wideband FM signal by simply passing
it through a nonlinear device with power P. Both the carrier frequency and the
frequency deviation f of the narrowband signal are increased by a factor P.
6. A carrier is frequency modulated by a sinusoidal modulating frequency 2 KHz, resulting
in frequency deviation of 5 kHz. What is the bandwidth occupied by the modulated
waveform?
Ans: Given: fm = 2 kHz, f = 5 kHz.
To find: Bandwidth of the modulated signal BW = 2 (f + fm) = 2(5 103 + 2 103)
BW = 14kHz.
7. Illustrate the relationship between FM and PM, with block diagrams.
Ans:
Modulating
Wave

Differentiat

Frequency
Modulator

PM Wave

Carrier wave
Modulating
Wave

Integrator

Phase
Modulator

Carrier wave

FM Wave

## 8. What is meant by detection? Name the methods of detecting FM signals.

Ans: Detection or Demodulation is the process by which modulating voltage is recovered
from the modulated signal. It is the reverse process of modulation.
Methods: Slope detector and phase discriminator.
9. What are the advantages of Ratio detector?
Ans:
Easy to align.
Very good linearity, due to linear phase relationship between primary and
secondary.
Amplitude limiting is provided inherently. So additional limiter is not required.
Reduced fluctuations in output voltage.
10. Distinguish between narrow band FM and wide band FM.
Ans:
Sl.No

Parameter/ Characteristics

Wideband FM

1.

Modulation Index

Greater than 1

2.
3.
4.

Maximum deviation
Range of modulating frequency
Bandwidth

75 KHz
30 Hz to 15 KHz
2(f + fm)

Narrowband FM
Less than (or) slightly
greater than 1
5KHz
30 Hz to 3 Khz
2fm

## 11. Define white noise. State its power spectral density

Ans: Many types of noise sources are Gaussian and have flat spectral density over a wide
frequency range. Such spectrum has all frequency components in equal portion, and is
therefore called white noise. The power spectral density of white noise is independent of
the operating frequency, which is given as
Sw () = N0 /2
12. Define a random variable. Specify the sample space and the random variable for a coin
tossing experiment.
Ans: Random variable is defined as a rule or mapping from the original sample space to a
numerical sample space subjected to certain constraints. Random variable is also defined

as a function where domain is the set of outcomes and whose range is R, is the real line.
All our random variables will be defined on finite sample spaces. The possible outcomes
for one coin toss can be described by the sample space = {heads, tails}.
13. When is a random process called deterministic?
Ans: A random process represents an ensemble of time functions, the value of which at any
given time can be pre-determined or specified thus a deterministic process.
Ex: X(t) = A cos(t + ) where A and are constant and is a random variable. Once
the parameter is determined, X(t) as a function of time is entirely specified and is
thus a deterministic process.

## 14. What is coherent system?

Ans: The frequencies used for demodulation are synchronized to oscillator frequencies
generated in the transmitter is said to be coherent system.
15. Compare the noise performance of DSBSC receiver using coherent detection with AM
Ans:
Sl.No

Parameters

1.

## (SNR)O and (SNR)C

2.

Bandwidth

3.

Threshold effect

4,

Noise performance

AM (Envelope)
(SNR)O = ((ma2 / (2+ ma2)) *
(SNR)C)
2fm
AM exhibits a threshold
effect for low (Si / Ni)
Poor

DSBSC (Coherent)
(SNR)O=(SNR)C
2fm
No threshold effect
Better noise
performance than AM

## 16. Define entropy and its properties.

Ans: Entropy is the measure of the average information content per second. It is given
by the expression H(X)=P(xi)log2P(xi) bits/sample.
Properties: 1.0< H(X) < log2K , is the radix of the alphabet X of the source.
H=0 if Pk = 0 or Pk = 1
17. Define mutual information and channel capacity.
Ans: Mutual information: It is defined as the difference between the H(X)-H(X/Y)represents our uncertainity about the channel input that is resolved by observing the
channel output. It is denoted as I(X,Y) of a channel is defined by
I(X,Y)=H(X)-H(X/Y) bits/symbol
H(X)- entropy of the source, H(X/Y)- conditional entropy of Y.
Channel Capacity: The channel capacity is defined as the maximum mutual
information in any single use of the channel, where the maximization is over all possible
input probability distributions {P(Xj)} on X. It is denoted as
C= max{P(Xj)} I(X;Y)