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AM, DSB-SC and SSB?

Ans:

Description

AM with carrier

DSB-SC AM

SSB-SC-AM

Bandwidth

2fm

2fm

Fm

Power Saving

33.33%

66.66%

83.3%

2. What is meant by frequency translation?

Ans: Moving a modulated radio-frequency carrier signal to a new location in the frequency

spectrum without disturbing the relationship of the carrier to its sidebands.

3. What are the advantages of Vestigial Side Band?

Ans: *) Offers a compromise between SSB and DSB-SC

*) VSB is standard for transmission of TV and similar signals

*) Bandwidth saving can be significant if modulating signals are of large bandwidth as

in TV and wide band data signals.

4. Define the modulation index of FM.

Ans: It is defined as the ratio of maximum frequency deviation to the modulating frequency.

= f/fm

5. How is the narrow band FM converted into wide band FM?

Ans: The narrowband FM signal can be converted to a wideband FM signal by simply passing

it through a nonlinear device with power P. Both the carrier frequency and the

frequency deviation f of the narrowband signal are increased by a factor P.

6. A carrier is frequency modulated by a sinusoidal modulating frequency 2 KHz, resulting

in frequency deviation of 5 kHz. What is the bandwidth occupied by the modulated

waveform?

Ans: Given: fm = 2 kHz, f = 5 kHz.

To find: Bandwidth of the modulated signal BW = 2 (f + fm) = 2(5 103 + 2 103)

BW = 14kHz.

7. Illustrate the relationship between FM and PM, with block diagrams.

Ans:

Modulating

Wave

Differentiat

Frequency

Modulator

PM Wave

Carrier wave

Modulating

Wave

Integrator

Phase

Modulator

Carrier wave

FM Wave

Ans: Detection or Demodulation is the process by which modulating voltage is recovered

from the modulated signal. It is the reverse process of modulation.

Methods: Slope detector and phase discriminator.

9. What are the advantages of Ratio detector?

Ans:

Easy to align.

Very good linearity, due to linear phase relationship between primary and

secondary.

Amplitude limiting is provided inherently. So additional limiter is not required.

Reduced fluctuations in output voltage.

10. Distinguish between narrow band FM and wide band FM.

Ans:

Sl.No

Parameter/ Characteristics

Wideband FM

1.

Modulation Index

Greater than 1

2.

3.

4.

Maximum deviation

Range of modulating frequency

Bandwidth

75 KHz

30 Hz to 15 KHz

2(f + fm)

Narrowband FM

Less than (or) slightly

greater than 1

5KHz

30 Hz to 3 Khz

2fm

Ans: Many types of noise sources are Gaussian and have flat spectral density over a wide

frequency range. Such spectrum has all frequency components in equal portion, and is

therefore called white noise. The power spectral density of white noise is independent of

the operating frequency, which is given as

Sw () = N0 /2

12. Define a random variable. Specify the sample space and the random variable for a coin

tossing experiment.

Ans: Random variable is defined as a rule or mapping from the original sample space to a

numerical sample space subjected to certain constraints. Random variable is also defined

as a function where domain is the set of outcomes and whose range is R, is the real line.

All our random variables will be defined on finite sample spaces. The possible outcomes

for one coin toss can be described by the sample space = {heads, tails}.

13. When is a random process called deterministic?

Ans: A random process represents an ensemble of time functions, the value of which at any

given time can be pre-determined or specified thus a deterministic process.

Ex: X(t) = A cos(t + ) where A and are constant and is a random variable. Once

the parameter is determined, X(t) as a function of time is entirely specified and is

thus a deterministic process.

Ans: The frequencies used for demodulation are synchronized to oscillator frequencies

generated in the transmitter is said to be coherent system.

15. Compare the noise performance of DSBSC receiver using coherent detection with AM

receiver using envelope detection.

Ans:

Sl.No

Parameters

1.

2.

Bandwidth

3.

Threshold effect

4,

Noise performance

AM (Envelope)

(SNR)O = ((ma2 / (2+ ma2)) *

(SNR)C)

2fm

AM exhibits a threshold

effect for low (Si / Ni)

Poor

DSBSC (Coherent)

(SNR)O=(SNR)C

2fm

No threshold effect

Better noise

performance than AM

Ans: Entropy is the measure of the average information content per second. It is given

by the expression H(X)=P(xi)log2P(xi) bits/sample.

Properties: 1.0< H(X) < log2K , is the radix of the alphabet X of the source.

H=0 if Pk = 0 or Pk = 1

17. Define mutual information and channel capacity.

Ans: Mutual information: It is defined as the difference between the H(X)-H(X/Y)represents our uncertainity about the channel input that is resolved by observing the

channel output. It is denoted as I(X,Y) of a channel is defined by

I(X,Y)=H(X)-H(X/Y) bits/symbol

H(X)- entropy of the source, H(X/Y)- conditional entropy of Y.

Channel Capacity: The channel capacity is defined as the maximum mutual

information in any single use of the channel, where the maximization is over all possible

input probability distributions {P(Xj)} on X. It is denoted as

C= max{P(Xj)} I(X;Y)

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