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ABSTRACT:

This experiment is about the measurement of flow of water by notches


and weirs which has been conducted on 6 th October 2012 at Fluid Mechanics
Laboratory, UiTM Shah Alam. Basically, the experiment that had conducted is to
discuss about the flow characteristics of water over the different notches. The
notches that used to examine the flow are rectangular and triangular (V)
notches. Besides, the experiment here is also to define the discharge coefficient
of the fluid flow. In order to achieve the objectives, all the data are recorded
while

conducting

the

experiment.

The

manipulated

variables

from

this

experiment are the height of water level and also the types of notches. Thus, for
the easier calculation, the amount of volume is set at the constant level which is
3 litres.
Based on the data that had been recorded, we construct a graph to
analyzing the characteristics of the flow. From the rectangular graphs, we can
observed that the discharge coefficient decrease slowly and it almost have a
constant value for the rest. Different with the rectangular notch, the discharge
coefficient for the triangular notch is smoothly but the value still higher than the
rectangular notch.
Thus, we can conclude that the triangular notch showed the higher
discharge coefficient rather than the rectangular notch.

INTRODUCTION:

Nowadays, if we can see a structure that used to dam up a stream or river,


over which the water flows is known as weir and also can used notch. But the
different between the weir and notch is the structure. A weir is an opening in the
sidewall of the tank at the top. Besides, the notch and weir almost the same
except the former is a small structure and has sharp edges. A weir is generally
an overflow structure, with a broad crest, built across an open channel. The top
of weir wall over which the liquid flows is known as the sill or crest. While the
head under which the weir is discharging is measured from the crest to the free
surface. Basically, a weir and notch is used for measuring the flow of liquids.
For this experiment, the rectangular weir and triangular weirs are been
used. Both of these weirs are often used in water supply, wastewater and also

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sewage systems. They consist of a sharp edged plate with a rectangular,


triangular or v-notch profile for the water flow. In dam spillways, the broadcrested weirs can be observed where the broad edge is beneath the water
surface across the entire stream. Flow measurement installations with broadcrested weirs will meet accuracy requirement only if they are calibrated.

OBJECTIVES:

1. To observe the flow characteristics over a rectangular and triangular


(Vee) notches.
2. To determine the discharge coefficient of the fluid flow.

THEORY:
With the different types of notch, then the method of calculating the discharge
coefficients of the fluids flow is also different. There are some theories that will
discussing about the reasoning of two different notches which are:
1) RECTANGULAR NOTCH
A rectangular notch is a thin square edged weir plate installed in a weir
channel as shown in figure 1 below.

Figure 1

Rectangular notch

Based on the figure above, consider that the flow in an element of height
H at a depth, h below the surface. Then, assume that the fluid flow everywhere
normal to the plane of the weir and that the free surface remains horizontal up to
the plane of the weir.

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When the flow through the notch is not parallel then it will be not normal
to the plane of the weir. If the free surface is not horizontal the result for the
viscosity and surface tension will have an effect. There will be a considerable
change in the shape of the nappe as it passes through the notch with curvature
of the stream line in both vertical and horizontal plane. In particular, the width of
the nappe is reduced by the contraction at each end.

Figure 2 Shape of the nappe


The formula for the discharge coefficient of rectangular is:

Qt = Cd

2
B ( 2 g) H 32
3

Where;
Qt

= volume flow rate (m/s)

= height above notch base (m)

= width of rectangular notch (0.03m)

Cd
= the discharge coefficient which has to be determined by the
experiment
The discharge from the rectangular notch will be considerably less,
approximately 60% of the theoretical analysis due to these curvature effects. A
coefficient of discharge, Cd is therefore introduced so that :

Cd =

3
2

Qt
B ( 2 g ) H 32

However, Cd is not a true constant tending towards a constant only for large
heads and a low velocity of approach in the weir channel.

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2) TRIANGULAR NOTCH

Figure 3

triangular notch

The formula for the triangular notch is:

Qt = Cd

2
5
() ( 2 g ) H 2
8
tan
15

Where;
Qt

= volume flow rate

= height above notch base

= width of rectangular notch

= angle of the Vee in the triangular notch

Cd
= the discharge coefficient which has to be determined by
experiment
Thus ,

Cd =

15
8

2
tan () ( 2 g ) H 52
Qt

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For the rectangular notch the rate of discharge is proportional to the liquid depth
raised to power 1.5 and for the triangular notch to a power 2.5. a triangular
notch will therefore handle a wider range of flow rates. It can be shown that the
notch must have curved walls giving a large width to the bottom of the notch
and a comparatively small width towards the top. The weir is frequently for
controlling the flow within the unit itself, for instance in a distillation column or
reactor.

APPARATUS AND MATERIALS:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

SOLTEX flow over weirs (Model: FM 26)- Appendix


Water
Hydraulics bench
Weir channel
(V) Vee notch weir
Hook & point gauge
Basket of glass sphere
Volumetric measuring tank
Rectangular weir

4
4

Figure 1 : flow over weirs


Vee notch weir

PROCEDURES:

Figure 2 : flow over weirs


rectangular notch weir

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1. Place the flow stilling basket of glass sphere into the left end of the weir
channel and attach the hose from the bench regulating valve to the inlet
connection into the stilling basket.
2. Place the specific weir plate which is to be tested and hold it using the
thumb nuts. Ensure that the square edge of the weir faces is upstream.
3. Start the pump and slowly open the regulating valve until the water level
reaches the crest of the weir and measure the water level to determine
the datum level Hzero.
4. Adjust the bench regulating valve to give the first required head level of
approximately 3m3. Measure the flow rate using the volumetric tank until
3m3.
5. Increase the height of the crest by 1cm and open the valve wider. Then,
measure the flow rate.
6. Repeat the experiment by increasing the height by 1cm and until the
water reach the maximum height.
7. Close the regulating valve, stop the pump, and then replace the weir with
the next weir that need to be tested. Repeat the test procedure.

RESULT AND CALCULATION:


i)

RECTANGULAR WEIR
Height of datum = 0.03m
Tri
al

Volume
collecte
d, V
(m3)

Time of
collectio
n, t (s)

0.003

7.0

Volume
flow
rate,
Qact
(m3/s)
4.29x10

Height
of
water
level,
H (m)
0.00

Q2/3

Log
H

Log
Q

Cd

0.000

0.00
0

0.00
0

0.01

0.0073
10

0.02

0.0080
83

2.00
0
1.69
9

3.36
8
3.20
3
3.12
5

-4

0.003

4.8

6.25x10
-4

0.003

4.0

7.50x10
-4

CALCULATION:

7.05
5
2.90
0

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Q = Cd

2
3

Width of the weir, B = 0.03m


Gravity, g = 9.81 m2/s
3

Volume (m )
time( s)

Volume flow rate, Qact =

Trial 1

Qact

3 x 103
7

= 4.29 x 10-4 m3/s

4.29x10-4

Cd

Q2/3

2
3

= Cd

= Cd x

2 g

2
3

x 0.03 x

2 x 9.81

x (0)3/2

=0

= (0 x

2
3

x 0.03 x

=0
Trial 2

Qact

H 3/ 2

3 x 103
4.8

2 x 9.81

x (0)3/2 )2/3

2 g

H 3/ 2

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= 6.25 x 10-4 m3/s

6.25x10-4

Cd

Q2/3

= Cd

2
3

= Cd x

2 g

2
3

x 0.03 x

3/ 2

2 x 9.81

x (0.01) 3/2

= 7.055

2
3

= (7.055 x

x 0.03 x

2 x 9.81

x (0.01)3/2 )2/3

= 0.007310

Trial 3

Qact

3 x 103
4.0

= 7.25 x 10-4 m3/s

7.50x10-4

Cd

= Cd

= Cd x

= 2.9

2
3

2
3

2 g

x 0.03 x

H 3/ 2

2 x 9.81

x (0.02) 3/2

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Q2/3

= (2.9 x

2
3

x 0.03 x

2 x 9.81

x (0.02)3/2 )2/3

= 0.008083

ii) V - NOTCH WEIR


Height,
H (m)
0.00

Time,
t (s)
73.00

Flow rate,
Qact (m3/s)
4.11 x 10-5

Q2/3

Cd

Volume,
V (L)
3

0.01

22.00

1.36 x 10-4

0.0284

5.757

0.02

11.45

2.63 x 10-4

0.0369

1.961

0.03

5.45

5.5 x 10-4

0.0497

1.494

Trial

CALCULATION:
2
5

5 2
5

Q = Cd tan 2 g H 2
15
2

= 90o
g = 9.81 m2/s

Volume flow rate, Qact =

Volume (m3)
time( s)

Trial 1
3

Qact

3 x 10
73.00

= 4.11 x 10-5 m3/s

Q=Cd

tan 2 g H 2
15
2

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5

4.11 x 10-5 m3/s

Cd

2
5

8
90
Cd tan
2 g (0)2
15
2

=0

5 2
5

Q = Cd tan 2 g H 2
15
2

5 2
5

( 0) tan 2 x 9.81(o) 2
15
2

=0
Trial 2
Qact

3 x 103
22.00

= 1.36 x 10-4 m3/s

Q=Cd

tan 2 g H 2
15
2
5

1.36 x 10-4 m3/s

Cd

2
5

8
90
Cd tan
2 x 9.81( 0.01)2
15
2

= 5.757

5 2
5

Q = 5.757 tan 2 x 9.81(0.01) 2


15
2

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5 2
5

8
90
(5.757) tan 2 x 9.81( 0.01) 2
15
2

= 0.0284
Trial 3
3

Qact

3 x 10
11.45

= 2.62 x 10-4 m3/s

Q=Cd

tan 2 g H 2
15
2
5

-4

2.62 x 10 m /s

Cd

2
5

8
90
Cd tan
2 x 9.81(0.02)2
15
2

= 1.961

5 2
5

Q = 1.961 tan 2 x 9.81(0.02) 2


15
2

5 2
5

8
90
(1.961) tan 2 x 9.81(0.02) 2
15
2

= 0.0369

Trial 4
3

Qact

3 x 10
5.45

= 5.5 x 10-4 m3/s

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Q=Cd

tan 2 g H 2
15
2
5

5.5 x 10-4 m3/s

Cd

2
5

8
90
Cd tan
2 x 9.81(0.03) 2
15
2

= 1.494

5 2
5

Q = 1.494 tan 2 x 9.81(0.03) 2


15
2

5 2
5

8
90
(1.494 ) tan 2 x 9.81(0.03)2
15
2

= 0.0497

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GRAPH:
i)

RECTANGULAR WEIR
Log H

Log Q

0.000

-3.368

-2.000

-3.203

-1.699

-3.125

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3.5

2.5

logQ

2
Q
1.5

0.5

0
0

0.5

1.5

log H

Slope = (3.368 3.200) / ( 0.0-2.0)


= -0.084
ii)

V - NOTCH WEIR

Log H
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03

Log Q
-4.386
-3.866
-3.580
-3.260

2.5

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4.5

3.5

Log Q

2.5
Y-Values
2

1.5

0.5

0
0

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.02

0.03

0.03

0.04

Log H

Slope = ( 4.386 3.26) / (0-0.03)


= -37.53

DISCUSSION
A notch is an opening in the side of a measuring tank or reservoir
extending above the free surface. A weir is a notch on large scale. Weirs are
structures consisting of an obstruction such as a dam or bulkhead placed across
the open channel with a specially shaped opening or notch. The weir results an

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increase in the water level, or head, which is measured upstream of the


structure.
For rectangular weir, when the flow approaches the edge of the
notch, there is a contraction because the velocity at the edge is not normal to
the plane of the notch. This produces a reduction in the cross section and some
friction in the flow. The volume flow rate, Q for rectangular weir:
Q = Cd

2
3

2g

H 3/ 2

The volume flow rate Q, for V notch wier:


2
5

5 2
5

Q = Cd tan 2 g H 2
15
2

From the result, we observed that the coefficient of discharge, C d for


rectangular weir is in variations. This is because of the inconsistent low height
increment. For V notch, we observed that the higher the height of water level,
the shorter the time taken to collect 3 L of water. This resulted in the coefficient
of discharge, Cd as it decreased when the volume of flow rate, Q increased.

CONCLUSION

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From both experiment, it were clearly shown that the coefficient of


discharge is dependent on the volumetric flow rate and its height (head) of water
level from the base of notch. The coefficient of discharge corresponds differently
to the height of the water level (head) to the type of notch used. For triangular
notch, the coefficient of discharge also depends on the angle of the v shape.
Then it can be concluded that the experiment is a success.

RECOMMENDATIONS
1. In this experiment, many trials should be made so that we can observe the
trend of the coefficient of discharge more accurately.
2. Each increment of the height of the water level should be made carefully
and accurately. Parallax error should be avoided.
3. The time taken for the experiment
REFERENCE
Yunus, A. Cengel. & John, M. Cimbala. (2006). Fluid Mechanics Fundamental and
Applications. (2nd ed.). New York: MC Graw Hill