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You are on page 1of 17

ABSTRACT:

and weirs which has been conducted on 6 th October 2012 at Fluid Mechanics

Laboratory, UiTM Shah Alam. Basically, the experiment that had conducted is to

discuss about the flow characteristics of water over the different notches. The

notches that used to examine the flow are rectangular and triangular (V)

notches. Besides, the experiment here is also to define the discharge coefficient

of the fluid flow. In order to achieve the objectives, all the data are recorded

while

conducting

the

experiment.

The

manipulated

variables

from

this

experiment are the height of water level and also the types of notches. Thus, for

the easier calculation, the amount of volume is set at the constant level which is

3 litres.

Based on the data that had been recorded, we construct a graph to

analyzing the characteristics of the flow. From the rectangular graphs, we can

observed that the discharge coefficient decrease slowly and it almost have a

constant value for the rest. Different with the rectangular notch, the discharge

coefficient for the triangular notch is smoothly but the value still higher than the

rectangular notch.

Thus, we can conclude that the triangular notch showed the higher

discharge coefficient rather than the rectangular notch.

INTRODUCTION:

over which the water flows is known as weir and also can used notch. But the

different between the weir and notch is the structure. A weir is an opening in the

sidewall of the tank at the top. Besides, the notch and weir almost the same

except the former is a small structure and has sharp edges. A weir is generally

an overflow structure, with a broad crest, built across an open channel. The top

of weir wall over which the liquid flows is known as the sill or crest. While the

head under which the weir is discharging is measured from the crest to the free

surface. Basically, a weir and notch is used for measuring the flow of liquids.

For this experiment, the rectangular weir and triangular weirs are been

used. Both of these weirs are often used in water supply, wastewater and also

triangular or v-notch profile for the water flow. In dam spillways, the broadcrested weirs can be observed where the broad edge is beneath the water

surface across the entire stream. Flow measurement installations with broadcrested weirs will meet accuracy requirement only if they are calibrated.

OBJECTIVES:

(Vee) notches.

2. To determine the discharge coefficient of the fluid flow.

THEORY:

With the different types of notch, then the method of calculating the discharge

coefficients of the fluids flow is also different. There are some theories that will

discussing about the reasoning of two different notches which are:

1) RECTANGULAR NOTCH

A rectangular notch is a thin square edged weir plate installed in a weir

channel as shown in figure 1 below.

Figure 1

Rectangular notch

Based on the figure above, consider that the flow in an element of height

H at a depth, h below the surface. Then, assume that the fluid flow everywhere

normal to the plane of the weir and that the free surface remains horizontal up to

the plane of the weir.

When the flow through the notch is not parallel then it will be not normal

to the plane of the weir. If the free surface is not horizontal the result for the

viscosity and surface tension will have an effect. There will be a considerable

change in the shape of the nappe as it passes through the notch with curvature

of the stream line in both vertical and horizontal plane. In particular, the width of

the nappe is reduced by the contraction at each end.

The formula for the discharge coefficient of rectangular is:

Qt = Cd

2

B ( 2 g) H 32

3

Where;

Qt

Cd

= the discharge coefficient which has to be determined by the

experiment

The discharge from the rectangular notch will be considerably less,

approximately 60% of the theoretical analysis due to these curvature effects. A

coefficient of discharge, Cd is therefore introduced so that :

Cd =

3

2

Qt

B ( 2 g ) H 32

However, Cd is not a true constant tending towards a constant only for large

heads and a low velocity of approach in the weir channel.

2) TRIANGULAR NOTCH

Figure 3

triangular notch

Qt = Cd

2

5

() ( 2 g ) H 2

8

tan

15

Where;

Qt

Cd

= the discharge coefficient which has to be determined by

experiment

Thus ,

Cd =

15

8

2

tan () ( 2 g ) H 52

Qt

For the rectangular notch the rate of discharge is proportional to the liquid depth

raised to power 1.5 and for the triangular notch to a power 2.5. a triangular

notch will therefore handle a wider range of flow rates. It can be shown that the

notch must have curved walls giving a large width to the bottom of the notch

and a comparatively small width towards the top. The weir is frequently for

controlling the flow within the unit itself, for instance in a distillation column or

reactor.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Water

Hydraulics bench

Weir channel

(V) Vee notch weir

Hook & point gauge

Basket of glass sphere

Volumetric measuring tank

Rectangular weir

4

4

Vee notch weir

PROCEDURES:

rectangular notch weir

1. Place the flow stilling basket of glass sphere into the left end of the weir

channel and attach the hose from the bench regulating valve to the inlet

connection into the stilling basket.

2. Place the specific weir plate which is to be tested and hold it using the

thumb nuts. Ensure that the square edge of the weir faces is upstream.

3. Start the pump and slowly open the regulating valve until the water level

reaches the crest of the weir and measure the water level to determine

the datum level Hzero.

4. Adjust the bench regulating valve to give the first required head level of

approximately 3m3. Measure the flow rate using the volumetric tank until

3m3.

5. Increase the height of the crest by 1cm and open the valve wider. Then,

measure the flow rate.

6. Repeat the experiment by increasing the height by 1cm and until the

water reach the maximum height.

7. Close the regulating valve, stop the pump, and then replace the weir with

the next weir that need to be tested. Repeat the test procedure.

i)

RECTANGULAR WEIR

Height of datum = 0.03m

Tri

al

Volume

collecte

d, V

(m3)

Time of

collectio

n, t (s)

0.003

7.0

Volume

flow

rate,

Qact

(m3/s)

4.29x10

Height

of

water

level,

H (m)

0.00

Q2/3

Log

H

Log

Q

Cd

0.000

0.00

0

0.00

0

0.01

0.0073

10

0.02

0.0080

83

2.00

0

1.69

9

3.36

8

3.20

3

3.12

5

-4

0.003

4.8

6.25x10

-4

0.003

4.0

7.50x10

-4

CALCULATION:

7.05

5

2.90

0

Q = Cd

2

3

Gravity, g = 9.81 m2/s

3

Volume (m )

time( s)

Trial 1

Qact

3 x 103

7

4.29x10-4

Cd

Q2/3

2

3

= Cd

= Cd x

2 g

2

3

x 0.03 x

2 x 9.81

x (0)3/2

=0

= (0 x

2

3

x 0.03 x

=0

Trial 2

Qact

H 3/ 2

3 x 103

4.8

2 x 9.81

x (0)3/2 )2/3

2 g

H 3/ 2

6.25x10-4

Cd

Q2/3

= Cd

2

3

= Cd x

2 g

2

3

x 0.03 x

3/ 2

2 x 9.81

x (0.01) 3/2

= 7.055

2

3

= (7.055 x

x 0.03 x

2 x 9.81

x (0.01)3/2 )2/3

= 0.007310

Trial 3

Qact

3 x 103

4.0

7.50x10-4

Cd

= Cd

= Cd x

= 2.9

2

3

2

3

2 g

x 0.03 x

H 3/ 2

2 x 9.81

x (0.02) 3/2

Q2/3

= (2.9 x

2

3

x 0.03 x

2 x 9.81

x (0.02)3/2 )2/3

= 0.008083

Height,

H (m)

0.00

Time,

t (s)

73.00

Flow rate,

Qact (m3/s)

4.11 x 10-5

Q2/3

Cd

Volume,

V (L)

3

0.01

22.00

1.36 x 10-4

0.0284

5.757

0.02

11.45

2.63 x 10-4

0.0369

1.961

0.03

5.45

5.5 x 10-4

0.0497

1.494

Trial

CALCULATION:

2

5

5 2

5

Q = Cd tan 2 g H 2

15

2

= 90o

g = 9.81 m2/s

Volume (m3)

time( s)

Trial 1

3

Qact

3 x 10

73.00

Q=Cd

tan 2 g H 2

15

2

5

Cd

2

5

8

90

Cd tan

2 g (0)2

15

2

=0

5 2

5

Q = Cd tan 2 g H 2

15

2

5 2

5

( 0) tan 2 x 9.81(o) 2

15

2

=0

Trial 2

Qact

3 x 103

22.00

Q=Cd

tan 2 g H 2

15

2

5

Cd

2

5

8

90

Cd tan

2 x 9.81( 0.01)2

15

2

= 5.757

5 2

5

15

2

5 2

5

8

90

(5.757) tan 2 x 9.81( 0.01) 2

15

2

= 0.0284

Trial 3

3

Qact

3 x 10

11.45

Q=Cd

tan 2 g H 2

15

2

5

-4

2.62 x 10 m /s

Cd

2

5

8

90

Cd tan

2 x 9.81(0.02)2

15

2

= 1.961

5 2

5

15

2

5 2

5

8

90

(1.961) tan 2 x 9.81(0.02) 2

15

2

= 0.0369

Trial 4

3

Qact

3 x 10

5.45

Q=Cd

tan 2 g H 2

15

2

5

Cd

2

5

8

90

Cd tan

2 x 9.81(0.03) 2

15

2

= 1.494

5 2

5

15

2

5 2

5

8

90

(1.494 ) tan 2 x 9.81(0.03)2

15

2

= 0.0497

GRAPH:

i)

RECTANGULAR WEIR

Log H

Log Q

0.000

-3.368

-2.000

-3.203

-1.699

-3.125

3.5

2.5

logQ

2

Q

1.5

0.5

0

0

0.5

1.5

log H

= -0.084

ii)

V - NOTCH WEIR

Log H

0.00

0.01

0.02

0.03

Log Q

-4.386

-3.866

-3.580

-3.260

2.5

4.5

3.5

Log Q

2.5

Y-Values

2

1.5

0.5

0

0

0.01

0.01

0.02

0.02

0.03

0.03

0.04

Log H

= -37.53

DISCUSSION

A notch is an opening in the side of a measuring tank or reservoir

extending above the free surface. A weir is a notch on large scale. Weirs are

structures consisting of an obstruction such as a dam or bulkhead placed across

the open channel with a specially shaped opening or notch. The weir results an

structure.

For rectangular weir, when the flow approaches the edge of the

notch, there is a contraction because the velocity at the edge is not normal to

the plane of the notch. This produces a reduction in the cross section and some

friction in the flow. The volume flow rate, Q for rectangular weir:

Q = Cd

2

3

2g

H 3/ 2

2

5

5 2

5

Q = Cd tan 2 g H 2

15

2

rectangular weir is in variations. This is because of the inconsistent low height

increment. For V notch, we observed that the higher the height of water level,

the shorter the time taken to collect 3 L of water. This resulted in the coefficient

of discharge, Cd as it decreased when the volume of flow rate, Q increased.

CONCLUSION

discharge is dependent on the volumetric flow rate and its height (head) of water

level from the base of notch. The coefficient of discharge corresponds differently

to the height of the water level (head) to the type of notch used. For triangular

notch, the coefficient of discharge also depends on the angle of the v shape.

Then it can be concluded that the experiment is a success.

RECOMMENDATIONS

1. In this experiment, many trials should be made so that we can observe the

trend of the coefficient of discharge more accurately.

2. Each increment of the height of the water level should be made carefully

and accurately. Parallax error should be avoided.

3. The time taken for the experiment

REFERENCE

Yunus, A. Cengel. & John, M. Cimbala. (2006). Fluid Mechanics Fundamental and

Applications. (2nd ed.). New York: MC Graw Hill

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