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Compression

Chapter 9
Based on presentation by Prof. Art Kidnay
John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Topics
Introduction
Fundamentals
Thermodynamics of compression
Multistaging

Compressor Efficiencies

Drivers
Compressor Types
Positive displacement compressors
Dynamic Compressors

Capacity and Power Calculations

Capacity

Power Requirements

Comparison of Reciprocating and Centrifugal Compressors

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

Topics
Introduction
Fundamentals
Thermodynamics of compression
Multistaging

Compressor Efficiencies

Drivers
Compressor Types
Positive displacement compressors
Dynamic Compressors

Capacity and Power Calculations

Capacity

Power Requirements

Comparison of Reciprocating and Centrifugal Compressors

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Review of Thermodynamic Principals

1st Law of Thermodynamics Energy is conserved
(Change in systems energy) = (Rate of heat added) (Rate of work performed)
Systems energy contributions
Kinetic energy related to velocity of system

Potential energy related to positon in a field (e.g., gravity)

Internal energy related to systems temperature
o

2nd Law of Thermodynamics

In a cyclic process entropy will either stay the same (reversible process) or will increase

Relationship between work & heat

All work can be converted to heat, but
Not all heat can be converted to work
John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Common Paths for Heat and Work

Isothermal constant temperature, T = 0
Isobaric constant pressure, P = 0
Isochoric constant volume, V = 0
Isenthalpic no heat or heat, constant enthalpy, H = 0
Adiabatic no heat transferred, Q = 0
Isentropic (ideal reversible) no increase in entropy, S = 0

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

1st Law for steady state flow

Equation 1.19a (H U for flowing systems)

u 2 g
H
z Q W
2gc gc

u 2 g
Ws H
z
2gc gc
P2

u 2 g
VdP
z
2gc gc
P1
P2

Ws VdP
P1

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

Thermodynamics of Compression
Work depends on path commonly assume adiabatic or polytropic compression
Calculations done with:
PH diagram for H
Evaluate integral using equation of state
Simplest EOS is the ideal gas law

P2

Ws VdP H
P1

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

PH Diagrams

Ref: GPSA Data Book, 13th ed.

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

TS Diagram

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Updated: February 9, 2016

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Updated: February 9, 2016

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Updated: February 9, 2016

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John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

13

Thermodynamics of Compression
Assume ideal gas: PV = RT
Choices of path for calculating work:
Isothermal (T = 0)
P2

P
dP
RT ln 2
P
P1
P1

P2

Ws VdP RT
P1

Minimum work required but unrealistic

Isentropic (S = 0)
Maximum ideal work but more realistic

Polytropic - empirical
Considers some heat loss and gas nonideality

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

Thermodynamics of Compression
Work equations

g1 / g

RT1 g P2

Ws
1
M g 1 P1

k1 / k

RT1 k
P2

Ws
1
M k 1 P1

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

15

Thermodynamics of Compression
Calculation of g for gas mixture

xC

g
x C
i

p ,i

i V ,i

xC

x C R
i

p ,i

p ,i

Use the ideal gas heat capacities, not the real gas heat capacities
Heat capacities are functions of temperature. Use the average value over the
temperature range

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

16

Example

Have sales gas (assume pure methane)

Initial conditions: 40oF & 100 psig
Desired outlet pressure: 400 psig
Compute work of compression on mass basis

Using PH diagram
Assuming ideal gas and adiabatic compression

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

17

H2 = 462 Btu/lb

H1 = 370 Btu/lb

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

18

Example Calculation Ideal Gas Compression

For methane:
g = 1.3
M = 16
T1 = 40F= 499.67oR

P1 = 100 psig = 114.7 psia

P2 = 1000 psig = 1014.7 psia
R = 1.986 Btu/lb.mol oR
g1 / g
1.3 1.986 499.67 414.7 1.31/1.3
gRT1 P2

Ws
1
1 93 Btu/lb

M g 1 P1
16
1.3

1
114.7

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

19

Discharge temperature
For ideal gas compression
P
T2 T1 2
P1

g1 / g

414.7
T2 499.67

114.7

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

1.31 /1.3

672.19R 212.5F

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Thermodynamics of Compression
If customer wants 1000 psig
Then pressure ratio of (1015/115) = 8.8
Discharge temperature for this ratio is ~360oF

For reciprocating compressors the GPSA Engineering Data Book recommends

Maximum discharge temperature of 250 to 275oF for high pressure systems AND
Pressure ratios of 3:1 to 5:1

To obtain overall high pressure ratio must use multistage compression with
interstage cooling

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

21

Multistaging
To minimize work need good interstage cooling and equal pressure ratios in stages.

The number of stages is calculated using

1/ m

P
RP 2
T1

ln P2 / P1
m
ln R P

To go from 100 to 1000 psig with a single-stage pressure ratio of 3 takes 2 (1.98)
stages & the stage exit temp ~183oF (starting @ 100oF)
1014.7
ln

114.7 ln 8.8

1.98
ln 3
ln 3
P 1/ m
T2 T1 2
P1
John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

g1 / g

1014.7 1/2
499.67

114.7

1.31 /1.3

642.59R 182.9F

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Topics
Introduction
Fundamentals
Thermodynamics of compression
Multistaging

Compressor Efficiencies

Drivers
Compressor Types
Positive displacement compressors
Dynamic Compressors

Capacity and Power Calculations

Capacity

Power Requirements

Comparison of Reciprocating and Centrifugal Compressors

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

23

Compressor Efficiencies
Number of definitions for compressor efficiencies
Two major definitions
Adiabatic efficiency (also known as the isentropic efficiency):

IS

H S0
H actual

WS0
Wactual

Polytropic efficiency:

g 1 / g
k 1 / k

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

24

Why use polytropic efficiency?

More closely follows the actual pressure-temperature path during the
compression

In general P > IS
Can use this to estimate the actual discharge temperature
P2
T2 T1
P1

1 g1

P g

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

25

Compressor efficiency example

Continuation of example given in the beginning of this section
Actual work required is:
Wactual

WS 0
IS

Wactual

93 Btu/lb
116 Btu/lb
0.80

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

26

Compressor efficiency discharge temperature

GPSA Engineering Data Book suggests the isentropic temperature change should
be divided by the isentropic efficiency to get the actual discharge temperature

T2,S 0

P
T1 2
P1

g1 / g

P2
P
T2,act T1 T1 1

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

P g1/ g
T2,S 0 T1 T1 2
1
P
1

g1 / g

1
IS

T2,act

P g1/ g

2

1
P

T1 1 1

IS

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Topics
Introduction
Fundamentals
Thermodynamics of compression
Multistaging

Compressor Efficiencies

Drivers
Compressor Types
Positive displacement compressors
Dynamic Compressors

Capacity and Power Calculations

Capacity

Power Requirements

Comparison of Reciprocating and Centrifugal Compressors

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

28

Compressor Drivers
Internal combustion engines
Industry mainstay from beginning
Emissions constraints
Availability is 90 to 95%

Electric motors
Good in remote areas
Availability is > 99.9%

Gas turbines
Availability is > 99%
Lower emissions than IC engine

Steam turbines
Uncommon in gas plants on compressors
Used in combined cycle and Claus units
John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

29

Topics
Introduction
Fundamentals
Thermodynamics of compression
Multistaging

Compressor Efficiencies

Drivers
Compressor Types
Positive displacement compressors
Dynamic Compressors

Capacity and Power Calculations

Capacity

Power Requirements

Comparison of Reciprocating and Centrifugal Compressors

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

30

Compressor Types
Two basic types:

Positive displacement compress by changing volume

Reciprocating, Rotary screw, Diaphragm, Rotary vane

Dynamic compress by converting kinetic energy into pressure

Centrifugal, Axial

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

31

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

Reciprocating Compressors
Workhorse of industry since 1920s
Capable of high volumes and discharge pressures
High efficiency up to 85%
Performance independent of gas MW
Good for intermittent service

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

Reciprocating Compressors
Drawbacks

Availability ~90 to 95% vs 99+% for others, spare compressor needed in critical
service

Pulsed flow

Pressure ratio limited, typically 3:1 to 4:1

Emissions control can be problem (IC drivers)
Relatively large footprint

electrically driven

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

Single Acting - Trunk Piston

Typical applications:

Typical Applications:

All process services, with any gas and up

to the highest pressures and power

Small size standard compressors for air

and non dangerous gases

Courtesy of Nuovo Pignone Spa, Italy

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

35

5

Pressure

p0

Volume

Suction

Discharge

Courtesy of Nuovo Pignone Spa, Italy

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Updated: February 9, 2016

36

Reciprocating Compressors

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

Courtesy of Nuovo Pignone Spa, Italy

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Courtesy of Ariel Corp

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Reciprocating Compressors - Main Components

Pulsation Bottles

Crankcase
Cast Iron

Crankshaft
Counterweight
Forged Steel for balancing

Cast Steel

Ballast for
balancing of
inertia forces

Slide Body

Distance Pieces

Pneumatic
Valve
for capacity
control

Forged
Cylinder

Main Oil Pump

Connecting Rod
(die forged steel)

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

Rod Packing
Oil Wiper
Packing Piston Rod
Piston

Cast
Cylinder

Cylinder Valve

42

Left rotor turns clockwise, right rotor counterclockwise

Gas becomes trapped in the central cavity
The Process Technology Handbook Charles E. Thomas,
UHAI Publishing, Berne, NY, 1997.
John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Oil-free

Oil-injected

dirty gases

with gas

Has two exit ports

Axial, like oil-free
Radial, which permits 70 to 90% turndown
without significant efficiency decrease

pressure

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

oil to 140oF

Oil removal from gas

Oil compatibility is critical
Widely used in propane refrigeration systems,
low pressure systems, e.g., vapor recovery,
instrument air

Courtesy of Ariel Corp

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Courtesy of Ariel Corp

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Courtesy of MYCOM / Mayekawa Mfg

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Dynamic Compressors
Two types
Centrifugal
High volumes, high discharge pressures

Axial
Very high volumes, low discharge pressures

Use together in gas processing

Centrifugal for compressing natural gas
Axial for compressing air for gas turbine driving centrifugal compressor

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

48

Centrifugal compressors
Single stage (diffuser)

Multi-stage

Bett,K.E., et al Thermodynamics for

Chemical Engineers Page 226

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

49

Two-stage compressor

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

Centrifugal Compressor

Courtesy of Nuovo Pignone Spa, Italy

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Centrifugal Compressors Issues

Surge

Changes in the suction or outlet pressures can cause backflow; this can become
cyclic as the compressor tries to adjust. The resulting pressure oscillations are
called SURGE

Stonewall

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

52

Axial

Centrifugal

Reciprocating

Inlet Volume Flow

Rate
John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Stonewall Line

Surg
e Lin
e

Surge

Gas Turbine Centrifugal Compressor

Axial
Compressor

Centrifugal
Compressor
Exhaust
Gas

Low Pressure
Gas

Air

Fuel Gas
Combustion
Turbine
John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

High Pressure
Gas

Ref: GPSA Data Book, 13th ed.

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

59

What is heat rate?

Heat rate is the amount of fuel gas needed (expressed heating value) to produce
a given amount of power
Normally LHV, but you need to make sure of the basis

Essentially the reciprocal of the thermal efficiency

Thermal efficiency

2544
Btu LHV
Heat rate,
hp hr

Example: Dresser-Rand VECTRA 30G heat rate is 6816 Btu/hphr

Thermal efficiency

2544
0.3732
6816

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

60

Gas Turbine

Courtesy of Nuovo Pignone Spa, Italy

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Gas Turbine Engine

Gas Turbine Engine
From: F.W.Schmuidt, R.E. Henderson, and C.H. Wolgemuth,
Introduction to Thermal Sciences, second edition Wiley, 1993

Fuel

P2

P1

Compressor

Combustion
chamber

shaft

P3

shaft

Turbine

P4
Atmospheric air

Combustion
products

Assumptions
To apply basic thermodynamics to the process above, it is necessary to make a number of
assumptions, some rather extreme.
1) All gases are ideal, and compression processes are reversible and adiabatic (isentropic)
2) the combustion process is constant pressure, resulting only in a change of temperature
3) negligible potential and kinetic energy changes in overall process
4) Values of Cp are constant

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

P2 = P3

T
Temperature

Patm = P1 = P4

2
4
1
Entropy

wS = -h = -CPT

(9.1 and 1.18)

Note the equations apply to both the compressor and the turbine,since
thermodynamically the turbine is a compressor running backwards
Neglecting the differences in mass flow rates between the compressor and
the turbine, the net work is:
wnet = wt wc = CP(T3 T4) (T2 -T1)
Since (T3 T4) > (T2 T1)

(see T S diagram)

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

Air & Hot Gas Paths

Gas Turbine has 3 main sections:

A compressor that takes in clean outside air and then compresses it through a series of rotating and
FRESH AIR

EXHAUST

COMPRESSION

MECHANICAL
ENERGY

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

64

Air & Hot Gas Paths

Gas Turbine has 3 main sections:

A combustion section where fuel is added to the pressurized air and ignited. The hot pressurized
combustion gas expands and moves at high velocity into the turbine section.
FRESH AIR

EXHAUST

COMBUSTION
COMPRESSION

MECHANICAL
ENERGY

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

65

Air & Hot Gas Paths

Gas Turbine has 3 main sections:

A turbine that converts the energy from the hot/high velocity gas flowing from the combustion
chamber into useful rotational power through expansion over a series of turbine rotor blades
FRESH AIR

EXHAUST

COMBUSTION
EXPANSION
COMPRESSION
TURBINE
MECHANICAL
ENERGY

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

66

GT - Principle of Operation
Theoretical Cycle
Fuel Gas
Combustion
Chamber

~650 - 950F

3
2

1
Air

~1800 2300F

Axial
Compressor

Exhaust
Gas (~950F)

Temperature
F

3
Real Cycle

2
Centrifugal
Compressor

H.P./L.P. Turbine

Entropy

Ideal Cycle Efficiency

id= 1- (T4-T1)/(T3-T2)
= 1 (P1/P2)(g-1)/ g
John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Basics to tune model

Combine heat rate & power output to determine the fuel required
Determine the air rate from the exhaust rate
Adjust the mechanical efficiencies to match the power output
John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

68

Topics
Introduction
Fundamentals
Thermodynamics of compression
Multistaging

Compressor Efficiencies

Drivers
Compressor Types
Positive displacement compressors
Dynamic Compressors

Capacity and Power Calculations

Capacity

Power Requirements

Comparison of Reciprocating and Centrifugal Compressors

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

69

Centrifugal

Reciprocating

Ideal for constant flow

- MW affects capacity

+ MW makes no difference

++Availability > 99%

- Availability 90 to 95%

+ Smaller footprint

- Larger footprint

- IS = 70 75%

+ IS = 75 92%

- Surge control required

++ No surge problems

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu

Updated: February 9, 2016

70

Topics
Introduction
Fundamentals
Thermodynamics of compression
Multistaging

Compressor Efficiencies

Drivers
Compressor Types
Positive displacement compressors
Dynamic Compressors

Capacity and Power Calculations

Capacity

Power Requirements

Comparison of Reciprocating and Centrifugal Compressors

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

71