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Compression

Chapter 9
Based on presentation by Prof. Art Kidnay
John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Topics
Introduction
Fundamentals
Thermodynamics of compression
Multistaging

Compressor Efficiencies

Drivers
Compressor Types
Positive displacement compressors
Dynamic Compressors

Capacity and Power Calculations


Capacity

Power Requirements

Comparison of Reciprocating and Centrifugal Compressors


John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Plant Block Schematic

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

Topics
Introduction
Fundamentals
Thermodynamics of compression
Multistaging

Compressor Efficiencies

Drivers
Compressor Types
Positive displacement compressors
Dynamic Compressors

Capacity and Power Calculations


Capacity

Power Requirements

Comparison of Reciprocating and Centrifugal Compressors


John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Review of Thermodynamic Principals


1st Law of Thermodynamics Energy is conserved
(Change in systems energy) = (Rate of heat added) (Rate of work performed)
Systems energy contributions
Kinetic energy related to velocity of system

Potential energy related to positon in a field (e.g., gravity)


Internal energy related to systems temperature
o

Internal energy, U, convenient for systems at constant volume

Define Enthalpy, H = U +PV, to describe systems at constant pressure

2nd Law of Thermodynamics


In a cyclic process entropy will either stay the same (reversible process) or will increase

Relationship between work & heat


All work can be converted to heat, but
Not all heat can be converted to work
John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Common Paths for Heat and Work


Isothermal constant temperature, T = 0
Isobaric constant pressure, P = 0
Isochoric constant volume, V = 0
Isenthalpic no heat or heat, constant enthalpy, H = 0
Adiabatic no heat transferred, Q = 0
Isentropic (ideal reversible) no increase in entropy, S = 0

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

1st Law for steady state flow


Equation 1.19a (H U for flowing systems)

u 2 g
H
z Q W
2gc gc
For adiabatic, steady-state, ideal (reversible) flow (using WS as positive value)

u 2 g
Ws H
z
2gc gc
P2

u 2 g
VdP
z
2gc gc
P1
P2

Ws VdP
P1

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

Thermodynamics of Compression
Work depends on path commonly assume adiabatic or polytropic compression
Calculations done with:
PH diagram for H
Evaluate integral using equation of state
Simplest EOS is the ideal gas law

P2

Ws VdP H
P1

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

PH Diagrams

Ref: GPSA Data Book, 13th ed.


John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

TS Diagram

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Updated: February 9, 2016

10

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Updated: February 9, 2016

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Updated: February 9, 2016

12

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

13

Thermodynamics of Compression
Assume ideal gas: PV = RT
Choices of path for calculating work:
Isothermal (T = 0)
P2

P
dP
RT ln 2
P
P1
P1

P2

Ws VdP RT
P1

Minimum work required but unrealistic

Isentropic (S = 0)
Maximum ideal work but more realistic

Polytropic - empirical
Considers some heat loss and gas nonideality

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

Thermodynamics of Compression
Work equations

Isentropic (PVg = constant) where g = CP/CV


g1 / g

RT1 g P2

Ws
1
M g 1 P1

Polytropic (PVk= constant) where k is empirical constant > g


k1 / k

RT1 k
P2

Ws
1
M k 1 P1

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

15

Thermodynamics of Compression
Calculation of g for gas mixture

xC

g
x C
i

p ,i

i V ,i

xC

x C R
i

p ,i

p ,i

Use the ideal gas heat capacities, not the real gas heat capacities
Heat capacities are functions of temperature. Use the average value over the
temperature range

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

16

Example compression calculation


Example

Have sales gas (assume pure methane)


Initial conditions: 40oF & 100 psig
Desired outlet pressure: 400 psig
Compute work of compression on mass basis

Using PH diagram
Assuming ideal gas and adiabatic compression

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

17

Example Calculation PH Diagram

H2 = 462 Btu/lb

H1 = 370 Btu/lb

WS = (H2 H1) = 92 Btu/lb

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

18

Example Calculation Ideal Gas Compression


For methane:
g = 1.3
M = 16
T1 = 40F= 499.67oR

P1 = 100 psig = 114.7 psia


P2 = 1000 psig = 1014.7 psia
R = 1.986 Btu/lb.mol oR
g1 / g
1.3 1.986 499.67 414.7 1.31/1.3
gRT1 P2

Ws
1
1 93 Btu/lb

M g 1 P1
16
1.3

1
114.7

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

19

Discharge temperature
For ideal gas compression
P
T2 T1 2
P1

g1 / g

For the example problem:


414.7
T2 499.67

114.7

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

1.31 /1.3

672.19R 212.5F

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Thermodynamics of Compression
If customer wants 1000 psig
Then pressure ratio of (1015/115) = 8.8
Discharge temperature for this ratio is ~360oF

For reciprocating compressors the GPSA Engineering Data Book recommends


Maximum discharge temperature of 250 to 275oF for high pressure systems AND
Pressure ratios of 3:1 to 5:1

To obtain overall high pressure ratio must use multistage compression with
interstage cooling

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

21

Multistaging
To minimize work need good interstage cooling and equal pressure ratios in stages.

The number of stages is calculated using


1/ m

P
RP 2
T1

ln P2 / P1
m
ln R P

To go from 100 to 1000 psig with a single-stage pressure ratio of 3 takes 2 (1.98)
stages & the stage exit temp ~183oF (starting @ 100oF)
1014.7
ln

114.7 ln 8.8

1.98
ln 3
ln 3
P 1/ m
T2 T1 2
P1
John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

g1 / g

1014.7 1/2
499.67

114.7

1.31 /1.3

642.59R 182.9F

22

Topics
Introduction
Fundamentals
Thermodynamics of compression
Multistaging

Compressor Efficiencies

Drivers
Compressor Types
Positive displacement compressors
Dynamic Compressors

Capacity and Power Calculations


Capacity

Power Requirements

Comparison of Reciprocating and Centrifugal Compressors


John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

23

Compressor Efficiencies
Number of definitions for compressor efficiencies
Two major definitions
Adiabatic efficiency (also known as the isentropic efficiency):

IS

H S0
H actual

WS0
Wactual

Polytropic efficiency:

g 1 / g
k 1 / k

Polytropic efficiency not necessarily 100% at reversible conditions

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

24

Why use polytropic efficiency?


More closely follows the actual pressure-temperature path during the
compression

In general P > IS
Can use this to estimate the actual discharge temperature
P2
T2 T1
P1

1 g1

P g

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

25

Compressor efficiency example


Continuation of example given in the beginning of this section
Actual work required is:
Wactual

WS 0
IS

Assume IS = 80% then:


Wactual

93 Btu/lb
116 Btu/lb
0.80

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

26

Compressor efficiency discharge temperature


GPSA Engineering Data Book suggests the isentropic temperature change should
be divided by the isentropic efficiency to get the actual discharge temperature

T2,S 0

P
T1 2
P1

g1 / g

P2
P
T2,act T1 T1 1

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

P g1/ g
T2,S 0 T1 T1 2
1
P
1

g1 / g

1
IS

T2,act

P g1/ g

2

1
P

T1 1 1

IS

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Topics
Introduction
Fundamentals
Thermodynamics of compression
Multistaging

Compressor Efficiencies

Drivers
Compressor Types
Positive displacement compressors
Dynamic Compressors

Capacity and Power Calculations


Capacity

Power Requirements

Comparison of Reciprocating and Centrifugal Compressors


John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

28

Compressor Drivers
Internal combustion engines
Industry mainstay from beginning
Emissions constraints
Availability is 90 to 95%

Electric motors
Good in remote areas
Availability is > 99.9%

Gas turbines
Availability is > 99%
Lower emissions than IC engine

Steam turbines
Uncommon in gas plants on compressors
Used in combined cycle and Claus units
John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

29

Topics
Introduction
Fundamentals
Thermodynamics of compression
Multistaging

Compressor Efficiencies

Drivers
Compressor Types
Positive displacement compressors
Dynamic Compressors

Capacity and Power Calculations


Capacity

Power Requirements

Comparison of Reciprocating and Centrifugal Compressors


John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

30

Compressor Types
Two basic types:

Positive displacement compress by changing volume


Reciprocating, Rotary screw, Diaphragm, Rotary vane

Dynamic compress by converting kinetic energy into pressure


Centrifugal, Axial

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

31

Compressor Pressure and Volume Ranges

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

Reciprocating Compressors
Workhorse of industry since 1920s
Capable of high volumes and discharge pressures
High efficiency up to 85%
Performance independent of gas MW
Good for intermittent service

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

Reciprocating Compressors
Drawbacks

Availability ~90 to 95% vs 99+% for others, spare compressor needed in critical
service

Pulsed flow

Pressure ratio limited, typically 3:1 to 4:1


Emissions control can be problem (IC drivers)
Relatively large footprint

Throughput adjusted by variable speed drive, valve unloading or recycle unless


electrically driven

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

Reciprocating Compressors - Principle of Operation

Double Acting Crosshead

Single Acting - Trunk Piston

Typical applications:

Typical Applications:

All process services, with any gas and up


to the highest pressures and power

Small size standard compressors for air


and non dangerous gases

Courtesy of Nuovo Pignone Spa, Italy


John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

35

Reciprocating Compressors - Compression Cycle


5

Pressure

p0

Volume

Suction

Discharge

Courtesy of Nuovo Pignone Spa, Italy


John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

36

Reciprocating Compressors

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

Propane Refrigeration Compressors

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

Propane Compressors with Air-cooled Heat Exchangers

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

Reciprocating Compressor at Gas Well

Courtesy of Nuovo Pignone Spa, Italy


John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

2 stage 2,000 HP Reciprocating Compressor

Courtesy of Ariel Corp


John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Reciprocating Compressors - Main Components


Pulsation Bottles

Crankcase
Cast Iron

Crankshaft
Counterweight
Forged Steel for balancing

Crosshead
Cast Steel

Ballast for
balancing of
inertia forces

Slide Body

Distance Pieces

Pneumatic
Valve
Unloaders
for capacity
control

Forged
Cylinder

Main Oil Pump

Connecting Rod
(die forged steel)

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

Rod Packing
Oil Wiper
Packing Piston Rod
Piston

Cast
Cylinder

Cylinder Valve

42

Rotary Screw Compressor

Left rotor turns clockwise, right rotor counterclockwise


Gas becomes trapped in the central cavity
The Process Technology Handbook Charles E. Thomas,
UHAI Publishing, Berne, NY, 1997.
John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Rotary Screw Compressors


Oil-free

Oil-injected

First used in steel mills because handles

Higher throughput and discharge pressures

dirty gases

Max pressure ratio of 8:1 if liquid injected


with gas

High availability (> 99%)


Leads to low maintenance cost

Volumetric efficiency of ~100%

Has two exit ports


Axial, like oil-free
Radial, which permits 70 to 90% turndown
without significant efficiency decrease

Pressure ratios to 23:1

Small footprint (~ of recip)

Tight tolerances can limit quick restarts

Relatively quiet and vibration-free

Requires oil system which filters and cools

Relatively low efficiency


70 85% adiabatic efficiencies

Relatively low throughput and discharge


pressure

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

oil to 140oF

Oil removal from gas


Oil compatibility is critical
Widely used in propane refrigeration systems,
low pressure systems, e.g., vapor recovery,
instrument air

Rotary Screw Compressor

Courtesy of Ariel Corp


John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Oil-Injected Rotary Screw Compressor

Courtesy of Ariel Corp


John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Two-stage screw compressor

Courtesy of MYCOM / Mayekawa Mfg


John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Dynamic Compressors
Two types
Centrifugal
High volumes, high discharge pressures

Axial
Very high volumes, low discharge pressures

Use together in gas processing


Centrifugal for compressing natural gas
Axial for compressing air for gas turbine driving centrifugal compressor

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

48

Centrifugal compressors
Single stage (diffuser)

Multi-stage

Bett,K.E., et al Thermodynamics for


Chemical Engineers Page 226

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

49

Two-stage compressor

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

Centrifugal Compressor

Courtesy of Nuovo Pignone Spa, Italy


John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Centrifugal Compressors Issues


Surge

Changes in the suction or outlet pressures can cause backflow; this can become
cyclic as the compressor tries to adjust. The resulting pressure oscillations are
called SURGE

Stonewall

When gas flow reaches sonic velocity flow cannot be increased.

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

52

Axial

Centrifugal

Reciprocating

Inlet Volume Flow


Rate
John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Stonewall Line

Surg
e Lin
e

Pressure Head

Surge

Gas Turbine Centrifugal Compressor


Axial
Compressor

Centrifugal
Compressor
Exhaust
Gas

Low Pressure
Gas

Air

Fuel Gas
Combustion
Turbine
John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

High Pressure
Gas

Industrial Gas Turbines

Ref: GPSA Data Book, 13th ed.


John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

59

What is heat rate?


Heat rate is the amount of fuel gas needed (expressed heating value) to produce
a given amount of power
Normally LHV, but you need to make sure of the basis

Essentially the reciprocal of the thermal efficiency


Thermal efficiency

2544
Btu LHV
Heat rate,
hp hr

Example: Dresser-Rand VECTRA 30G heat rate is 6816 Btu/hphr

Thermal efficiency

2544
0.3732
6816

Includes effects of adiabatic & mechanical efficiencies

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

60

Gas Turbine

Courtesy of Nuovo Pignone Spa, Italy


John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Gas Turbine Engine


Gas Turbine Engine
From: F.W.Schmuidt, R.E. Henderson, and C.H. Wolgemuth,
Introduction to Thermal Sciences, second edition Wiley, 1993

Fuel

P2

P1

Compressor

Combustion
chamber

shaft

P3

shaft

Turbine

P4
Atmospheric air

Load

Combustion
products

Assumptions
To apply basic thermodynamics to the process above, it is necessary to make a number of
assumptions, some rather extreme.
1) All gases are ideal, and compression processes are reversible and adiabatic (isentropic)
2) the combustion process is constant pressure, resulting only in a change of temperature
3) negligible potential and kinetic energy changes in overall process
4) Values of Cp are constant

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

Gas Turbine Engine


P2 = P3

T
Temperature

Patm = P1 = P4

2
4
1
Entropy

wS = -h = -CPT

(9.1 and 1.18)

Note the equations apply to both the compressor and the turbine,since
thermodynamically the turbine is a compressor running backwards
Neglecting the differences in mass flow rates between the compressor and
the turbine, the net work is:
wnet = wt wc = CP(T3 T4) (T2 -T1)
Since (T3 T4) > (T2 T1)

(see T S diagram)

Since wnet is positive work flows to the load

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

Air & Hot Gas Paths


Gas Turbine has 3 main sections:

A compressor that takes in clean outside air and then compresses it through a series of rotating and
stationary compressor blades
FRESH AIR

EXHAUST

COMPRESSION

MECHANICAL
ENERGY

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

64

Air & Hot Gas Paths


Gas Turbine has 3 main sections:

A combustion section where fuel is added to the pressurized air and ignited. The hot pressurized
combustion gas expands and moves at high velocity into the turbine section.
FRESH AIR

EXHAUST

COMBUSTION
COMPRESSION

MECHANICAL
ENERGY

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

65

Air & Hot Gas Paths


Gas Turbine has 3 main sections:

A turbine that converts the energy from the hot/high velocity gas flowing from the combustion
chamber into useful rotational power through expansion over a series of turbine rotor blades
FRESH AIR

EXHAUST

COMBUSTION
EXPANSION
COMPRESSION
TURBINE
MECHANICAL
ENERGY

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

66

GT - Principle of Operation
Theoretical Cycle
Fuel Gas
Combustion
Chamber

~650 - 950F

3
2

1
Air

~1800 2300F

Axial
Compressor

Exhaust
Gas (~950F)

Temperature
F

3
Real Cycle

2
Centrifugal
Compressor

H.P./L.P. Turbine

Simple Cycle Gas Turbine

Entropy

Ideal Cycle Efficiency


id= 1- (T4-T1)/(T3-T2)
= 1 (P1/P2)(g-1)/ g
John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

Modeling Gas Turbine with Aspen Plus

Basics to tune model


Combine heat rate & power output to determine the fuel required
Determine the air rate from the exhaust rate
Adjust adiabatic efficiencies to match the exhaust temperature
Adjust the mechanical efficiencies to match the power output
John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

68

Topics
Introduction
Fundamentals
Thermodynamics of compression
Multistaging

Compressor Efficiencies

Drivers
Compressor Types
Positive displacement compressors
Dynamic Compressors

Capacity and Power Calculations


Capacity

Power Requirements

Comparison of Reciprocating and Centrifugal Compressors


John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

69

Centrifugal Compressors vs. Reciprocating Compressors


Centrifugal

Reciprocating

Constant head, variable volume

Constant volume, variable pressure

Ideal for variable flow

Ideal for constant flow

- MW affects capacity

+ MW makes no difference

++Availability > 99%

- Availability 90 to 95%

+ Smaller footprint

- Larger footprint

- IS = 70 75%

+ IS = 75 92%

CO & NOx emissions low

Catalytic converters needed

- Surge control required

++ No surge problems

++Lower CAPEX and maint.

++Fast startup & shutdown

(maint cost ~1/4 of recip)

John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu


Updated: February 9, 2016

70

Topics
Introduction
Fundamentals
Thermodynamics of compression
Multistaging

Compressor Efficiencies

Drivers
Compressor Types
Positive displacement compressors
Dynamic Compressors

Capacity and Power Calculations


Capacity

Power Requirements

Comparison of Reciprocating and Centrifugal Compressors


John Jechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated: February 9, 2016

71