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Heat Transfer

Spring 2007 Number 17629 Instructor: Larry Caretto

1. The inner and outer surfaces of a 0.5-cm thick 2-m by 2-m window glass in winter are 10C

and 3C, respectively. If the thermal conductivity of the glass is 0.78 W/mK, determine the

amount of heat loss through the glass over a period of 5 h. What would your answer be if

the glass were 1 cm thick? (Problem 1.56 from text.)

This is a basic conduction problem where Q

o

o

outside is found by taking T = 10 C 3 C = 7oC = 7 K, the inside to outside temperature

difference. The area, A, is (2 m)(2 m) = 4 m2, and we are given the thermal conductivity, k =

0.78 W/mK. We are asked to find the heat for two values of L: 0.5 cm = 0.005 m and 1 cm =

0.01 m. The total heat transferred over five hours is found by assuming that the temperatures are

& t, where t = 5 hr = 18,000 s. Combining these

constant over that period so that Q = Q

equations and applying the data gives the following results for L = 0.5 cm and L = 1 cm.

0.78 W 4 m 2 (7 K )

kAT

&

(18000 s ) 1 J MJ

Q = Qt =

t =

= 78.6 MJ

L

mK

0.005 m

W s 10 6 J

0.78 W 4 m 2 (7 K )

kAT

(18000 s ) 1 J MJ

Q = Q& t =

t =

= 39.3 MJ

0.01 m

L

mK

W s 10 6 J

The second answer can also be found by dividing the first answer by 2 to account for the doubling

of the thickness of the glass.

2. Hot air at 80C is blown over a 2-m by 4-m flat surface at 30C. If the average convection

heat transfer coefficient is 55 W/m2C, determine the rate of heat transfer from the air to

the plate, in kW. (Problem 1.67 from text.)

Here we apply the basic equation for convection, Q

transfer from the air to the plate so the take the temperature difference as the air temperature

minus the plate temperature = 80oC 30oC = 50oC. The area is (2 m)(4 m) = 8 m2, and the heat

transfer coefficient, h = 55 W/m2C. Substituting these data into the convective heat transfer

equation gives the desired heat transfer:

)(

55 W

kW

Q& = hAT = 2 o 8 m 2 50 oC 3 = 22 kW

m C

10 W

E-mail: lcaretto@csun.edu

Mail Code

8348

Phone: 818.677.6448

Fax: 818.677.7062

Page 2

3. Consider a person whose exposed surface area is 1.7 m2, emissivity is 0.5, and surface

temperature is 32C. Determine the rate of heat loss from that person by radiation in a

large room having walls at a temperature of (a) 300 K and (b) 280 K. (Problem 1.84 from

text.)

0.7 m2 on exercise sheet.

For this radiation problem we can assume that the person is small compared to the size of the

room and use the formula for the radiative heat transfer from a small object (1) to a large

& =1A1(T14 T24). We are given the emissivity, 1 = 0.5, the surface area, A1 =

enclosure (2), Q

1.7 m2, and T1 = 32oC = 305.15 K. We are asked to use two values of T2: 300 K and 280 K. The

heat transfer from these two temperatures are.

[(

) (

)]

[(

) (

)]

5.670 x10 8 W

Q& = 1 A1 T14 T14 = (0.5) 1.7 m 2

305.15 K 4 300 K 4 = 26.7 W

2

4

m K

5.670 x10 8 W

Q& = 1 A1 T14 T14 = (0.5) 1.7 m 2

305.15 K 4 280 K 4 = 121 W

2

4

m K

4. The inner and outer surfaces of a 25-cm-thick wall in summer are

at 27C and 44C, respectively. (See diagram at right.) The outer

surface of the wall exchanges heat by radiation with surrounding

surfaces at 40C, and convection with ambient air also at 40C

with a convection heat transfer coefficient of 8 W/m2C. Solar

radiation is incident on the surface at a rate of 150 W/ m2. If both

the emissivity and the solar absorptivity of the outer surface are

0.8, determine the effective thermal conductivity of the wall.

Here there is conduction heat transfer through the wall that equals

the heat transfer from the outside of the wall. We thus have the

balance equation that q& cond = q& rad + q& conv . Here, we choose to use heat fluxes, instead of

heat flows because we are not given the area. We have to be careful to check the sign of each

component of the conductive and radiative heat transfer so that we get the correct net heat

transfer into the wall.

Once we find the conduction heat flux from this sum, we can find the thermal conductivity by

solving the usual equation for conduction heat transfer, q& =kT/L, to give the thermal

conductivity, k = L q& /T. We assume that the heat transfer is going from the outer wall at 44oC to

the inner wall at 27oC so T = 17oC and the wall thickness, L = 25 cm = 0.25 m.

On the outside of the wall we have an incoming solar radiation of 150 W/m2. Since the solar

absorbtivity = 0.8, the heat transfer that is actually absorbed by the wall is (0.8)( 150 W/m2) =

120 W/m2. In addition to this solar irradiation, there is a radiative heat exchange with other

surfaces at 40oC. Assuming that the other surfaces are larger than the wall, we can use the

equation for radiative transfer from a small body in a large enclosure to find the radiative heat

exchange per unit area.

q& rad , x =

[(

) (

Page 3

)]

5.670 x10 8 W

Q&

= 1 T14 T14 = (0.8)

317.15 K 4 313.15 K 4 = 22.72 W

2

4

A1

m K

This heat transfer is leaving the wall, not going into the wall because the wall temperature is

greater than the surrounding temperatures. Thus the total radiation flux into the wall = 120 W/m2

22.72 W/m2 = 97.28 W/m2

& =hAT.

The convective heat transfer into the wall is found by the equation for convection, Q

Dividing by A gives the heat flux and to get the heat flux into the wall we take the temperature

difference as Tair Touter,wall = 40oC 44oC = 4oC. With the given heat transfer coefficient of 8

W/m2C, we find the heat flux into the wall as

q& conv =

Q& conv

8W

32 W

= hT = 2 o 4 o C = 2

A

m C

m

So the total heat flux into the wall at the outside, which equals the conduction heat flux through the wall

is found as follows.

97.28 W

m

32 W

65.28 W

m2

We can now solve the conduction heat transfer equation for the thermal conductivity and apply

the given data (L = 0.25 m and T = 44oC = 27oC = 17oC = 17 K) to find the thermal conductivity.

q& =

kT

L

k=

Lq&

=

T

(0.25 m ) 65.282 W

m

17 K

= 0.96 W

mK

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