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liVe have constructed a function n which associates to each non-null integer m the smallest positive n such that n! is a multiple of m.

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in The Number Theory

(Moldova): Universitatea de Stat din Moldova, 1997.

THEORY

liVe have constructed a function '7 which associates to each non-null integer m the smallest

,,(xl = n, where n E N.

Discussion.

(c) Let

7)(i)

denote

1)

T) 0 .. 01)

Solution

(a) The cases n = 0,1 are trivial.

We note the increasing sequence of primes less or equal than n by P;, P2 , ,

(3,

2:[n/p~], t

p., and

= 1,2, ... , k;

h~'

Let n

= p~il

..

P~:', where all Pi, are distinct primes and all ai, are from N.

Thus x =

/3,

for all t

= 1,2, ... , k

Ui,

.aij ,

0;,

+ i}.

(b) See [1] too. We consider m E Z'i".

Of course m! is a multiple of m.

If m

m

-I

4 and m is net a prime, the Lemma is equivalent to there are m" mz such that

= m,' m2

with 1

< m, :::::

m2 and (2m2

<

m or 2m,

82

is a prime> p, or x = 2p.

S max{p,2x2} < x respectively '7(PX) S max{p, 2x1, X2} < x.

and 2xl < x)# '7(px)

Observations

'7(2x)

'7(3x)

= x {= x = 4 or x is an odd prime.

= x # x = 4,6,9 or x is a prime> 3.

Of course, '7(mx)

x. And x

=I '7(m),

m '7(m) divides '7(m)! that is m divides ('7(m) -I)! whence 1](m) S 1](m)-1.

Lemma 4. Ifx is not a prime then '7(m) < x S 21](m) and x = 21](m) if and only if'7(m) is

a prime.

= XIX2.

Let x

= 2'7(m);

If ,,(m) is a prime, 1](m) divides m, whence m . 2'7(m) is divided by '7(m)2, it results in

1](m 2'1(m

,,(m. 2'7(m)

= 2'7(m).

+ 2) ... (21](m))

Conclusion.

All x, prime number> 1](m), are solutions.

If '7(m) is prime, then x = 2'7(m) is a solution.

"If x is not a prime, '7(m) < x < 2'7(m), and x does not divide (x - 1)!/m then x is a

solution (semi-open question). If m = 3 it adds x = 9 too. (No other solution exists yet.)

( c)

Of course, '7(a)

+ '7(b).

= a' and '7(b) = b' involves (a' + b')! = b'!(b' + 1. .. (b' + a').

Then '7(ab) S a' + b', because the product of a' consecutive positive integers is a multiple of a'!

Clearly, if m is a prime then k

= 1 and n", = m.

If m is not a prime then '7(m) < ro, whence there is a k for which 1](k}(m) = '7(k+ l )(m).

If m

=I

1 then 2 S n", S m.

83

IT nm

(*~)

= nln2, 1 < nl

~ n2,

4.

References

[1] F.Smarandache, A Function in the Number Theory, An. Univ. Tirnisoara, seria st. mat.,

Vol. XVIII, fase. 1, pp.79-88, 1980; Mathematical Reviews: 83e:lOOO8.

[Published on "Gamma" Journal, "Stegarul Rosu" College, Braoov, 1987.]

84

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