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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Bismillahirrahmanirrahim , Alhamdulillah, thanks to divine grace for giving me the strength,


energy and confidence given to me, I can also provide this task successfully. First of all, I would
like to dedicate this to thank my lecturer, Miss Khalida binti Muhammad Agam as tutoring and
counselling to prepare me for this task successfully. I would also like to thank my parents who
gave me a facilitator to complete these assignments. They gave me all the amenities and
extensive moral support to the end I managed to do this. This gratitude also goes to the many
colleagues warned against any of what I have been negligent. They helped me prepare to tell
what to do. Finally, I would like to thank those involved directly or indirectly in making this
assignment .Thank you.

INTRODUCTION OF SEXUAL HARRESMENT


Sexual harassment is bullying or coercion of a sexual nature, or the unwelcome or inappropriate
promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favors. In most modern legal contexts, sexual
harassment is illegal. As defined by the US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
(EEOC), "It is unlawful to harass a person an applicant or employee because of that person's
sex." Harassment can include "sexual harassment" or unwelcome sexual advances, requests for
sexual favors, and other verbal or physical harassment of a sexual nature. The legal definition of
sexual harassment varies by jurisdiction. Sexual harassment is subject to a directive in the
European Union.
Where laws surrounding sexual harassment exist, they generally do not prohibit simple teasing,
offhand comments, or minor isolated inciden. In the workplace, harassment may be considered
illegal when it is so frequent or severe that it creates a hostile or offensive work environment or
when it results in an adverse employment decision such as the victim being fired or demoted, or
when the victim decides to quit the job. The legal and social understanding of sexual harassment,
however, varies by culture.
In the context of US employment, the harasser can be the victim's supervisor, a supervisor in
another area, a co-worker, or someone who is not an employee of the employer, such as a client
or customer, and harassers or victims can be of any sex or gender.
It includes a range of actions from mild transgressions to sexual abuse or sexual assault. Sexual
harassment is a form of illegal employment discrimination in many countries, and is a form of
abuse sexual and psychological and bullying. For many businesses or organizations, preventing
sexual harassment, and defending employees from sexual harassment charges, have become key
goals of legal decision-making.

TYPES OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT

There are two types of sexual harassment that are legally recognized:
1. Quid pro quo sexual harassment
Quid pro quo sexual harassment occurs when an employee gets on the promotion track or even
gets to keep his/her job is based on if the employee submitted to or rejected sexual advances or
other types of inappropriate sexual comments. For example, if a supervisor were to tell an
employee she would be more likely to be promoted if she dressed sexier, that would be
considered quid pro quo sexual harassment.
2. Hostile environment sexual harassment
This type of sexual harassment occurs when a co-worker or supervisor in the workplace makes
sexual advances or comments to an employee that, while not affecting promotions or the future
of the employee's job, makes the working environment of the employee offensive and hostile. In
general, the comments tend to affect the employee's ability to do her job. Some instances of
hostile environment sexual harassment can be:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Personal questions of a sexual nature


Vulgarities and other offensive language
Physical conduct that is sexual or degrading to any reasonable person
Any sexually explicit or offensive pictures or literature that is in plain site of other
employees

If the employer was aware, or should have been aware, of the sexual harassment and did not take
action to discipline the offender and correct the situation, the employer can be liable as well as
the offender.

THE FIVE COMMON TYPES OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT:

Sexual harassment is typically directed at women, but men can also be victims. Here is a brief
description of the five common types:
1. Threatening A person is threatened or offered rewards promotions, raises, etc. in return
for sexual favours. A direct or implied threat often accompanies such a proposition, making it
clear that the victims career will be jeopardized if he or she doesnt comply with the request.
2. Physical harassment This occurs when a person is unwillingly touched. Some examples of
physical harassment include, but are not limited to: touching a persons clothing, hair or body;
hugging, kissing, patting or stroking; massaging a persons neck or shoulders; or standing close
to or brushing up against a person.
3. Verbal harassment This comes from anyone within the firm and or other workplace or a
person who does business with the firm or company. Some examples are: referring to an adult as
a babe, honey, girl or stud; whistling at someone; turning work discussion to sexual topics;
asking personal questions of a sexual nature; making sexual comments about a persons clothing,
anatomy or looks; or asking someone repeatedly for dates and refusing to take no for an answer.
4. Non-verbal harassment (body language) Examples of non-verbal harassment include:
suggestive looks; prolonged staring; giving unwanted personal gifts; winking and making sexual
gestures with the hands or body movements.
5. Environmental harassment Sexually suggestive pictures or objects displayed in the
workplace may offend people. These items depict women or men as sex objects. It is important
to note that, if your office is a place where others have to enter to do work, you must ensure that
you are not causing a hostile or offensive environment.

CAUSES
There are many causes of sexual harassment but most important one is the culture and values
system and the relative power and status of the men and women in our society. The way in which
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men and women are brought up in India strongly influences their behavior in an organization.
Women often lack self confidence because of the way they have been socialized and are
customized to suffer in silence.
Whereas men are brought up with macho beliefs, who consider females a mere toy to play with
and easily carry these values into the workplace. Such patriarchal viewpoints create a atmosphere
that allows men the freedom of sexual harassment in the workplace, while women remain
vulnerable. Women are vulnerable to sexual harassment because they more often lack power and
often work in an insecure positions. Due to the fear factor women often resign to their fate rather
than raise their voice against sexual harassment. Since they do not know where to go for
complain and how their complain would be treated, they often keep quit and suffer in ignominy.
Some times sexual harassment is also seen as a power game, where man insists on sexual favors
in exchange of benefits he can dispense with due to his prevailed position. The 'casting couch' is
probably the best-known example of such power game. As recent economic and social changes
have changed power relations between men and women in the Indian society, men are feeling a
sense of insecurity. With women now being empowered, some men feel threatened by their
career advancement. To over come such insecure feelings, some men resort to harassing women
in the work place.
Sometimes men are stressed in the work place because even after putting their best, they do not
get proper recognition, where as women with little talent are preferred for being fair sex in an
organization. This sometimes causes frustration and such men resort to sexual harassment to
overcome their stress. Its not only men who are to be blamed all the time, some women think that
the real women have to look sexy. They see sexuality as their only power base to play along.
Such attitude of women sometimes invites sexual advances by men at the work place and then
become a case of sexual harassment. One of the major reason that sexual harassment goes on
unabated because the organization in order to safeguard its image do not entertain complaint and
disciplinary procedures to deal with sexual harassment.
SUMMARY ARCTICLE 1
The article about Highland Park lawyer faces suspension over sexual
misconduct accusations, is talk about Paul M. Weiss misconduct was was
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offensive and pervasive and we found that it reflects adversely on his


fitness as a lawyer, a panel of the Illinois Attorney Registration and
Disciplinary Commission wrote in a decision released earlier this month. But
Weiss attorney said in a statement that her client plans to appeal the
hearing boards findings and proposed sanction.
The Illinois Attorney Registration and Disciplinary Commission has pursued
ethics charges against Mr. Weiss related primarily to allegations of sexual
harassment, despite a specific rule that prohibits ethics charges for sexual
harassment against an attorney unless a court or administrative agency has
found that the attorney committed sexual harassment (no court or
administrative body has ever found that Mr. Weiss committed sexual
harassment), the statement said.
And despite the fact that Mr. Weiss has never been criminally charged for
any of this conduct, the ARDC has pursued these ethics claims by charging
him solely with committing criminal conduct (one additional charge that Mr.
Weiss engaged in conduct prejudicial to the administration of justice was
recommended to be dismissed by the Hearing Board).
Weiss was accused of groping, making sexually harassing phone calls and
other sexual misbehavior that includes assault, battery and unlawful
restraint. Three of the alleged victims were legal assistants and another was
an attorney who was fired in 2002 after she complained, according to a
complaint filed by the commission in 2008.
The commission later amended its complaint to include allegations that
Weiss took of his pants during a meeting with a fifth employee and exposed
himself to two other women outside the office. Weiss had also denied the
ethics charges.

SUMMARY ARCTICLE 2
The second article is about When the Supreme Court first declared sexual
harassment illegal the

. it because The law of sexual harassment has

developed along two separate tracks since the Supreme Court said in 1986
that it violated Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. That law prohibits employers
from discriminating against workers because of their race, sex, religion and
national origin.
"Perhaps the Supreme Court," Posner wrote after the appeals court could not
agree on the law, "will bring order to the chaotic case law in this important
field of practice." In a recent opinion, Richard Posner, chief judge of the 7th
U.S. Court of Appeals in Chicago, all but begged the justices to once again
enter the fray.
As the issue of sexual harassment has dominated front pages and coffee
shop chatter this year, so too has it preoccupied the Supreme Court. Already
it has heard three significant cases that will give new focus to the often
murky law, and this week, it will take up the fourth and possibly most
controversial.
It is the same Chicago case Posner had urged the justices to review. In it, the
court will decide whether an employee can sue for sexual harassment even if
she suffers no tangible job setbacks after rebuffing her supervisor's
advances.
So from this arctile , we can see that sexual harrastment always happen at
the workplace , school etc. And this issue will become big if not solve it.

SUMMARY ARCTICLE 3
The last arcticle is about President Pranab Mukherjee has given his assent to
a bill under which cases of sexual harassment at workplace.
Repeated non-compliance of the provisions of the Sexual Harassment of
Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) law, can lead to
higher penalties and even cancellation of licence or registration to conduct
business.
As per the act, sexual harassment includes any one or more of unwelcome
acts or behaviour like physical contact and advances, a demand or request
for sexual favours or making sexually coloured remarks or showing
pornography.
Non-compliance with the provisions of the act shall be punishable with a fine
of up to Rs 50,000. It has also provisions for safeguard against false or
malicious charges.The apex court's judgement in the case not only defines
sexual harassment at workplace but also lays down guidelines for its
prevention and disciplinary action.
And from this arcticle i can know that Indians country have a the new law
brings in its ambit even domestic workers and agriculture labour, both
organised and unorganised sectors to protect the right of workers there.

IMPROVEMENT AND PREVENTION


Employers that are educated in sexual discrimination and harassment laws can protect
themselves and their employees. Advances in technology also create new opportunities for other
forms of sexual abuse including sending pornographic material via electronic communication or
the trending sexting behavior many engage in. To avoid this, successful leaders can propose and
implement strategies to prevent this conduct in the work place. Gordon (2007) suggests leaders
incorporate programs that offer guidance for staff members including special problems like
sexual misbehavior in unique environments, including educational, military, religious, and
governmental facilities (Gordon, 2007). In addition, strategies that offer to help employees learn
how to communicate in an appropriate manner and deal with power and sexuality can also be
effective.
These include the development of guidelines and Codes of Conduct that can also serve to:
(a) protect whistle blowers,
(b) monitor policies to make sure they are being complied with,
(c) hire good people,
(d) apply techniques to discipline workers,
(e) set an ethical tone, and
(f) create an ethical conflict management team to assist in the behavioral management process.
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Employers that are able to break free from old paradigms and release outdated views of how the
sexes interact can help develop a culture where employees feel not only safe, but feel confident
to discuss issues when they occur. These tactics help people to resolve issues before they reach
crisis level. In addition, employers can implement systems that include a designated person to
manage claims and support individuals that have been victimized by acknowledging that this is a
form of abuse that requires disciplinary action including termination from the perpetrator should
they be found guilty.

FIVE SIMPLE STEPS TO PREVENT SEXUAL HARASSMENT IN WORKPLACE


It is recommended that employers take the following steps to prevent sexual harassment.
1. Get high-level management support

Get high level support from the chief executive officer and senior management for
implementing a comprehensive strategy to address sexual harassment.

2. Write and implement a sexual harassment policy

Develop a written policy which prohibits sexual harassment in consultation with staff and

relevant unions.
Regularly distribute and promote the policy at all levels of the organisation.
Provide the policy and other relevant information on sexual harassment to new staff as a

standard part of induction.


Translate the policy into relevant community languages where required so it is accessible

to employees from non-English speaking backgrounds.


Ensure that the policy is accessible to staff members with disability.
Ensure that managers and supervisors discuss and reinforce the policy at staff meetings.
Verbal communication of the policy is particularly important in workplaces where the

literacy of staff may be an issue.


Review the policy to ensure it is operating effectively and contains up to date
information.

3. Provide regular training and information on sexual harassment to all staff and management

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Conduct regular training sessions for all staff and management on sexual harassment and
the organisational policy. Ensure that the training is specific about the types of behaviours

that may amount to sexual harassment. Regular refresher training is recommended.


Train all line managers on their role in ensuring that the workplace is free from sexual

harassment.
Display anti-sexual harassment posters on notice boards in common work areas and
distribute relevant brochures.

4. Encourage appropriate conduct by managers

Line managers should understand the need to model appropriate standards of professional

conduct at all times.


Include accountability mechanisms in position descriptions for managers.
Ensure that selection criteria for management positions include the requirement that
managers have a demonstrated understanding of and ability to deal with discrimination

and harassment issues as part of their overall responsibility for human resources.
Check that managers are fulfilling their responsibilities through performance appraisal
schemes.

5. Create a positive workplace environment

Remove offensive, explicit or pornographic calendars, literature, posters and other

materials from the workplace.


Develop a policy prohibiting inappropriate use of computer technology, such as e-mail,

screen savers and the Internet.


Periodically conduct workplace audits to monitor the incidence of sexual harassment.

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CONCLUSION
Sexual harassment in a work place is a sensitive issue. It cannot be checked merely providing
staff members information about the sexual harassment policy or relying on disciplinary action.
The organization must play proactive role, provide behavioral support and discuss this aspect as
a part of the work routine. The staff must nurture an inclusive, supportive, and respectful
environment in the office in order to build a congenial working atmosphere.
Equally important is that the organization must support the victim of sexual harassment, and help
to overcome the negative effects of such an experience.

Finally, every working women must know that it is high time to stand up and fight for such
injustices. Its only then sexual harassment in work place can be checked.

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REFERENCE
Adler, L. (2013). The essential guide for hiring and getting hired. Atlanta, GA: Workbench
Media.
Chopra, D. (2013, August 16). 21 day meditation challenge: Miraculous relationships. Retrieved
June 16, 2016, from chopracentermeditation.com: https://chopracentermeditation.com
Clarkson, K., & Miller, R. (2012). Business law: Text and cases: Legal, ethical, global and
corporate environment. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Fredman, S. (2011). Discrimination law. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Gordon, L. (2007). The sexual harrassment handbook. Franklin Lakes, NJ: The Career Press,
Inc.

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