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Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profiles


Dr. Mohamed A. El-Nahrawy

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Land area, arable land


Ruminant sector


Farming sector












Agro-ecological zones


Major agricultural enterprises in main zones




Scale of enterprise


Integration of livestock into farming systems




Socio-economic limitations




Rangeland production and carrying capacity of rangelands


Fodder crops


The role of Egyptian clover in Egyptian agriculture


Forage seed production




Crop residues and by-products


Summary of the benefits of converting farm-residues and agro-wastes to conventional feedstuff


Rangeland rehabilitation


Possible ways to alleviate the degradation:


Establishment of improved pasture


Integration of forages into farming systems


Tree fodder


Utilization of saline water for crop/forage production




Contact persons






which include four city governorates (Alexandria. in the east by the Gaza Strip. According to Sustainable Agricultural Development Strategy Towards 2030 (SADS. while Alexandria has 4. Eastern Desert and Sinai Peninsula.wikipedia. INTRODUCTION Egypt is in the north-eastern corner of Africa between latitudes 21O and 31O North and longitudes 25O and 35 O East (see Figure 1a) with a total area of 1 001 450 km2. Port Said and Suez). and the five frontier governorates covering Sinai and the deserts that lie west and east of the Nile. Map of Egypt (Source: World Factbook) Figure 1b. Egypt showing the vast desert area and the Nile Valley and Delta [Source: http://en. Western Desert. the country stretches 1 105 km from north to south and up to 1 129 km from east to west. It has a predominantly rural population (the percentage of rural inhabitants is estimated at about 58%) and according to World Factbook the July 2011 population was estimated at 82 079 636 with a growth rate of 1. eight in Upper Egypt along the Nile River from Cairo to Aswan. It is bordered in the north by the Mediterranean ] Figure 1c. 2008). Cairo. An increase in water availability and efficiency could result from proper management of water through more effective Figure 1a. Egypt is predominantly desert and arid and semi-arid rangelands (see Figure 1b) and can be divided into 4 major physical regions (for details see section 2 below: The Nile Valley and Delta.Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 5 1. Total of water use is about 62. Map of Egypt’s Administrative Divisions/Governorates .5 billion m3 per annum is allocated to Egypt. nine in Lower Egypt (in the Nile Delta region). Egypt has only one main source of water supply. Figure 2 shows the population distribution and density in Egypt.0 m3 in 2008 to 550 m3 in 2030. Israel and the Red Sea.96%.387 million persons (2009 estimates). Additional water could become available with the completion of the Jonglei Canal.902 million. Agriculture’s share of the water budget is about 81% (Table 2) and increased to 85% in 2006 (El-Beltagy & Abo-Hadeed. in the south by Sudan and in the west by Libya. The capital city is Cairo with an estimated population of 10. 2009) per capita fresh water is expected to decline from 711. Recorded share from cultivable land was about 504 m2 per inhabitant in 2006. the River Nile allowed a sedentary agricultural society to develop thousands of years ago. The availability of a reliable water supply from the High Dam in Aswan is governed by the water-sharing treaty with the countries of the Nile Basin under which 55. the Nile. Total available water resources are estimated at 73. Egypt is divided into twenty-six governorates (see Figure 1c) .8 billion m3 annually. The country has no effective rainfall except in a narrow band along the northern coast.6 billion m3 (Table 1). Consequently. Egypt is known as one of the oldest agricultural civilizations.

sugar crops and vegetables areas have increased from 2. fodder crops and food legume areas have Table 1.8 % Amount in use 100.25 and 0. 2009).Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 6 on-farm water management practices. 2003. 62. 0. 1992 and FAO. The Egyptian economy has relied heavily on the agricultural sector for food.17. It provides livelihood for about 55% and employs 30% of the labour force.00 .0.60 100. Available and potential water resources (in billion m3) annually.00 % 62. 1. changes in cropping patterns towards less water consuming crops. This period has also witnessed significant changes in the cropping pattern. More than 90% of Egypt is desert (see Figure 3). Of the total area of the Nile Basin and Delta.5% of the total area in 2007. Source Potential amount Nile water Groundwater Re-use of agricultural drainage water Treated sewage water Rain Total 73. fruit. Of this agricultural land. FAO. SADS. while the minimum recommended share by FAO is about 30 g/day/person (SADS. about 2 268 000 ha (5.43. 0. Map of Egypt showing population feddan) are new reclaimed lands.8 million feddan) lie within the Nile Basin and Delta.43 M ha in1980/84 to 2. The recorded share from animal protein is about 21 g/day in 1997 and is planned to rise to 24g per capita by 2017. and the remaining 210 000 ha (500 000 feddan) are rainfed or in the oases. Land area.5 million ha (8.11 and 0.4 million feddan) which represented about 3. 0. Table 2.60 100. contributes approximately 17% of the GDP and 20% of all foreign exchange ).utexas. 1992.5 million feddan) in 2008/9. 2009). density About 94% of the total cultivated area was (Source: <http://www. 2003. fibre and other products. The cropping area has increased from about 4 500 000 ha (10. feed. 3 276 000 ha (7. 1992 and FAO. The agricultural land base totals about 3. 2003. While fibre crops. Cereals.lib. the introduction of improved irrigation systems as well as re-use of drainage water and treated sewage water (Abouzeid. Distribution of used water in various sectors (in billion m3) annually. oil crops. Sector Consumed amount % Agriculture Shipping & maintenance of water in the River Total Source: Adapted from Abouzeid. occupied with annual crops and 6% with permanent crops in1980/84 (Table 3).9 million feddan) in 1980/84 to about 6 940 000 ha (16. the remaining 1 008 000 ha (2.74 M ha respectively in 2008/09.00 Source: Adapted from Abouzeid.4 million feddan) are old lands. as indicated in Table 3.98.4 million Figure 2. arable land Egyptian agriculture is almost entirely dependent on irrigation.

Surface water was the source for 83% of the irrigated area in 2000. 0. Agricultural Statistics Bulletin (2009).02. Mostly it has vast areas of poor rangeland (Figure 4). Even the small. the area planted to fodder crops decreased from 28. Irrigation potential is estimated at 4 420 00 ha. Map of land use in Egypt most 200 mm and unequally distributed and on limited areas. 1. Egypt.13 M ha respectively in 2008/09 (SADS. 99. In 2002. This decrease is due to the high competition between wheat and berseem during the winter season on the available cultivated area. Egypt has little effective rainfall.4 6.08. Cairo. whereas the total area equipped for irrigation in 2002 was reported at 3 422 178 ha. Over the past decades.28 and 0.17 and 0. recurrent drought. with 85% in the Nile Valley and Delta. 1.Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 7 decreased from 0.2 2. Ministry of Agriculture.6 46. modern technology and new economic rules have dramatically changed sheep production systems and socio-economic conditions.4 2. while 171 910 ha were under sprinkler irrigation and 221 415 ha under localized [drip or trickle] irrigation.14 M ha in 1980/84 to 0. at Figure 3.6 Year 2000/01 area % Year 2006/07 area % Year 2007/08 area % 42. Sinai and the New Valley.8% of cropland was irrigated.9% of the cropped area in 2007 (SADS. estimated at more than 10 million ha.8 8.1% in 1970/74 to around 18. Increasing settlement of nomads. The power irrigated area was estimated at 2 937 939 ha in 2000.48.22. Surface irrigation was practised on 3 028 853 ha in 2000. Year 2008/09 area % . Changes in area harvested by crop group (in M ha) Crop group Cereals Year 1980/84 area % Year 1990/91 area % 42.77 Source: Economic Affairs Department. On the other hand. The remaining 6% (217 527 ha) was irrigated with mixed sources. 2009). 0. 2009). increase in sheep numbers in Table 3. while 11% (361 176 ha) of the area was irrigated with groundwater in the provinces of Matruh. more humid area along the Mediterranean coast requires supplementary irrigation to produce reasonable yields.4 Legumes Fibres Sugar crops Oil crops Fodder crops Fruit Total 4.

6. in cooperation with local land users.2%. over-seeding selected rangelands with seeds of good nutritive value local grass and legume species. There is no surplus of animal production for export except some limited numbers of sheep and goats. Regarding small ruminants. 81. low plateau and high plateau) could be achieved through: developing a tree seedling nursery capacity in the villages. red meat. 5. initiation of seed collection and multiplication programmes.8 marginal zones. eggs. expansion of cultivation and reduction of fallow have greatly increased pressure on available land and reduced soil fertility. The ruminant sector is well-integrated with cropland since Egypt has limited natural pastures.9 million head in 2006. which reached 629 000 tonnes in 2005. 100. and the application of restricted grazing when it is possible. Conservation and where possible. The camel population was about 120 thousand head. The sector is depending mainly on the private sector. In 2005 local production covered about 92. Transplanting fodder trees and production is highly dependent on cattle and shrubs: an efficient way to control desertification and buffaloes as milk-producing animals. and goat populations contributes about 51. sheep. 82. improvement of existing grazing lands (coastal.4 million head. of useful local forage species.6 billion [USD6. while the buffalo population reached 3. of improved fodder trees and shrubs (Figure 5).9 and 2. the sheep population reached 5. in cooperation with local user groups. 100. Poor rangeland due to the lack of sustainable management Ruminant sector Livestock form an important component of the agricultural sector. white meat. Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile Figure 4.4 % and 26.2 million head in 2005 (SADS. and planting. 6.5. using trees or shrubs with reasonable nutritive value. fish.9 million head in 2006. While 32. 2009).9. identification. The cattle population totalled 4. respectively. Each of cattle. 100 and 100% respectively for milk.1 billion] in 2007 (SADS. while the goat population exceeded 3. wool and leather.5% of the agricultural gross domestic product with value of around EGP [Egyptian pounds] 33.2. enhancement of soil stabilization by the planting of windbreaks. while horses and asses exceeded 3.2% of the buffalo population is in the Middle Delta region .6 million head.5.2. 2009). 33. with the majority of animal breeders being smallholder farmers and the share of the government sector is less than 2% of the total animal numbers. camel. buffalo. respectively.7% of local red meat production. The cattle population is concentrated in both Middle Delta and Middle Egypt regions with percentages 22. as well for use as a source of feed as male animals and un-reproductive females are fattened for meat. Animal Figures 5a & b. representing about 24.

Meat and milk productivity of both cattle and buffalo experienced significant increases during the period 1980–2007. Integrated livestock/crop production this system. The majority of small farmers (about 90% of farmers) follow Figure 6.4 tonnes/head/season in 2007. With regard to meat production. The cropping area has increased from 4 662 000 ha in 1980 to 6 468 000 ha in 2007. and the complete cancellation of market mechanisms in determining agricultural land rental value and prices. The goat population is concentrated in both Upper Egypt and Middle Egypt regions with percentages of 36 % and 23. Animal manure (Figure 7) makes . Land Tenure Reform: among the main features of the Agricultural Reform law were the determination of the rental value of land at seven times the tax assessment. average weight of the cow carcass increased from around 132 kg/head in 1980 to around 200 kg in 2007. due to increased number of indigenous cows mixed with foreign cows. as a result of expanding the first and second stages of the young male animals fattening project (SADS.Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 9 and 22. The aforementioned and other factors led to the review of the land owner-tenant relationship law. applied technology. while in Middle Egypt the percentage of mixed-breed is 18. Agricultural areas have increased from around 2 465 400 ha in 1980 to around 3 544 800 ha in 2007.38% in Western Delta region. Nevertheless. As to buffaloes. due to expanding agricultural areas and improving land productivity. Livestock/ crop production is an excellent example of an integrated production system (Figure 6) where fodder crops and agricultural residues provide the feed for animals. In addition. 31% of the sheep population is concentrated in Upper Egypt.15 tonnes/head/season in 1980 to around 1. Average cow milk production increased from around 675 kg/head/season in 1980 to around 1. Indigenous cattle represent about 60% of the all cattle. It is worth mentioning that 65% of the cattle population in the Western Delta region is mixed-breed. due to establishing fattening farms as well as improving animal feeding practices. milk production increased from around 1. an increase of 44% during this period. while mixed-breed cattle represent about 37% and imported cattle about 3%. as a result of increased mechanization of farm operations.3 tonnes/head/season in 2007. some of which can be listed as follows: tion to land maintenance and increased deterioration. and the enactment of a new law with the purpose of activating market forces in determining land rental and land market values that constitute the main elements of production. thus improving the efficiency of land distribution among the various agricultural activities. the government has frozen the tax assessment on agricultural land and consequently its rental value for more than 40 years. levels of income and farmers’ response to market changes. These issues have caused several distortions and imbalances in the socioeconomic relations in rural areas. respectively.4% is in the Middle Egypt region. compared to 22. 2009). Agricultural development efforts during the 1980s.5% only. the 1990s and the first years of the twentyfirst century had achieved great successes in plant production with all its components. Such developments have also affected farmers’ delivery as related to the cropping pattern. the inheritance of rental contracts. The average weight of the buffalo carcass increased from around 129 kg/head in 1980 to around 176 kg in 2007. The state has exerted tremendous efforts in applying the new law without endangering the social dimensions of the areas. Farming sector The agricultural sector has witnessed significant developments over the last two decades with direct effects on its role in national income formation and promoting exports.5%.

about 1 050 000. sunflowers. field crops.) 21 000 ha. and medicinal. enriches the cropping intensity of about 183% in 2007. grain legumes. which occupy 315 000 ha (cotton. grain sorghum. which occupy about 2 717 400 ha (wheat. mainly 22.4 means of production in those areas. 31 080 ha.4 ha to 42 and over production contributes about 65. and chickpeas. On the other hand. hybrid forage sorghum (Sorghum sudanense X Sorghum bicolor) and Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf. Forest trees are grown on about 378 000 ha. oilseed crops which are planted on about 131 880 ha (including soybeans. cropping intensities can be very high (200%). which contribute 18% of the total value of field crops and are grown on about 1 276 800 ha: multi-cut berseem or Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L. single cut berseem or Egyptian clover or cover crop (Trifolium alexandrinum L.8% of the Total total value of agricultural GDP. Vegetables are grown on about 844 200 ha which represent about 13. rice.) for silage 126 000 ha.) 25 200 ha. Fodder beets (Beta vulgaris L. Manure. 299 250 and flax. aromatic and ornamental plants. Cultivation of medicinal.8 because of water shortages and the lack of From 4. and forage or fodder crops.1% of the total value of horticultural crops and fruit. 16 380 ha). 1981/1982.) 105 000 ha and minor forage crops such as cowpea (Vigna siensis L. Field crops include cereals. vegetables. and barley. Crop From 8. maize. of the total crop production value. same as EGP] [US$4.7%. 6 300 ha). Only less than 5% own 2. aromatic and ornamental plant crops are estimated at about 12. aromatic and ornamental plants is a rapidly growing business because of the high demand in both internal and external markets. 30 240 ha. Almost all livestock are raised through livestock/crop production integrated systems.1 ha or more. 105 000 and sugar beet. an animal by-product. 588 000. 142 800. [Egyptian pounds.7%. 26 040 ha. Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) . which are planted on about 134 400 ha (faba beans. 14. guar (Cyamposis tetragonoloba). The value of vegetables.1%. sesame.2 to 8.8 billion L. forage maize (Darawa) (Zea maize L.) 260 400 ha.). giving a Figure 7.2%. 882 000. The annual total cropped area is estimated at 6 468 000 ha. Summer (April/ Table 4. and 0. lentils.) 4 200 ha.E. More than 95% of the landowners hold less than two hectares each (Table 4). Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth). Changes in area harvested by crop group during the period from 1970 to 2007 are presented in Table 3. 123 480. fibre crops.10 Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile the soil more productive than would be the case in their absence. The value of Source: Ministry of Agriculture.) 714 000 ha.). General Agricultural Census. fruit and forest trees. Amshot (Echinochloa stagninum). sugar crops. teosinte (Euchlanea mexicana Schrad. soil There are three cropping seasons in Egypt: Winter (November to May). 4 620. but on the new lands intensities reach only 150%. On the old lands. More than 50 million m3 of animal manure are produced annually. respectively. and groundnuts. was estimated in 2007 at about 23. 44 520 ha). Size classification of farms in Egypt Area class (ha) % farms % area May to October) and “Nil” (July/August to October).) 21 000 ha. small farmers are very disturbed during summer time because of the lack of feed. forage (pearl) millet (Pennisetum glaucm L. which are grown on 121 380 ha (sugarcane. fruit and medicinal. elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach). alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.3 billion] which represent 63. however. . 15 750 ha). maize (Zea maize L. Crop production includes field crops. 168 000 ha) and represent about 50% of the value of field crops.

This immense desert to the west of the Nile spans the area from the Mediterranean Sea southwards to the Sudanese border. defoliated. Except for a few villages on the Red Sea coast. Since construction of the Aswan Dam. The upwardsloping plateau of sand gives way within 100 km to arid. The importance of the Eastern Desert lies in its natural resources. supporting 99% of the population on its cultivated lands. Limited agricultural production occurs in the oases. Depressions (six) are occupied by oases apart from the largest (the Qattara Depression) which includes the country’s lowest point (133 m below sea level). Idku. other areas of the delta are used for agriculture.5% (35 000 km2) of the total area of Egypt. rocky hills running north and south between the Sudan border and the Delta.lib. there are no permanent settlements. and thus not suitable for agriculture. The hills reach elevations of more than 1 900 The rich. encompasses approximately 15 000 km2. There are 4 main physical regions: Nile Valley and Delta: although covering only about 5. Burullus and Manzala) consists of flat.html . The desert’s Jilf al Kabir Plateau at a mean altitude of some 1 000 m. SOILS AND TOPOGRAPHY Topography The main relief features are shown in Figure 8. No rivers or streams drain into or out of the area. this is the most important region. alluvial Nile valley. The relatively mountainous Eastern Desert rises abruptly from the Nile and extends over an area of approximately 220 000 km2. The Great Sand Sea is located here as well as escarpments and deep depressions. Sinai Peninsula: is triangularshaped.Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 11 2. low-lying areas. constitutes an exception to the uninterrupted territory of basement rocks covered by layers of horizontally bedded sediments forming a massive plain or low plateau. salt marshes and salt lakes and is sparsely inhabited. Eastern Desert: the topographic features of the region east of the Nile are very different from those of the Western Desert. Source: www. especially oil. is also known as Upper Egypt while the Nile Delta which covers approximately 22 000 km2 is referred to as Lower Egypt. where the Nile Valley and Delta and other lowland areas and depressions are shown in brown. Relief map of Egypt. and has badlands. about 61 100 km2 in area and contains mountains in its southern sector that are a geological Figure 8. agriculture in the Nile valley depends on irrigation. in parts it is marshy and water-logged. Western Desert: covers an area of some 700 000 km2 and accounts for around two-thirds of Egypt’s total land area. which extends approximately 800 km from Aswan to the outskirts of Cairo. The Nile delta (containing lakes Maryut.

In the strips bordering the desert on the east and west of the delta and floodplain. the soil is generally loamy and at places stony.12 Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile extension of the Red Sea Hills. moderately calcareous and clayey or loamy and generally layered. such as water harvesting and other suitable techniques may also be applied in order to maximize the use of rainfall. These are the prize soils and cream of the soil resources of the country. Due to the importance of making use of this water resource. this is the main contributor to food production. In the southwestern part these soils are stony. These are deep loamy soils with weak structure. Orthic Solonchaks These are very strongly saline soils. it might be appropriate to provide an area of about 147 000 ha with supplementary irrigation to increase the cultivated areas. such as barley. in the Nile Valley and Delta. Through the last four decades large areas at the desert fringes of the Nile Valley and Delta have been reclaimed using mostly Nile water to add greater economic assets and relocate a significant portion of the population (El-Bagouri. The pH is about 8. Soils According to the FAO/UNESCO Soil Map of the World. Traditionally agriculture was mainly concentrated in the old land. Only small areas of wadis have moderately deep or deep soils but they are also strongly calcareous. These soils have little agricultural . the main soils occurring in Egypt are: Calcaric Fluvisols These soils occupy the delta and the floodplain of the Nile River. In parts they are saline. in saline-sodic patches the pH is more than 8. In spite of the limited rainfall on most of Egypt. in two small areas. The southern side of the peninsula has a sharp escarpment that subsides after a narrow coastal shelf that slopes into the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba. The main target at the beginning of the twenty first century is to achieve Egypt’s dream by leaving the narrow valley of the Nile. Calcic Yermosols These soils occur in the rocky desert east and west of the Nile as well as in the central part of the Sinai Peninsula. Agriculture development faces many challenges such as the dry land. With increasing demands for agricultural production. Haplic Yermosols These soils occur in narrow strips along the coast of the Red Sea.3. They are brownish or yellowish-brown in colour. new lands have been reclaimed and added to the old land. 2008). Efforts have been made to utilize rainfall in cultivating some drought tolerant crops. They are brown. rainfall ranges between 120–150 mm per annum on the north coast area during winter. which declines to the north and becomes a flat. They occupy a strip of delta area along the coast of the Mediterranean and a large area of Qattara Depression about 200 km west of Cairo. Modern technical applications. Salinity occurs in patches. olives and figs. which extends from the Suez Canal into the Gaza Strip and Israel .5. and has the country’s highest point. The soils on the new lands are mainly sandy and calcareous. The topography varies from nearly level to rolling. The agricultural area in Egypt comprises two parts: The Nile Delta and Valley (see Figure 8): which is also the most densely populated area in Egypt. trading activities and the national economy using available Nile water. characterized by its alluvial soil. The elevation of Sinai’s southern rim is about 1 000 m. and human induced problems. strongly calcareous and underlain by rock at shallow depth. Map Sheet VI. One area is in the southeastern part of the country and the other is opposite to the southern one-third of the Sinai Peninsula. Oases and along the northern coast: other limited land areas were put under cultivation when water was available. climatic change. at 2 642 m above sea-level.1 to 8. sandy coastal plain.

The Soil. It has little use. Lithic Torripsamments Petrogypsic Gypsoirthids Typic Calci-Terripsamments value. Soil map classes by area and percentage in the studied area in the Nile Delta and Valley. occupying a large area in the western part of the desert west of the Nile river and the northern. representing 8. they are being reclaimed and put under cultivation at high cost which is justified because of the good standard of farming and abundance of irrigation water after the construction of the Aswan dam. . These are useless except as poor grazing land. These are good soils for irrigated agriculture. Data in Table 5 show that the most dominant soil type is Typic Torrerts. Agricultural Research Centre (ARC) conducted a study to identify soil classes in the Nile Delta and Nile Valley and the results in terms of soil classes are presented in Table 5. one-third of the Sinai peninsula. These are formed in the piedmont plains of limestone.49% of the area. Soil Classification Area (ha) Area (%) Aquollic Solarthids Calcic Gypsiorthids Calclorthids Calclorthids & Orthents Eutric Regosols These soils are rocky and gravelly and occur on hill slopes and piedmont plains of the mountain region east of the Nile River. The third dominant soil type is Typic Torriorthents with an area of 3 582 173 feddans (1 504 513 ha) representing 20. which show the areas (hectares) of each soil class and its percentage.28 Consolidated Rocky Ridge Haplic Xerosols These are deep clayey soils of a piedmont plain near the northwestern tip of the Nile delta. High Sand Dunes Hilly Gravel And Cobble Stone Land Plateau Surface Rock Land rock outcrop Sand Dunes Urban Calcaric Regosols These are deep clayey soils occurring in a small plain area within the desert west of the Nile River and a small area in the northeastern corner of the country. They are non-calcareous. The Typic Quertizipsamments is rated the fourth dominant soil type. but is soil material. The percentages of the rest of the classes are less than 5%. Water and Environment Research Institute (SWERI). Hamdi Khalifa. Ex. very shallow. occasionally rock outcrop.93% of the total studied area. which occupies 4 954 975 feddans (2 081 090 ha) representing 27. The distribution of soils along the Nile Delta and Valley are shown in Figure 9.19% of the study area. ARC. Rock land. They are soils of semi-arid Mediterranean climate and support a poor crop of barley without irrigation. Director. 6 666 Nile Water Total Source: under publication data (personal communication from Dr. SWERI. Shifting sand This is not soil in the real sense. Egypt) Lithosols These are very shallow soils of the mountains in the area east of the Nile. In the delta area however.Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 13 Table 5. for profitable agriculture. 226 Typic Colciorthids Typic Gypsiorthids Typic Quertizipsamments Typic Solarthids Typic Torrerts Typic Torrifluvents Typic Torriorthents Typic Torripsamments Typic Ustifluvents 6 648 2. They have value only as poor grazing land. is the soil type that is rated second which occupied 3 790 519 feddans (1 592 018 ha) representing 21.36% of the total area. supplemental irrigation is needed. along the coast of the Red Sea as well as the mountains in the southern part of the Sinai peninsula.

Ex. Hamdi Khalifa. Source: under publication data (personal communication from Dr. ARC. Map of soil classes in the studied area in the Nile Delta and Valley. Director. SWERI. Egypt) .14 Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile Figure 9.

Rain in this belt is not an annually recurring incident. average deviation of annual precipitation from the mean. The first and second belts have a winter rainfall (Mediterranean regime). In the arid province the percentage variability is 65 % at Giza which is close to the hyperarid provinces. the rainy season extends from November to April. the moisture percentage is about 77%. hyperarid (P/ETP< 0. coupled with an expected increase in consumption due to the high population growth rates and the rise in the standards of living could have drastic impacts. Agro-ecological zones The country can be classified into five regions based on soil characteristics. The rainfall increases gradually to the North until it reaches about 20 mm at the borders with the arid province (at Giza).26° N due to the orographic influence of the Red Sea coastal mountains. water sources. In deserts the temperatures vary considerably. One of the major features of rainfall in arid and semi arid regions [N. 10mm may occur once every ten years. three rainfall belts may be distinguished: (1) The Mediterranean coastal belt. where the average annual rainfall ranges from 100 to 150 mm in the attenuated arid province. it is mostly hot or warm during the day. including vulnerability assessment concluded that while the impact of climate change on the Nile Basin could not yet be predicted. All climate change scenarios considered resulted in simulated decreases in wheat and maize yields: climate change may bring about substantial reductions in the national grain production. Rainfall decreases by 30–50% at a distance of 10–15 km from the coast and continues to decrease further inland.03 – 0. and from 20 to 100 mm in the accentuated arid province. In the coastal regions. expressed as percentage of the mean. (2) middle Egypt with latitude 30° N as its southern boundary. and climatic conditions: . it corresponds roughly to the hyperarid provinces. and (3) upper Egypt. As for cotton. If climate change adversely affects crop production under the normal CO2 concentration.Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 15 3. In general. The third belt is almost rainless. especially in summer.03) and arid (P/ETP = 0. calculated by Penman’s formula] other than being scanty. Egypt’s Mediterranean coast and the Nile Delta have been identified as vulnerable to sea level rise. although in the coastal areas it reaches 200 mm. dry summers and moderate winters. they can be as low as 0 °C at night. Egypt would have to increase food imports. daytime average temperatures range between a minimum 14 °C in winter and maximum 30 °C in summer. The major constraint to significant economic (including agricultural) activity in the Matrouh area is low and unpredictable rainfall (100–170 mm). While the winter temperatures in deserts do not fluctuate so wildly. Any decrease in the total supply of water. It extends rather south along the Gulf of Suez to Lat. It hardly ever rains during the summer. is greatest in the hyperarid provinces (e. CLIMATE AND AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES Climate The climate in Egypt is generally moderate. is its great temporal variability. and cool at night. Egypt receives less than 80 mm of precipitation annually in most areas. Two years out of every ten result in drought conditions with less than 50 mm in the growing season. A recent study concerning fresh water resources in Egypt. to 52 °C during the day. though mainly concentrated in December and January.20) where P = precipitation and ETP = potential evapotranspiration. it is clear that seed cotton yield will be increased gradually to arrive at its maximum by the year 2050 due to the expected impact of climate change (i. when they may range from 7 °C at night. The climate in the Matrouh directorate area is arid Mediterranean.e. The cold period starts from November till April. there are indications that the impacts will be significant and severe. and as high as 18 °C during the day.B. Siwa 83 %). The hot period starts from May to the end of October and temperatures can reach 42 °C with the average temperature of about 35 °C during the summer. but the maritime influence of air moisture and temperature moderates the drought conditions imposed by lack of rain and high radiation. g. These belts correspond roughly to the attenuated (shorter dry period) and accentuated (longer dry period) arid provinces of northern Egypt. when the temperature goes down to average from 13 °C to 21 °C and average moisture percentage ranges from 30 to 40%. Climate in general is characterized by hot. when temperatures rise by between +2 OC and +4 OC).

Suez. soil. Al-Gharbeya. : including Asyut. including Al-Qaliobeya. The region has alluvial soils (clay to loam). Qena. Northern Sinai. representing around 14% of the total agricultural areas in Egypt . about 50 km wide and parallel to the Mediterranean Sea. Al-Beherah. topography and socio-economic factors. Kafr-el-Sheikh. representing 49% of the total area of Egypt. Huge quantities of ground water are also available in different areas of the zone. as the zone includes the New Valley governorate whose area is estimated at 440 000 km2. Southern Sinai. with a predominance of montmorillonitic types of clay mineral. These mainly differentiate between the vast areas of stony and mountainous desert and the Nile Valley and Delta and the oases areas. Al-Fayoum. Agricultural areas are estimated at around 474 600 ha. Ismailia. Aswan and the New Valley governorates. Sohag. Extends along the north coastal areas. Climate is even more moderate than in the coastal region. climate is much hotter during the summer season and warmer during winter in comparison with the rest of the regions. Taking into consideration the overlapping nature of the climatic. Al-Dakahleya. with a predominance of montmorillonitic types of clay mineral). Alexandria and Matrouh governorates. Dumyat governorates. Agro-ecological zones of Egypt . Bani-Sweif. characterized by moderate climate during the whole year. Climate is more moderate than the coastal region and is characterized by warm winters and moderate temperatures during summer. including Al-Nubareyah and all lands included in the land reclamation program adjacent to the Delta and the New Valley. the country could be classified into many agro-climatic and agro-ecological zones and the number of zones could be increased if the whole of Egypt is considered. The region has alluvial soils (clay to loam). Al-Menoufeya. It has more rainfall (180–200 mm per annum) than most areas. Al-Sharkeya. and contamination is Figure 10. including Giza. Water resources in the zone are of high quality. Major agricultural enterprises in main zones total area of the zone is estimated at 495 000 km2. with a predominance of montmorillonitic types of clay mineral. since it is affected by the Mediterranean Sea climate.16 Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile : including Port Said. It has similar climate but soils are sandy calcareous or calcareous. characterized by warm winters and moderate temperatures during summer. and Minya governorates. The region has alluvial soils (clay to loam. especially in East Owainat and the New Valley areas. In Figure 10 six agro-ecological zones are shown. The zone includes the largest lake behind the High Dam. The soil is sandy or calcareous.

Domyat governorate is the smallest with about 44 100 ha.7% of the total agricultural areas in Egypt. and in spite of the fact that dairy production has been localized in the zone. long-staple cotton and the milk producing belts. Climatic conditions vary in respect to rainfall and relative humidity. citrus and grapes). The zone is well known for high-quality sheep. ground water and rainfall particularly in the northern areas where rainfall is enough for agricultural production. representing around 15% of the total agricultural areas in Egypt. long-staple cotton. 4. The zone totally depends on the Nile source for irrigation. The zone has diverse water sources: Nile water. The zone includes the rice. hence allowing for diversified agricultural products.7% of the total agricultural areas in Egypt. Moderate climate conditions prevail in all the governorates of the zone. a situation that enables the expansion of clean agricultural products that can be exported. allowing for diversified agricultural products. Middle Delta region: total area of the zone is estimated at 139 000 km2. representing around 28. Most of the lands are of high quality: first and second grade lands constitute around 50% of the total area. as well as the milk producing belts. representing around 17. There is great potential for horizontal expansion in Toshka. The zone includes rice. leading to diverse production patterns. There are great potentialities for horizontal expansion both in the west and east of the Suez Canal. The zone is specialized in producing the seedlings of citrus crops. Moderate climatic conditions prevail in all the governorates of the zone.5% of buffalo milk. particularly parallel to the North West Coast extending from Hammam Township to Marsa Matrouh due to the availability of wide rangelands.7% of the total area of Egypt. There are great potentialities for horizontal expansion both in the zone. respectively. citrus. with limited rainfall during the period from November to February. Reclaimed areas are estimated at 92 400 ha. and cantaloupe. such as the Mahogany and Jatropha trees that flourish easily in Luxor and Qena governorates. there is no institutional framework for milk collection in the zone. respectively. The zone has diverse water sources: Nile water. Historically. Agricultural areas are estimated at around 738 360 ha.7% of the total area of Egypt. . berseem. Eastern Delta region: total area of the zone is estimated at 79 000 km2. The zone contributes to agricultural exports of traditional field crops (cotton and rice) and non-traditional crops (potatoes. and around 35. Agricultural areas in Al-Beherah governorate represent more than 2/3 of total agricultural areas in the zone. hence the diversity of production patterns. representing around 28. around 20% of the sheep and goat population are concentrated in this zone. sugar beet. and 84 000 ha in the west and east of the Suez Canal. ground water and rainfall particularly in the northern areas where rainfall is enough for agricultural production. Western Delta region: total area of the zone is estimated at 179 000 km2. 3. peach. East Owainat and the New Valley areas. total area of the zone is estimated at 139 000 km2. Al-Daqahleya and Kafr el Sheikh governorates are two of the largest governorates. representing around 13. constitute a major problem facing the zone. The zone totally depends on the Nile source for irrigation. causing negative environmental effects. sugar beet. strawberry. Agricultural residues particularly rice straw. reaching 255 780 ha and 267 120 ha. green beans. The zone is famous for dry date production. In spite of the fact that the zone contributes around 25% of cow milk.Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 17 the lowest in most of its lands. representing 13. with limited rainfall during the period from November to February. while agricultural areas are estimated at around 504 000 ha. Agricultural areas are estimated at around 966 000 ha. the zone is characterized by the production of horticulture crops: mango. The potential to produce high quality products gives the region considerable comparative advantages vis-à-vis other regions. 5. representing around 22% of the total agricultural areas in Egypt.7% of the total area of Egypt. Climate conditions are relatively mild in respect of temperature. Agricultural areas are estimated at around 966 000 ha.

however. About 60% of white meat production comes from intensive units. This sub-system operates on the production of exotic cattle and constitutes about 10% of the total animal production system.00 million).00 million). Table 6. buffaloes (3. RUMINANT LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS Livestock numbers between 2000 and 2009 are shown in Table 6. The first one is characterized by low production inputs and outputs and holding of few animals.43 to 4. semiintensive (Figure 12) and intensive (Figure 13) sub-systems.38 to 4. The semi-intensive sub-system depends on improved local breeds and husbandry techniques. and buffalo in the various agro-ecological zones. These include traditional extensive (Figure 11). Traditional extensive animal production (b) Typical small farmers have 2-3 heads and feed them on berseem . particularly of cattle (from 3. 2011.47 Asses Poultry Source: FAO Statistics. There has been a steady increase in numbers.50 million) over this period. Camels. (a) Buffaloes are fed shrubs on a canal bank Figure 11.67 Goats 4.53 to 5. goats. Small farmers who do not own agricultural lands or control agricultural holdings are the main source of animal production. goats (3. It is practised for sheep.Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 18 4. have declined from 141 000 to 110 000 head.47 62 62 62 66 4. Livestock population 2000–2009 (in millions except for camels and horses) Item 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 66 67 Cattle 84 Buffaloes 62 Sheep 4.47 to 5. The intensive production sub-system is characterized by high inputs and outputs as well as very large livestock holdings. Scale of enterprise Three production sub-systems can be identified. cattle.55 million) and sheep (4. It is practised for lamb and calf fattening.

Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile (a) Hybrid cattle from local and foreign breeds 19 (b) Buffaloes grazing berseem Figure 12. especially on old (c) Milking parlour for mechanical milking of cattle land where the productivity is the highest for both crops. there is a very rapid development in the animal wealth to meet the high demand for animal products. Although there is a wide gap between Figure 13. the total feed requirements for animal wealth are estimated at about . The cultivated area of berseem ranges from 1 050 000 ha to 1 260 000 ha in Delta and the Nile Valley annually. There is big competition between berseem and wheat. although vast areas of more than 10 million ha exist. Egypt depends mainly on Egyptian clover (berseem) as the key forage crop. The new development in animal wealth depends mainly on concentrates for which the main raw materials are imported with hard currency. Egypt has little effective rainfall. therefore. Intensive animal production the available and the required feed. Semi-intensive animal production (a) Typical farm with intensive animal production (b) High potential breed fed on high quality feed. with the highest of 200 mm being unequally distributed and on limited areas. 2008a). Feeding systems The feeding system is considered one of the key factors which play an important role in animal development and improvement (El-Nahrawy. Although there is no good and reliable existing follow up recording system for livestock and available feed records. Egypt has poor rangeland.

Farmers start feeding their animals ad lib (Figure 14b) as soon as berseem becomes available.3 million Mt) in the animal feeding balance in 2003 (Table 8).5 ha) where fodder crops (berseem. but farmers need to be advised to properly feed their livestock in order to avoid wastage of very expensive resources such as the protein from berseem.Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 20 Table 7. increases in the share of animal products and high demand for feed. Ministry of Agriculture. Egypt Table 8. and cucumbers). Berseem (fresh & hay) & other forages Poor Roughages (Straws) 2. peas. Cairo. and berseem for seed production). milk production and daily gain rate indicaBalance tors. 2008a. beans. Crop residues are available from irrigated crops.9 million Total feed in Mt TDN DCP tonnes DCP [Digestible Crude Protein] based upon Available estimating the maintenance.2 and nutritive value in terms of TDN and DCP in metric tons (Mt) and the percentage of the total available Source: El-Nahrawy. Sources. Feeding on berseem only will result in an imbalanced ration which will negatively affect .0 million tonnes recorded livestock population in 2003 TDN [Total Digestible Nutrients]. Surplus green fodder is sold in nearby towns and villages to other livestock owners. Locally made concentrates or processed feeds are also fed to maintain high milk yield. There was a surplus of DCP (+524 000 Mt). the total amount % self sufficiency 82. Agro-industrial by-products include molasses. sugar cane and sugar beet tops and baggasse and vegetable crop residues (water melon. Indeed. sorghum. nutritive value and percentages of total available feed according to 2003 records Source Amount in 1000 MT Available TDN in 1000 MT % of total feedstuff Available DCP in 1000 MT % of total feedstuff Good roughages. alfalfa. and production requirements approach and considered constant Required weigh. They include cereal straws and stovers (wheat. milling by – products (bran) & Oil seed residues Corn silage Sugar cane tops 24 Groundnut straw Total 81 180 11 090 100. grains and by-products of cereal milling (bran) (Table 7). amount. Weeds and crop residues may be used. maize. while any surplus may be made into hay which is baled and stored. there were and still are surpluses of DCP. Estimated feed balance according to 23. The sources of available feed. In large-scale dairy farms irrigated fodder crops are produced. the real numbers of animals and available feed are probably higher than those recorded and real estimates of feed balances must be attempted to enhance future planning and strategies and to ensure that the gap is closed. while there was a deficit of TDN (–2. But in general.42 Grains & Seeds. etc. This is considered a waste of protein which represents the most expensive portion of the ration. Mechanical harvesting (chopping) and hand cutting are both practised and green fodder is fed among total mixed rations to the dairy herd. and sesame).0 1 568 100. oil seed cakes (cotton. cereal stubble. groundnuts. It is very difficult to have precise estimates of feed balance without getting reliable records of livestock numbers and available feed. which is not the case. Agricultural Statistics Bulletin (2003). The cut-and-carry feeding system is associated with small scale irrigated farms (less than 1–2. flax. growth. high demand for animal products. Both animals and area devoted to feed production are dynamic and it is very difficult to keep up with the rapid changes unless good coordinated systems exist. depending on many signs such as population increase. feed as it was estimated according to the 2003 records are presented in Table 7. grain sorghum. Sudan grass. faba beans. 11.0 Source: Economic Affairs Department. mainly berseem in winter and sorghum and maize (corn) silage in summer. tomatoes. and 1.) are harvested to feed farm animals (see Figure 14a). legume haulms. sunflower.5 million tonnes of dry matter.96 150. rice.

To overcome this problem.1 ha. Although green forage and silage form the greater part of the ration. animals. of less than 2. Animal manure makes the soil more productive than would be the case in their absence. and some water is of poor quality. less than 2. 21 Figure 14b. An important part of the forage is grown on the farm whereas concentrates are purchased. . These practices lead to little or no genetic improvement in the herd. animals. Sheep and goats being fed alfalfa. of inferior males and low replacement of old females. of Agriculture. hay and concentrates are also important. Buffaloes fed ad lib on berseem only animal productivity. More than 50 million m3 of animal manure are produced annually. Some hay and straw are often bought. Inadequate feeding results from low pasture productivity especially in the rainfed areas and inadequate use of berseem due to lack of producer knowledge of nutritional value and feed requirements. The majority of small farmers (about 90% of farmers) practice this system. Integration of livestock into farming systems Livestock/crop production is an excellent example of an integrated production system (Figure 6) where fodder crops and agricultural residues provide the feed for animals.1 ha. The main characteristics of the animal production sector are: own agricultural land. it has been proposed to supplement animals fed on berseem only with silage made from corn stovers. points.Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile Figure 14a. Limitations ity of young animals and low daily gain and reproduction performances well below the genetic potential.

Egypt depends largely on Egyptian clover (berseem) as the main forage crop and on crop residues and by-products. 8 000 cattle and 12 000 camels. and in particular on animal production. Egypt has poor rangeland. 15 000 donkeys. Recorded share from animal protein is about 17 g/day in 1997 and is planned to be increased to 21g per capita by 2017 (FAO. in contrast to most other agricultural activities in Egypt. ers. most of the above constraints highly affect them economically as well as socially. most households have some poultry (mainly chickens) and pigeons. 2. The agricultural system in Matrouh governorate.Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 22 salinization. and degradation of range due to overgrazing. tion with imported products. limited water and rapidly growing population require continuing intensification of production on a limited natural resource base. Intensification requires ensuring high yields. In addition. Although livestock production under prevailing climatic conditions is risky. According to FAO (2010) rangelands provide only 5% of animal feed in Egypt. Although there is a wide gap between the available and the required feed. especially on old land. and cultivation of marginal lands.The purchase of barley and processed feed. Land use revolves around livestock production either through grazing of rangelands or through opportunistic barley (and to a lesser extent wheat) cultivation with both grain as well as the straw used for feeding of small ruminants or cattle. decrease of aquifers. where the productivity is the highest for both crops. there is very rapid development in the animal wealth to meet the high demand for animal products. reduced negative environmental effects. 2003). The degradation of natural resources in Matrouh and Sinai governorates is part of an endemic cycle of poverty. THE PASTURE RESOURCE Egypt has little effective rainfall. There are approximately 500 000 sheep. 150 000 goats. livestock owners are able to avert the risk somewhat through: 1. greater input efficiencies. The cultivated area of berseem ranges from 1 050 000 to 1 260 000 ha annually in the Delta and Nile Valley. changes in the socio-economic environment have been brought about by changes in urbanization and higher incomes and the need for more export earnings or substitution of imports. is mainly based on rainfed land use. Socio-economic limitations Limited land. at most 200 mm unequally distributed and on limited areas. Livestock production has adapted to the climatic trends (with 2 or 3 dry years per decade). There is a competition between berseem and wheat. products for both food and living. Moreover. although vast areas of more than 10 million ha exist. Livestock production has been the mainstay of agricultural production in Matrouh governorate. lack of viable production alternatives and uncoordinated regional development. 5.By transporting their flocks to the Delta or Siwa oasis during years of severe drought. a greater knowledge base and efficient management. put extra pressure on farm financial resources and stability and on ranges. . therefore. Socio-economic constraints to improving the pasture and forage resources and to animal production can be summarized as follows: materials (especially corn and soybean) are imported.

The vegetation is grazed mainly in the summer and autumn. It occupies areas with relatively deep. rangeland grazing was the basis of livestock production of the area. foothills and areas of higher or lower elevation and in wadis. . Perennial forbs and grasses are present but only a few (e. medium-textured soils. the Sinai Peninsula and the Halayeb-Shalayin region in the South East corner of Egypt bordering the Red Sea. but with a greater species diversity and productivity due to the more favourable soil conditions. Plantago albicans. generally decreasing with increasing distance from the coast. varies considerably during the grazing season. Plant growth in the region is concentrated in a short “pulse” during the short. Rough estimates of carrying capacity vary from 0–4. and erratic. The southern desert area. These lands. Hegazi et al. The density of shrubs and herbs is high. Haloxylon scoparium. and on the basis of the main species including Gymnocarpos decander. but have to abandon this pasture in the dry season due to lack of water. swampy and salt marsh areas. Coastal Plain: Artemesia herba-alba is the dominant species. consequently it is mainly used by camels or. especially in the coastal area. Suaeda pruinosa etc. Plantago albicans) are considered of any significance. The stocking density. and owners tend to keep nearly all their replaced females in good years. Traditionally. Rangelands Depending on the definition used various sources put the area of rangelands in Egypt at somewhere between 4 and 10 million ha. is generally in good shape as its use is limited by the lack of water. seasonally. rocky. Sub-desert: Similar to rockland in the presence of Gymnocarpus sp. rainy season. have been exposed to degradation caused by transformation into agricultural land (increased water and wind erosion). Increasing animal numbers have disturbed the balance between available forage and carrying capacity. This lack of water is an important factor in restricting the use of the rangeland. The density of the dominant shrubs varies with soil type and with location. which is communally owned. In general the amount of grazing obtained is small and generally restricted to the early autumn. however. The range vegetation in most parts of Egypt is characterized by stands of shrubs and semi-shrubs with a cover of short-lived annual forbs and grasses. The pressure on the northern rangelands in the settlement zone closer to the coast is higher. with an average of 8 FU ha. rainfall amount and distribution through the season exert a strong influence on species density and biomass production. during the last few decades. (2005) indicate that the main areas of rangelands are distributed over the Northwest Coast (NWC) region. Although the density of annuals varies from one vegetation type to another. on coastal plains. Anabasis articulate. The grazing lands. Although plant density here is generally low. Most flocks graze the southern rangelands during the rainy season. the palatability to small ruminants of most species is high. have evolved through the last century.Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 23 Still there are fluctuations in animal numbers. by small ruminants. Different range types can be differentiated in sandy. Artemisia herba-alba. The few major ecologically significant events in the area are the tank battle during World War II (with some lands still inaccessible today because of mines) and the rapid expansion of coastal tourism. and in protection of its quality.2 feeding units (FU) [FU = nutritive value equivalent to 1kg of grain barley]/ha in dry years to 17 FU/ha in good years. Approximately 70% of available land in Matrouh governorate is rangeland (Figure 4).g. due to the low palatability of the dominant shrubs which have a high salt content. In these regions livestock raising based on rangelands as a principal source of feed is traditionally the main occupation of the bedouin inhabitants. Main range types include: Salt-Marsh: Characterized by a high density of salt tolerant shrubs. and found on rocky ridges and eroded slopes. Rockland: Characterized by the dominance of the semi-shrub Gymnocarpus decander. Actual grazing land available per sheep unit is estimated at 7 ha. This vegetation type is found mainly south of Sidi Barrani and is grazed chiefly in winter and spring. by over-grazing leading to further erosion and narrowing of the botanical composition.

This vegetation type is grazed year-round by camels whilst sheep and goats may obtain some grazing here mainly in the winter. The most important land-use in this area is grazing. 1996). semi-shrub Suaeda pruinosa. (2005).5%) were palatable and nine species (about 37. Twenty plant species were perennials (about 83%) and only four species (about 17%) were annuals. The main palatable associate species are Echiochylon fruticosum. The soils are often shallow or covered with a thin sheet of sand. A. Fuka and Dabaa. Grazing of this vegetation takes place mainly in spring and early summer. and Pituranthos sp. 1987). The characteristic species is the perennial forb Plantago albicans associated with numerous other shrubs and perennial forbs and grasses. occupying medium deep calcareous loamy to sandy loam soils around Sidi Barranni. Asphodelus microcarpos is often a dominant associate in degraded phases of this range type due to its low palatability and low grazing value. Plant density is very low. fifteen species (about of the most important and valuable range types in Sidi Barrani district and on the plateau south of El-Omayed on medium and semi-stabilized aeolion deposits.geographical regions in Egypt because of its relatively high rainfall. it provides the bulk of grazeable forage for sheep and goats. low nutritive value and poor productivity during the dry seasons (El Shaer. This range type is mainly grazed during late summer. as a national strategy to improve the native rangelands (El Shaer. and Desert Range: The main range type in the southern area.5%) were un-palatable. Rehabilitation of the nutritive ranges and/ or cultivation with salt-drought tolerant shrubs is recommended. Saliva aegyptiaca.24 Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile Eroded Coastal Plain: Characterized by open stands of the low shrub Haloxylon articulatum and occupying degraded sites in the northern plains. In the Plantago ranges. Helianthemum lippii. Grazing takes place mainly in early summer and in the autumn. The Poaceae family has the highest number of species (four species) followed by Fabaceae and Brassicaceae families (three species for each). have proved to be useful multipurpose shrubs in North Africa and Egypt (El Lakany. Studies have shown that the natural plant wealth in the coastal sand dunes rangelands in the north west of Egypt was composed of twenty four plant species belonging to sixteen families (Table 9).arid regions of Egypt. mainly in the Sidi Barrani area. the flora in the North West coast is relatively rich and diverse.occurs mainly in the area 10–20 km inland from the coast. Artemisia herba-alba communities are frequently found in mixture with Haloxylon and Anabasis sp. sub shrubs and dried annuals are the main grazing resources in late spring and early summer. It is characterized by poor quality. Inland Dunes: This range type is on stabilized and semi-stabilized inland sand dunes. autumn and early winter. The Western Mediterranean Coastal land is one of the richest phyto. The density of both perennial and annual species is high in stabilized areas. Many species of leguminous shrubs. According to palatability. The dominant species here is the desert shrub Anabasis articulata. For example: Plantago albicans . it contains 50% of the total flora of Egypt. Although the natural plant cover of Egyptian deserts is quite low and scattered. For each range type major and other species were listed by Hegazi et al. with low species diversity and density. then Asteraceae family (two species) and one plant for the remaining families. In good rainy years. Artemisia herba-alba . Ras El-Hekma. Species diversity is low as is the density of annuals. saligna is the most . with the exception of low areas receiving additional moisture from run-off. The indigenous range vegetation is considered the most important and basic animal feed in the arid and semi. while the other perennial shrubs. 1999). Gymnocarpos decander. Tackholm (1974) and Boulos (1995) indicated that Fabaceae and Asteraceae are the largest families in Egypt and had the greatest number of plant species. grazing in the late winter and spring is provided by Plantago albicans and annuals. Provides some summer and autumn grazing. particularly Acacia spp. : Characterised by the salt-tolerant.

Per. Ann. Ann. Per.34 FU/ha of barley.90 ha /sheep unit/year for El-Salloum district. A field survey was carried out to estimate the carrying capacity of the different range types extending from Burg El-Arab to Sulloum.62– 6. Per. Per. However.84 feed unit (FU) with an average of 49.42 FU/ha/year.07 ha/sheep unit/yr for Plantago albicans. Ann.13– 98. Per. indicating that the rangelands can only support about 44% of the actual number of the small ruminants raised. Ann. Carrying capacity varied from 1. 3. This also indicates that at least 60% of feedstuff requirements came from outside resources. ranging from 1. The average productivity of the whole area was estimated at 61.09 ha for Artemisia herba-alba. Per. Per. List of species. Up: Unpalatable. Per. successful of the Australian Acacia due to its tolerance of drought.02–10.42–74.07 ha/sheep unit/year for the Haloxylon – Anabasis articulata range type. Per. Per.07–14. Per. : Annual. 2. 3. 2008. This area is a part of the natural poor degraded range . On the basis of the barley area in 1990 and an estimated production of 568. Per. and life duration of plant species recorded in coastal sand dunes during spring 2005 and 2006 Family Name Poaceae Brassicaceae Fabaceae Asteraceae Apiaceae Boraginaceae Caryophyllaceae Geraniaceae Labiatae Amaryliidaceae Resedaceae Solanaceae Tamaricaceae Thymelaceae Zygophyllaceae Scientific Name Aelumpus lagopoides Ammophila arenana Lophochloa cristata Phragmites australis Cakiie maritima Diplotaxis acris Mohcandia nitens Lotus polyphyllus Lygos raetarn Ononis vaginalis Silybum mahanum Varthemia candicans Eryngium campestre Echium sericeum Silene succulenta Euphorbia paralias Erodium hirtum Saliva lanigers Pancratium maritimum Reseda decursiva Lycium shawii Tamarix nilotica Thymelaea hirsuta Zygophyllum album Palatability p p p p p p Up P P P Up Up Up p Up Up p p Up p p p Up Up *Life duration** Per. Any shortage in the supply of feeds from outside the region would have to be offset from rangelands because the grazing animal will be maintained on the rangelands causing more deterioration of rangelands and lower production of grazing herds.Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 25 Table 9. palatability. ability to grow on poor soil and higher production of biomass. The carrying capacity estimates varied greatly for the different range types.02–8.33 ha for Suaeda pruinosa and 6. Rangeland production and carrying capacity of rangelands Few data are available from actual stocking rate trials to estimate the carrying capacity of the range types.78 kg/ha/year. Per. A recent report estimated the consumable productivity of some plant communities in Bakbak project (south west of Sidi Barrani) at between 49.16 ha/sheep unit/year for twenty five Haloxylon ranges.02 ha/ sheep unit/year for the Plantago albicans – Echiochilon fruticosum association growing in deep sandy soil to 6. Per.24–11. Per. Per. Per.62 ha/sheep unit/year (SU) for Fuka grazing district to 8. Per. according to Hegazi et al. *P: Palatable.13 kg/dry matter /ha/year. (2005) estimates have been made by experts based on their field observation and their long experience in the region. : Perennial. Per. the carrying capacity of the area extending from Ras El-Hekma to Salloum was estimated at about 93 000 sheep units (SU)/ year while the actual number of small ruminants raised at the time was about 214 000 SU. Per. Vernacular name Molleih Gazzoof Deal elcoat Hagna Figl el-gamal Yahaq Rakham Qarn el gamal Retem Hotteiba Shoak e! gamal Za’atr el-Hornmar Shaqaqeel Saaq el-hamam Sakraan Timmeir Mariamiya Bosseil Rigl el ghraab Awseeg Abal Mithnaan Ratrayt Adapted from Abbas et al.21–2.14 ha for Anabasis articulata. Ann. Estimated carrying capacity differed from 1. The annual / feed production of the rangelands varies between nil in poor rainfall years to 74.12 ha for Gymnocarpos decander. 2.24–12.

Shalateen rangelands are suffering more from heavy overgrazing due to excessive animal numbers. Overexploitation of Egyptian rangeland dominated by trees and shrubs Figure 15e. Some typical rangeland scenes are shown in Figures 15 a-e. In the wadis of Halayeb basin there are more palatable species dominated by Panicum turgidum which is good forage grass. Shrubs and trees provide forage in early spring Figure 15d. Figure 15a. Aristida mutabilis. the wadis in Halayeb basin have more floristically variable vegetation with higher frequency of palatable species than wadis in Shalateen basin. Overexploitation has resulted in a deterioration of the rangelands. Due to proximity to the mountains. A typical example of arid natural rangeland in Egypt Figure 15b. cutting and uprooting of trees and shrubs. Figure 15c. A typical Artemisia dominated desert rangeland in Egypt . However. The most important forage species in Wadi Hederba are Panicum turgidum. Similarly. Furthermore. herbaceous plant communities in the wadis of Shalateen basin are dominated by the unpalatable species of Sasola baryosma and Francoeria crispa. Artemisa judaica and Lycium shawii which could provide good useful grazing resources for small ruminants and camels during winter and summer. Wadi Hedrerba in Halayeb basin has the richest grazing resources and the highest potential for conservation and improvement of the wadis.26 Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile type.

and Darawa represent about 82. and milling by-products and oil seed residues.42 and 23. Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) (Figure 24). respectively. corn silage. Irrigated forages contribute about 18% of the value of field crops and are grown on the average on about 1 260 000 ha annually (FAO. fodder maize (Darawa) (Zea mays L. respectively. On the other hand.) (Figure 20).4 4 24 . and 0. productivity and production of fodder crops in 2005 are presented in Table 10.08. and 1. hay. and summer forage crops. A feed calendar showing good roughages during the whole year in Egypt is presented in Figure 30.49. elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach). millet. sesbania (Sesbania sesban L.58. pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. fodder beet (Beta vulgaris L. Forage production forage sorghum.6 78. millet.) (Figure 28). maize or corn silage (Figure 21). While straws. corn silage represent about 5% of the available local feed. chickling pea or rough pea (Lathyrus sativus). Sudan grass. Sudan grass. Summer forage crops such as Darawa. Fahl Hybrid sorghum Amshoot Barnyard grass Cowpea Pearl millet Fodder beet Green fenugreek Rough pea 28. Egyptian clover (berseem) c. Forage crops.9 and 55. and 4. hybrid forage sorghum (Sorghum sudanense X Sorghum bicolor) (Figure 17) and Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf. the total required TDN and DCP in 2003 were Forage production Table 10.7 and 0. Area.2 and 1.03. Good roughages such as berseem. The total available feed is about 11.) (Figure 16B). cowpea.9% of the total DCP and TDN.) (Figure 19).).568 million Mt of TDN and DCP. sugar cane tops.v. respectively. single cut (short season) berseem (Figure 16A). Area. represents about 60% of available local feed. alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. productivity and production of forage crops in Egypt in 2008 Crop Area under crop (ha) Productivity Production t[green (t) wt]/ha Berseem: Long season Short season Alfalfa Darawa Sudan grass Seed production Figure 16a.) (Figure 23). and minor forages such as cowpea (Vigna sinensis L.15 and 6. mainly fresh berseem during winter and as hay during summer. 2003). grains and seeds.Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 27 Fodder crops In Egypt forages for livestock feed are mainly produced under irrigation.92% of the total DCP and TDN.) (Figure 22). These include: multi-cut (long season) berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L. teosinte (Euchlanea mexicana Schrad.) (Figure 18). Alfalfa which provides feed all the year around represents about 5% of the available local feed.53 and 6. guar (Cyamposis tetragonoloba) (Figure 25). Amshoot (Echinochloa stagninum) (Figure 27). sorghum. 8. and triticale (Figure 29).29 and 7.) (Figure 26). and groundnut straw make 2. alfalfa. It is clear from the figure that the feed shortage peak is during summer.

respectively.2% for TDN and DCP. respectively (Table 8) (El-Nahrawy. Including berseem in the rotation has been God’s gift for maintaining the sustainability of the Egyptian agricultural system for more than five thousand years of intensive use (El-Nahrawy. The percentage of self-sufficiency in 2003 was estimated at 82. 2008b). Throughout Fairchild’s assessment of the evolu- .96% and 150. 2008a). The role of Egyptian clover in Egyptian agriculture Berseem is a vital component of the agricultural system of the Nile Valley and Delta. Fairchild (1902) stated that berseem is “the great forage and soiling crop of the Nile Valley”.28 Forage production Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile Seed production Alfalfa performance on desert and marginal land Figure 16b. Sudan grass for forage production about 13. Alfalfa Figure 17.5 and 1.044 million Mt. Forage sorghum: Seed production Figure 18.

Cowpeas tion of Egyptian agriculture he considered berseem to be indispensable as a rotation crop during the centuries of Egyptian cotton production.Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 29 Figure 19. The High Dam prevented the enrichment of Egyptian soil by the silt and nutrients that had been carried by the Nile water during flooding. Fairchild’s sharp insight has been assured after the establishment of the High Dam. Pearl millet for forage production Figure 20. The role of berseem in soil sustainability could had been suspected or confounded with other causes before the High Dam establishment. Maize (corn) for silage (a) Forage production (b) Cowpea in mixture with millet Figure 22. Darawa (fodder maize) is planted during winter to secure the feed supply until berseem becomes available (a) Maize silage ready for feeding (b) Mixed silage from maize and cowpea before ensiling Figure 21. But after the erection of .

Guar Figure 26. Sesbania the High Dam which precluded enriching the soil with silt and nutrients during flooding. Berseem has been called in California “the magic crop” due to its multiple advantages and rare or no disadvantages in comparison with crops like alfalfa. Teosinte Figure 24. Italian ryegrass Figure 25. Amshoot Figure 28. In addition to the fact that berseem has enabled livestock to be closely integrated with cropping for many centuries. there is no doubt that only berseem is responsible for the sustainability of Egyptian lands for more than five thousand years of intensive cultivation. Fodder beet Figure 27. Graves et al. Moreover.30 Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile Figure 23. it is: . (1996) concluded that it is difficult to imagine a greater honour to be bestowed on a crop than to give it credit for sustaining agricultural production in such an ancient land.

1996). Figure 31. cotton and other crops due to its high N2-fixing ability. Single. 1993. An increase in yield and quality has been observed in cereal crops that were subsequently grown on land where berseem had been used as green manure or even planted for forage production. Thus. The crop is allowed to grow to approximately 4–10 cm height and is then incorporated into the soil. 31 Figure 29. This practice is sometimes referred to as “ploughed down”. It means that every year there is more than 714 000 tonnes of fixed nitrogen (AbdElHady.Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile increasing soil fertility with its ability to add high level of nitrogen (53–71 kg/ha) by symbiotic N2 fixation (Graves et al. Important in a rotation as it helps to conserve the soil and prevents wind and water erosion and increases the organic matter content of the soil especially in newly reclaimed lands as well as improving soil structure and physical and chemical properties. Berseem green manure begins to decompose very rapidly and releases nitrogen as soon as it is turned under. the amount of commercial fertilizer added for the succeeding crop can be decreased. 1996) added to Egyptian cultivated lands. Fodder crops feed calendar (Figure 31). Without growing (mainly) berseem and other legumes.or double-disk harrows followed or preceded by heavy-duty cultivators can effectively incorporate the green crop into the soil. Berseem as green manure . Additionally. Graves et al. This is done with either a mouldboard plough or a disk. the high productivity of non-leguminous crops could not have been maintained. Triticale Figure 30. It provides a cereal disease break in cropping rotations. berseem has been for more than five thousand years considered indispensable in rotation with cereals.

Without berseem in the rotation with cereals and cotton. Egypt would not be able to achieve the higher productivity existing for these crops (El-Nahrawy. especially in the establishment stage. Table 11. Table 12. El. as environmentally of controlling all kinds of weeds. especially wild oats. Hasanan S.4 Difference 7. An infested square metre of wheat with ten plants of Figure 32. Effect of crop rotation on the number of wild oat seeds in the soil (seed bank) in 1995. Wild oats is considered a big problem in Egypt especially in wheat and there is an existing National Campaign for control of wild oats. No pesticides are used during the lifetime of the crop except when recommended. H. Berseem is considered unique in this merit in comparison with faba bean (Tables 11 and 12). Comparing the crop sequence for four successive seasons from 1991/92 to 1994/95. spikes/m2 91/92 92/93 93/94 94/95 Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat Berseem Berseem Berseem Wheat Berseem Wheat Berseem Wheat Faba bean Berseem Wheat Wheat Wheat production kg/ha 227 Adapted from El Hasanan S. Repeated cutting from five to seven times per season will remove growing weeds and result in a depletion of the weed seed bank (Table 12). It should be mentioned that the pronounced decrease in wheat productivity is a result of both weeds and the absence of nitrogen added through rotating berseem with wheat. 1996.. continuous planting of wheat resulted in an increase in the number of spikes of wild oats more than 16 times and a decrease in the productivity of wheat about 12 times in comparison with rotating berseem with wheat. It is very common to see fields. rotating berseem with wheat (Table 11). At planting At harvest 8. Effect of crop rotation on the control of wild oats in wheat fields (1995) Crop sequence Wild oats no. free of weeds without applying any treatment for weed control. Frequent cutting will give no chance for weeds to produce seeds unlike the case for faba bean. planted with wheat following berseem.. 1996. Therefore. Crop sequence Wild oat seeds per 500 g soil 91/92 92/93 93/94 94/95 Wheat Wheat Wheat Wheat Berseem Berseem Berseem Wheat Berseem Wheat Berseem Wheat Faba bean Berseem Wheat Wheat Adapted from El. 2008b).6 .Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 32 insects which help to biologically control the deleterious ones. Many means for wild oats control are being used but the only means which is both efficient and viable economically and environmentally friendly is cultivating the invested land with berseem (Figure 32). In other words. Using berseem to control weeds wild oats would cause more than 30% loss in yield. El H. berseem is considered as a very good place of shelter for rearing the beneficial insects which help to bring back the balance lost due to misusing pesticides.

High demands for berseem seed from East Asian and Southern Europe countries have seen Egyptian annual exports of berseem seed increase to thirty thousand tonnes in 2009. Soil preparation after rice would cause a lot of disturbance to soil structure and micro-flora as well as soil conservation due to increasing the probability of wind and water erosion as well as soil compaction.. Results proved that including ryegrass in mixtures with berseem lead to an increase in DM content. 1991). drought. grapes and citrus. Cross-pollination or the transfer of pollen from the anthers of one plant to the stigma of another plant is done primarily by bees (Figure 34). Berseem must be cross-pollinated to produce seed. It is better suited for specific rotation with rice at Serw Research Station in Demmitta Governorate where EC [Electrical Conductivity] up to 15 mm/cm has existed in some locations. more so than wheat and strawberry clover but less than barley. including it in mixtures with grasses will lead to a balanced ration and consequently will be reflected in animal performance. intensifying production as well as enriching the soil with nitrogen and organic matter. ant scene during the season. low temperature and low light intensity.Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 33 cept especially when it is planted after rice (Figure 33). and pear. complete loss due to disease or adverse conditions such as salinity. annual ryegrass. A bee forces its proboscis down the corolla tube. especially in the first cut. 1977. Figure 33. This is mainly done with the objectives of controlling weeds. Barley. Any decrease in the area cultivated with berseem will affect honey production. Therefore. (1996) reported that berseem is well known for its use in reclamation of salty lands in Egypt. improving the forage productivity and dry matter content in comparison with pure stands. foraging from berseem. and intake. to high seed production Graves et al. triticale and oats in different proportions have been used as components of these mixtures (Rammah and Radwan. Haggag et al. . date palm. 1995). A companion grass reduces the risk of bloating especially from the forage of first harvest due to high moisture content. (7 400 tonnes in 1989) as a major component (86%) in Egypt seed exports (Egyptian Financial Group. Berseem is very rich in protein and poor in energy. Bees cross-pollinate berseem and lead rotations with rice for salt-affected soils. all crops. Berseem planted after rice with no-till Figure 34. Flowers are pollinated when bees are collecting pollen or nectar. causing the stamens and pistil to protrude from the interior of the floret. It is described by Lauchli (1984) and Winter and Lauchli (1982) as moderately tolerant to salinity.

most seeds are produced and distributed through the informal sector. alfalfa. It is worth mentioning that in spite of the fact that the average productivity of berseem for the whole country is 68. Manure is a complete nutrient source. Forage seed production Berseem occupies about one million ha seasonally. containing all of Figure 35. this is not the case for berseem. The public sector plays almost no role in forage seed production. and instead it virtually directs all its efforts to supplying seed of strategic crops such as wheat. i. Sirw 1.The remarkable increase in cereal productivity in the last two decades (from 8 million Mt in 1980 to more than 22 million Mt in 2009) is mainly due to developing high-yielding cultivars and making their certified seed available to growers. 47 619 tonnes of berseem seed are .7 tonnes/ha. Demand for berseem seed is high due to its annual growth habit and its high sowing rate under Egyptian conditions. hybrid sorghum. millet. However. the research program conducted at various research stations all over the country provides small amounts of high-quality seed. Departmental regulations set standards for foundation (basic) and certified seed of forage crops.fao. To meet the annual demand to sow one million ha.34 Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile land reclamation especially the desert or marginal land. However. [For more information on berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) see < www. Berseem planted underneath apple trees the major nutrients. local seed is both uncertified and uncontrolled. Moreover. which helps to upgrade commercial supplies. and making their breeder and basic seeds available through the Forage Crops Research Department (FCRD) for producing certified seed by the Central Administration of Seed Production (CASP). Farmers have traditionally produced their own seed or purchased their requirements from the local markets. The improvement of berseem productivity in Kafer El-Sheikh is mainly due to the distribution and dissemination of improved berseem varieties seed from FCRD located at Sakha Agricultural Research Station. Nevertheless. Sudan grass. the amount of seed produced through research stations is very small (less than 1%) relative to domestic and foreign Gbase/DATA/Pf000414. 2009). This situation is due probably to the fact that forage seeds are considered by all stakeholders and mainly by farmers as a by-product of forage production. wheat. In addition. No major efforts are made to provide local as well as export markets with seeds of properly identified and pure cultivars of berseem in spite of the existence of all the essential factors for a successful seed industry. Sakha 4. and micronutrients. Forage seed production is less developed compared to other crops. Unfortunately. the average productivity of Kafer El-Sheikh governorate is 111. manure promotes biological activity in the soil and enhances the soil physical properties. the genetic identity of seed is maintained at those research stations through several generations. though small amounts of high quality seed are being made available to growers of forage crops (including berseem.e. Organic matter incorporated into the land from berseem as well as animal manure and fixed nitrogen by bacteria will convert the marginal and poor soil to fertile soil within three to five years which is impossible under any other single system. secondary nutrients. teosinte and guar) by the FCRD and ARC. In addition to varietal development.6 tonnes/ha. corn and rice as mentioned above. and the quality of such seed on local markets is rather poor. berseem has not received much attention compared to cereal crops. cowpeas. rice and corn (SADS. recorded berseem productivity at Sids Agricultural Research Station from areas planted with certified seed of improved varieties and applying the recommended packages by FCRD surpassed double the average productivity. In spite of developing high-yielding berseem cultivars such as Helally. Gimmeza 1. A rule of thumb for successful land reclamation is establishing a livestock/cropping system. In this way. little or no certified seed is produced by CASP. Therefore. Giza 6 and Sakha 3.HTM >].

El-Nahrawy et al. in Egyptian agriculture is not clear for the Corn straw Sept/Oct. It is very easy to produce certified berseem seed which could cover most of the berseem area within the five year plan. which could result in transferring about 125–250 thousand ha to the wheat area from the berseem area. large amounts of these seeds are exported to many countries (El-Nahrawy and Rammah. 1995. By-products are a part of the rations of dairy stock and fodders are often complementary to straws and stovers. Egypt. hence the role of annually (Mt) the private sector would be very small. Based on an average seed yield of around 595 kg/ha (250 kg/fed. 2. 3. Bagasse March/April/Oct. What is needed to achieve this objective is support for the FCRD activities as well as effective collaboration among FCRD. .Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 35 required. 1996). 5. 3. Cairo. then it is necessary to encourage farmers to use certified seeds which needs demonstrations to convince farmers about the differences between good Table 13. it is relatively easy to make progress in berseem productivity as well. Crop residues. Department of Agricultural Economics Issue No.). Due to the unique characteristics of Egyptian forage crops and the numerous ecotypes and varieties present. the demand amounts times available for seed will be very limited. The net return is playing a big role in determination of the coverage percentage. which could be the case. The public sector plays almost no role in forage seed production. Sirw1. the important role of berseem Wheat straw Oct/Nov. Central Administration of Agricultural Extension (CAAE) and Central Administration of Seed Certification (CASC). Exported berseem seed (7 400 tonnes in 1989) was the major component (86%) in all seed export and reached about 30 000 tonnes in 2009. Technology transfers of the developed high-yielding berseem cultivars (Helally. large ruminants mainly feed on crop residues. Total 25 639 759 Source: Ministry of Agriculture. 2. 2002. CASP. assuming there is no acute shortage in feed. then it is unlikely that the wheat area can be increased. The activities should be carried out as follows: 1. If there is a big gap in feed which is likely the case. average amounts seed and bad seed. Considering the progress which has been achieved in cereal productivity.. Limitations 1. This is why the coverage percentage of wheat and rice certified seeds is on the average about 25%. policy makers. Improve berseem basic and certified seed supply and create demand through an encouraging price to farmers. Crop residues and by-products Since there is limited natural grazing in Egypt. demonstration plots and field days. Unfortunately. but the real problem is to create demand for it. about 80 000 ha would be needed for seed production (around 8% of the total berseem area) just to meet the local demand. Encouraging farmers to leave half the area or even the whole area of demonstration plots seeded with basic seed for seed production to accelerate the dissemination of the high yielding berseem cultivars. As long as the farmers are not aware of the available annually and when they are available (2002) important role of good and certified seed from Crop residue Average Availability improved cultivars of the forages. Table 13 contains details of various crop Fenugreek straw “ “ Chickpea straw “ “ Lupine straw “ “ Faba bean straw “ “ Groundnut straw Oct/ Nov. 4. Buffaloes eating rice straw are a familiar sight. Since forages are not final products and are not easy to determine (such as for cereals). Rice straw Sept/Oct. Sakha4.3. especially for berseem and alfalfa. Giza6 and Sakha3) as well as the optimum cultural practices to the farmers’ fields through workshops. crop makes limitation for isolation from Lentil straw March/April neighbouring fields. and considering berseem as a self-pollinated Barley straw April/Dec. To eliminate this possibility different approaches to increase the feed supply will have to be found. To create demand we have to demonstrate to farmers the merit of the new technology and at the same time make the seed available at an encouraging price. Gimmeza1. Pollination mode for berseem is still unclear Cotton straw Sept/Oct.

oranges. dates.2 Kg (amount produced per person per apply the technology of treating wheat straw with be day ) x 1 Y (365 days or 1 year). their use or conversion and use as unconventional or non-traditional feedstuffs can be Oranges doubly beneficial. tomatoes. if not all. grapes. Upgrading the nutritive value Mangoes of residues could be an important means of closing the feed gap.2 (Table 16). In addition.2 Kg x 1 Year: 30% (30% of Municipal refuse is assumed to usable as animal feed) x 0. Estimation of feed from waste and when they are available. For example. Table 15. The approximate Broilers slaughter cost of treating straw was Rs 200–250 per tonme.6 Leucine 2. The amounts of wheat. urea. and kitchen waste) (Table 14). Research results from various studies have shown that there were no big differences between traditional and non-traditional feedstuffs in terms of their nutritive value as measured by chemical analysis and amino acid contents and also between various non-traditional feeds (Table 15).3 million tonnes (Table 13). converting corn and sorghum straws to silage at the right time would improve its nutritive value. Grapes 1996) the digestibility of wheat straw improved by 40–45% and voluntary intake by 86–100% Dates when treated with urea (4 kg urea dissolved in 65 litres of water.2 Arginine million feddan (714 000 ha) with Tryptophan corn for grain production in addition Source: Unpublished data .5 to 7.8 Phenylalanine 2. and also average body weight gain. of Source: Unpublished data the wheat straw is consumed without treatment it RUM = ruminant manure in litres. then the outcomes could be considerable. These results are very N.36 Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile extract encouraging in terms of making use Moisture 7.7 were feed efficiency differences Ash 7. Crude protein Layers slaughter content increased from 3. Potatoes As farm crop residues and wastes can cause environmental problems unless they are reTomatoes cycled. feed from various forms of waste totals some 3 million Mt and includes: animal by-products (poultry manure and offal. sprayed or sprinkled on 100 kg Waste of straw) and stored for 10 days. brewers’ waste. In Egypt where most. The growing rate oth272 448 erwise was 100–120 g a day. feed consumption and conversion and feed efficiency.5% and growth rate by 200–250g a day. Amino acids Histidine Egypt is planting about 1. tannery waste) and plant by-products (potatoes. is clear that if the farmers could be convinced to 30% x 0. The total amount of farm residues is estimated to be more than 25 million Mt (Table 13). average amounts available annually and Table 14. Chemical analysis and amino acid contents of When non-traditional feedstuffs tomato seed meal (TSM) and cotton seed meal (CSM) Item TSM (%) CSM Item TSM CSM were fed to four-week-old chicks (%) (%) (%) there were no significant differences Crude protein Amino acids between tomato seed meal and Gross protein value Methionine cotton seed meal in terms of animal 6. in India (ICAR. The amount of wheat straw produced annually in Egypt is about 7. The growing rate from using the same amount of feed could be doubled if the technology of treating the straw with urea could be transferred to and adopted by farmers. The treated straw contained 55–57% TDN and Total feed from waste (estimated) 3–4% DCP.2 of agro-wastes.7 Lysine 2.4 + Cystine performance (body weight gain and Threonine feed consumption) although there Fibre 7. Similarly. by-products Source Amount rice and corn straw and bagasse available are (MT) considerable.

Etman et al.3 million Mt of TDN (5. most corn and sorghum straws consumption and efficiency of 4.. The MALR and others have made considerable efforts over the years to encourage the use of crop residues for livestock feed for small-scale livestock producers. Many of the recommendations provided by Nour (1985) have become part of traditional practice. in spite of a number of past studies which have proposed strategies (e.2 Now most of the corn and grain sorghum areas are Feed efficiency 2. such as old chicks fed cotton seed meal (CSM) and tomato seed meal (TSM) helping the spread of rats and insects i.31 and 1..5 million Mt. 2009) demonstrated that rice straw is a crucial ingredient of livestock feed during the second half of the year. 2001). 1997. Mostafa et al.6%. Gad Alla. to May) and 60 and 79% of the requirements during the whole year. and 3. the success in making good quality silage from corn stover with and without additive will be of practical importance in animal feeding (Bendary and Younis. Final body weight (g) to make silage. Work under the FAO Project TCP/EGY/3102 (Steele et al. Sabbah et al. It was estimated that 25% of the straw is chemically treated with urea and/or ammonia on the farm to up-grade the nutritional value and palatability. 2007. Increasingly grains of new maize hybrids are harvested while most of the stovers stay green and have suitable moisture content for ensiling (Bendary and Younis. improve palatability and give the producer more flexibility (Berger et al. 1997).e. The estimated total digestible nutrients (TDN).81 million Mt of corn and sorghum straw x 70% dry matter X 56. Using corn and grain sorghum straws for making silage would create about 2. Body weight gain. respectively (Bendary et al. it could be used with berseem as a balanced ration to feed the animals which will lead to saving at least 20% of the consumed berseem as well as achieving higher productivity due to a balanced diet. 1986) for the development of animal feed resources.11%. with added Source: Unpublished data molasses is comparable in nutritive value of 60–70% of silage made from the whole corn plant... respectively. This time is characterized by acute shortages in feed due to the termination of summer forage crops and unavailability of winter forage crops (mainly berseem). Silage made from corn and sorghum straws would be ready for feeding by the end of September to October which is considered a very critical time for feed availability especially for small farmers. However. crude protein (CP) and the digestible protein (DP) were 56. Significant at P<0.81 million tonnes straw x 70% dry matter x 3. 1998).. In addition to using the silage made from corn and sorghum straws to fill the feed gap. 5. Silage g feed required per g gain made from corn and sorghum straws of these hybrids.. the extent of industrial livestock production remains to be determined. and remain valid for small-scale production into the foreseeable future. 1966).Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 37 to about 81 thousand feddan (34 020 ha) for grain sorghum Table 16.67%. 1994. feed annually. Sittisak et al. Therefore. Both are likely to feature in long-term agricultural planning for Egypt. and thus the extent of commercial-manufactured livestock feed also remains unknown. 1991.g. 231 815 Mt of CP (5. corn borer.. The estimated corn and grain sorghum straws in Egypt during year 1995 were about 4.6 % TDN).e. However.05 directly after harvesting ears and grains. 2000. todate it has been difficult to translate strategies into practical action countrywide and much remains to be done.81 million tonnes straw x 70% dry matter x 5. The small-scale livestock producer depending upon lowcost feed is likely to face issues of cost/supply in the near future as competition for straw from other users arises.8 planted with hybrids which stay green at maturity. Moreover. 2009. This corn residue offers a large potential source of energy for ruminants and ensiling the residue may reduce field losses.. Zedan. Egypt would be able to save about 20% Body weight gain (g) of consumed berseem as well as improving productivity. Feed consumption (g) 428. fresh corn stover is produced in large quantities as green residues at maize harvesting time (about 40-50% of the corn plant remains in the field after grain harvest. Johnsonet al. a a b b . Abou Akkada and Nour. 1979). After harvesting.67 % CP) and 126 077 Mt of DP (5. On the Item Ration 1 Ration 2 other hand if these corn and sorghum straws could be used (CSM) (TSM) in the right time i.11 DP). after harvesting the ears and grains.weekare unusable and can cause environmental problems. Berseem covers about 96% of animal energy requirement and 177% of protein requirement during winter season (Oct.

extending over 320 km along the North West Coast of Egypt with 60 km in land on average. fodder production of the natural vegetation and economics of fencing in terms of total benefits and cost recovery period. The approach was assessed in terms of the impact of fencing on biodiversity enhancement. 5) Reducing imports of feedstuffs. a new industry will be created. Establishment of improved pasture As mentioned above many of the common rangeland species occur naturally in Egypt. Research has been conducted to monitor and evaluate fenced plantations of selected range management areas and feed units planted under variable agro. by overgrazing leading to further erosion and narrowing of the botanical composition. It was shown that a satisfactory success could be realized due to implementing this range development approach in comparison with other common approaches.Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 38 Summary of the benefits of converting farm-residues and agro-wastes to conventional feedstuff Benefits of recycling farm-residues and agro-wastes as feedstuffs are: 1) Minimizing the competition between humans and animals on grains and pulses. rangeland grazing was the basis of livestock production. The area has a semi-desert environment. Increasing animal numbers have disturbed the balance between available forage and carrying capacity. with a low and highly erratic rainfall averaged at about 150 mm on the coast and up to 20 km inland. able nutritive value. low plateau and high plateau) could be achieved through: land users. more cereals and pulses will be available for human consumption. cheap feedstuffs will be available to be used in formulating feed thus reducing the cost of producing meat and animal by-products. 2) Minimizing the pollution. In addition. Possible ways to alleviate the degradation: Conservation and where possible improvement of existing grazing lands (coastal. 3) By recycling farm residues and waste. finally. seed collection and multiplication programs and. Considerable research and development have been carried out on these in the past through the Matrouh Resource Management Project (MRMP) aimed at realizing sustainable resource management and alleviating poverty in its mandated area. 4) By using recycled farm residues and wastes. Recycling farm residues of various crop straws as well as wastes of different vegetables and fruits to feedstuff will help to solve a growing pollution problem. 6. but drastically declines thereafter. Greater emphasis needs to be given to the establishment of viable management systems to alleviate the degradation of the pasture lands in the Northern Coast and Sinai as well as introducing medic-cereal rotations and developing and distributing fodder shrubs to control desertification. During the last few decades these lands have been exposed to degradation caused by transformation into agricultural land (increased water and wind erosion). moderated by maritime influence and a fragile resource base. OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF PASTURE RESOURCES Rangeland rehabilitation Traditionally. of improved fodder trees and shrubs (Figures 5a &b).climatic and socio-economic conditions for three years. over-seeding selected rangelands with seeds of good nutritive value local grass and legume species. Fencing led to reviving 13 annual and perennial range species that were temporally .

into farming systems is considered very unique not only in terms of agronomic aspects of fodder production in the cropping sequence.g. A development of co-operatively managed artificial pastures in Matruh area in the North West Coast had little success because of the shortage of rainfall (not more than 120 mm). After this other forages such as fodder beet. have been much used traditionally.). Since most of the rangelands are degraded because of recurrent drought and overgrazing due to mismanagement. Utilization of saline water for crop/forage production Establishing irrigated forages such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Atriplex nummularia and Acacia saligna in the sandy areas of the north coast to fix the dunes and provide supplementary grazing for animals. in cooperation with local land users. Without growing mainly berseem and other legumes. cotton and other crops due to its high N2-fixing ability. The Bedouins in Sinai are using drip irrigation systems for vegetable production to optimize and increase water use efficiency. which is equivalent to 1400 FU Identification of existing indigenous species and collecting seeds and trying to re-seed it have been attempted as well as applying restricted grazing and using these as demonstration plots for the nomads. It means that every year there would be more than 714 000 tonnes of fixed nitrogen (Abd El-Hady. Imported raw materials of feeds. Establishing viable management systems to alleviate the degradation of the pasture lands in the Northern Coast and Sinai as well as introducing medic-cereal rotation and developing and distributing fodder shrubs to control desertification is badly needed (Figures 5a & b). especially forage crops. Large quantities of crop residues (more than 25 million tonnes) are available and frequently used by farmers.). berseem has been for more than five thousand years considered indispensable in rotation with cereals. which lead to a trade deficit.). it is crucial to find sustainable sources of feed resources. large plantations of Atriplex spp. fodder dry matter has been increased by 3. the high productivity of non-leguminous crops could not have been maintained. pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. of improved fodder trees and shrubs was suggested. 1996) added to Egyptian cultivated lands. . Integration of forages into farming systems Integration of forages. Rhodes grass and fodder beet (Beta vulgaris L. Graves et al. ryegrass (Lolium perenne L). appear to be one of the best ways to rehabilitate desertified and eroded areas. Also. Moreover. Including berseem in the cropping system is a excellent choice for soil improvement and increasing soil fertility with its ability to add high levels of nitrogen (53–71 kg/ha) by symbiotic N2 fixation (Graves et al. and planting. Forage crop production was begun using the available resources. starting with the cultivation of alfalfa under drip irrigation using salt-affected water on a commercial level. Rangeland vegetation is generally depleted from overgrazing and shrub uprooting for fuel wood.) using poor quality underground water is considered one of the best ways of overcoming shortages in feed. since water resources are scarce. Additionally.). using the crop residues for animal feed is common in the irrigated areas. Efforts have been made to introduce fodder shrubs e.Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 39 extinct. As noted above. production of protein rich fodder and fuel wood. and on marketing of both forages and animal products. Tree fodder Range vegetation is generally characterized by the dominance of perennial shrubs with some trees in the middle plateau and the southwest coastal ranges. 1993. especially soil fertility.11Mt/10 ha. Over the past four decades. especially Egyptian clover. feed supply is a serious constraint on animal production in Egypt. Overgrazing results mainly from the lack of alternative feed resources particularly during the long dry summer season. but on the complete package of socio-economic and technical issues as well as the sustainability of the natural resources. especially in desert areas (Figure 36). The establishment of sown pastures proved to be very difficult in areas with annual rainfall less than 200 mm and in these areas extension of developing a tree seedling nursery capacity in the villages. This new system of planting alfalfa using drip irrigation has been well-accepted by farmers due to the considerable need for feed in animal wealth development. 1996). Wadi beds in the north and middle parts of Sinai represent a valuable source of grazing for sheep and goats on account of the lush spring growth of the herbaceous vegetation. Now there is renewed interest in all local feed resources. Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L. cowpeas (Vigna sinensis L. Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) was also recently introduced as a multipurpose tree for sand dune fixation.

8 = 4352 ppm) Rhodes grass. Special emphasis was put on forage legumes particularly the genus Trifolium alexandrinum and Medicago. Research Centre. preserving. Berseem and alfalfa germplasm from Egypt has been widely used in breeding programs around the world.this is the lead institution in determining the forage quality and upgrading the nutritive value of farm residues.Cw6. Alfalfa and Rhoades grass under drip irrigation with saline water (E. . Following this success and the excellent adoption by farmers.] in Louisiana in USA .Cw 6. it is intended to repeat the system in rainfed areas such as Matruh governorate.4 = 5376 ppm) Figure 36b. evaluating. salinity. disease and insect resistance and heat.Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 40 Figure 36a. Egyptian clover and cowpeas have been introduced in order to have forages available year round (Figure 36). 7. pearl millet. Varietal development of high-yielding and resistant and/or tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as high quality fodder is of high priority. Egyptian clover under drip irrigation with saline water (E.Cw 8. enhancing and improvement of forage plant genetic resources. Pearl millet under drip irrigation with saline water (E.this is the lead institution in forage resources research and development. Several traits and characters including high yielding. drought tolerance serve as the basis of crop improvement in these programs.8 = 4352 ppm) Figure 36c. Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation .v. Local ecotypes have been used at an international level to produce commercial cultivars such as Big Bee [berseem clover c. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS AND PERSONNEL The following institutions are involved in forage research and development: Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation . The mandate of the institution has paid great attention to the collecting. utilizing. maintaining.

Box 12619. Giza. Dr. ARC. Box 12619. Mostafa Abd El-Gawaad Animal Nutritionist P. Kafer Dr.. Gamma St. Egypt Tel:00202-35731813 Dr. Wafaa Sharawy Forage Geneticist P. Salah Salem Mohamed Abo Feteih Forage Breeder P.this is the lead institution in range and pasture research and management. Egypt Tel:00202-35731813 E-mail: magdykomeha16@hotmail. Gamal Ramdan Forage Management Specialist Sakha Agric. ARC. teaching.. ARC.O. Gamma St. Egypt Tel:00202-35731813 Dr. Giza. practical training and research on rangelands and fodder crops. Giza. Box 12619. Giza. Contact persons Forage Crops Research Department Dr. Res. ARC. Egypt Tel:0020473230170 Dr. Egypt Tel:00202-35731813 E-mail: Salahabofeteih@Gmail. Gamma St. Box 12619.O. Stn.O.D.Sc. Egypt Tel:00202-35731813 Dr. and Ph. FCRD P. Egypt Tel: 00202-35731813 E-mail: mohye52@yahoo.O. Amal Ahmed Helmy Micobiologist P. Gamma St. Res. nutritional or economic angle.. Box 12619. Giza. Magdy Maher Mosad Forage Management Specialist P. Egypt Tel:0020473230170 . Box 12619. Mohye El-Din Abd El-Geleel Director.. Farouk Metwalli Forage breeder Sakha Agric.. Many of the Dr.Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile 41 Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation . Gamma St. research projects focus on forage resource problems from an ecological. Gamma St. ARC. Stn. Kafer El-Sheikh. ARC.. agronomic.

Egypt. Egypt Tel:00202-35731813 Mr. 2008.I. Bull. ARC. M. Technical bulletin No. Egypt. 20–21 November 2008. Offering memorandum and prefeasibility study of investment in Egypt’s seed industry. Stn. Younis 1997. Addis Ababa.. Abd El-Hady. Ms. Egypt Tel:002010-7740885 E-mail. Soliman.. S. Bendary. The basics of identification of wild oats and means of controlling it in wheat fields. A. El-Bagouri. on animal nutrition (specific issue). Mostafa El-Nahrawy Animal Nutrition Specialist P. .A.H. R. El-Morsy. El-H. Damyata. G. 8th Scientific Conf. October 1985. Cairo. 8. Study on irrigation. Mohamed Hagagg Forage Breeder Serw Agric. T. Res. Cairo. Portugal 9–12 April 2008. Boulos. 2008.. 2008. Water Res. M. (in Arabic).M. Egypt.. Gamma St. E. Check list Flora of Egypt. REFERENCES Abbas. Giza. The Research and Development Council. I. Ethiopia. Proceedings of the 12th meeting of the sub-network on Mediterranean forage resources of the FAO–Ciheam inter regional cooperative research and development network on pastures and fodder crops. 1986.mnahrawy 50@yahoo. El-Hasanan S.mostafaelnahrawy@yahoo.A. Proceedings First Egyptian National Seed Conference. & A. pp.S. Sci. Abou Akkada A. Appl. ARNAB (African Research Network for Agricultural By-products. Res.42 Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile Dr. The main pillars of the National Program for maximizing the water-use efficiency in the old land. Abouzeid. MOALR. Nutritional evaluation of ensiling fresh maize stover. CAAE. Res. 1992. MOA.. Centre. Soils and Water Res. Bendary. 1. Management of productive lands of Egypt: A presentation in IGBP Regional Workshop – MENA. Egypt. Box 12619. 12 (8) 1997. ARC. M. . Nour. L. Vol. El-Zeer. 197–209. Mohamed Nour El-Deen Rangeland Management Specialist P. Giza. 296 (in Arabic). 30 page bulletin. Giza. M.. Al-Hadara Publishing. Shereen El-Nahrawy Forage Breeder & Fodder Control Specialist Sakha Agric. 1996. Abo-Hadeed. Amer & S. 1995. By-product utilization in Egypt: A proposed strategy for the development of animal feed resources. Gamma St.. M.O. M. Inst. Egypt Tel:0020473230170 E-mail. A. Egypt Tel:00202-35731813 Dr. Box 12619. M. Stn.O. E. Kafer El-Sheikh. 2001. A. J. 1993. Agric. Moursy. H. Towards Optimal Feeding of Agricultural By-products in Africa. Egypt. & M. 20–22 May 1991. 23–25 Oct. Ministry of Irrigation and Water Resources. Proceedings of a Workshop held at the University of Alexandria. A. Potassium and its effects on crop productivity in Egyptian soils. H.. H. El-Beltagy. (in Arabic). Evaluation of maize stalks for feeding dairy cows. Ghanem. Centre. pp 105–116. & A. Egypt. ARC. A. Cairo. Shahba & F. Cairo.F. M. Egypt.

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Cairo.. Sabbah. J..Sc.G. J.J. Allam. CONTACTS Mohamed A. M. & M. Nutrients utilization and performance of lambs fed rations containing corn stover treated chemically and biologically. E... M. M.44 Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profile Rammah. H. Salt tolerance of Trifolium alexandrinum: Comparison of the salt response of T. V.T.M.Technical Manual: Agro-Industrial Use of Rice Straw. Cairo University Pub. 1974. Plant Physiol. J. 1998. Agric.S.S.O. J. . Sittisak.Sci. H. Giza. El-Hissewy & A. Project TCP/EGY/3102.. 145: 103–111. Nutr. Exploring opportunities for making better use of rice residues in Egypt.R.. & A. Tackholm. Thesis. Ph. Arab Republic of Egypt. pratense. 2007.M. Winter.D. Radwan.Crop [The profile was drafted by the author in June 2011 and edited by S. A. Egypt P. Lauchli. Agric Cairo Univ. Pala.Badawi 2009. Suttie and Dost Muhammad in June/July 2011]. 1977.. Egypt. 81:1993–2007. . Oct. Egypt 9. 1982. No. ARC.. Agric. Student’s flora of Egypt. 2009. K. 8: 588–591. The influence of seeding rate and cutting management on yield and botanical composition of a berseem-grass mixture. Metha. Aust. Mansoura mnahrawy@link. A. Agricultural Research & Development Council. 9:221–226. Steele.M. Fac. MLAR. M. alexandrinum and T. El-Banna & A. Pak. Ministry of Agriculture & Land Reclamation. A. Fadel. FAO. El-Nahrawy. Plant Breeder & Plant Geneticist Field Crops Research Institute Agricultural Research Centre Ministry of Agriculture & Land Reclamation 9 Gamma St. 12619 Mobile Phone : (002010)1084160 E-mail: mnahrawy50@yahoo. P. Reynolds. Effect of protein level in concentrate and urea-treated corn silage on rumen ecology and milk production in lactating dairy cows. Silage of corn stalks and sugar cane tops in dairy cow rations. Zedan Afaf. 2009. M. El-Hosseeniny. Refai. Rungson & W. C.