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Matlab Tutorial for beginners. Vectorisation of functions etc

Matlab Tutorial for beginners. Vectorisation of functions etc

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3 6

elements

indices

x1

x2

x3

x4

x3

1 2 1

2

1

x1

x2

Vector basics

if more than three elements, hard to draw, but can still

think of as point in high-dimensional space

x = x1

x2

x3

Vector basics

simple operations

dot product: x y = x1 y1 + x2 y2 + ... + xn yn

takes two n-D vectors and outputs scalar

norm: kxk =

2

x1

2

x2

+ ... + x2n

Vector basics

simple operations

x

=

finding a unit vector: x

kxk

norm

Vector basics

tells you how

the dot product of y with unit vector x

the projection of y onto the direction

we often call y x

defined by x

= 0 , we say that y is orthogonal to x

if y x

with perpendicular

almost everything you can do with vectors you can also

do with functions

to see the equivalence, remember that a function is

essentially an indexed list of numbers also

when talking about functions we use the word argument

instead of index and function value instead of element

example: writing x(t) = 2t + 3 like a vector

function value (element)

x(t) :

t:

...

7.2

7.0

6.8

...

5.1

5.0

4.9

0.1 0.0

0.1

argument (index)

in the real world (pun intended) the values that t can

take on are infinitely close together, but intuitively its

easier to think of them as having some small spacing

Monday, January 13, 14

...

since functions are basically really high dimensional

vectors, we can define vector-like operations on them

the dot product becomes the inner product:

hx(t)|y(t)i =

x(t)y(t)dt

a

is generalization of multiplying elements pairwise and

adding them all up

two functions are orthogonal if their inner product is

zero

Monday, January 13, 14

function norm: kx(t)k =

x(t)2 dt

a

x(t)

finding a unit function: x(t) =

kx(t)k

projections: hy(t)|x(t)i =

y(t)

x(t)dt

a

defined by x(t)

Monday, January 13, 14

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