119386129 Machine Learning

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119386129 Machine Learning

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You are on page 1of 5

Martin Sewell

Department of Computer Science

University College London

Introduction

of computer algorithms that improve automatically through experience. In

practice, this involves creating programs that optimize a performance criterion

through the analysis of data. Machine learning can be viewed as an attempt to

automate doing science. For introductory texts, see Langley (1996), Mitchell

(1997), Alpaydin (2004) and Bishop (2006). Mitchell has long been considered

the bible, but is now slightly dated. Bishop (2006) is the first textbook on pattern recognition to present the Bayesian viewpoint. For introductory books on

computational learning theory (which emphasizes the probably approximately

correct (PAC) model of learning (Valiant 1984)), see Anthony and Biggs (1992)

and Kearns and Vazirani (1994). As the following taxonomy shows, machine

learning algorithms may be categorised in at least six ways.

Taxonomy

Model type

probabilistic Build a full or partial probability model.

non-probabilistic Find a discriminant/regession function directly.

Type of reasoning

Induction Reasoning from observed training cases to general rules, which

are then applied to the test cases.

Transduction Reasoning from observed, specific (training) cases to specific (test) cases. Figure 1 (page 2) shows the relationship between

induction and transduction.

Type of machine learning

(Cherkassky and Mulier 1998)

which consists of examples which include both the inputs and the

desired outputs, thus enabling it to learn a function. The learner

should then be able to generalize from the presented data to unseen

examples. In situations where there is a cost to labeling data, a

method known as active learning may be used, where the learner

chooses which data to label.

Unsupervised learning The algorithm is presented with examples from

the input space only and a model is fit to these observations. For

example, a clustering algorithm would be a form of unsupervised

learning.

Reinforcement learning An agent explores an environment and at the

end receives a reward, which may be either positive or negative. In

effect, the agent is told whether he was right or wrong, but is not

told how. Examples include playing a game of chess (you dont know

whether youve won or lost until the very end) or a waitress in a

restaurant (she has to wait for the end of the meal before she finds

out whether or not she receives a tip).

The manner in which the training data are presented to the

learner

Batch All the data are given to the learner at the start of learning.

On-line The learner receives one example at a time, and gives an estimate of the output, before receiving the correct value. The learner

updates its current hypothesis in response to each new example and

the quality of learning is assessed by the total number of mistakes

made during learning.

Task

Classification May be binary or multi-class.

Regression Real-valued targets (generalizes classification).

Classification model type

generative model Defines the joint probability of the data and latent

variables of interest, and therefore explicitly states how the observations are assumed to have been generated.

discriminative model Focuses only on discriminating one class from

another.

Desirable Features

Powerful enough to learn the solution to a given problem.

Stable to parameter variations.

Converges in finite time.

Scales reasonably with the number of training examples, the number of

input features and the number of test examples.

References

ALPAYDIN, Ethem, 2004. Introduction to Machine Learning. Adaptive Computation and Machine Learning. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

ANTHONY, Martin, and Norman BIGGS, 1992. Computational Learning Theory. Volume 30 of Cambridge Tracts in Theoretical Computer Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

BISHOP, Christopher M., 2006. Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning.

Information Science and Statistics. New York: Springer.

CHERKASSKY, Vladimir, and Filip MULIER, 1998. Learning from Data: Concepts, Theory, and Methods. Adaptive and Learning Systems for Signal Processing, Communications and Control Series. New York: Wiley.

KEARNS, Michael J., and Umesh V. VAZIRANI, 1994. An Introduction to

Computational Learning Theory. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

LANGLEY, Pat, 1996. Elements of Machine Learning. San Francisco, CA:

Morgan Kaufmann.

MITCHELL, Tom M., 1997. Machine Learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.

VALIANT, L. G., 1984. A Theory of the Learnable. Communications of the

ACM, 27(11), 11341142.

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