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Jenkins

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS

Fall 2009

PHYSICS 140A

MIDTERM EXAM 1

Thursday October 15, 2009

1. Systems A, B, and C are gases with state variables pA , VA , pB , VB , pC , VC . When A and C are in

thermal equilibrium, the equation

pA VA n b pA pC VC = 0

is found to be satisfied. When B and C are in thermal equilibrium, the equation

pB VB pC VC +

n e pC VC

=0

VB

(a) What are the three functions which are equal to one another at thermal equilibrium, each of which is

equal to the empirical temperature T ?

(b) What is the relation expressing thermal equilibrium between A and B?

(a)

pA (VA n b) = pC VC

p V

B B = pC VC

1 + nVBe

A (pA , VA ) = pA (VA n b)

pB VB

B (pB , VB ) =

1 + nVBe

C (pC , VC ) = pC VC

(b)

pA (VA n b) =

pB VB

1+

n e

VB

2. The internal energy U of a photon gas is related to its volume V and temperature T by

U

= aT 4 ,

V

where a is a constant. The equation of state is given by

p=

1U

a

= T 4,

3V

3

(a) Calculate how the temperature of a photon gas varies with volume during a quasi-static, reversible,

adiabatic compression of the gas. [You should find a result of the form T V = constant, with a specific

value for the constant .

(b) What is CV for a photon gas?

(c) What is the enthalpy H for a photon gas?

(a)

dU =

U = U (T, V )

U

U

dT +

dV

T V

V T

dQ

= dU + p dV

U

U

dT +

+ p dV

dQ

=

T V

V T

1

U

U

dT +

+ p dV = 4a V T 3 dT + a T 4 + a T 4 dV

0=

T V

V T

3

1

4

0 = 4a V T 3 dT + a T 4 + a T 4 dV = 4a V T 3 dT + a T 4 dV

3

3

4

0 = 4a V T 3 dT + a T 4 dV

3

dT

dV

3

+

=0

T

V

T 3 V = constant

(b)

U (T, V ) = a V T 4

U

= 4a V T 3

CV =

T V

(c)

H =U +p V =

4

4

a V T4 = U = 4 p V

3

3

2

3. During a quasi-static, reversible and adiabatic expansion of an ideal gas, the pressure at any given moment

is given by pV = c, where and c are constants.

(a) Show that the work done by the gas in expansion from volume VA to volume VB is

pA VA pB VB

.

1

W (A B) =

(b) If the initial pressure and volume of the gas are pA = 106 Pa and VA = 103 m3 , and the final volume

is VB = 3.2 102 m3 , what is the final pressure? Assume that the gas is diatomic, so = 57 = 1.4. How

many joules of work is done by the gas in the adiabatic expansion?

(c) What is the work done by one mole of the gas if the expansion is isothermal rather than adiabatic? What

is the final pressure?

(d) Sketch a picture of the adiabatic and isothermal expansion curves for the expansions of parts (b) and

(c) in the p V plane. (x-axis is V , y-axis is p.) Be sure to label the curves as adiabatic and isothermal.

(a)

W =

VB

p(V ) dV = c

VB

V dV =

VA

VA

c

(1 )

V 1 |VVB

A

1

c

1

=

VA 1 =

VB

[pB VB pA VA ]

(1 )

(1 )

(b)

pA VA = pB VB

1 7/5

1

VA

6

=

106 Pa

= 10 Pa

pB = pA

VB

32

128

pA VA pB VB

1

15

5 6

W =

1

=

10 Pa 103 m3

=

103 J

1

2

4

8

(c)

W =

VB

p(V ) dV = R T

VA

= pA VA ln

VB

VA

VB

VA

dV

= R T ln

V

VB

VA

pA VA = pB VB

1

VA

=

106 Pa

pB = pA

VB

32

3

4. In this problem, you consider the expansivity and the isothermal compressibility .

(a) Show that and of a general system satisfy

+

=0.

p T

T p

(b) Consider a van der Waals gas with equation of state

p=

RT

a

2 .

(v b) v

(c) Show that

p

T

is generally true.

p

(d) Compute T

from the van der Waals gas equation of state. Verify that

v

p

T

(a)

v

T p

1 v

=

v p T

"

#

2

1

1 v

1 v

v

v

=

2

=

p T

p T v T p

v pT

v

T p p T

2

1 v

1

1 v

v

v

=

+ 2

=

T p

T p

v p T

v T p

v

p T T p

p T

=

(b)

1

v

1

a

T =

p + 2 (v b)

R

v

a

1

2ab

T

p 2 + 3

=

v p

R

v

v

4

T

a 2ab

1

pv + 2

=

v p

R

v

v

R

1 v

=

=

v T p

pv va + 2ab

v2

v

p=

RT

a

(v b) v 2

RT

p

2a

=

+ 3

v T

(v b)2

v

RT v

2a

p

=

2

v

v T

(v b)2

v

1 v

1

(v b)

=

= RT v

=

2a

v p T

pv av + 2ab

(vb)2 v 2

v2

(v b)

T

=

R

p + va2

(c)

f (p, v, T ) = 0

T

v

p

= 1

T v v p p T

v

1 v

p

1

T p

v T p

=

v = v = 1 v =

T

T v

v p

v p p

p

RT

a

(v b) v 2

(d)

p

T

v

1

RT v

(vb)2

2a

v2

=

(v b)

(v b)

(v b)

=

R

pv av + 2ab

v2

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