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Psyc/i.

2 8 )P

SCIENTIFIC

INTERNATIONAL

TEE

PHYSICAL

SERIES

EXPRESSION

ITS MODES

AND

PRINCIPLES

BY

ASSISTANT

M.D.

WARNER,

FRANCIS

HOSPITAL

LECTUKEB

AND

PHYSICIAN,
;

HOSPITAL

FOR

AND
AND

THE

CHILDREN

YORK

APPLETON
1, 3,

TO

TO

ILLUSTRATIONS

FIFTY-ONE

NEW
D.

BOTANY

PHYSICIAN

FORMERLY

LONDON

WITH

ON

LOND.,

BOND

1886

COMPANY
STREET

F.R.C.P.
THE
EAST

LONDON

work

THIS

is

interested

in

thinking

being.

Mind

is

is

Mind

the

do

is

brain-action.

mind

are

the

the

and

mind

ill

is

physical
brain

may

In

in

some

in

often

disease

animals,

degree

with

of

brains

whose

the

action

brain

man

signs

proportional

of

of

of

coincident

be

to

the

evidence

defective

found

of

we

manifestations

deprive

probably

those

formed

what

connected

the

man,

and

abundant

way

slight

very

small

power.

are

In

are

with

some

are

living

man

and

is

who

of

faculty

there

in

as

know,

not

but

mind

that

Man

highest

we

those

to

studying

know,

cannot

addressed

his

injury

to

mental

intelligence
to

the

size

PREFACE.

VI

and
of

argument

forward

Dr.

found
"

mentation

"

brain

which

mind

of

function

brain.

this

on

by

I have

the

of

structure

been

put

Bastian.*
it convenient

for

that

thus

as

strong line

has

point

the

to

the

use

physical action

is associated

of

with

the

defined,

term

of

the

phenomena

mentation

is

brain, physical in kind, and

capable of physicalinvestigation.
the

In
as

phenomena

due

are

necessarilyfollow
and
to

methods

bodies

are

physical

causes,

or

cedents,
physical ante-

physicalchange

forces

research

forces

material

or

being

employed

here

the

seen,

is due

are

those
studied

are

objects where

physical expression

noted

as

an

index

used

of

in

they
of

the

such
actual

invisible.

but

that every

physical

the

certain

upon

all

physical

to

postulated

purely physical force.

The
in

it is

used

hypothesis, that

working

here

arguments

Brain

as

Series), p.

188.

"

an

Organ

of

the

Mind

"

(InternationalScience

PREFACE.

looking

In

at

expression,
processes
at

get

we

such

of

relations may

phenomena

of the

at

with
philosophy,

and

hypotheses,are

facts, analogies,and

aimed

drawn

upon

arguments,

results rather
practical

tual
intellec-

than

satisfaction alone, hoping thus

engaged

those

engaged in

work
the

in

scientificwork

be

may
more

are

Summaries

assist

to

and

others

social life.

general scheme

The

whose

demonstrated.

be

working

their

of

used

analysisare

elements

Biology, medicine,

for

mode

or

inquiry,and
capableof physical

are

as

example,

any

and

gatheredfrom

purport
first

the

of

this

chapter ;

and
practical

illustrative descriptions

contained

chaps,

are

in

appended

viii. to

certain

to

xiv.

of

the

chapters (seeindex).
The

chapter on

Art

Criticism illustrates the

and arguments
principles
work

without
of

as

this may

the

used

throughout

possiblybe

read

by

the

some

precedingchapters,the principles

analysisof expressionare

here

repeated;

PKEFACE.

Vlll

they

be

can

became

passed

them

with

acquainted

the

by

over

who

reader

in

earlier

the

chapters.
index

The

possible

to

as

the

of

the

as

whole

complete

references

cross

required

may

scheme

rendered

such

enable

be

made

of

been

has

for

to

complete

HAELEY

STREET,

W.

be

study

work.

F.

2"t,

as

W.

CONTENTS,

CHAPTER

I.
PAGE

INTRODUCTORY
...

CHAPTER

II.

EXPRESSION.

The

"expression"

term

life

speech

of
other

the

mind

Comparison

Certain

sounds

and

of

the

heart
"

of

action

the

sight

indicates
exhibits

expressive

is

and

due

object
the

upon

by
only

form,

be

appreciating

by

colour,

studied

by

direct

this

in

mometer
ther-

The

flame

receptive

force

phone
tele-

in"

by

its

Vital
"

work
"

The
whioh

the

in

ability
Impression-

"

ments
Move-

signs

growth

unequal

expression

an

retentiveness

empirical

temperature

biological

thrown

and

and

pulvini,

part,

impressionability,

Nutrition

their

force

"

retentiveness

plants

express

children

"

in

pulse
afferent

an

sensitive

localized

Expression,

signs

intelligent

an

the

to

Impressionability

"

and

of

additional

an

exhibits

"

idiot,

an

Signs

an

objective

impressionability;

permanent
child

of

their

and

the

of

expression

tracing

heat;

part,

phonograph

of

"

action

of

coexistence

an

one

and

properties,
"

the

expressive

uniform

The

life

makes

Abstract
of

Speech

"

"

"

criteria

of

criterion

phenomena

two

man

explained

"

sion
Expres-

"

can

processes

importance

of
11

Summary
...

...

CONTENTS.

CHAPTEE

EXPRESSION

III.

MAN

IN

AND

IN

ANIMALS.
PAGE

fact

The

of

does

expression

things expression
not

considered

the

outcome

the

is

not

prove

outcome

of

its

here, only

Growth

results

from

termed

trophic

local

is

impressionability
may

be

expressed

not

be

permanent

modes

of

reflexes
as

may

be

may

expressive
in

of function

the

body
in

defects

by

illustrated
Coincident

"

imbeciles

the

Properties

OF

MODES

EXPRESSION

BY

in

anger

"

crystals, growth

demonstrated

CHAPTEE

change

of parts ; coincident

of the

Expression

of

growth

action,

of function

actor

an

as

movement

outcome

of

development

"

action

Reflected

"

it

need

by colour, sound,

Movements

"

manent
Per-

"

evolution,

reflex

Any

"

Expression

"

Heredity"

forces"

colour

or

part

action

Trophic
of

form

life

reflex

for

acquired

or

of

to

and

Apparatus

"

are

Eetentiveness

"

Development

"

congenital,

expression by

opposed

action

"

procespes

expression
is

when

direct

is called

such

Nutrition

"

Expression

"

subject

an

it

reflex

by

expression
be

the

nutrition

Nutrition

"

"

expression

in

of processes

vitality
nutrition

living

In

external

by

emotions

Summary

"

31

IY.

AND

MOVEMENTS,

RESULTS

THE

OF

MOVEMENT.

Movement

in

that

it

laughter

"

attracted

Movements

as

in

of movement
"

of

of

sleep,

bee

of

in

from

and
flower

the

and

of rabbits

result

of

by
"

ment
move-

"Subsidence
the

when

attention

voluntary

movements

flower

Summary

to

action

movement

stamping

movement

fatigue,

with

Expression

"

done

result

the

expression by

served
ob-

often

correlatable

it is

movement

Work

"

is

it

expresses

porcupines,

Spontaneous
a

of
of

Eesults

"

movement

Examples

"

movements

Posture

"

voice, apparatus

Secondary

is

force

of

produces

anger,

action

visible

and

physiological inquiries

modes

other

the

physical

"

"

4
...

CONTENTS.

XI

CHAPTER
AND

MOVEMENTS
IN

THE

RESULTS

ABSTRACT,

THE

V.
OP

MOVEMENTS

OR

APART

FROM

of

expression

CONSIDERED

WHAT

THEY

EXPRESS.
PAGE

Movements

are

means

reflex, voluntary,

as

movement
a

its

are

movement

method

relation

in similar
or

union

organic

an

rhythm
of

combinations

of

Actions

"

of

Description

and

described

as

of

aggregation
analysis

of

the

of

of

to

of

non-intelligent
occurring

in

synchronous

as

regular

classifications

other

series
are

as

PHYSIOLOGY

has

in

movement

of

plants;

Nerve-mechanism

"

apparatus
nerve-centres

Inter-

parts

sides

both

on

according

physiological

intelligent

non-synchronons

and
;

as

by feelings,
06

Summary

"

the

in
:

the

metry
Sym-

"

...

...

EXPRESSION.

in

and

the

of

certain

the

amoeba;

apparatus

nerve-muscular

produce

large parts

common

as

of

VI.
OF

nerve-mechanism,

of

accompanied

CHAPTER

Modes

and

"

an

terms

significance

to

or

suggested

of

anatomical

action

above

growth
Walking

"

of movements

analysis given

"

Principles

parts

according

analysis;

is

movements

"

movements

Classification

"

anatomical

principles

of

Asymmetry

functions

higher

in

like

subjects

and

differentiation

indicating

movements,
"

small

possible

Movements

"

physiological

Collateral

"

brain

the

their

of

individuals

of

movements

of

movements

Description

"

working

coincidences

movement

movements

independent

in

body

differentiation

of

of

of movements

Contrast

"

of

terms

in

combinations

series

siderations
con-

each

of

such

inco-ordinated

series

as

of

depend

number

of

graphic

may

of

consist

movements

described
in

this

upon

The

"

sequences

dog

Co-ordinated

"

movements

"

of

considered

or

may

synchronous

number

unlimited

motors,

Time

importance

synchronous

of the

of

the

of

the

by

movements,

Expression

"

combinations

is 2n, the

be

time, may

to

time

recorded

Two

"

classified

attributes

and

kind,

duration,

and

time

to

The

"

conveniently

Frequency

"

as

upon

spontaneous

quantity,

most

Movements

"

for

reflex

vertebrates
action
movements

ascidian

"

"

ments
move-

cular
Nerve-musDo
?

"

certain

Ferrier's

CONTENTS.

Xll

HAGS

experiments
Visual
for

Cerebral

"

reflex

movement

effects
and

trophic

of

of

light

logical
Physio-

"

Light

of

of

effects

impressionable

light

Extrinsic

"

action

Trophic

"

plants

Effects

"

stimulates

in

light

of

light

the

The

"

to

light

brain

of

Summary

"

of
mediate
im-

and

of

Summary

"

born
new-

nated
co-ordi-

stimuli, mediate

light

"

requisite

stimulated, inhibited,
to

thus

Time

"

of movement

in

"

movements

not

effects

the

action

Nerve-centres

"

movements

light,in man,

Retentiveness

idiot

by

Inhibition

"

kinetic

infant;
"

an

indicated

perception

localization

effects

of

plants

on

82

CHAPTER

VII.
\

PATHOLOGICAL

FACTS

AND

EXPRESSION

IN

PATHOLOGICAL

STATES.

Disease

destroy

may
of

and
of

muscles

"

in

Defects

"

to

of

in contrast

disease

children
the

; their

CHAPTER

ments
ExperiFinger-

"

of

"

aches
Head-

athetosis

frequent coincidence

104
...

VIII.

CONSIDERED

POSTURES

chorea

Cases

"

of

sets

"

Tooth-grinding

"

head

Epilepsy

"

plants

of

study

the

destruction

of disease

physical signs

development

of

different

in

The

"

tion
Destruc-

"

with

on

movements

nervous

children

of

deviation

Localization

"

mimosa

the
in

twitching

palsy

Analogy

with

Lateral

"

Effects

"

Facial

"

Chorea

"

area

parts of the brain

of irritation

Effects

"

brain

striatum

corpus

eyes

irritate

or

AS

MEANS

OF

EXPRESSION.
V

Definition

of

posture

records

of

posture

is movement

of
of

postures

muscles

limb

to

Free

"

postures,

gravity

"

or

as

Effect

of

study

all parts

posture is due

nerve-centres

It

"

from
of

differentlyduring sleep

"

difficult

gravity
It

can

on

"

is

most

mode

expression

plants
the

of

action

direct

breathing

affect

change

expressive

mental

susceptible to

Historical

"

to resultant

disengaged parts

is not

labouring

Organic
due

"

their

and

expression

Postures

"

of

Simplicity

"

"

"

"

"

Postures

Gravity

postures

of

acts
the

CONTENTS.

Xlll

FACE

face

Fallacies

"

cident
in

and

Classification

"

postures

animals

to i-eflex action

due

Postures

"

Symmetry

"

in

Postures

"

plants

Method

of

examination

hand

the

in rest
of

Application
hand
in

seen

hand

art

the

of

the

Small

"

differentiation
Excitation
weakness

drooped

hand

the

antithesis

of

postures,

Collateral

"

weak

Analogy

Antithesis

whether

determining

of the

action

spontaneous

is

posture

movements

gravity
the

jaw

head

to

its

the

as

of

or

of

in

light

in

of

of
the

Movements

"

forms

certain

causing

Effect

"

Application

"

the

stimulus

such

posture

of

the

head
182

...

EXPRESSION

face

...

Flexion

"

postures

CHAPTER

The

defined

weak

free

usually

Physiognomy,

"

Summary

"

the

HEAD.

Action

"

analysis

THE

effect

varying

head
of

principles
of

of

outcome

154

head

"

conditions

The

"

the

movement
;

brain

different

of

Methods

"

X.
IN

of

movements

only symmetrical
head

the

or

...

EXPRESSION

and

excitement

nerve-centres

CHAPTER

Positions

Inter-

"

Symmetry

"

Fallacies

"

application

large parts

General

"

nervous

Anatomical

"

differentiation

centres
"

of the
and

tended
ex-

hand,

nervous

analysis
with

parts contrasted

of
"

of

"

Straight

"

The

"

normal

hand,

analysis

and

hand

feeble

extended

of

Principles

"

analysis

thumb

giving analysis

principles

The

"

hand

convulsive

The

fright

straight

Energetic

"

140

EXTREMITY.

"

principles

the

with

Table

"

The

"

UPPER

in

hand

the

with

contrasted

Postures

"

Summary

"

Anatomy

"

art

Coin-

"

IX.

THE

OF

postures

in

Postures

CHAPTER

POSTURES

of

analysis

"

postures

Spontaneous

"

index

an

structure

IN

"

of

Facial

sympathetic

nerve

the

XI.
THE

mind

muscles
"

Form,

HUMAN

FACE.

of

Definition

"

and

their

colour,

nerve

and

the

face;

supply
mobile

con-

XIV

CONTENTS.

PACK

ditions
the

of

face

of

facial

The

"

and

of

Impressions

and

previous
with

paralysis
mental

of

states

of

mental

facial

of

from

palsy

headache

The

"

Cases

"

of muscles

The

"

of

in the

face,

disease
in

due

to

due

to

tuality
Intellec-

"

fatigue;
face

disengaged
from

expression

Mental

"

sides

face

"

Asymmetrical

long

brain

face

face

both

or

dull

man's

the

The

one

movements

expression

Conflict

on

of

permanent
face

"

"

the

necessity

as

bodily suffering

nerve

facial

expression

"

the

The

"

in

seen

of

snarling

face

analysis

of the

movements

winking,

be

may

in

Action

"

well

as

Nutrition

"

action

by trophic signs,

face

vulgar
signs

What

"

suffering compared
expressions

the

of idiots

face

analyzing

Expression

"

brain

symmetry

nerve-muscular

Faces

"

of

development

of

zones

anxiety

intellectual

bright

lower

of

considering

conditions

expression

Method

"

and

expression

skin

Direct

"

muscles

middle,

upper,

of

face

expression by coincident

the

the

the

the

free

brain

for

disease

face

193

...

CHAPTER

XII.

EXPRESSION

The

eyeballs
movement

The

"

contracted

pupil

of

the

eyelids

by

the

eye

and

Loss

of
and

in

stimulation
and
"

deep

repulsion

Spontaneous

Mental
eyes

"

states

of

"

movements

Intellectuality

and
of

"

of

by

or

ditions
con-

expression
of

the

under

eyes

form,
chloro-

from

eyes
common

sight

free

attraction

vertical

upward

by

in

Mechanism

"

eyes

of

for

variation

most

Eyes

supply

nerve

Movements

eyes

"

expressed

Horizontal

its

Movements

the

its

their

accommodation

movements

of

for

distinguishing

movements

sleep

stimulation

around

Horizontal

"

brain

on

parts

associated

and

dilatation, and

and

the

mechanism

apparatus

Importance

"

EYES.

the

by light,

its reflex

THE

and

muscular

of emotion

"

IN

position

Iris, a

"

vision

near

their

of

brain
"

an

object

disengaged

or

repulsion

of

contrasted

movements

traction
At-

"

"

the
"

214

movements
...

...

...

CONTENTS.

XV

CHAPTER

OP

EXPRESSION

XIII.

CONDITIONS

GENERAL

OP

BRAIN

THE

AND

OP

EMOTIONS.

THE

PACK

of consciousness

Expression
"

of

Nutrition

Irritability
"

pain

The

"

"

questions

Materialistic
what

mind,
from

to

ness

of

Relation

"

of
a

mentation

to

necessary

child

healthy
and

tnent

signs

attributes

of

of

mind

"

conditions

Retentive-

"

stimulus

parison
Com-

"

with

idiot

an

only

properties

its

develop,

'Impressionability

of

expression

is

Brain

infant

an

mind

of

condition
"

of

criteria

signs

adult, and

"

Subjective

"

of

afferent

potentiality

criteria

are

The

study

to

the

with

of

...

ADULT.

Impressionability

"

Description

delayed

expression
Memory

"

...

AND

subjective

outcomings

infant

an

INFANT

entertained"

"

Expression

"

22o

physical expression

its

by

us

THE

Physical

"

upwards

infancy

knowu

mentation
...

IN

only

they

are

bility
Impressiona-

"

XIV.

MIND

OF

"

beautiful

CHAPTER

EXPRESSION

"

Activity

"

and

of the

emotion

Fatigue

"

Rest

of instinct

Expression

"

Sleep

"

Exhaustion

impressions

of

Modes

"

Expression

of distress

studied

their

by

its

"

sion"Thought
expres240

CHAPTER

ANALYSIS

of

Analysis

the

and

Analyze

given
and

importance
Achilles

Analysis

Sir

Charles
of

Study

"

"

of

fatigue

"

Localize

trophic signs, postures,

classify
"

EXPRESSION.

OF

expression

Observe

"

XV.

National

of

Darwin's

Bell's

such
of

according

movements

analysis
a

Pope's
subject

nervous

modes

"

of

to

of

"

the
of

ciples
printer,
laugh-

joy

"

description
"A

"

expression

pression
ex-

movements

description

description

the

school

The
of
spection"
in255

...

...

...

CONTENTS.

XVI

CHAPTER

AS

CONSTDEEATIONS
FUNCTION

THE

TO

TIME,

"

XVI.

ATTRIBUTES

QUANTITY,

OF

KIND

PROPERTY

AND

AS

OB

TO

THEIR

RELATION.
PAGE

The

attributes

of

in

of

the

subject,

one

and

property

Attributes

"

sequences

proportional
between
combinations
this

functions

in

two

of

action

of

kinetic

Summary

element

...

...

the

Bulwer's

"

action

muscular
of

mental

the
the

Pitti

at

Gladiator

muscular

place

action
of

"

beauty

composition
of

Medici,

in

the

the

of

in

The

hand

"

Fixed

and

by

267

nerve-

Expression

hand

drawing
The

Study

"

be

The

mobile

of

Diana,

"

of

of

pression
ex-

nerve-

expressed

object

of

expression

"

Dying

descriptions
not

"

is

indicative

"

Mengs
should

"

fright

his

Weakness

art

studies

Etruscan

"

Camper;

free

feeling

nervous

hand

Raphael

"

of

specially

Composition

Gallery,

Antony

"

face

de'
"

...

...

study expression

can

of such

and

Writings

"

men

expression

Hand

hand

energetic

Cain

"

Venus

"

all

Importance

"

states

mind

All

"

"

CRITICISM.

physiologist ;
opinion

XVII.

ART

teaches

Special
forces

Heredity

"

...

CHAPTER

Art

Analogy
"

afferent

evolution

equal

"

actions

from

in

action,

growth

trophic

result

kind

Combinations

"

development

and

may

important

an

Proportional

"

kinetic

and

subjects

similar

of action

time, quantity,

trophic

more

or

growth;

series

function

or

in

figure
"

ciples
Prin-

289

analysis

CHAPTER

XVIII.

LITERATURE.

Bulwer
"

"

Hartley

Tyndall

"

"

Gregory

C.Darwin

"

"

Camper

"

Blane

Bibliography,

with

"

Marshall

Hall

dates

321
...

xvii

CONTENTS.

CHAPTEE

METHODS

AND

APPARATUS

MOVEMENTS

IN

MOVEMENTS

AND

INVESTIGATED

FOR

THE

as

AND

RECORDS

OF

ENUMERATING

COMBINATIONS

THESE

SUCH

PROBLEMS

TO

BE

METHODS.

of

experimentation

GRAPHIC

ETC.,

THEIR

result

OBTAINING

LIMBS,

BY

Movement

XIX.

vital

Early

action

is

to

attempts

"

of

capable
record

physical

movements
"

Apparatus

described

tambours

the

motor

of

recording

tambour

electrical

ter;
coun-

the

using

the

gauntlet

contact-making

method

the

Problems;

apparatus

twitching

muscular

in

exhaustion

Movements

of

"

infant

Inhibition

light

by

"

of

Measurement

Eetentiveness

movements

for

an

tion
differentia-

"

"

Potentiality

of

to

as

"

Signs

"

mind

Co-ordination

of

emotion
"

Athetosis

347

Chorea

"
"

"

3G3
,.

LIST

XX

ILLUSTRATIONS.

OF

PAGE

FIG.

The

26.

164

hand

energetic

...

27.
28

Complete
and

of

paralysis
of

Face

29.

...

the

Paralysis

the

205

in

agitans,

...

advanced

...

...

213

stage
...

...

31.

of

Tracings

the

fifteen

of

movements

spontaneous

during

hand

245

minutes

296
...

...

34.

298
...

Feast

of

the

...

...

300
...

...

...

302
...

Hercules

at

...

...

305

perfectly

countenance

...

.".

...

placid

307
...

39.

Expressing

307
...

...

...

308

Contempt
...

41.

...

...

surprise
...

40.

...

...

rest
...

38.

...

Cain
...

37.

...

gods
...

36.

...

...

Diana
...

35.

...

...

Medici

de'

Venus

infant's

an

...

32.

...

tacit

friendliness,

Complacency,

...

...

...

308

joy
...

42.

309
...

...

...

309
...

...

...

...

310

Weeping
facial

showing

Diagram

...

...

...

45.

...

Sorrow
.""

44.

...

Laughter
...

43.

...

...

320

zones...
...

46.

Motor

Motor

349

gauntlet

...

...

...

for

Junctions

350

Frame

...

...

351

tubes

motor

the

supporting

recording

...

...

...

49.

...

hand

on

...

48.

...

gauntlet
...

47.

202

face

imbecile
...

30.

of

side

right

...

...

and

tambours,

trical
elec-

352

signals
...

50.

in

arranged

tambours

Contact-making

...

...

...

...

circuit

353
...

51.

Electrical

354

counter
...

...

.""

...

PHYSICAL

ITS

EXPRESSION,
MODES

PRINCIPLES.

AND

CHAPTER

I.

INTRODUCTORY.

THIS

has

work

observations

made

The

have

of

applied

and

women,

confidence

Children

When
soon

the
I

the
result

struck

me

diseases

was

vitality,
;

and,
2

may

of

subjects
of

commenced

nerve-system

giving

others

studies

are

and

many
the

that
of
and

the
most

secondly,

power
on

tions
observa-

social

tion
considera-

individual

this

gives

find

practical

modes

of

often

and

account

some

results

expression.

of
of

to:

and

childhood.

children,

it

well-developed

importance
to

men,

me

referred

special study

primary
the

to

is

illustrated

the

to

it

some

and

years' study

sound

and

ot

of

forward

importance

children,
that

these

is

of

put

result

found

of

outcome

adults,

frequently

very

questions

be

may

here

principles

been

from

it

and
is the

it

as

the

as

children

on

humanity,

on

this

written

that, inasmuch

hoped

use.

been

as,

endure
of

firstly,
organic

the

great

PHYSICAL

of
impressionability
and

importance

moral

and

in childhood,

of

such

intellectual

sions
imprescondition

child.

In

scientific

every

ultimate

object

the

utmost

The

present work

usual

the nerve-mechanism

immense

the future

on

of the

the

EXPRESSION.

of

it

view,

contains

is

be

of

the

to

necessary

method

to

as

accuracy

means

view

in

inquiry, whatever

use

procedure.

of the
analysisof some
investigatingthe nerve-system, with
an

to

the

establishment

be

more

conscious

of

experimental
method
of inquiry as
to the forces leading to its
growth and
development (see chap. xix.). This
is a somewhat
bold
and
ambitious
project,and no
a

one

can

difficulties that
in

is to

view
of

lie in
show

the

how
be

insight may

than
way.

much

an

the

author

One

specialobject
and

accuracy

obtained

in

of the

ness
clear-

work
biological
objectivesigns

as
possiblewith
by dealing as much
and
physical forces only, always adhering to the
postulatethat every objectivephenomenon must be
of physicalaction.
the outcome
the size, shape, and
on
My early studies were
proportionsof the head, as indicative of the brain

Such

within.

still,
they

led to but

observations
useful.

were

results

The

embodied

how

considering

about

the

of these

our

account

knowledge

had

methods
*

much

Mr.

Charles

valuable

obtained, and

been

employed
Roberta's
information

incident
co-

set

brain

functions

of

vations
obser-

given of
development (see chap, xvi.).* I next

are

in

results

poor

in such
excellent
on

this

analyzed

physiologicalwork
manual

on

subject.

the

; and

anthropometry gives

INTRODUCTORY.

soon

that

saw

the

physiological, and
conditions

brain

such

of the

difficult

that,

motor

observations

but

analyze,

the

spontaneous

attention

still it

then

could

be

recorded

graphic
tracings

method

criticism

of mathematical

whose

thus

help

and

obtained*

be

knowledge

that
in

noted

without

other
the

are

series,were

of

xix.

the

The
to

the

friends,to

Their

remarks

the

founded

that
Such

have

not

been

tained
ob-

these
Following on
most
important of

analysis of

the

attributes

movements.

could

movements.

The

establish
it is sought to
principleswhich
result of analyzing recognizedclinical modes

procedure. I should
analogous principleswith
seemed

volume

aid

the

studying

of

that

the

ments
move-

time, frequency, combinations,

method

principlesfor

the

which

statistical

of

mental
experi-

submitted

experiment.

considerations,

An

chap.

were

and

in

to

as

in

they

capable

by

greatly indebted.

am

sequences

should

with

described

it obvious

made

devised

obvious

was

physical phenomena, they were


classification.
analysis, record, and
was

come
out-

spontaneous

as

method

motor-

the

subjects attracted

to

its

the

cases

brain

them.

analyzed

making

movements

in all

making
of

noting

action, I studied

postures, and

were

from

Then, noting

of

of

clinical,observations
derived

were

functions.

In

principal methods

too

wide

still,I take

like

regard

to

subject

this

have

to

formulated

nutrition,! but

for

the

present

opportunity of saying that

p. 245.

See

Fig. 31,

See

chap, xvi.," Analogy

between

Trophic

and

Kinetic

Aotions."

PHYSICAL

think

of
experimental method
in the body, and their causes,
the
laws
and
light upon
cesses
pro-

detailed

the

studying movements
much

throw

may

EXPRESSION.

and

and

of nutrition
of

originalplan

my
of

some

this

the forces
in

the

also

subject,as

to

as

better

it seemed

advanced,

at work

principlesand

conditions

as

part

with

volume

defer

to

was

as

the

work
with

dealing

evidence
regard to some
in producing brain
tion
evolu-

with

individual

the

this

in

deal

to

nutrition; but,

of

laws

the

It

evolution.

so

here

deal

we

of

expression of
preliminary to

modes
matter

with

hidden
other

studies.
Inasmuch

as

of the brain

for

moral,

that

signs of
the

intellectual

they

Still,I

was

physical study

taken
primarily underthe physicalsigns

lead to the

potentiality

character, it is

to the

of

not

prising
sur-

the

physical
conditions
giving capacity for
unwilling here to enter upon

led

brain

the

"mind."t

which

conditions
and

were

to discover

attempt

an

as

studies

these

of

study

mind,

and

have

dealt

only

preliminary thereto.
the
In
phenomena of mind, the
dealing with
is a preliminarystepping-stone
present work
; if we
and
observe
dent
analyze all physicalphenomena coinciwith

certain

the

with
data

for

aiding

matters

manifestation

studying the

the

action

development

of

of mind,
of the
mind.

we

may

obtain

physical causes
This

method

to me
more
likely to lead
procedure appears
subjective process
practicalresults than
any
introspectionof the feelings.
*

See

chap,

xvi.

t See

chap, xiv

of
to
to

INTRODUCTORY.

throughout this work


consciousness, or
feeling,as

of

rule has

do

to in all

adhered

been

the results

and

Movements

is made

attempt

nutrition, mentation,
process

The

"

mentation

"

term

It

children.
method

the

indicate
and

the

and

on

vital

to

life,

property

or

me

imply the function


of
the phenomena
in

the

succeeding
and

infants

of

mentation,

earliest of these

results

young

strictly scientific

classify the

and

advancing signs
The

states.

of what

signs

of movements,

and

early

concurrent

signs
and

which

the

potentiality for mentation,

phenomena.

for

vital

made

to

appears

observe

to

of

when

observations

to

this

looked

brain

idea

an

is used

discharged by the brain


mind
are
displayed.
is
Frequent reference
chapters

been

that

hope

criteria

other

signs

the

not

the various

any

of any

cause

phenomena are
signs.
living origin of those

be ; the

may

with,

dealt

or

speaking

important statements.
of movements,
being

form

to

deavoured
en-

not, however,

the

purely physical actions, are


indices
or
as
expressionsof
No

the

but

so,

have

avoid

to

has

It

phenomenon.*
convenient
always to
mental

views,

these

with

accordance

In

are

ments
move-

these

are

mitted
purely physical phenomena, capable of being subto experimental inquiry.
tion,
is frequentlymade, by way
of illustraReference
to examples in vegetable life.f If we
really

accept

form

some

working

of the

evolutionary theory

hypothesis, it

See

"

See

chaps,

Expression
ii. and

of

is

reasonable

Consciousness," chap.

vii.

to
xiii.

as

make

PHYSICAL

analogies from

EXPRESSION.

the

in

plants to
in
seen
higher organisms. If physical
processes
forces have
played a large part in bringing about
should
evolution, we
surely study the processes in
simple organisms. If lightand gravity are proven
certain
if we
to cause
phenomena in plants,and
similar
see
we
phenomena in men,
why should
those phenomena
in man
not
to be due to
assume
light and gravity, but to be due to "mind," or
cannot
consciousness," which we
or
feeling,"
by
"

processes

proven

"

scientific process

any

It

has

often

directlydeal

struck

with

that

biological
inquirers,in the just desire to study only what
is capable
of physical investigation,have
amined
exmaterial
the

equally

matter, and

me

rather

recent

to the

materialistic

forces

neglect of
displayed in the

that

which

has

structures

motion

been

so

fully
care-

and

studied
satisfactorily
by the physical
studied
experimentalist* has not been sufficiently
that movement
in
by the physiologist. I think
living beings is capable and worthy of detailed

study. Following
has

work

been

expressionof
terms

these

on

lines

of

written, showing how


functions

vital

of movement

"

and

may

movement

be

thought, this
largely the
described
is

capable

in

of

physicalinvestigation.
In
two
observing living organisms there are
that
be
employed. (1)
principal methods
may
Observation
of the
body,f or corporeal,material
be a histological
of the subject: this may
structure
*

The

t See

works

of Grove

speciallychap.

and
xvi.

Tyndnll.
to proportionaldevelopment.
as

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

The

primary assumption is made


the
material
dependent upon

is

and

body,

that

the

of that

functions

properties,and
external

of

result

the

are

the

of

structure

structure,

body

mentation

that

forces.

for practical
principlesare laid down
has been
guidance in this inquiry,*the endeavour
formities
show
that
made
to
they are
widespread "uniWhen

any

applicableto

that

and

work,

this

operations of nature,"
questions outside the proper

the

in

they

show

to

explained,give the
inquiry, and
of the

many

that

they

defined

laws

physiology,also
sociology and human

of

It

study
the
cases

to

seems

me

attributes

the

kind

the

"

kind

can

be

true

cases

some

logy,
psychowith

the

social life.
of

great importance

to

property observed,

of every

time, quantity,and
"

in

and

experimental
harmony with

biology,in

in

matter

in

are

also been

defined

as

for

foundations

and
laws

laws,

of

scope

in various

has

endeavour

these

that

laws

uniformities

or

action

of wide

operationof nature
biologicalproblems. The
in the

made

laws

are

or

of

described

property;
in terms

in

some

of time

quantity. This is entered upon and illustrated


in chap. xvi.
and methods
of analysis used
The principles
(see
of daily observations,
the outcome
chap, xv.) are
and over
been applied over
and have
again to many
in dealing with
living patients. This is
cases
my
be induced
in the hope that others may
mentioned
in accord
with
these principlesare
to see whether
and

See

speciallychaps, ii.-iv.

INTRODUCTORY.

logicaland
of this

the

procedure,and

scientific

attempt

to

introduce

have

nerve-system.

done

work

has

work

present

service

immense

in

to

indirectlyforward

may

but

that

best

appeared

it

The

of

been

has

this

desirable

work

inquiry.

might

have

not

produce

to

the

that

thereby.

possibly

most

facts

medical

purely

Many

and

me,

think

not

direction

that

attempt

any

suffered

greatly

others

by

do

tion
justifica-

inquiriesinto

new

omitted

localization,and

at cerebral

as

duced,
intro-

been

them

in

this volume.
The

title

present

will

give

educational

classified
first

The

general
meaning

it is

studied
the
may
how

the

the

as

follows

five

the

all outward

include
Thus

over

method
of

by

seen

their

contrary,
be
to

largerwork

in

observation
the

observation

upon
as

the

of the

such

tions,
func-

to the

effect

evolution
of

development

of

mind

by

processes.

Glancing
be

forces

causing

the

and

its

out

information

in

forces

of

action, and

much

us

under

sent

accurate

of external

individual,

the

the

brain

of

physical

of

that

effects

the

been

instalment

an

outcome

motor
of

as

I think

hand,

has

work

present

succeeding chapters,they

observe

expression.

"

the
"

term

work.

the

The

expression

manifestations

"

is

scope

and

scope

and

explained

to

of hidden

things.
that vital phenomena
can
only be
or
physical signs ; on
expressions,

all vital

studied

chapters explain
of

may

by
and

and

these
record

inscrutable

phenomena

expressions,if
the

we

know

physical signs of

10

PHYSICAL

number

certain

pathology

EXPKESSION.

to in

referred

are

facts

of

and

physiology

chaps,vi.

study of such facts


explanationof the modes

only by

in

of

vii.

It is

the

that

the

and

and

significance
expressionin man

hope that the principles


be
defined
applicableto the description of
may
certain pathological
such as chorea
states, especially
and
epilepsy. Pathologicalanatomy alone does not
explain these ; probably they will be best described
in terms
and
of movements
analyzed by these
be

can

signs.

elucidated, and

Direct

may

analogy

of nerve-muscular

area

destructive
and

lesion

be

made

signs in hemiplegia

of

and

brain,

the

between
from

one-sided

chorea,

brain

fatigue or excitement
affectingthe two
hemispheres of the brain unequally (see chap. vii.).
The
chapter (xv.) on the analysis of expression
gives examples of the applicationof these studies
of daily life. It is in particular hoped
to matters
this account

that

children, and
the

of

the

need

actual

Artists

will

and

mental

be

of

use

in their

to read

state

of their

those

who

and

to

those

who

study

outward

sion
expres-

nerve-system.

give literarydescriptions

emotional

conditions

of

man

have

taught us much, and to them the study of the


modes
of expression is a necessity(see chap. xvii.j",
Certain
been
have
extracts
given (see chap, xviii.)^

from

of

some

the

older

writers, which

show

that,

it more
though modern
knowledge may make
easy
to speak with
precision of the principlesinvolved
in expression,still the matter
has long been
studied
and
the thoughts here formulated
have
been
long
extant.

bibliographyis

attached

to

chapterxviii.

CHAPTER

II.

EXPRESSION.

The

speech

and
of

due

Signs

to

The

flame

part,

expressive

an

is

permanent

and

the

of

heart
"

of

sight

the

heat

object

an

sensitive

the

receptive

thrown

force

in
"

which
in

retentiveness

"

child

and

Impressionability
Movements

signs

its

Nutrition;

retentiveness

sounds

impressionability,

empirical

and

direct

Expression,

action

additional

an

parison
Com-

Certain

impressionability;

Impressionability

"

two

Abstract
mind"

of

man"

of

localized

exhibits

phonograph

The

life
of

other

the

criteria

indicates

and

part,

of

"

action

exhibits

telephone

"

of

the

express

thermometer

coexistence

intelligent

force

afferent

uniform

signs;

an

pulse

the

an

children

upon

"

of

tracing

expressive

expression

an

one

and

idiot,

Speech

"

objective

their

an

"

The

life

the

makes

properties,

explained

of

criterion

phenomena

and

"

expression

"

term

plants;

in

"

"

by

pulvini,

Vital

temperature
expression
work
"

unequal

the

in

An

function.

less

accepted

as

are

inherent

some

expression

is

of

criterion

found

uniformly

manifestation

this

by

their

biological

in

by

of

the

the

special

the

property

physical

to

phenomena;

expression

or

which

sign

because

property,

experience

coexisting

is

signification,

widest

its
of

indication

two

colour,

studied

appreciating

of

form,

Summary.

outward

the

by
be

only

can

importance

"EXPRESSION,"

is

Expression

"

processes

"

growth

be
and

more

or

if

the

(or physical

12

PHYSICAL

sign) is
the

found

property
look

may

with

absolute

presence

of

uniformity,whenever
in question is present, we
function
that physical sign as
absolute
an

or

upon

of

proof

the

man

the

"

"

EXPRESSION.

the

of

the

speech proves
life ;
of
physiologicalknowledge
have
cannot
speech proceeding from

his

has

body

human

he

power

life.

subjectit

abstract, but

the

is to prove
It

that

is

one

upon

This

of

life.

man

may
We

call

"

life."

"

speech

that

say

see,

speak

can

we

that

life is in

physical sign

we

life in

prove

what
a

what

unless

man

to

uniform

then,

"

that

the

of two

coexistence

may

life,"given above,

further
as

an

that

"

speech

be

demonstrated

extended,
by empirical experience sufficiently
attested
observers, under
by various
varying
If we
analyze the expression of

property

we

phenomena in a subject,
is a
to
one
us
physical sign, enables
that physical sign as
an
expression of
phenomenon.

other

the

life,or

coexistence

which

look

of

know
that

prove

that

property

sufficient

not

possesses

expression

uniform
of

he

quite
do

to

the

prove

follows, then, that the


criterion

is

is

We

speak.

can

To

existence

shows
a

in

Thus,

property.

as

to

why

expressionof life
speech is always

we

shall

speak
subject.

may

in the

the

we

result

learn

of

"

and

cumstance
cirthe

thing
some-

speech

"

It is known

of certain

ments
move-

of the

respiratoryapparatus, the tongue, and


when
the
unattended
mouth.
Respiration,even
in animals
found
by speech, and when
incapable
of speech, is uniformly expressive of the property
"

life."

Further, physiology has

shown

that

active

EXPRESSION

13

MIND.

OF

of the brain
are
propertiesand functions
necessary
for speech. It follows
then, that speech is an expression
of two
phenomena in the subject respiration
"

and

action.

brain

Speech

is

it results

action, because

respirationplus

of

that, if

the truth
the

result, or

function,
that

that

the

at

certain
of

some

the

It

time

same

its
"

mind

illustrates
is

as

property

in

physical signs.

or

"

of

convenient

certain

outward

or

expression

an

is often

always

property

one

is

brain

outcome

an

this

so

is

or

physical sign

function.

or

study

we

action

physical sign

abstract, and

When

brain

respiration and

therefrom,

outcome,

property

study

to

of

expression

an

of

property

we

man,

its

define

physical signs, or the criteria by


If we
which
mind."
we
appreciate the function
with
a
healthy and intelligentman
an
compare
idiot not
mind,"
possessed of the properties called
or
only in a very low degree, we
possessingthem
must

"

"

shall

soon

signs.
is

The
is

does

not

in

the

his

attention

by

his

his
speak intelligibly,

by objectsof beauty, his

subservient

affords

mind

difference

physical

tion
speaks well, his attenintelligentman
attracted
by objects of' beauty or usefulness.

attracted

not

marked

The

idiot

not

are

see

to

his

own

expression by
is

the

attention

movements

wants.
manner

man

in

of

which

attracted, by his good speech, and

movements;

these

objective facts

are,

then,

Any
property that
expression of his mind.
be indicated
be possessed by a subject may
can
by
is
then
the
called
some
physical sign, which
particular
expression of that property in that

the

14

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

subject. Temperature
the subject; growth in
life in its
We

is
the

have

brieflytouched
of the

body,

the

special forms

being

the

will

other

of

discuss

now

We

organs.

the
form

functions

pulse,

the

auscultation

of

sounds

with

the

impulse of the heart, etc.


accurate
judgment we may take
movements

termed
paper,

sphygmograph, and
indicating the movements

means

of another

of

the

of

the

the

heart, and
heart
of

of

action, and

the

on

by feeling
a

more

we

tracings

line

obtain

of

heart, by

called

characters

the

and

action
its

instrument

and

heart

of

tracingon paper
pulse by an instrument

of the

sounds

dition
con-

state

form

to

the

the

the

over

two

or

one

of

judgment
heart
by

the

The

functions.

stethoscope,and

of the

the

of

organ

propertiesand
expression of

heard

the

an

expression considered

of

its

is

of

forms

some

upon

brain, which

outcome

and

the

expression of heat in
seed is an
expression of

organism.

expression

We

an

the

the
of

of

on

cardiograph.
the
impulse

the

movements

expressions of the
they are the outcome
"rgan
criteria by which
we
judge

pulse, are

hidden

"

the

of its functions.

We

have

hitherto

spoken of
signs indicate

modes

of

expression
where
certain
properties, either
because
they are found
uniformly to coexist with
else because
those properties,
or
they are the direct
of such
outcome
to
now
come
properties. We
consider
how
be a result of some
expression may
force

afferent

solely and

to the

subject,fallingupon it,but not


of its intrinsic
directly the outcome

16

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

if
lastly,

of the
the

child be very

the

toy

cause

may

humour,"
will be

expressionof joy. If, on


in
be
a
laughing
very

no

child

the

contrary,

"

show

considerations

stimulation

similar

expression by
excessive in degree.
the

These

sulky,the sight

and

cross

that

of

condition

the

in
expression
subject is in part indicated
forces
the subject is acted
when
on
by external
In
afferent
to it.
speaking of reflective action

the

of

line

be

the

under

to

in

change

is

organ

any

according

at

to

in the

expression, firstly,of
affords

with

itself
the

; any

increase

coming

variation
and

bulb

in the
to

the

his

stem

bulk

stable

stitution,
con-

some

indicating,
mental
anxiety,

has

happened

to

disaster

or

of

of

event

of

face

his

condition

some

ment.
environ-

observe

news

his

is due

face

is

the

secondly, it
has
happened
;

fear.
is

thermometer

the

or

we

aspect

that

evidence

affectinghim

some

"

The

fear, etc.

of

cause

if

in

specialdefect

experience,grave
that something

our

ties
proper-

functions

or

aspect of

causing anxiety

him

disease

known

variation

of known

man

its

in

any

forces

afferent

no

conclude

may

we

the

vation
obser-

an

subject is

the

propertiesor

discoverable,

change

sudden

its

whom

in

such

conditions,

looking

In

If

the

that

seen

unchangeable

same

of

outcome

the

and

be

upon

inverted.

constant

be

will

founded

argument
may

to

expression,it

of

mode

as

an

in
is

instrument
volume

the
due

of the

to

mercury

instrument, and

the

changing

not
of
heat

in

mercury
:

is due

here
to

any

heat

rise of mercury

SENSITIVE

THE

the

in

stem

17

FLAME.

the

expresses

of

temperature

the

surrounding medium.
subject

F.

this

was

large holder

greater

pressure

main.

The

'

flame

burner

in the

the

Dublin
had

which

served
re-

gave

consisted

the

gas

lecture-room,

be

attained

lecturer, how

was

with

length

delicate

'

of

the

from

feet in

fullytwo

now

Mr.

by

Royal

steatite,and

would

was

said

observe/

and

than

presses
ex-

vibrations.

lecture

orifice,through which

single circular

tive
wonderfully sensi-

The

of

or

lecturer

flame

formed

The

"

flame

from

the

"

slightestnoise.

forced

before
:

to the

aerial
a

8, 1868

conclusion

for the

it indicates

or

of

example

is from

delivered

Barrett,

Society, January

sounds

faint

following quotation

W.

another

impressionablethat

so

very
The

is

flame

sensitive

The

and

fragilea thing it appears to be ; for on the slightest


foot.
noise
it drops down
The
a
jingling of this
of keys, the
bunch
crumpling of this paper, the
dropping
utterlyto
flame
to

the

of

small

break

makes

its

up

no

it

admirably

at

suits

line, for, when

vowels

the stanza
O

not, lest thy wavelets,

the

This

o, u,

as

rill,for

to

nor

the

"

Rest

is unmoved

bobs

the

to

sufficient

symmetry.

on,

Shrink

flame

height and

Koll

Sheen

the

than

more

energeticallyresponds

Repeating
"

are

response

labials, but

sibilants.

coin,

ever

shining silver,

and

sink

by
sounds

its action

darkness;"

to

the

first
"

"

rest

to

shrinking, the

the

line, but
and
words

light of

"

tically
empha"

lest,
of the
the

and
last

flame

18

PHYSICAL

almost
even

it down

than

more

flame

and

trembles

crouches

and

of this metal

heard

be

played by

this

the

are

all these

the

more

facts !

in the

sound-waves,
the

from
In

aspect

instruments

the

other

that

the

by

is to

the

those

ishing
aston-

produced

almost

by

inaudible

their

distance

it

exhibits

more

in

instrument

second

first,while

the

great

than

this.

electrical

having
of

vibrations

say,

of

instrument

an

see

instrument

one

the
received

is

flame

of the

of them

this

; for

being placed

circuit, the
to

waltz

wonderful

know

we

enfeebled

the

and
in

as

'

flame.'

telephone we
impressionability,but
Two

faint

the

How

appear

portion of

crisping

so

to

it

and, finally,it beats

more

they

already

is

in tune

the

hiss ;

the

at

watch.

my

do

infinitesimal

an

box

And

wonderful

change
by

musical

room

at

sound

dances

; it

ticking of

agony

foil,though the

scarcely to
to

if in

as

brings
living being,the

down

cowers

shivers

of the

Like

foot.

thafc

flame

is this

disappears. So sensitive
at the far end
chirp made

time

EXPRESSION.

the

instrument

one

battery

voice

conducted

are

munication,
com-

expresses

the

the force

received

municated
com-

to

the

is impressionab

vibrations
from

the

battery is an active agent or factor in producing


the expression. In this arrangement
an
we
see
of impressions,
impressionable part, a conductor
additional
force thrown
an
in, and a part solely
utilized
The
soon

in

producing expression.
of the

vibrations
as

they arrive, and

is left ; there

is

no

receivingdisc
no

are

permanent

retentiveness

of the

ended

as

impression
impressions

in

part

any

In

of the

apparatus, no

phonograph

the

19

PHONOGRAPH.

THE

find

we

sionability.
impres-

permanent

impressionability

pressions,
receiving iminstrument
the
cannot
give origin toy/
the
vibrating plate receives
expressions. The one
them, reimpressions, and subsequently expresses
in the tinfoil.
As
tentiveness
being concentrated
less

or

more

in

force

received

being

impressed
that

indents

it,in order

receive

the

the

foil

indented

length

in

be said

We

the

the

to be

by

that

foil may

permanent,

for

the

know

apparatus

needle

in
impressionability

indented
best

and

necessary

parts of the

The

remains

of time.

tiveness

fresh

that

may

course,

under

indentations.

arrangement

sounding-plate

foil,it is, of

moved

be

foil

the

tional
phonograph, an addiWhile
the impressions

th%

by

the

upon

the
in.

thrown

is

but, while

in

telephone,so

the

are

permanent

the

the

indefinite

an

property

reten-

expression of

the

the cylinder is again moved


sounding-platewhen
to reproduce the originalsounds
which
so
as
came
retentiveness
is indicated
to the sounding-plate. The

by

the

causing
corresponds
on

efferent

the

foil

more

or

sound

producing

period

of time

the

the

impression

and

Another
to

the

foil

sounding -plate,

less

and

expression
the

to

afferent

impression,although

must

of the
be

mechanical

essential

phonograph

made

long

expression.
as

upon

receiving

the

out

remarked
out

between

elapsed

sound

as

the

exactly

giving

thing to be
getting expression
indented

revolve

to

have

may

obtained

expression

to

force

is that

move

must

the

be

20

PHYSICAL

applied to

the

under

move

Impressionabilityand
those

to

Take

as

an

by
it

musical

and

retentiveness

listens.

the
the

in

is

music

so

in

part

at

request

the

from

the tune
energy

to be

as

playing

with

by

the

from

its

toy

child

the

able

is, of

this

the
hum

of

The

the

to

action

to the

the

tune,

pleasureor
the
of
to

necessary

corresponds

tune,

same

indicates

course,

without

will, after

to

stimulus

impression.

supplied from

of

apparatus

; attracted

repetitionsof

this

musical

he

the

mother;

child

the

in

the

of the

claps his hands.


expression of the impression

least, under

of
force

of

it turns

away

box, and

impressed

far

be

turns

Further,

number

certain

served
ob-

that

child's

child is

the

effect,one

received.

the

head

musical

one

sound

commences

child's

the

towards
This

be

may

action, so

The

hearing. Suppose that


when

in

box

vibrations

causes

sound,

sounding

acting in modes almost analogous


in the telephone and the phonograph.
attention
is
example a child whose

seen

towards

toy

of the

needle

to

as

animals

attracted

box

foil,so

it vibrate.

plate,making
in

the

cylinder carrying

the

this to

cause

EXPRESSION.

manency
per-

vital
duce
repro-

mechanical

cylinderof

the

phonograph.
Another

is what

considered

Here

observed,

is not

property

or

infer
the

from

expression that

of

class

the
the

direct

outcome

is

of

now

the

of the

intrinsic

objective sign

present.

be

pression."
"empirical exobjective sign

it indicates, but

which

presence

specialproperty

termed

expression,or

function
the

be

may

must

This

inference

we

that
is

founded

uniform

of the

observation

the

on

21

EXPRESSION.

EMPIRICAL

rence
occur-

objectivesign and the intrinsic property,


and
although the two are not related as cause
direct expression." Of course,
of
effect,as in cases
be argued that in this empiricalexpression
it may
the observed
the intrinsic property, and
objective
the

of

"

both

thus

of

results

both

sign,are

be inherited

may

antecedent

common

It is

alike.

cause

of

matter

subjectthat the difference,


and relative value, of empiricaland direct expression
and
be thoroughly understood
should
appreciated,

great importance

it is

because
that

be

can

at

of

movement,

result

of

movement,

of

looking

at

cast, the
of

the

fixed conditions

brain

marking

the

the

and

scientific

study

on

contour

of

the

of

of

it

of
will

is the

the

the
be

See

chap. xvi.

us

outcome

the

mind.

permanent
of

and

fleeting,
is

the

action

of the

man's

mind,

face

"

coincide
sidered
fully con-

more

foundation

"Physiognomy."
*

direct

average

to

Still, there

average

empirically; this subject


further

and

more

the

"

at

subject. In
the
plaster

the

expression, not

things

two

form

of the

look

we

condition

conditions.

the

and

the

of the

fact that
in

is not

seen

here

transient, mobile

of the

indicate

of

character

or

speaking

are

if

even

impassive face,

action,

expression

evidence

direct

face, it may

expression

brain

We

or

the

the

'of direct

properties.
face totally
a
living human
or
special expression as the

certain

of

as

upon

devoid

plaster cast

modes

the

only

look

we

something

our

looked

possessionof
When

to

of

Examples

the
of

22

PHYSICAL

empirical,or
organic,and

indirect

cases

expression,may

be

non-living subjects. When


in living animals, or
or
man,
be termed

in

seen

in
in

occur

EXPRESSION.

such
tables,
vege-

examples of coincident
development." This
empirical expression differs
from the modes
in
of direct expression,inasmuch
as
they

may

"

latter,the

expression is the direct outcome


the property expressed. The
sprouting beard
boy's chin, is a sign of commencing manhood,
the

because

the

widely

extended

shown

the

two

Pink-flowered

the

because

directly affects

the

constitution

coloured

leaves, with

and
chlorophyll,
is essential

flowers

the

of

the

are,

the

real

or

direct

has

coincident.
feeble
the

stitution,
con-

flower

plant, but
usually have
cells

of

taining
con-

chlorophyll

the

of

chlorophyllin
direct

expression

is

feebleness

because

not

the

presence

nutrition

boys

few

but

plant. Pink
then, only an empirical sign of feeble
in the geranium, but
still a
sign of
to

constitution

is the

of

pink-flowered geraniums

highly

value;

colour

in

because

other, but

experience of many
things to be usually
geraniums are plants of

not

because

the

produces

one

of

the leaves

"

the
the

expression of

it is the

of

small

the

stitutional
con-

of

amount

scarcityof chlorophyll

the

feeble

constitution,

of it.

cause

and retentiveness
are
Impressionability
properties
alike in living,
found
and
tion
non-livingsubjects;nutriand
growth belong to livingbeings only, or so
it is generally considered.
By the term "nutrition"
is denoted
into

an

active

tissue

vital

of the

process,

converting pabulum

organism, or

into

some

new

24

PHYSICAL

expression of

the

EXPRESSION.

vital

effects

fertilization,or

of

sexual

of vital
action
impregnation. Other cases
plants are differently
expressive. The action of

in

the cells of

chlorophyllin
chemical
the

results

retained

changes

acid

in

the

are

The

its tissues.

being absorbed,
the plant,and the

Here

expression of

the

the

action

growth and vital action of


livingin a solution of sugar,

plant,when

certain

by

gas

being dischargedfrom

oxygen

carbon

carbonic

"

leaf is known

chemical
phyll.
chloro-

of

the

yeast-

is in

part

expressed by multiplicationof the unicellular yeastmode


of expression and it is in
plant a histological
by the chemical changes of fermentation
part shown
indicated
by chemical results.
"

"

Numerous

kinds

of movements

in

plants;two
examples will serve our present purpose, showing that
be the expressionof vital changes.
movements
may
is effected
In plants,movement
by two principal
methods
by unequal growth of the cells composing
termed
the growing member
"pulvini,"
; or by organs
occur

"

temporarily or permanently devoted to the production


their principalfunction.
In the
of movement
as
and
in the sensitive plant
Oxalis (wood-sorreltribe),
(Mimosa),
case

of

the

movements

cells at

the

the

leaf

is the

of
or

of

of

the

of cells is called
mechanism

is effected

cells destitute

leaves

effected

are

junction

stalk; this group

pulvinus

of

movements

; it

by

consists

and
chlorophyll,

performing any
of taking any

nutritive
direct

part

are

seen.

by

an

leaf
a

arrangement
with

its main

movement
mass

therefore

function
in

each

"pulvinus." The

which
of

In

the

in

of

of small

incapable
the plant,

elaboration

of

MOVEMENT

its nourishment.

This

of

leaf-stalk

the

the

petiole,or

leaf

depend
first
the

in

their

on

is the

pulvinus

the

; and

its cells,which

upon

side, then

one

25

PLANTS.

IN

pulvinus

consists

development

still

while

of

movements

nately,
alter-

other.

small

of

portion

expand

the

on

lower

turally,
Struc-

cells arrested

These,

young.

five

times,

petiole

p,

of blade

mencement

when

of

the

them
is not

the

and

followed

results

from

cells

leaf-stalk

with

of

Pulvlrnis,magnified

/, fibro-vascular

sap, swell

bundle

scypnty6

",

com

thus

up,

"

turgescence.

possessing this

are

increasing
bulk
of the
structure
composed of
turgescence leads to motion
only it
by growth ; no nutrition of the plant

the

motion
purpose,

or

section

cotyledon.

turgescent

suddenly

the

Longitudinal

Darwin.

Fig. 1." After

It must

special function

only, fulfillingno
smaller

than

be

their

direct

noted
of

that
ducing
pro-

nutritive

neighbours, arrested

26

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

growth, and

in

is

of

capable

corniculata
and

to

chlorophyll. This is the


the pulvinus as long as it

cells of

the

of

condition

of

destitute

producing

In

movement.

Oxalis

the

pulvinus is developed imperfectly,


extremely variable degree, so that it is
the

an

abortion.
Its cells contain
apparently tending towards
they have nutritive
chlorophyll; that proves
the production of
functions
to perform, as well
as
are

petiolethan

cells of the
of

cells

These

movement.

usually characteristic

those

pulvinus.*
As to the production

normal

the

like

more

unequal growth of
germination of the
embryo protrudes

cells.

pea

seed, the

the

bend

apex

to

then

the

growth
the

"

this

of

side

then

the

Children,

Journal, February

of

do

between

25,

1S82.

Movements

called

to

another,

in

spiral

of the

causing
This

the

mode

"circumnutation."
mode

grow,

straight

portion

alters.

cells concerned
one

on

Analogy

Movements

botanists

in

root

opposite direction, and

growing

by

periment
ex-

of
zigzag movement
an
unequal growth

side,thus

one

cells

principle of

those

but

rather

growing

the

set of

vegetable

to

towards

is termed

essential

side,then

This

on

of the

one

the

composing
root; they enlarge first
cells

direct

proceed in

is due

root

and

the

of

radicle

apex

of

process

not

first to

bends

of

apex

of the

does

it descends.

direction, as
the

the

that

plants by

the

case,

or
irregularellipses,

in

moving

its

from

progress

line ; the apex

In

the

demonstrates
its downward

in

of movement

of Plants

Chorea,"

F.

together,

grow

those

W.,

at

and

The

is,that

growth

not

of

the

Fritixh

another
Muscular
Medical

FORM,

part, in regularseries.
from

results
all

series,not
Form,

most

colour, temperature,

the

cells grow

in

properties as

are

quently
fre-

in

This

expressions.
but

this

that

present

"

and

see

the

it,and
of the

the

kind

of

the

is

an

with

the

"

of

is

an

of its surface

expression of

of its molecules
of the

result

the

this

forces
has

that
been

for

colour

of

what

light from
expression

; "the

rature
tempe-

the condition

the

"

any

term

surface, and

reflected

lightso

"

its

convey

of

reflection

largestpossible scope

chapter to

not

use

of

structure

body

is the

object

done

describe, is

our

condition

vibrations
"

vitiate

own

exactly true,

Strictlyspeaking,

molecular
of

The

will

is

does

their

are

is not

language

purposes.

object

temperature

statement

of

form

untruth

we

that

simultaneously.

form, colour, and

an

fact

ment
move-

non-livingas in livingsubjects.
and
perhaps,be looked
spoken of
may,
upon,
conveniently, as obvious
properties because

These

of

In this circumnutation

the

observed

the

27

TEMPERATURE.

COLOUR,

form

of

an

produced it.
given in this

expression,"and this has been


definite
object. Expression is the
"

term

objective sign of a property of the subject. In


are
obliged to study vital
biologicalinquiries we
by their expression in objective signs.
processes
Life
itself is studied
by the results, or objective
expressions of nutrition, and
that we
obviously desirable
objective signs, or
The

vital processes.
upon

term,

the

wide

because

it

in

modes

growth.

of

study all the


expression of these
expression

here
signification
appears

is,then,

should

of

subject

It

doubtful

is dwelt

given

to

the

if,in biological

28

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

research, dependence enough has always been


of

truth

the

upon

propertiesof the subject. If


the
that
in
objective signs seen
either
uniformly accompanied by

certain

are

that

the

objectivesigns of
we

fact

the

placed
expressions are

expression are
certain phenomena,

that

or

the

of the

cause

is the
reason
phenomenon
we
objective sign, in either case
hidden
condition
by studying the

of

hidden

the

visible

study

may

"

special

outward

the

objective

expressionthereof.
Thus,

if certain

observe

of

elucidation

Again,

cause.

is

subject of

the

objective effects

we

nutrition

is

of

be

able

to

devise

of

the

experiments
with
regard to

livingorganism

result

nutrition,

words, the

in other

may

understand

we

know

do

what

we

information

which

and

"

be submitted

cannot

expression of mind,
and
these objectivesigns,

their
a

abstract

or

the

for

in the

physical investigationby experiment, but,


be
shown
to
be the
physical signs can

to direct

criteria

"

mind

"

and

but
of

little,

studying
dences
coinci-

its

objectiveexpression

of

nutrition.

Summary,
to

explain

In

"

what

this

chapter

in this work

is meant

expression,"and it is shown
subject is wide, dealing with

that

"

physical signs indicate


condition.

or
a

criterion

of

investigatethat

condition
condition

I have

any

the
case

endeavoured

by

the

term

of

scope

where

our

tive
objec-

hidden

phenomenon
When
a
physical sign is
of the subject,
we
may
by studying the physical
some

more

sign.
The

physical sign

or

expression

may

be

the

29

SUMMARY.

direct

brain

action;

condition

of

result

of

vibrations

of the

the

observed
or

of

express

permanent

; in the

the

is

are

temporary

expressed
Those

in

may

the

by

physical sign

served,
ob-

expression

an

physical signs

or

be

the

phonograph

impressed

retained.

and

termed

in
"

the

and
tinfoil,

upon

ability,
Impressionis

permanent,

plants,animals,

cases

the

is caused

The

or

effect of the vibrations

in

permanently

less

or

more

be

may

subject,as

flame, is

air.

the

temporary

received

vibrations

inherent

impressionability,
temporary
telephone the receivingplate is

but
impressionable,

it receives

the

of the

may

very

to the

there

"

and

expression,

flame, which

air,

movement

vibrations

the

of

the

and

The

afferent

sensitive

movement

respiration

subject observed,

force

some

indicates, as

empirical experience

by

coincident.

the

from

outcome

of

expression

found

be

may

it

condition

outcome

the

or

uniformly

be

to

direct

is the

speech

the

of

outcome

frequently

man.

direct

expression

"

the direct
are
physical signs observed
of the property expressed; an
outcome
empirical
that the physicalsign observed
expression signifies
is uniformly found
by experience to be associated
the

where

"

"

with

be

not

may

property, though the line

certain

understood.

active

tissue,

or

in action.
due
so

to

may

The

external
in

is

property

living beings ; the term denotes


vital
converting pabulum into
process
be observed
evolving force which
may

belonging only
an

Nutrition

of causation

to

results
forces

part express

of nutrition

afferent
them.

may

to the

be

in

part

subject,and

30

PHYSICAL

Form,

colour,

temperature,

expressive

be

may

EXPRESSION.

in

properties

are

and

living

in

that

inanimate

objects.
The

plants

movements

are

expressive

that

of

in

occur

their

modes

the

of

growth

growth.

of

32

PHYSICAL

shall

chapter we
and

animals,
will, as

far

expression in

be
possible,

The

living beings.

the

inanimate

and

of modes

taken

of

from

in

and

man

expression

the

of

cases

and

striking general
modes
of
expression in
subjects,is due to the fact

great

between

animate

of

speak

the illustrations
as

difference

EXPRESSION.

that, in the former, vital propertiesand

nutrition

are

essential.
will

We

with

commence

of

nutrition.

The

of

expression

in

is, then, due

propertiesand

animate

and
per

se

have

the

is

modes

of

beings
vital

former,

pression
Ex-

factors.
the

usually

direct

nutrition

we

subjectof

nutrition

As

nutrition

nutrition.
to

signs

inanimate

essential

are

little

very

of the
the

that, in the

together

expression of
we

and

of conditions

consider

the

study
between

livingsubject

objective outcome
therefore

fact

nutrition

the

in

differences

the

to

the

to

here, but

say

we

are

in which
modes
the
tion
nutriwith
deeply concerned
said that
been
the most
is expressed. It has
those
which
of expression are
modes
certain
are
the

direct

the

therefore

best

deal

with

being
a

in the

action

modes

of

many,

few

cases

evolution, retentiveness.

parts

expression are
the

Now,

of nutrition.

results

nutrition

of

outcome

it will

only

serve

"

our

is

the

jective
ob-

results
purpose

growth,

Growth

involved

an

of
to

movement,

objective

a
corporeal, structural, or
sign of nutrition
subject; the material
change in the
histological
of the subject,
not
structure
merely its properties
come
outor
functions, being changed as the result
or
"

of this

form

of nutrition.

Local

nutrition

is

TROPHIC

growth, therefore
Rapidly growing

nutrition.

highly nourished,

vascular

often

and

nutrition

the

from

That

kind

because
we

of nutrition

is

tissue

infer

of

sign

of

believed

it is found

may

degree

is

growth

to

necessary

be

33

ACTION.

to

to be

the

very
of

degree

vascularity.
vital

or

action

which

duces
pro-

of
growth, or change in the material structure
trophic action ;
subjectis conveniently termed
speak of expression by
trophic action/j
may
it with
expression by movement.!
compare

the

"

"

"

we

and

When

trophic

find

when

there
the

subject
if

fact, and
movement,

any

of

mode
in

is often

that

be

can

neglect

we

observed

possibly neglect

we

mode

of

of

pression,
ex-

and
the

of

histological

as

observe

to

subject

in the structure

change

no

the

the

is

movement

expression,we

record

that

only objective

tion
change occurring in the subject. Nutriand
they occur
together,indicate
growth, when
life in the subject; it follows, then, that
express
oi the
expressionsof nutrition and growth are

sign

or

is the

histologicalchange

some

growth

action

of the

expressions of
Permanent

property,
that
and

life.

impressionabilityis
it

and

retentiveness

may

in inanimate

things

be

may

ways.

When

always

followed

conclude

that

at

least

Retentiveness

shown

was

in

alike

in

by
the

of

the

the

is, then,

certain

is

animate
in

in

living
various

stimulus

unchanged,

property
not

in

expression,we

same

subject

found

expressed

or

subject

be

important
second
chapter
very

Retentiveness

subjects.
indicated

the

sign

thus
of

or

is
may

tive
reten-

expressed.
evolution

or

34

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

change, but of an organism capable of resisting


indicated
changes. Retentiveness
by reflex action
be

may

in

seen

the

infant

fact

The

birth.

at

of

its lips excites the movements


objectbetween
of sucking; this is a reflex action, and
sists
perWhen
long as the individual is an infant.

placing an
as

the

infant

becomes

weakened
is

mechanism

as

result

of

of

correlation

the

result

forces

of

as

either

with

particular

in

an

animal,

(as nutrition)or

animal.

The

of the

study

this assumption
justifies
the

of

outcome

afferent

force

termed

this

in

vital

to the
it

"

action

exercise

weight, has
to changes

been

man

organism,
subject,or the

changes which
nutrition.

or

runs

shown

in the

body,

As
tion
nutri-

cited.

carrying a
by physiologiststo be due
man,

and

the

as

of

movements

the

an

the movements
of the

indicate

subject,because

the

improper

food,

or

perfectphysical health

they are the


organism.

perfectnutrition of the
of the body at large is low,
or

such

are

expressionof the internal


changes. A
is frisky,plays,
in perfect physical health
about, and chatters incessantly till he is tired ;
are

child

in

that

an

expressive of
examples showing movements
in the
be
organism, the following may
Mechanical

less

condition

same

of action

changes occurringin

conveniently

the

force,internal

some

or

only temporary.

outcome

an

movement,

expresses

is

more

connected

then, that

see,

external, acting upon


visible

in

retentiveness

Movement,
is the

We

is

mechanism

retained

not

life.

this reflex

man,

the

lost;

or

sucking
through

as

the

disease

of

outcome

If the

result
some

of the
nutrition

of deficient
organ,

the

35

DEVELOPMENT.

lowered
lessened
when

amount

hybernating

the

to

little food

its lowered

lessened

nutrition

the

The

has

its nutrition

lessened, owing

it takes

It

study.

is

born

indicated

and

its

by

in

the

this

with

infants

of

less

and

in its

from

infancy

functions,
any

account

modes

reflex

of
of

the

from

actions,

After

we

can

ments
move-

those

of

the

of

the

comparing
find that

we

the

many

the
a

velopment
demore

in the
changes occurs
development advances

This

age.

changes in
expression of

the

observing

adults,

etc.

In

expression

an

of similar

adult

before

its

is

of

is the
case,

into

observe

its condition.

functions, as

to

series

the

conditions

also

we

adults, and

many

body,

in

body;

individual.

regular series

regular

certain

different

difference

of infants
or

its

expressions of

of the

evolution

In

modes.

weight, form, proportions,etc., i.e.

reflexes,are

infant, and

its

important

weight, form, proportions,and

and

ments
move-

expressions of

observe

we

functions, movements,

adult

of

absence

various

certain

the

the

circulation,

interesting and

very

conditions

are

feeble

the

certain

These

dormouse

energy.

expressed
infant

its

are

nerve-muscular
is

the

by

movement.

limbs

Development

is indicated

of

temperature,

in

newly

of

condition

the
the

give

development, we
expression. The

more

or

less

body, and in its


development, and,
a

must

full

historical

observe

all

of an
life-history
individual
animal
is in part the history of its development
the descriptionof the body
; it includes
of the individual
at every
period of its existence,
together with all the influences afferent to it,and

36

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

efferent

expressions,or

the

all

functions, coming

it.

from

Reflex

action

is

mode

in

occurrence

of

and

man

expression of

mon
com-

this

animals;

will

of
mode
a
as
particularlydwelt
upon
expression in the next chapter. Drawing a hand

be

more

from

away

is

movement

hot

being usually
the

occurrence

reflex

action

The

is necessary.

consists

for this purpose

of

the

movement

expressive of pain.

considered
of

action; but

reflex

expression,such

of

mode

apparatus

motor

is

cup

certain

For

nerve-

simplest apparatus
surface

(a) sensory

(6) afferent nerve-fibres; (c) nerve-cell or centre;


Now,
(d) efferent or motor nerve-fibres ; (e)muscle.
exist at birth,
this apparatus for a reflex action may
be
the apparatus for sucking; or it may
with
as
of the face giving
acquired,as the reflex movement
expressionof pleasure at the sightof a fine work
such reflex,not existing at birth, is said to
of art,
be
then, have
expression by
acquired. We
may,
also
reflex action congenital,or acquired. It seems
"

probable that reflex


large share of
very

the

"mentation,"

function

important and
phenomena grouped as the
the faculty of the brain
or

actions

produces mind.
Reflectedaction is

form

an

which

and

mode

of

The

term

non-living beings.

expressionin living
"

a
purely passive condition
signifies
all action
being on the part of some
to the subject. The
expressionof a

passive the marble


light fallingupon
"

does
it

are

of the

subject,
afferent

force
statue

is

nothing itself;the
in

"

action

reflected

purely
rays

of

part reflected,enabling

to

us

the

see

in

features

and

Reflected
of

occurs

the

the

upon

to

efferent

reflex

reflected

the

objective

afferent

the

the

be

then

colour

uniform,

recognized
and

characters

by

to

in distinction

there

offcome, not

is

no

is passive,
"

an

come;"
out-

is

expression

by colour,

outcome

the

often

and

classed.

breed

conditions

their

of many
of

often

character

which

sign by

an

The

the

any
ing
pass-

observer.
The

expressive.

expresses

this

or

offcome

or

often

are

enabling

degree, as

from

movement

subject,which

parts of plants is

of

which

proceeds

Such

effected

objective

of minerals

colour

agency

surface

subject of expression to

of

Conditions

tion,
irrita-

nerve-centre,

of

cause

ment
move-

force.

may

of

an

tions.
propor-

indication

an

statue, where
the

in

expression being

from

colour

of

movement

mode

and

mechanical

motor-current

case

Expression
other

sion
expres-

action, or reflex movement,

the

the

all

animal

an

sensory

to

pass

passive

mechanical

some

the

or

all

be

of

se

muscles, producing movement.

change

some

result

form

in

change

from

and

When

the

; so

per

afferent

an

is called

the

is not

tickling, the
stimulus

which

action

as

produces
causes

action

pigmentation,

nutrition.

vitalityor

as

expression of

is reflected

man

colour

by

The

statue.

37

ACTION.

REFLECTED

properties;

very
to

be

constant

used

individual

in

may

specie!hereditary

animals

are

often

pressed
ex-

coloration, striping,
spots,

Light complexion of face,light hair, etc., are


and
climate, equally with dark
expressive of race
pigmentation and olive complexion. In point of
doubt
that
degree of value as signs, there is no
etc.

38

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

structural

points

points

of

is

structure

is

Sound

indirect
is

functions

organism

being,and such
investigationof

studies

of function

satisfactorykind

general

are

of

to

the

in

an

dition.
con-

of

in

study changes
part of

in

or

the

living

in

important

very

the processes

have, then, to look

change

sounds

The

an

the

the

expression
produced are usually

expressions.
interesting to
very
of

modes

of the commonest

one

of

result

widely spread physical

more

animals.

among

It

is the

surface

the

of

condition

than

importance

more

colour

The

colour.

molecular

of

are

any

of

development. We
signs or expressions of

organism,

evidence

and

is that

the

most

afforded

by

expression,"or some
change in the outcome
of the action
be directly
of the subjectwhich
can
observed
as
an
objectivesign. A change of function
in parts of the body of a plant or
animal
is not
"

direct

an

uncommon

and

occurrence,

serve

may

as

means

of

and
expression. In the life-history
development
of many
speciesa change of function is uniformly
A
few
be
met
with.
mentioned,
examples may
and
its
taking together the change of function

expressionin objectivesigns.
The
of change in function
case

in

the

cells

of

pulvinus of Oxalis has been already given in


chap. ii. p. 26.
The
body is not fullydeveloped in childhood, and
the

the

hair-bulbs

growth
manhood.

about
In

in the

the
a

woman

skin

time

of the

of the
the

face take

on

of

full

of hair-bulbs

in

development

growth

active

40

PHYSICAL

the

upon

EXPRESSION.

anger,

imitates, according

angry

man

he

represent the

stage, desiringto

makes

in earnest

adversary,

his features

"

movements

and

objective expressionsof

his

distorted,

stamps,

these

"

imitative

angry,

cries,

anger

so

his

combat

actor's

child,when

arms,

gestures of

are

would

the

are

expressionsof anger.
with his
gesticulates
the

if he

as

These

etc.

to his art, the

emotion

real

are

also is

sorrow

drawing of the angles


In
of the
mouth.
ix. many
chaps, viii. and
examples are given of expressionof the emotions by
movements
as
objectivesigns. The voice, its tone,
and
its rapidity,are
highly expressiveof emotions ;
expressed by

the

voice

stooping
a

attitude

drooped

held

as

when

characteristic

very

and

nutrition, in

of

and

defiance

termed

Physical conditions
often

"

material

that
his

head
it is

is

expressed.
trophicchanges are
"

expressive of development,
the
subject. As previously

explained (see p. 33), by


action, or change, it is intended
in the

action.

and

firm

and

erect

nerve-muscular

spiritless
gait indicate
or
dejected,as compared with
refreshed
and
energetic. The
an
accompaniment of shame;

postures when
is

of

is the result

is tired

man

downward

the term
to

"

"

trophic

indicate

some

of the

subject,the
histologicalor structural change being itself the
has taken
place. Taking one
expressionof what
subject of this chapter,
example outside the proper
be cited
of the
the case
so-called growth and
may
repair of crystals.* If a portion of a crystal be
change

structure

"

See
British

Sir J.

Paget's

Medical

paper,

Journal,

"An

October

Address

on

16, 1880.

Elemental

Pathology,"

off

broken
the

filed

or

41

CRYSTALS.

OF

REPAIR

dissolved

or

crystal be replaced

mutilated

if then

and

away,
in

of

solution

isomorphous one, the lost


part will be replaced,the crystal will be enlarged,
will be formed
new
on
crystallizedmatter
every
the injured
surface; but the quantity formed
on
the

salt

same

be

will

part
other

will

alone

in

increase

due

the

in

the

reformation

the

objectiveexpression of
in

at work

In
his

build

in

height, and

relation

see

the

slightalterations

in the

face

indicative
indicates
a

fruit

figure.

of

indicates

slightdegree

the

result

of

nutrition, causes
; the

the

smell

of their

The

age

senilityor

(see Darwin's

it
a

and

the

of

of

the

some

crystalis
forces

of

forces

tions
altera-

and

health,

in

appearance
animals

general health.

outline

of

teeth

is

the
;

hair

grey
the

that

size

in

the

the

of

produced

Domestication

of fat

or

slight
and

animal

under

slight changes
of

form

effect of the

dull

Here

of the

nutrition

growth

absorption

the

of

depressed vitality;

Variation

"

rest."

the

With

age.

general

amount

solution, will

general proportions

of

of the

the

enlarged crystal.
general condition of
his body in proportion

the

his

his

to

of

part

action

the

nutrition, by the weight of


his

complete,

perfectand
of

judge

we

is

same

injured part

the

producing

man

to

we

of the

than

crystal is

each

with

proportion

any

of the

repair

and

on,

at

active

more

form

the

remain

it

be

proper

go

formed

that

will

when

regained. Then,
crystal, if

than

repair

till the

growth

growth

an

greater

and

part,

mere

of

or

");

body,

conditions
of the

indicates

as

of

ance
counten-

the

dition
con-

42

PHYSICAL

Another

termed

mode

important
is that

animals

and

EXPRESSION.

the

"

of

expression in man
be conveniently
may
development of parts."

which

coincident

Observation

often

shows

that

body usually agree, in having


of good or ill development. If
other

developed,the
vice versa,

and

of the

the

same

the

one

is likewise

part

although

the

probably be shown
incomplete development

good

or

found

thus

correspond, is

to

antecedent

common

Thus

inherited.
colour

one

another

iris,often

; the

of each
the

colour

bear

of men,

and

in animals

in the

upon

Certain

aid

of

when

The

of

in

alike

hair, and

the

to

ties
proper-

show

same

race

species if living

same

subjectis

dwelt

coloured

capacity to
when

the

feel

demonstrate

joy

is proven

something happens
such

emotion.

is demonstrated

objects.
to

forces

In

are

these

individual

only by
stances
circum-

cases

help

The

to

express

propertiesin question.

The
be

external

colour-sense

external
the

are

some

relation

fixed

The

subject producing

capacity

both

parts

Origin of Species,"p. 115.


of an animal,
or
properties of a man

expression of joy

the

to

of

the

"

existence.

the

by

of the

circumstances.

only expressed
their

of the

of the

degree of correspondence
similar

that

result

that

marked

under

its formation.

height of the body and its


by measurement,
usually

indicated

as

not

hereafter

or

the

see

we

of the

the

cause,

or

developed,
the origin

with

It may

is well

part

part is

one

the

proportion

well

directlyconnected

other, or

parts of

two

property

or

function

expressedoutside

the

heredityis one that must


individual
subject. A few

BY

EXPRESSION

words

only

For

to

one

the

effect, or

both

or

present

our

wide

very

and

is, expression

life-historyof

the

offspring,the

spring
off-

in its

demonstrated

as

showing
afferent

of the

conditions

of the

individual,

the

on

expression by heredity, that

of

deep subject

said here

be

can

43

HEREDITY.

of

outcome,

forces

parents.
.1 think

purpose

we

classify

may

of certain
phenomena of heredity in terms
properties:(1) trophic phenomena; (2) motor, or
kinetic, phenomena ; (3) reflex action ; (4) retenhere
We
the
tiveness.
are
dealing solely with
with
its
criteria or objective signs of heredity,not
the

essential

of the
that

we

"

look

may

heredity

of

facts

mentioned,

of

nature.

expressionwill
In
concluding
"

in

expression
is

four

modes

main

property in the

as

the

upon

the

as

and
general review
heredity enables

be

this
the

of

in

chapter
used

commonly

say

expression
This

of

mode

chap, xvi
refer

must

we

limited

more

to

us

criteria,above

subject.

discussed

tion
considera-

in

sense

to

which

and
regards man
is a term
used
animals.
Expression
commonly
in which
to signify the modes
ward
we
judge from outof the mental
tion
or
physical condiappearances
the

term

"

"

of
thus

we

the

as

individual

speak

of the

at

the

time

expression

It

hunger, sleepiness,etc.
here

to

study

ejecta,these
hidden

these

uniform

conditions

of

of

observation;

gence,
pain,joy,intelliis

business

our

expressions,these

outcomes

objective concomitants

or

of

the

intelligence,hunger, sleepiness,

consciousness, feebleness.

study subjective conditions

It

is not
or

for

us

feelingsand

here

to

states

44

PHYSICAL

of

consciousness,

EXPRESSION.

but

their

study

to

are

we

pression
ex-

All
that can
objective concomitants.
the ejecta,
outward
observed
visible signs;
or
are
is an
coexistence
of the subjective condition
or

be
the

inference

dependent

such

that

such

and

the

upon

uniform

outward

experience
objectivesign is

or

uniformly, accompanied by a
always, or almost
certain subjectivecondition
or
pression
feeling. In the exof physical pain the angles of the mouth
is justifiedby the
are
depressed. This statement
uniform, observation

frequent,almost
the

angles of

pain

the

be

must

the

that
It has

down.

drawn

are

depressed,
of physical
is some
source
conversely,that, in
; and
is known
to
be
pain,

shown

has

examination

that

there

where

cases

mouth

animal

or

markedly

are

there

that

inquiry shows
pain in the man
many

mouth

the

that, when

of

cause

angles

by some
depression

the

We
do not
angles of the mouth.
pain is ; it is a subjectivecondition.
that the depression of the angles of

is due

contraction
It

centre.

there

when

is

fact, all the


to

seem

muscles

knowable
It

seems

the

to

source

which

muscles
is

of

the

angles of
objectivefact.
me

that

the

what

We
the

of

do know
mouth

is

the muscular
the

nerve-

nerve-centre

depress the

uniformly affected
pain in the subject;in
so

which

of

nerve-centres

the

to

of the

condition

know

from

nerve-current

special irritations

affect
of

mouth, that

the

of

to

is,then, the

corresponding
angles

that

contraction, and

to muscular

the

said

been

the

due

of

the

mouth.

ground

pain,
depressor

cause

the

This

is cleared

is the

for

us

45

SUMMARY.

inquiry by omitting all

in this

and

subjective conditions,
In

facts.
is but

considering only

the

jective
ob-

subjective condition

the

animals

crude

very

of the

consideration

the

from

inference

objective

facts.

Summary.
work,

does

has

the

occur

only

in

about

much

The

vital

nutrition

subject
"

in the

do

or

is said

know

not
we

can

objective signs.

the

best

growth,

"

kinetic

the

concerns

the

kind

examples
or

pressions
ex-

trophic

or

action; evolution,

of the

structure

result

of nutrition

is called

material

structure

which

produces

of action

"trophic action,"

and

We

it is

retentiveness.
Growth

which

principal results
are

or

in this

Nutrition

affords

The

expression.

used

nutrition, but

its results,

action; movement,
and

subject of

process

of nutrition

of

the

property life.

study

outcome

direct

of

that

expression,"as

living beings.

the

and

observe

"

term

imply

not

connoted
to

The

"

change

subject;it is,therefore,called
in

contradistinction

which

in this

the

of

that

to

only"produces movement,

work

"

kinetic

action."

Permanent

retentiveness
in
or
impressionability,
be
a
expressed by a reflex
living structure, may
action ; it is not a process
of evolution, but gives a
tendency to resist change.
Movement
a

is

livingsubject;

conservation

ratio of

action),or

this

is

of

changes occurring

deduction

from

the

law

in
of

of energy.

Development
the

outcome

an

is

expressed

in various

growth, weight, and


by series of movements

modes

"

by

proportions (trophic
and

reflex actions

46

PHYSICAL

(kinetic action).
afferent

nerve-fibre

efferent

brain
"

mechanism

The

requires (a)

movement

reflex

EXPKESSION.

motor

or

may

be

action

has

which

nerve

nerve-centre

large share
and

which

term

used

produces mind,

(6)

an

(d)

an

such

;
"

paratus
ap-

acquired. Probably
in that faculty of the

congenital or
a

muscle

(e) a

reflex

surface

sensory

(c)

for

called

is here

mentation."
"

Reflected

the

such
a

light; such

it reflects

is the

mode

indicate

force,

an

afferent

of

expression

and

form

Expressions by

statue.

to

subject,expressionresulting

in which

mode

as

similar

is

of the

passive condition
from

"

action

colour

in

are

modes.

Sound

produced by
and

movement,

expression;

is

result

of

highly expressive.

is

be

it may

living being

is

function

of

Change

such

as

important

an

studied

in

mode

of

vegetable cells,

glands,etc.
(kinesis)and,

Movements
are

these

and

"

of

structure

trophicmodes
the subject.
in

development

subject,are

The

of

expression,

"kinetic,"

the

members

kind.

in

parts of

similar

living
expression; they

or

of

These

in

affect the material

which

interestingmodes

trophic

chap.

"

of movement

development, proportionaland

Coincident

are

most

are

to

contrast

results

important modes
conveniently termed

the

among

the

are

discussed

in

xvi.
facts

complex

modes

of

heredity
of

are

expression;

very
some

important
facts

and

concerning

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

48

CHAPTER

OF

MODES

EXPRESSION

visible

"

movement

of

Examples
of

Results

Work
movement
when

the

movements

of

result

of

in

movement

bee

laughter

as

"

of
"

result

of

sleep, in fatigue, and


and

Spontaneous

"

movements

Posture

"

it

voice, apparatus

Secondary

movement

of

Movements

"

the

ot

produces

anger,

by
"

is attracted"

attention

the

rabbits

of

Subsidence

"

movement

modes

other

that

action

Expression

"

stamping

done

by

expression

with

in

observed

it is often

the

expresses

movement

porcupines,

action

it is correlataUe

physiologicalinquiries ;
force

MOVEMENT.

OF

physical and

THE

AND

MOVEMENTS,

BY

RESULTS

Movement

IV.

flower

from

voluntary
to

flower

"

Summary.

of

kind

movements

Movements

child
a

sees

that
are

and

sees,

he

Movement

he

light,this

as

appears

man

the

of

be

towards

to

it.

result

that

child

by

The

hears

sound;

indicated

subject hearing

me

fact
a

the

physical sign, or

expressive.

the

that

and

manner

are

at

moves

may

his head

the

know

We

hears.

expressiveof

expressive

because

turns

in

seen

be

may

whistle,

he

that

experience shows

COMMON

if

or

the

fact

movements

and
mode

of the

seeing.
of

pression,
ex-

properties

OF

THE

of

the

IMPORTANCE

functions

and

itself

is

OF

is

particularly
ment
study. Moveof
expression,

accurate

mode

physical

49

MOVEMENTS.

subject that
arid

extended

of

worthy

STUDY

both
observation
in time
capable of very accurate
and in quantity ; it is capable of being easilynoted
observer
than
at the same
time, and
one
by more
be recorded
adaptations of the
by various
can
records
be preserved,
Such
can
graphic method.

submitted

and

mathematical

analysis by

to

of

Observations

kind

this

cedures.
pro-

have

been

by physiologicalexperimenters,
thus
has
been
accurate
knowledge

largely employed
much

and

obtained, elucidating
reflex

whether

otherwise,

can

to

other

and

always

not

indicates

force

with

coincident

antecedent

of that

vital

histo-

to

are

In

the

observation

or

that

body is
in, that body

of the

movement,

examples.

Let

is
us

as

studied

modes

as

experiences

common

accepted

subject,as
4

acting upon,

to

in

movement

then, be

may,

expression.
movements

the

that

antecedent

to it.

Movements

of

ing
result-

movements

observation

force

some

; it follows

expressiveof

the

confine

to

surely reasonable

expression

an

correctable

(trophic)effects of vital action.


granted by the reader, that movement

be

movement

in

It is

study,

as

be

to

or

structural

logicalor
will

acfion

vital

process,

or

force.

of

modes

however

action, nutrition,

shown

be

always

observe, record, and


from

It

vital

by

circulation, respiration,

Movement,

action, etc.

produced,
with

of

processes

expressive of

easilyshown
look and

by

of

of

life,

conditions

the

inquire,then,

analysis
whether

50

PHYSICAL

movements

EXPHESSION.

be shown

can

with

in accordance

to be

the

mode

of

of that

meaning

expression
term
given

chap. ii.

in

It is said
If

that

words, there
be

to

is

able

in the

that

which

the

be

shown

it is shown

what

it

movement,

that

can

deals
movements

the

movements

body

as

Movements

the

of

makes

"

expressive of

and

of

stimulation

and

it is shown

the

direct

"

kind

the

fact

chanism
nerve-me-

in

movements

upon

inward

condition.

expressionof
The

of

central

in-

believe,

we

are,

of

the action

is the

It

the

look

us

-mechanism.

nerve

movement

from

observe

we

ment.
move-

chap, vi.,
physiology,

correspond to

action

the

are

in

nerve-mechanism.

central

the

shown

nerve-mechanism,

that

of

the visible

questions

movements

hidden

produces the
directlyexpressed

is

result

may

produced by
the

condition

what

is

with

mainly

that
ferentially,

that

It

movement.

central

of

is the

what

organism corresponding to
If

by

expressive,or if, in other


we
expression in movement,
ought

show

to

is expressive.

movement

is

movement

of

manner

terms

"

the action

"

movement

of

manner

analyzed

are

explained in chap. v.
That
expressionmay be produced by movements,
and that it is most
be
commonly so produced, can
and

demonstrated

by examples.
commonly spoken

Anger is
passion of the
manifestations
of the
*

"

Bain*

mind.
of anger,

antecedent
Mental

and

of

over

says,
and

pain, are
Moral

as

emotion

an

"The

above

physical

the embodiment

(1) general

Science," 1872,

or

p. 261.

excite-

EXPKESSION

ment

(2)

attitude

and

of

Bell

the

are

the

is

the

mouth.

The

eyebrows

lips

muscles,
whole

delivered

the

hair

Thus,

thither

interior

in

the

eagerness

display,to

make

times
pale,some-

livid ; the

words

the

teeth

fixed

ban."

expression of

anger

choler

adds

the

parts of

blood

body,

but

seize, attack,

to

and

use

"

Anatomy

of

"

Practical

Illustrations

It

is
bull

of the

of

The

dart

or

arms

of

the

inflamed

fiery

kind
and

one

of
the

kind

same

furious

and
with

which

forth

manifest

grinding

mad

Expression,"

and

teeth

others.
the

humours

and

violence.

orbits,

which

of

bear
nature

p. 177.

Rhetorical

distracted, and

selves
abundance, they agitatethem-

p. 118.

the

of

in

hands

which

inflated

are

the

their

the

by

by

tumult, by the

agitation of

furrows

saying,

proper

convulsive

roll

glances;

most

in

and

the

been

exterior

carried

with
eyes

the

Swelled

destroy.

have

those

chieflyarms

are

The

corners

one

curse

illustrates

as

all

to

energy

like

to

eyeballs

inflamed.

sometimes

almost

end

seem

Henry Siddonsf
thus

the

open

and

on

joint should
"

act

swelled, and, being

are

strongly through

is fixed

The

nostrils

; the

visage is

turgid, dark,
are

completed

unsteady.

are

the

the

by

every

the

expression

gives the following description:

features

utmost;

drawn

of the

motion

to

(5) in

largely; they roll and are


alternatelyknit and raised

seen

front

characteristic

of exultation."

Sir Charles
rage

51

ANGER.

activity; (3) deranged

; and

body

burst

In

of

(4)

of revenge,

"

outburst

an

functions

organic

OF

Gesture

and

Action,"

52

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

lias

furnished

them.

Moreover,

swelled, especially those

about

the

veins

the

neck

temples. All the visage is inflamed, on


the superabundance of blood carried
up
this redness

resembles

love ; the movements

or

violent

; the

step

is

that

not
are

and
of

account

it ; but

to

occasioned

by

hurried

and

more

are

desire
more

heavy, irregular,
impetuous."

These

as
descriptionsof anger,
given by the
and
the actor, agree
philosopher,the physiologist,
in ascribingmuch
of the expressionof the emotion

the

and

movement

to

Siddons'

Take

results

of movement.

description. He

in the
expressed by energy
grinding of the teeth, and
arms,

as

hands.

He

speaks

the

eyes

results

arrested

Sir

teeth.

Here

Charles
of

muscles

the

Bell,*

in

movements

the

to

effects

of

and

ing
part expressed by show-

which

emotion
in

two

the

descriptionof

of movement,
' '

his

We

classes

essay,
have
the

upon
"

lips,and

Op. tit.,p.

146.

said

anger."

sixth
"

operate

control

the

results

laughter, says,

distinguishable into
surround

blood, and

phenomena are
the
respiratory

describes

have

we

and

movements,

speaking
the

is in

in animals

expressiveof

to be

describe.

not

with

in

refers

of the

respiration.

Anger
certain

Bell

the

movements,

does

these

spasm

likewise

face, and

the

of

Sir Charles

muscles.

he

being congested ;

of

agitation

swelled

as

of choler

movements

effect of other

which

limbs

of the

as

secondary
the

of the

us

of movement,

arrest

or

tells

He

speaks

seen

mouth
those
those

when
that
are

which

which

53

LAUGHTER.

them

oppose
The

and

effect of

and

to

the

to

the

all

that

to

mouth

the

The

by

pressure

an

as

antecedent

an

which

is

produced.

cheek

The

lips

susceptibleof
of the feelings.

most

this

it is in

vain

relaxation, and

muscles

concentrating

become

and

more

lips,and

more

display

powerfully drawn

more

and

the

within

almost

eye

the

orbit

eyeball,and

the
up,

concealed.

is

the

and

to

be

and

other

compressed

eyes suffused

that

quite satisfied
in

are

hands,

the

within,

and

the
if

because

nothing

look

the

else

been

watch,

and

the

the

see

of

movement

could

have

at

spring
we

spoken

anything
equally expressive

moving

of

is

movements

emotions

is

we

motion

result

necessarilya

of

movement

When

emotions.

"

idea

Movements

parts.

the

"

of certain

cause

expressive

indicates

the

ludicrous

exceedingly

face

wheels
of

are

the

on

Here

shown

are

cheeks

the

tears."

of the

of

raising of

the

retract

lachrymal gland

with

of

indices

prevail,and

The

the

and

The

lips.

eyelids wrinkled,

the

lateral

restrain

to

influenced; they
teeth.

by

exceedingly ridiculous,
the

compress

latter; hence,

direct

endeavour

we

to

be

idea

former,

smile

most

open.

the

features, the

the

widely

is to relax

mouth,

eyelid,a

action, and
If the

the

mouth

idea

the

contract

lower

of

are,

ludicrous

stretching of

the

draw

train of

movement

the
of

hands
the

the

cause

we

is

wheels

hands

to

continuously.

move

In

many

cases

the

equally expressive with


it may

be

that

the

results
the

result

of

movements

movements

of

movement

are

themselves;
is

more

54

PHYSICAL

than

noticeable

EXPKESSION.

the movement

itself. In

describing
o

the

expression of anger

speak
commonly
of showing the teeth than
of retracting
the lips,but
of course
shown
the teeth are
of the
by movements
Bell
lips. In the expression of rage or
anger,
describes the visage as sometimes
turgid,dark, and
almost
livid ; this congestion is a secondary result
we

more

of the respiratory
muscles
spasmodic contraction
of the larynx, accompanying the clenching of the
teeth, leadingto a condition of asphyxia. Showing
of the countenance, are, then,
the teeth, and lividity
and are
direct exsecondary results of movements,
pressions

of

condition

of the

of

is another

voice

The
the

of the

important mode

"

says,

expression

Dr.
by the results of movement.
speaking of specialmuscular mechanisms,

of

blast

air,driven

by

elastic
their

them, and
voice."

of the vocal

vibrations

give

the

to

rise

to

less prolonged

or

into vibrations

These

column

of

sound

which

the

in the tension

Alterations

cords, and

more

chordce vocales.

membranes,

so

throws

expiratorymovement,

the

of

emotions

Foster,* in

two

individual.

variations

air

and

part
im-

above
we

call

position

in the movements

the changes in the


respiratorymuscles, cause
voice which
are
expressiveof the emotions.
Darwinf
gives the following examples of expressive sounds
produced by animals through the action of apparatus
of the

that

cannot

be called

dependent on
stamp loudly on

the

not

and
*

"

if

the

man

Physiology," p.

in

"

sense

any

vocal,"because

respiratory
apparatus: "Rabbits
ground as a signalto their comrades;
knows
527.

how
f

to do
"

so

properly,he

Expression,"p.

93.

5("

PHYSICAL

kind, but

any

that

EXPRESSION.

need

we

here

not

which

philosophicalproblem
of the

law

of

conservation

the result of movement

is

to enter

stop

depends

the

upon

Work

energy.

upon

done
the

positiveproof of

as

ment
move-

is the
done
having occurred, therefore work
result of the activityof the agent that produces it.
that work
It follows
done
be just as good an
may
This
is an
important
expression as is movement.
principleof expression,and different examples must
A

be examined.

certain

such
performed by a man,
well to a high cistern by
a
certain

work

of land

area

; the

will be

kind

some

strength.

The

of

toil.

mental

sculptureis

dug

or

pump,

in the

over

the man's

expressionof
of

of

pages
is

work

fine

from
a

day's

spent in this labour

literaryman

of

means

energy

number

by
his

of

be

may

raising water

as

be

may

amount

of labour

amount

writing

complished
ac-

expression

some

of

brute

of

art, painting, or

expression of capacityin the artist,


indication
and it is also an
of the quantity of his
in a given time.
exertion
One

the

effect of movement

to

produce locomotion;

by

movement.

man's

man

the

of
a

the
There

locomotion

be

may

kind

walk

of
We

man

and

excitement,
of

be

may

done.

Is not

the

sive,
expres-

quantity,

the

manner

highly expressive ?
walking is characteristic

may

whose
the

also

rapid
slow

find

strides

and

purposeless aim.

types

of

indicate

step

In
of

walk.

dawdling
The

is

done

often

manner

is the

animals

is work

expressiveof

of work

individual.

indicative

and

man

If all movements

locomotion

time, and

in

may

his

walk
be

OF

STUDY

impetuous,
heavy, irregular,
be

of the

posture

The

of

parts

clinical
the

is treated

subject
at

made,

expression,in

of

study

looked

When

member.

patients after

my

if there

observe

to

their

of
attention

of the

nerve-system.

found

more

easy
of

posture than
of

condition

quigscence,a

given

anatomical

is

matter

In works
it is very

of art, both

of

the

ix., and
chaps, viii.,
maintained,

as

study

see

the

it is maintained
there

we

posture

is

no

is the

absence
a

man's

posture
in that

movement
result

the

it,
than

and
a

of that

the

that

body

animal

or

of the

in

it is

of the

last movement,

the

passion,

without

parts

in

in

hand, and,

posture

ment.
move-

movement

fist clenched

sculpture,

the

man

is

have

we

posture, while

of

of the

was

fully considered

are

Now,

x.

of

posture of

matters

implies

part. When

when

with

of

of

temporary

painting and

condition

These

represented.

may

the

largely by

judge

deal

it

posture

is of

described

to

My

descriptionof

because

description

simple

more

pressions
ex-

of conditions

accurate

movement

is

posture

been

early studies

movement,

had

frequence

indicative

an

frequently

outward

the

to

these

give

to

duration.
an

In

condition.

nerve-

postures of the body

certain

in which

sense

any

attracted

soon

was

or

one

definite

diagnosis

were

organic

make

work,

to

individual

the

the

this

in

positionof

regard

position of
I began to

relative

the

or

of movement.

with

body

may

mobile.

relative

the

of the

members

several

another,

we

and

result

is the

body

"posture" indicates

term

the

we

hesitating; it

or

brisk, free, unrestrained, easy,


A

57

POSTURES.

as

long

tion,
altera-

hand.
and

it

58

PHYSICAL

remains

till the

next

expressive

are

equilibrium of

well

day's work

the

we

is the

sleep.

toil of

the

mental

say

where

absence
contrast

sion
Expres-

present.

absence

of movement,
A

of the

child, after

limbs

moderate

the

relaxed, no

light or sound,
continue

movements

child

other

movement,

movement,

absolute

observed.

from

respiratory
of

the

to

play,is put to bed : we observe


of voluntary movements,
the

occur

regularity; then

and

movement,

expression,in
is

closed,the muscles

the

but

of

movement

and

actions

reflex

mode

subsidence

are

eyes

of

examples

at

produced by
by movement

as

total

to look

be

may

the

results

posture.

where

others

Postures

occurs.

is essential

the

is

of movement

as

the

as

have

now

with

movement

of movement

absence

We

EXPRESSION.

The

sleeps.

than

the

with
sidence
sub-

respiratory

principalindication

of the

dition
con-

wearied

by the bodily or
day's occupation, sits in a chair,

man,

is
speaks but little,his attention
but slightlyattracted
by objectsaround ; it is with
to movement
difficultythat he is stimulated
by
he

and

moves

the

his

of

voices

the

in

condition

children;
man

After

exhaustion.

to

those

him,
games

he

around, he

plays
here

the

man's

to

absence

other

causes

with

quick

of

than

to

fatigue

and

exhaustion.

and

talks

all about

joins in
and

the

his freshened
movement

his expression

observe

movements,

ordinary

such

briskness, he

children

indicate

of his movement,
The

is

his

with

his

refreshment

and

moves

that

say

expresses

rest

is different, he

we

their

results

activity.
be

may

Watch

due

hearty

OF

MODES

child,

EXPEESSION

two

say

of

years

him

his

incessant, his head, face, eyes,


If

incessantly moving.

are

the

room

child

his

eyes

are

his

cease,

indication

stops

of

is

There

remains.

to

of the

child's condition.
the

attracts

inhibition

attention

man

of movements.

or

bition
inhi-

this

expressive
objectstrongly
any
it usually produces

When
of

as

arrested

are

is characteristic

of movement

the

interfered

are

stranger, and

the

sight of

that

respirationcontinue

movements

at the

ments
move-

movement

suppose

nutrition

heretofore.
inhibited

of

condition

and

various

various

down, scarcelyany

with, for the circulation


His

the

enters

stranger

cast

his

of

conditions

general

are

hands, fingers,etc.,

reason

no

floor

movements

play, his

former

his

the

sitting on

age,

playthings around

with

59

MOVEMENTS.

BY

or

is

This

probably a very
mental
important factor in some
phenomena.
Nutrition
be directly expressed by movements,
may
for it commonly
happens that movement
is

the

subject.

that

well

the

by

the

becomes

this

feeding,from

of

good;

its

while
and

arms

its nutrition

gers
fin-

or

the

from

cbap.

xiv.

part
Now, if
of

effects

almost

of nutrition

See

is in

disease, the

stomach

movement.

experience

movement.

described

condition

of

ill,say

lung

spontaneous

Clinical

nourished.

spontaneous

movement

lowered

is

condition

indicated

child

in

apparently spontaneously.* A baby

lively is

shows

nutrition

is full of movement

nutrition

moved

are

of

outcome

infant

young

if its

awake,
thus

obvious

most

lessens
A

fig.31,

large
p. 245.

ceases,

the

bad

taneous
spon-

the

amount

amount

of

60

PHYSICAL

is

movement

spontaneous
in

nutrition

EXPRESSION.

animals.

equallyindicative

Note

of

good

the

frisky play of
The
tion
nutripuppies and kittens.
sickly dog, whose
is greatlyimpaired,can
hardly lift a paw or wag
his tail. In some
pathologicalconditions movement
be

may

in excess,

and

of nutrition
enter

In

over

the

; but

it will not

discussion

of

good

dition
con-

be convenient

to

of this matter

present.*
ment,
speaking of the modes of expressionby movecan
we
hardly be permitted to pass silently
upon

consideration

the

and

spontaneous
be

indicative

not

difference

voluntary movements,
that

remembered
with

of the

the

we

are

essential

at

but

between
it must

here

cerned
directlyconpropertiesexpressed by

not

for passing over


so
objectivesigns. My reason
important a point is that a discussion as to the
criteria distinguishingspontaneous from
voluntary

the

involve

would

movements

in

us

philosophical
fully
Having care-

place in this work.


this point,I have
considered
to the concome
clusion
that, in place of attempting to distinguish
it
between
spontaneous and voluntary movements,
will be easier and more
to study inborn,
satisfactory
of movement.
Movements
and
acquired sources
out

argument

seen

to

occur

assumed

to

inherent

in

of

birth

upon

called

be

previouslysaid, the
spoken

as

which

inborn
*

inborn

child

movements,
of

after, may

soon

be

conditions, causes
depend upon inborn
the subject at birth, so that such movements

may

constant

and

See

in
chap.

upon

As

movements.
birth

may

be

presents

conveniently

contradistinction
vii. p. 125.

very

to

the

AND

INBOBN

and

acquired
The

distinction

great

acquired

voluntary

movements

found

are

child's life to be
become

the

is that

inborn
the

successive

and

acquired
of the

year

co-ordinated

more

into

temporary

action

present,but

at

knowledge
not

kind,

age.

they

complex
of

some

force.

have,

little exact

to the differences

as

the

and

inborn

the

adult

co-ordinated

the

by

arrangements

between

and

more

of

movements

in each

easily

more

external

in

movements

61

MOVEMENTS.

ACQUIRED

and

in kind

scientific

between
but

acquired movements,

the

this does

considering the question ; and


and discussion maybe an encourageconsideration
ment
to the investigationof the problem by scientific
prevent

from

us

expression of inborn
properties,as
acquired properties,is a very
distinguished from
important and interestingsubject. In an investigation
The

methods.

of

for the purpose


are

inborn

to

observe

what

and

the

children,* also

to

observe

them, and

analogous

conditions

were

we

information
in the
also

gain

as

in later
with

further

modes
and

and

explained and

in

movements

life.

These

as

in

illustrated

in

xiv.

with

some

of evolution
we

should

expression by

to

so

will

chap. v.
chap. vL

chap.

be

can

supply

species;

young

questions,

processes

subject

defined

See

these

kind

This

necessary

reflex actions

and

knowledge

mind.

be

of

them, would

movements,
of

developed

to the

individual

co-ordinated

what

compare

conversant

movements

movements

spontaneous

in

excited

determining what
acquired,it would

very
be
and

racteristi
chafurther
further

62

the relations

Expression of
be

subjects may

fine

speciesof

flowers

in the

has

that

relation

well

been

nest

of

movements
to

its

perform

to be

which

appears

whole

community

house

movements,

of

relation
of the

to

men

in unison

parts

that

form

an

Now,

whole.
is

one

flowers

writings of
at

ants'

an

in

the

of the

benefit

It is

the

work

plished
accom-

the

organizationof
instinctive
properties
see

men

from

pass

office,etc., these

to

one

the

an

each

of

make

of

movements

find

about

individual.

and

home

the

upon

the different

work

ments
move-

observed, proving social organization

as

dependent

his

observed

of the

city we

house, from

to

flying
only one

and

the

for the

indicates

of flowers

appearing
organized system

an

so-called

life in

In

of each.

how

the

whole, and

the

in

ants

which

them

by

be

the

creatures, each

not

the

some

and

Looking

arranged

and

of

movements

the

bees
in

may

part

own

of

bees

himself

about

Darwin.

little

the

the

between

order

wonderful

bank

bee visits

put forward

and

Springel,Kerner,

more

of movement

journey, and

same

something

"

at

observe

we

or

expression of

an

Usually

to flower.

flower

kind

some

is

two

movements

look

we

day,

indicate
the

If

summer

flower

from

agent,

of either.

condition

between

the

by

subjectsthat

the

between

on

effected

of intermediate

kind

we

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

another.
army

When

in the

expression
this
of the

mode

of the
of the
of

each
of

expression by
have

hear

other,
end,

one

government

we

learn

field,and

movements

highest which

the

we

portionsseparatedfrom
for the accomplishment
relation

and

man

of the
of the
ments
move-

to

con-

64

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

analyzed ; further,all movement

be

modes

other

with

kinetic

that

urged

of force.

Any
of

the

this

results

emotions,

the

be

may

in

trophic
living beings.

all

as

about

the

is the

man

of

it is

reasons

well

as

something

us

The

these

in

force, which

motor

nerve-system.
called

studied

tells

movement

For

function,

be

function, should

be correlated

can

source

central

brain-conditions,

expressed by movements
by quotations from

are

illustrated

the

writings of Sir C. Bell,Bain, and Siddons, in their


descriptionsof laughter and anger.
be as
Anything that indicates movement
may
itself. Movement
in
expressive as the movement
hands

the

of
We

its wheels.

teeth;
\ and

watch

that

say

really mean
his lips.

we

moves

indicates
in anger
that

In

the

movements,

be

may

of

mode

mechanical

be

walking

indicates

excitement,
the

result

of

posture

is the

So

mode

of

in

rage, the
tion
fixavoice

expression.

of movement,

kind.

and

the
The

general condition,
fatigue, etc. ; it depends
and

work

gait

man's

nerve-centres,

his

mouth

the

expression,whether

his

condition

his

opens

indirectlyfrom

is

mental

or

shows

man

expression of

and

is

done

Similarly,work

of

movement

respiratory muscles.

the
from

results

he

I congestionof the face results


of

the

in

ness,
eagerupon

expresses

this.
A
the

part.

The

result

of the

last

movement

of postures
significance

is shown

of
in

chap. vii.
The
a

mode

subsidence
of

of movement

expressionas

its

may
occurrence.

be

suggestive
Spontaneous

as

is

movement

the

on

In

from

flower

in

social

the

subjects,

independent
are

of

of

cases,

expressive,
to

life.

AMONG

and

fatigue,

occurrence

certain

link,

in

lost

BEE

movement

spontaneous
and

OF

MOVEMENTS

flower,

in

of

connected
the

as

or

by

movements

the

The
in

sleep,

disturbance.

movements

not

exhaustion.
subsides

infancy
organic

65

FLOWERS.

movements

two

any

or

more

material

of

of

bee

men

66

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

CHAPTER
MOVEMENTS

AND

THE

CONSIDERED

IN

WHAT

THEY

Movements

are

V.
RESULTS

THE

ABSTRACT,

its

of

means

expression

duration,

recorded

the

this may

by

depend

working

is

2";

unlimited

of

series

independent
"

"

"

sides

of

higher

the

functions

anatomical

of movements,

"

"

Asymmetry
Classification

analysis; according

analysis given above;

synchronous
series ;

of

the

or

indicating
of
to

movements

the

by feelings,

ordinated
Co-

"

described
of

of movements
of

physiological

differentiation
like

action

both

on

in

common
:

of

the

according

to

physiological principles

intelligent and
as

growth

"

of movements

in their

of movements

is

aggregation

analysis

Collateral

"

non-synchronous;

accompanied
suggested Summary.
as

as

body

of

movements

an

Contrast

terms"

Interdifferentiation

brain

of

of

subjects

Walking

of

Principles

large parts

Symmetry

parts

"

non-intelligent ;

occurring
other

in

as

regular

classifications

are

"

MOVEMENT

as

metaphysical

upon

number
of

and
"

or

consist

may
The

of

movement

Movements

Two

"

combinations

series

and

synchronous

motors,

"

such

movements

in anatomical

parts and

significance

of

movements

individuals"

Description

small

as

in terms

be

movements

of

of

inco-ordinated

of

movements

sequences

described

dog

of

most

time

to

as

Expression

"

synchronous

of

Actions

and
as

of

number

Description

rhythm

movement

Frequency

"

of the

union

as

movement

time, may

to

of

considerations

of

organic

similar

of

method

graphic

combinations

or

"

the

an

possible combinations
the

FROM

classified

attributes
Time

"

in relation

upon

in

coincidences

APART

OR

Movements

"

The

"

time

importance

considered

movements,

each

and

quantity, kind,

conveniently

MOVEMENTS

EXPRESS.

reflex,voluntary, spontaneous
are

OF

abstraction

we

need

KINDS

consider

not

; movement

considered
this

is what

chapter

movements
us

cause,

for

of
of

concerned

here

are

of the

property
the

with

movements

which

the

the

are

their

from

is illustrated

expression,as

that

admission

apart

kinds

various

In

with.

simplificationof

of

subject

admission

expressive,an

sake

the

Movements
modes

be

study

to

commence

we

may

leads

as

we

67

MOVEMENT.

OF

subject.
principal
the

in

going
fore-

probable that it may


that
be shown
hereafter
expression by coincident
of expression by the
development * is only a mode
it is

chapter. Indeed,

results

molecular

of

classified

according

ideas

our

or

movements

others

one

of the

or

Other

made

some

tracingthus

the

form

others

the kind

of

any

reflex,

according

kind, quantity,

includes

frequency,
be

may

tinuous
con-

be considered

may

single subject.

calculation

outline

travels

at

will be

of movement

See

in

certain
curves
one

chap.

xvi.

all

on

looking at

indications
; if

uniform

in the

in

the recording

rate, the

plainly characteristic

observed
*

movement

Now,

of the

In

ment
concerning move-

by recording such

outline

always

of the

made
"

they

graphic method.
produced, we see

of the

paper
form

certain

man,

movements

movements

is best

production,

subjects.

more

to the

by

movements

interrupted,and
in

be

may

latter attribute

which

work
physiological

paper

spontaneous,

classification

duration.
or

As

thus, in

said to be

attributes

speed,
in

of

mode

be

may

voluntary.

time

and

Movements

their

to

thereupon

are

Again, the
to the

motion.

same

of

subject

68

PHYSICAL

occasions.

different

on

of the heart

tracings obtained
chorea

in

"

Rate

"

sense

of

of

quantity

force,as used

in

show

attribute

an

Now,

of

if two

relation

at
a
or

and

other.

continue

in concentric

of time.

tory.
self-explana-

move

is

used

with

the

in

other

modes

2.

how

once

of the

law

important

of

vation
conser-

regarding
time

is

be considered

movements

more

as

Two

at the

in

points arise expressiveof


of the

the times

by side,and
to

is

considerations

movements

when

throughout, as
lines side

observable

movement.

between

the

"

"

speaking
These

the relation
of

of
division

correctable

time, further

to

number

movement

as

of energy.
movement

"

Fig.

of

paper

fingersin
frequency of

the

"

other

or

ments
move-

speed impliesthe degree or length


The
accomplished in a given time.

quantity

"

regular

of the

of movements

"

or

of movement
term

minute

duration

"

term

the

mean

we

movements

the

give a regulartracingon

"

movements

The

Thus

by movements
irregular. By

most

are

EXPRESSION.

start

at

the

rate.

same

circles at the

two

same

rate

one

movement

be

may

trains
same

If two

chronous
syn-

run

time,
men

the movement

on

and
run

EXPRESSION

of

their

their

synchronous, and
relative
positions; if

gets

one

while

they

meetings
if the

matter

Turning

of movement

rates

is

after
cessive
suc-

calculable

known.

are

considerations

these abstract

from

back

are

of the

times

coincidences

or

rates

other, but

the

again, and

meet

their

the

of

advance

an

maintain

they

is

bodies

same

unlike,

69

MOVEMENTS.

BY

to

our

subject,expressionby movements,

proper

In

other.

hands,
and

closed

and

angry

move

such

facts

of

consideringmodes

of

is described

may
or

of
The

more

movements

number

considered

may

of
is

movements

as

be

each

may

be

causation

expression,in
of

terms

organic

an

movement.

differently
of the

chronous
syn-

which

the

in
pression
ex-

coincidences

or

series of movements

subject,or, considering two


regards

their

in

occur

strictlylimited

n, the

finger

arise, then,

; if

number

by

the number
of

time,

definite

possiblecombinations

considered

from

may

in

one

any

combinations

movements

the

of movement.
in

occur

to

Problems

action.

the

may

each

of

cause

movement

expressive, according

combinations

result

may

movements

which

at

pace

the

between

same

excited

here

Now,

synchronous

they

or

man."

the

equal

to move,

connection
The

the

from

expressionof the
hand
are
opened

five digits,
said to
are
subjects,
synchronously, opening and

of five

closing. Now,
tends

of

feeling

coincide, they

result

the

the

upon

rapid sucession,indicatingthe

in

movements

of

fingersof

The

say,

bears

one

mode

discussing one
"

we

the

how

show

will

examples

few

of

the

series

sequence.

synchronous
number

of

of movements

possiblesynchronous

70

PHYSICAL

combinations

of

; the

number

by

2n

five

such

fingers.

Let

the five

by

the

letters

There

together.
AD,

ADE,

of

its movements

Many

the

recording

BCE,

BDE,

BCDE,

ABDE,

possible variations
is infinite.

number

of

postures of

positions of its parts, is


of expressionby variation

actions

or

ABC,

infinite.

are

acts

BCD,

of

the

how

variations

the

finite,but

us

DE,

of combinations

hand, i.e. coincident

the

CE,

ABCE,

number

facts illustrate

These

CD,

BE,

of sequence

order

in the

let

viz., A, B, C, D, E, AB,

ACE,

the

0 ; but

ABCDE,

and

which

in

ACDE,

ABCD,

CDE,

of the

movements

A, B, C, D, E,

BD,

BO,

ACD,

ABE,

ABD,

of the

presented
digitsbe respectivelyre-

movements,

AE,

order

they move
tions
thirty-two possible combina-

are

such

of

AC,

the

combinations

the

consider

in the

represented

infinite.

limit, or

illustration,consider

an

is

movements

of variations

is without

sequences
As

EXPRESSION.

be

may

described

combinations

movements,

of

by

move-

and

ments,

understanding
the

of

and

studies

teach

the

made
of

us

as

between

order

to make

illustration

in

our

some

the

clear
many
in

this

importance

detailed

study

of

appreciationof what such


of investigation,
to methods

of evolution.

methods

hereafter

full

trophicaction, and
In

one

may

and

to

forward

brought

accurate

the

movements,

is essential

understanding

to the

here

be

movements.

point

to

especiallyto

attached

and

this

on

arguments

work,

of

sequences

combinations

Analogies
and

will

be

sequences

of movement.
ideas

more

detail.

clear

we

will take

72

PHYSICAL

of

in

movements

have

the

road

there

is

see

similar

road

said

are

; such

regular,

are

similar

the
of

dust

the

in

movements

combinations

and

indicated

steadily along

movements

co-ordinate, and

tinguish
dis-

inco-ordinated

walks

man's

we

may

repetitionof events, and


left at equal intervals upon

to be

successions

we

the

from

his

but

animals,

which

by

man

that

we

impressionsare
of the

rules

When

in

or

co-ordinated

movements.
a

man

establish

to

EXPRESSION.

walking

regularityin

his

the

movements,

as

the

ments
general regularityof the moveof his whole
body and the uniformity of his
indicates to us the perfectco-ordination
foot-prints,
in walking.
of his movements
Contrast
the movements
of such
a
good walker

with

by

those

termed

of

locomotor

by the
patient walks

two

with

heels

the

stamping.

Such
Our

by

in terms

of

and

results

experimented
"

The

be

ordinate.
inco-

inquire

to

what

we

only

successions

in

as

how
mean

be done
framed

of

ments
move-

of movements.

upon

in

man

simple and
*'

to

definitions

by
and

vaguely,

step

said

believe, can

walking, has

or

most
*

each

formulate
I

prints
foot-

ataxy

thither

are

exactness

combinations

Locomotion,

says,

This,

scientific

with

and

present object is

co-ordination.

the

locomotor

at

movements

and

condition

precipitategait, and

down

define

best

can

we

In

hither

come

the

contrast

men.

staggers, the legs start


and

with

and

ataxy,

left

the

afflicted

man

Animul

described

been

Marey.* He
is walking,
pace

M.

by
usual

Mechanism,"

and

111.

ANALYSIS

which, accordingto the received


in

of

mode

that

locomotion

definition, consists

in

which

the

body

In

running and leaping,


shall see
the body is entirely
the contrary, we
on
remains
the ground, and
raised
above
suspended
In walking, the weight of
during a certain time.
the body passes alternatelyfrom
one
leg to another,
limbs
and
each
of these
places itself in turn
as
quits

never

the

73

WALKING.

OF

other, the

before

the

carried

forward.

This

"

but

its

action

appears

what

ascertain

in

producing

very

simple

the

that

of paces.

we

continually

when

walking

define
is the

pace

between

is

series

to

is

series

seek

we

occur

walking
series of

similar

two

series

of

It

tells

be

various

then,

remains, then,
be

ments
move-

us,

that

paces,

propertiesmay

as

positionsof
implies

of movements

succession

of movements.

inquire what

sight,

which

movements

something tolerably simple. Marey


that

first

at

observed

may

"

foot." Now,

same

is

motion."

us

executed

thus

body

soon

are

this

shows

succession

the

is

complexity

to

This

ground.

pace
for

us

presented by

of movements.

Walking

may

described

proposed already,it
of

movements

locomotion

moving

the

as

the
a

limbs

may

be

in

described

ways.

as

As

series

of

parts (limbs)which

produce

series

contractions

or,

of
did

muscular
we

possess

the

sufficient

knowledge, we might describe a pace in walking by


nerve-centres
in action
coincistating what
are
dently,and what is the order of their successions.
M.
Marey has in part described locomotion
by
5

74

PHYSICAL

indicatingthe
i.e. he

describes

moved

by

the

stimulated
in

occur

the
the

the

move

is

we

ball

table

the
that

follows

we

whole,

the

of

is

assembled
of the

movement

of the

that

in such

and

is

movements

The

movements

an

the

expression
of such

The

movements

than

of

an

the movements

so

of

in

seen

cession
pro-

is

an

gation
aggre-

separate

by

union

bond

from

corps
a

an

aggregation

an

time

the

between

army

of

movement

coincidence

of

parts

gang

the
are

men,

common

between
of their
of union.
often

aggregation are

an

highly expressive,the more


there is no
organic union

of the

limbs

of

structural

case

politicalpurpose.

for the

togetherand governed
politicalobject ; there is no

whether

object as

procession

held

them

speaking of

of the

is

number

quence,
conse-

movement

clear

of

Such

whole
of

actions

in

certain

for

billiard-

In

the

one

it is

movements

movement

of

that

move,

of the

of

happens
is the

parts of

If

to be

movement

individuals.

The

movements

movements

independent
men

If

ball.

of the

mean

we

observed,

as

travels,the

speak

we

It often

muscles,

moves

of movement

object, as

animal.

whole

of the whole

whether

the

limbs

and

is, then, necessary

when

as
or

moon,

that

as

speaking

are

as

independently of

is struck

is that
it

movement

of

ball

limbs,

trunk

movable.

are

walking

the

the

the

that

man's

say

his limbs

less

or

implied that
upon

by

implied

more

When

another.

of

moved

as

in

of

movements

nerve-centres.

subjectit

subjectcan

trunk

movements

limbs,

by
a

of the

movements

from

resulting

as

EXPRESSION.

the

fact

that

individuals.
more

of slaves

sive
expres-

chained

75

MOVEMENTS.

OF

ANALYSIS

be stronger which
must
governs
together the cause
of an
movements
The
the body of free men.
army
pline,
disciof army
condition
be expressive of the
may
of the
will
the
general,the orders of the
of
influence
the
Home
Government,
acting under
In
the
nation.
and
Parliament
example of
any
"

expression by

of

action

distinguish

from

individuals

it

movement

is, then, necessary

of

collection

of

aggregation

an

to

separate

organicallyunited

individuals.

special subject

is the

Man

I wish

concerned, and
for the

scheme
this

analysis of

is founded

scheme

to

now

whom

with

forward

put

movements

upon

we
a

in

seen

are

brief
man

in medical

experience

practice.
When

define

to
a

holds

man

with

them
his

out

easilyobserved.
and

be

may

Flexion

movement

langealjoints,strong
of the

hand

with

adducted,
the

of the

movement

that

in

making

an

or

series

or

of the

an

level

parts

is

to occur,

seen

terms

metacarpo-phathumb

brought

at

into

it

over

the

each

palm

phalanges

adducted, thus

might

anatomical
be

arching

combination
See

tables

description of

observed.

observation,

the

following

flexion

bones

Thus, if

hand.

give

we

be

the

fingersbent

metacarpal

palm

Here

the

in

all the

thus

ceed
pro-

straightand

of

being

may

terms.

may

by

we

man,

movement

indicated

thumb

hand

and

arm

of wrist, flexion

joint,the

in anatomical

shoulder, any

his

in

movements

see

we

to

record

It is necessary
the

of movements,
of

analysis,chap.

movement,

thus, before
ix.

76

PHYSICAL

attempt

any

and

while

us

and

phenomena

try

analysis

at

keep

must

we

before

made

be

can

EXPKESSION.

record

seek

we

tion;
classifica-

or

of

the

ment
move-

explanation of

to understand

what

is

the

expressed

the movement.

by

After

making

anatomical

descriptionof the
for the sake
of keeping it before us as
movement
a
mental
of the transient
account
phenomenon, we
apply certain physiologicalprinciples to the
may
analysis of the record of the movement.
It is well

an

known

physiciansthat there is much


of 'movements
practicaldifference in the signification
in larger parts of the body of man
in contrast
with movements
in the smaller
seen
parts* It is
in a
a
compound movement
general
necessary
of the movements
ferent
movement
of difcompounded
parts or subjects to distinguishin description
to

"

"

the

of small

action

parts,such

as

the muscles

of

from
of larger
movements
eyes, face, fingers,
the skull, the
shoulder, elbow
as
or
parts, such

the

the

These

hip

principlesI

Collateral

"

The
*

See

or

"

name

Interdifferentiation

"

and

Differentiation."

term

chap.

knee.

This

principleof the
of the action of
different
physiologicalsignification
in chaps,
small
and large parts will be illustrated
the other physiological
viii.; so
also with
vii. and
principles.
I think
there is a considerable
importance in the
two
next
principles,
though I believe they have
than
been
less generally studied
they ought to be.
wrist, the

vii.

"interdifferentiation
of movements"
"

Small

parts

"

are

most

affected

in

is

hemiplegia.

used

the

in

different

are

be

There

may

upper

extremity

movement,

the

and

wrist

comparatively little

number

of

movements

with

the

is

movements

of the
the

with

example

of the

large parts. Thus,

fingers,knuckles,
there
movements,
being
and

shoulder

elbow

of

man's

the

of

Contrast

extremity.

use

of

amount

interdifferentiation

upper

the

the

in

action

parts.

observed, in
in the

marked

here, then,

small

arm,

all the

almost

do

the

in

difference

writing, painting,sewing,

and

movements

man's

parts as compared

small
in

of

in

or

large

great

of

conditions

the

that

indicate

to

77

PRINCIPLES.

PHYSIOLOGICAL

this

extremity

upper

the
ground-digging or boxing. In this case
ment
fingersand small parts are but little used, the moveshoulder
and
is from
elbow; here, again,interfor

of movements

differentiation
the

large parts being

more

is marked

in

used

the

than

degree,
small

parts.
Collateral

differentiation of movements,

in the

The

principle.

next

of collateral

movements

knuckles

collateral

parts: they

they

move

can

all

There
of the

or
fingers,

may
the

pen

are

index, and

be

is

collateral
In

seen.

small

can

middle

fingers:

of

movements

rately.
sepa-

movements

of

ments
move-

of

movements

entirely by
this

our

parts,

move

in the

writing, the

ference
dif-

fingers are

differentiation

almost

the

the

each

or

parts, is

equally

differences

effected

of

is

the

the

thumb,

collateral

ferentiati
dif-

fingers in

the

of

writing.
Symmetry of
by no means

act

all

are

together
be

may

and

or

movement
a

new

in

man

and

subject;

it has

in animals
been

noted

78

often

discussed.

movements,

in

and
of

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

equal

bilateral

parts

may

stop

side
of

the

in

different

from

different

and

of movement

Here

lace.

point out

to

logical
physio-

expressionindicated

of the

symmetry

The

is very

is very

minute, again

one

indicates

occurring

body.

symmetry

body

conditions

between

of the

of hands

by a symmetry
of
signification

symmetry

movements

movements,

of the

that

think

physiologicalsense,

similarlyon either
importance
various

the
we

analogy

an

conditions

of

and
of movement
trophicaction.
Symmetry
metry
symof growth and
structural
development are
in man
in the
nutritive
seen
organs, lungs,and

respiratory
in

brain
sets of

movements

anatomical

their

with

nerves

the

two

halves

; it is

the

and

structure

the
two

organic functions, vagi,phrenics,

sympathetics,are fairlysymmetrical.
in man
Asymmetry
chieflyconcerns
functions

of

in

seen

his

his
in

movements

higher
writing,

high-class hand-work.
Speech is not
equally represented in either hemisphere of the
Some
brain.
passionsare expressed asymmetrically
in the face.
Evolution
is often expressed in plants
by asymmetry of growth (see chap. iL).
follows
Classification
naturally after analysis. I
and

other

purposely omitted to consider all


such might
as
analysis of movements,
and
is hardly necessary
to clear

the

have

general subjectof
For

the

will be but
will be

same

this

work,

reasons

brief,but

"

The

our

both

abundantly

prove
views

Modes
notice

means

of

some,
wearion

the

sion."
Expres-

of classification

analysis and

illustrated

of

in

fication
classi-

succeeding

80

PHYSICAL

Again, sucking in
intelligence. Some

EXPRESSION.

is not

infant

an

movements

sign of present
panied
usually accom-

are

by non-intelligence.
4. Movements

may

be

synchronous

5. Movements

may

be

classified

The

regular series.
particular dance
a

emotions,
fits

6. Movements

feelings.It
It
and

to

be,

may

the

characterizes
often

are

seems

of

movements

expressive.

of movements

series

occurring in

as

that this is

me

the

on

kinds

alike

due

of

attack.

caused

as

by

great assumption.

contrary, that

feelingare

of

passions,

the

of

spoken

series

expressiveof certain
of feeling. In some

states

or

be

may

is often

movements

regular

nous.
asynchro-

or

the

the

to

ment
move-

condition

of nerve-centres.

Summary.

considered

here

is

it

of

simplicitymovement

from

the

of movements

depends

upon
be

may
movement
etc.

"

The

method

the
of

the

laws
the

of

tion
classifica-

suitable

for such

of

conservation
of
of

consideration

of movements;

attributes

relation

relations

is most

involves

movement

the

origin. A

Further, descriptionof the

analysis of tracings
of

classification

according to the attributes of the


frequency, speed, duration, quantity,

graphic
a

of their

be used"

made

classification.
of

idea

our

that

Various

may

spontaneous, reflex,voluntary; this

as

of

cause

directly expresses.

of classification

modes

sake

apart

which

movement

the

For

"

two

a-

of

time, and
or

more

the

of the

tion
considerainvolves

movement
energy,

butes
attri-

also

quantity.
movements

ideas
When
are

81

SUMMARY.

which

probably

are

in

of

It

illustrated.

analogy

may

be

may

series

govern

of

acts

both.

problems

complicated

more

The

astronomy.

combinations

and

mathematical

intricate

considered,

appears
made

of

is

probable
between

growth,

than

possible

movements

and

that

is

as

of

that

tions
ques-

number

finite,

series

arise

very

of

easily
direct

movements,
similar

laws

82

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

VL

CHAPTER

PHYSIOLOGY

Modes

of
a

in

movement

plants
and

nerve-mechanism,

Nerve-mechanism

of

nerve-muscular

action

movements
Nerve-centres

Do

"

"

stimulates

trophic
infant;

new-born

thus

Extrinsic

action

of

"

effects

light, in
action

of

"

"

dealing with

the

physiology

of

plants
of

of

of

the

immediate

"

ment
move-

Light

"

light

brain

light on

"

movements

inhibited,

The

and

of effects of

Summary

in

Summary

"

stimuli, mediate

light

by

certain

localization

Eifects

"

"

apparatus
produce

man,

light

light

to

movements

Inhibition

stimulated,

movements
to

reflex

"

has

ascidian

the

Cerebral

"

movement

kinetic

impressionable

light

for

indicated

perception
of

nerve-centres

experiments

and

Retentiveness

"

amoeba

Nerve-muscular

"

certain

requisite for a reflex


Physiological effects

Time

not

vertebrates

Visual

"

in the

apparatus

Ferrier's

"

EXPRESSION.

OF

in

the

nated
co-ordian

idiot

effects

of

Trophic

"

plants.

of

expression we
concerned
are
solely with facts in the history of
living beings,plants and animals, including man
;
the sections of physiology that we
are
cerned
mainly conwith
those involving questionsof moveare
ment
IN

and
purpose
modes

nutrition.
that

in

we

which

It

is

should

take

movement

organism of the lower,


Something has been

convenient,

and

is

brief

then,

review

produced

to

our

of

the

in

the

higher,livingbeings.
said in chap. ii. about
the

AMOEBA

THE

animals

In

mechanism

the

and

causes,

we

organism

of the

facts

The

animals.

of

power

this

of

endued

the

with

contractile
about

first

At

amoeba.

All

alike, and

parts

similarly

These

filmy
detect

can

eye
and

parts,

there

is

producing force,apart
produce movements.

animals

there

is

no

from

differentiation

no

be

again

may

the

the

rapidly throw

powers.

their

it has

for

portionsthat
such

the

of

body

place.

to

it may

although
of

special mechanism
In

The

of

other

and

jelly,yet

be

to

appear

differentiation

the

of

mass

of

constant

amoebae

place

mass

patches glide
no

than

action

highest grades

which
projections,

or

into

retracted

most

observed.

shapeless mass,

as

filaments,

out

and

plants.

action

the

the

of

of

from

from

from

or

one

firm

less

moving

appearing

is

often

been

is

amoeba

the

movements

protozoa have
the

result

lowest

the

in

seen

in

whole,

as

this

parts of it,and

of movement

movement

see

83

ASC1DIAN.

THE

"

into

force-producingparts, and motor-organs ; every part


of the body can
of the
perform all the functions
whole
that the amoeba
organism : thus it is seen
than
has an
that of the Oxalia
organization lower
and

Mimosa

pudica,

which

have

special motor-

organs.
In

ascidian

the

production
a

as

of

of

the
One

integumentary

central

mechanism

and

instrument.

moving

with

is

motor-power,

consists

filaments.

there

is distributed

surface

The

nervous

the

ratus
apparatus
appa-

ganglion,Fig. 3 (c),connected

periphery by
set

contractile

a
"

for

capable

two

sets

to
of

of

part

nerve-

of

receiving

the
and

84

PHYSICAL

being

acted

is distributed

made
the

Fig.

3.

system

whence

an

the

of

ganglion

impulse is

surface
the

to

Ascidian

an

(Carpenter),
;

d, the muscular

along

sent

it

back
the

periphery."*

the

to

the

Now,
find

the

vent;

efferent

fibres,

Such

action

an

derived

from

the

impression

ganglion produces
fibres

they

b, the

mouth;

sac.

the motor-

are

receive

impulse

an

ganglion.
passing

to

up

the

vertebrates,

Here

we

portion of the body, the nervewhich, when


properly nourished, produces

well-defined

mechanism

motor-force

muscles, connected
centres.

when

a, the

pressions
Im-

conveyed
ganglion,

are

afferent

The

; the muscular

motor-power

apparatus, acting
from

the

of

were,

other

tion
contrac-

on

central

causing contraction of the muscles.


is termed
action, a term
a reflex
reflection,as

(a),the

body cavity (d).

sensory

fibres

c, the

stimuli

fibres,which

of

the

on

afferent

Nervous

"

muscular

to

diminution

cause

by

external

by

on

EXPEESSION.

When

by
a

there

also

are

with

the

nerve-

passed from

the

nerve-

nerve-fibres

stimulus

well-defined

Terrier, op. cit.,p.

16.

the

to

centres

muscles

and

the

of
of

in

the

of

in

expression

man

muscle,

and

nerve-centre

nerve-fibre

centre

the

to

is

generated

and

is

the

of

blood

and

nourished.

force

force

by

to

structure

and

arrangement
they

any

are

the

the

of

nerve-fibre.
it

tracts
con-

showing

the

It is not
of

account

the

nerve-centres;

in the

situated

course,

nutrition,

centre.

the

nerve-

Force

muscle

index

detailed

here

give

the

by

an

of

its

by

to

as

necessary

say

the

must,

serves

discharge of

suffice it to

from

currents

of

nerve-cells,

whole

sends

muscle

consists

of

collection

muscle

clear

understood.

the

the

nerve-

principlesand
be

nerve-centre

to

centre

the

times

the

in

conveyed

When

with

the

with

obtain

apparatus

or

muscle;

duly supplied

are

to

may

conveying

be

to do

man

that

order

simplest nerve-muscular

The

in

is essential

it

point,in

this

numerous

have

we

expression

signs, and

on

modes

of

tions
por-

production

by

proven

that

movements

study

muscular
ideas

of

two

subjects.

in many

kind

the

to

the

produce

of these

action

been

produce

higher animals,

muscles

necessary

has

; this

experiments

the

joint
is

body

movements

The

the

the

in

and

the nerve-mechanisrn

movements,

and

they contract,
then,

Here,

movements.

85

APPARATUS.

NERVE-MUSCULAR

brain

and

spinalcord.
It

study

of
of

speak
the
when

the
"

study
a

nerve-centre

for

convenient

is, then,

principlesand
nerve-muscular

of

the

current

by

brain
of

the

our

modes

of

action
and

nerve-force

in

purposes

expression

"

signs.

or

spinal cord
is sent

effect of that

the

In

know

we

from

out

current

to

on

mus-

86

PHYSICAL

The

fibres.

cular

; the

current

of the

EXPRESSION.

muscle

muscular

index

of the

of
frequency, duration
produced by the central organ.

the

central

the

the

Fig.

4."

Upper

Surface

included

contract,

can

of

Dr.

and

Hemispheres
are

Do

movements

parts
Ferrier

monkeys

of the

the

in the

portions

indications
central

the

muscles

The
Monkey.
(Ferrier).

to

circles

and

text

of

that
of

the

movements

of

the

the

nerve-

Are

activityof
?

brains

followingresults

act

mass

nerve-mechanism
upon

rating
gene-

organ

the

parts

special

experimented
with

of

explained

certain

stimulate

mechanism

certain

stimulating

different

separately?
certain

the

numerals

expression

nerve-current

is the

nerve-system

force, and

nerve-

brain, indicating the

time,

If

of the

is the

contraction

action

motor

is the

"

of

dogs

88

PHYSICAL

As

the

result
list*

of such

methods

drawn

was

correspondingto

areas

Fig.

6.

"

of
Uppt-r Surface
as
signification

same

"

(1), placed
the

EXPKESSION.

The

indicated

certain

Human

those

on

the

position of

brain-centres
in the

on

the

up,

referred

figures by

the

of

lowing
inquiry,the folindicating the brain
movements

The

circles

of the

monkey

Brain.
the

brain

:
"

and

letters

have

lobule,
postero-parietal
the

centres

to in the

the

(see Fig. 4).

dicates
in-

for movements

succeeding paragraphs

corresponding numerals.

are

FERRIER'S

of the

foot, such

and

oppositeleg

89

NERVE-CENTRES.

as

concerned

are

in locomotion.

(4),placed together on
extremity
bounding the upper

the

(2),(3),and

"

Fig.

1 "Lateral

view

of the

signification as

of

include

Rolando,

of

movements

concerned
"

in

Brain.

Human

those

the

in the

brain

arms

circles and

The
of the

monkey

for

centres
and

climbing, swimming,

(5), situated

at

the

of

tions
convolufissure

the

letters

have

the

same

(see Fig. 5).

various

complex

legs, such

as

are

etc.

posterior extremity

of

the

90

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

superior frontal convolution, at


the ascending frontal,is the centre
forwards

of the

the

to touch

hand

"(6), situated
the

and

arm

frontal

in

as

extension

putting forth

hind
ascending frontal, just bethe posterior extremity of

the
of

end

for the

in front.

something
on

upper

hand,

junction with

its

convolution, is the

for

the

middle

the

movements

the

biceps is particularlyengaged, viz. supination

of the

of the

of the

flexion

and

hand

and

hand

centre

forearm

in which

forearm.

sors
(8),centres for the elevators and depresof the angle of the mouth
respectively.
the
(9) and (10),included together in one, mark
of the lips and
movements
for the
centre
tongue,
of
This
is the region, disease
in
articulation.
as
which
as
causes
aphasia, and is generally known
"

(7) and

"

Broca's

convolution.

"

(11),the

the

angle of

"(12),a
and

centre

the

platysma,

retraction

of

mouth.
for lateral

centre

with

eyes,

of

elevation

of

of the head

movements

eyelidsand

the

tion
dilata-

of the

pupil.
"(a), (6),(c),and
parietalconvolution,
of the
"

Circles
lobule

hand

and

(13) and
and

(d\ placed
the

indicate

the

on

centres

ascending
of

ment
move-

wrist.

placed on
(13'),

angular

the

indicate

gyrus,

ginal
supra-marthe

centre

of vision.

"Circles

(14),placed

sphenoidal convolution,
of hearing."
the centre
When

we

consider

that

the

on

indicate

any

superior temperothe

situation

expression by

move-

of

ment,

the

or

91

CENTRES.

SENSORY

in

of movement,

result

man

or

in

an

activityin the central


is probably due
to the activity
nerve-system, and
find
it convenient
of a certain
to
part only, we
is

animal,

indication

an

this

recognize

in

independently

the rest
This

Ferrier's

brain.
facts tend
In

do

to

of

speaking

to

necessarily exist
brain

that
such

this

may

hypothesis

is

trust

may
this

exist
In

be

to

be defined

defined

Ferrier's
brain
or

were

the

other

the

and

that

true.

essential

that

of

nerve-

think

implying
systematic

observations,
certain

investigatedby
that

these

fact.

to

of

we

areas

without

show

to

brain,

belief

be

record

hypothesis

working

as

an

as

the

able

of

are

in

numerous

useful, if it leads

and

those

surrounding

definition

isolation

experimentation
and

or

there

anatomical

although

anatomical

An

the

express

the

framed

motor

that

in

localized

as

activity

view.

from

have

we

that

separate

tissue

mechanism,

and

nerve-centres

wish

here

not

definite

belief

the

experiments

support

its

by

less

or

defined, existent

above

as

of

of the nerve-mechanism.

mass

paragraph implies

nerve-centres,

more

separable from

and

central

of the

less

or

effects,observable

other

which

term

portion

act

can

rest, and

more

The

imply

to

which

of the

produces certain,

the

used

nerve-mechanism,

the

of

nomenclature.

our

here

is

nerve-centre

of

positions
promeans

do

nerve-centres

above.

experiments

sought

absence

for

the

by observing

of movement,
*

sensory

Op. tit.,p.

centres
that

in

ments,
move-

indicatingblindness
165.

92

PHYSICAL

followed
called

in

the

"In

angular gyrus

selected

first

began
but

the

not

from

its
the

unaffected,and

stimuli

it

recovery

perfectlyalert,

position.
gaslight.

It did

of these

not

Placed

in

notice

its

sat

from

recover

After
loco

securely

companions, it took no
still. Hearing and
other

beside

them, but

little in

close to

of the left

was

to

narcosis.
a

move

held

allowed

several

sufficient.

angular gyrus
left eye

brain

following

of the

protocols

animal

about

to grope

would

cage

conclusions, the

of chloroform

flinch when
a

was

destroyed, the
the

the

elsewhere, will be

experiment

hemisphere was
bandaged, and
state

portion of
destroyed.

the

from

recorded

experiments

the

when

animal

an

support of these

details

In the

EXPKESSION.

of

senses

mained
re-

caused

senses

active reaction"
The

mine, and
blindness
reflex

of

it is at
was

the

all the

reflex
iii.;

once

Action.

action

that
of the

functions
we

has

something

have

The

"

or

not

the

italics

we

are

to

kind

following

upon

now

as

to the

dependent

upon

for almost

their functions.

be

for

necessary

brieflydescribed

must

of

the

nerve-centres
as

are

evidence

evidence

apparatus

been

more

the

of movements,

further

affords

statement

that

seen

following

knowledge

Reflex

given exactly;

condition

This

of the
motor

the

action

stimulation.
truth

is

quotation

said

in

chap,

concerning

production of a reflex
Foster gives the following experiment
movement.
(op. cit.}p. 471) : If, in a brainless frog,the area
of the dorsal
of skin
cutaneous
supplied by one
the

time

consumed

in

the

"

nerves

be

separatedby

section

from

the

rest

of the

skin

back, the

of the

the

actions, whereas

reflex

with

stimulated

be

the

of

surface

the

being left attached to


carefully protected from
that
applied
slight stimuli
piece of skin easily evoke

found

be

"In

mechanism

looked

be

may

activity through
impulses reaching it."
into

The

the

upon

this is proven

and
"

of

one

shock, both
time

being

as

afferent

nerve-centre

which

follows

certain

requires a

follows

eyelids blink.

intervening

"

the

When

"

sharp

if the

Hence,

between

time,

eyelids with

our

thrown

of the

requiredforReflexActions*

The Time

stimulate

as

central

fact, the

upon

stimulus

afferent

without

summation

the

in

change

may

irregularmovements.

than

action, in

reflex

every

nerve

currents

strong

more

the

of

trunk

even

producing anything

93

ACTION.

REFLEX

nerve

and

skin

piece of
injury,it will
the

to

FOR

REQUIRED

TIME

we

electrical

length
of

stimulation

of

the

of the left eyelid be


right eyelid and the movement
carefullymeasured, this will give the time required
for
the
Exner
development of a reflex action.

this to be

found
for

the

efferent
and

to

nerves,

period of

the

would

there

consumed
action.
this

time

required

The

to

from

the

muscular

the

'0578

for the

central

to

"0471

reduction,

it need
*

be

time

reflex

necessary

said,

Fodter, op. cit.,p. 478.

latent

orbicularis,

of the

operations
not

the

for the

sec.

calculations, however,

facial

and

for

of the

contraction
'0555

of afferent

fifth

and

less

these

from

passage

the

medulla,

being

sec.,

Deducting

impulses along

remain
in

'0662

stimulus.

stronger

figuresthe
and

from

are

open

for
to

94

PHYSICAL

of

sources

found

Exner

error.

stimulus, viz.

visual

EXPRESSION.

flash

when

that

of

light,the
only exceedinglyprolonged,'2168 sec.,

not

he

used

time

was

but

very

variable.
"The

time

for

required

according to Rosenthal,
strength of the stimulus

considerablywith
employed, being less

longitudinalconduction,
central

frog
but

second;
time

at

We

the

will

instance,

as

are

reflex

being

stop

the

cerebral

oblongata,
certain

and

And

on

reflex

we

brain

animal.

able

by

an

actions, such, for


There

mechanism

some

certain

effect

reflex

the

entire

by tickling.

of

the

not

developed to

are

of

induced

remarkable

actions

conscious

normal

removed,

must

When

"

the

preventing the
spinalreflex actions.

which

actions

in

for

are

than

to

stimulation

the

required for mental


shall speak presently.

we

therefore, be in the brain

that

in

by

that

stated

for

propagated
about
a
eight metres
be depended on.
The

cannot

greater degree
of

effort

been

of Reflex Action*

are

increased

action

of

of the latter

ourselves

than

the

the interval

frog is removed,

much

is much

It has

rate

with

"Inhibition

in transverse

occupied by purely reflex

thus

operations;
a

the

and

reflex

this value

be confounded

of

of

processes

the

in

cord.

of the

exhaustion

varies,

act

very

strong stimuli, is greater

the

reflex

any

must,
other

or

development of the
learn
by experiment
parts of

the

action.

In

brain
a

has

frog,from

been
hemispheres only have
optic thalami, optic lobes, medulla
spinal cord
being left intact, a
time

average
*

will

be

found

Foster, op. cit.,p. 474.

to

elapse

96

PHYSICAL

The

action

EXPRESSION.

of

lighton vegetableorganisms,
and
its effects in producing movements
of various
I have,
kinds, have also been
carefullystudied.
therefore,put together the following notes on the
effects of light.
In such a subject as
the present, as in so many
101).

p.

other

questions concerning the


living organisms, it
upon

forces
to

consider

the

studied

with

seems

of

physical

to

me

ful
use-

effects of

light upon the simple


these changes
vegetable organisms, where

cellular
be

can

action

much

exactness,

well

as

as

in

animals.
The

action

of

be

roughly described as
trophicor kinetic; that is,mainly producing growth,
and not growth.
or
mainly causing movements
Take
a
species at the
sample of the human
earliest period of possibleobservation, directlyafter
If

birth.
that

when

its eyes

we

light may

examine

new-born

light shines upon its


the
oculi
orbiculares
(i.e.

infant, we
face it

find

screws

muscles

up

contract

it corrugates the forehead


and
corru(i.e.
strongly),
gators contract). If the eyelidsbe opened, the iris
contracts
is

the infant
light; in some
cases, when
to be a tendency to
days old, there seems
i.e. the skull
from
the light,
head
rotates
to

few

turn

the

from

lateral

mentioned.

light.
of lightupon
It is commonly

purely reflex

act

action

The

the

nerve

and

the

in which"

the

iris needs

admitted
the

centre

quadrigemina.

is

some

that

optic is

third, or motor-oculi, the

portion

only
the

efferent

of

the

to be

this is

afferent
nerve

corpora

ACTION

infant

The

allows

LtGHT

OF

of these

reflex actions

two

these

reflex

actions

these

reflex

movements.

lighteffects

of the

not

am

infant

in

this.

different rays
I

the

apparatus as

an

stimulates

light excites or
A
plain beam

do

other

of

effects of

youngest stage, but,

light in
five

at

objectwell

the field of vision

attracts

it is said.
so

move,

towards

the

of

know

see

infant

no

force

in

axes

is

it with

months
within

head

and

straightline

mechanical

force

the

its attention,

child's eyes

the

What

direct

child, except the


the

We

done.

and

movement

the

bring their
object. This

is work

there

of

to

as

of

effects

old,holding a brightlycoloured

as

white

of

the

know

not

in

light. Now,

to

spectrum.

aware

its

9*7

INFANT.

has, then, such

born

as

AN

ON

effort

excite

can

this

We
?
precision
passing from the objectto the
light reflected; a screen
hiding
such

The

objectfrom the child's eyes, i.e.cuttingoff the


of light reflected from
the
object,prevents
object from exerting its effect upon the child.
beam
of lightreflected
from the objectexcites

the

movement

rays

the

that

effect of the
travel

to

the

follows

light must
centres

action

of the

penetrate

for the

the

muscles

light; the
retina, and

seen

excited

to action.

few

words

of "the

must

now

be

said

as

to

the

effects

we
see
sight of objects." When
an
object,
all our
subjectiveimpressions of that objectare the
effects of the beam
of lightreflected from the object;
and all the objective,
effects of the sight
observable
of that object are
the effects of the excitation,or
of light. Here,
stimulation, produced by that beam

98

PHYSICAL

again, the

beam

transmitted

EXPRESSION.

from

the

retina

the

to

be

effects,must

its

light,or

of

deep

centres

affected.
A

lateral

stimulates

the

from

which
the

towards

field

the

lightcomes, causing it
lightor objectseen.

of

this

oppositehemisphere, and
the head-rotatorymuscles

of

contraction

the

light fallingupon

vision
causes

the

on

to be

side

turned

Fig. 8." Hydrophobia,

Light

acts

as

darkness

after

Bell.

Sir C

stimulant

favours

Head

repelled by sight

of

of water.

movement;

versely,
con-

quietness. Strong light

dispelssleep.
I

think

effects of
may

it
a

can

beam

be
of

shown

that

light reflected

spread widely

producing co-ordinated

among
and

the

the

stimulating

from

an

object

nerve-centres,

organized

sequences

ACTION

of

LIGHT

OF

movements

this

the

is

90

BRAIN.

ON

effect

of

the

visual

stimulus.
The

sight of
the

of

such

movements

beam

the

of

the

sightof an object that has


pleasure
especiallyif some
sight,produces a repetitionof
action

reflex

recurs

lightstimulus.

This

certain

along
similar

times

been

accompanied
; the

movements
of

the

same
"

it is

proceed

currents

nerve-

produced by

are

is

The

brain

constructed

The

above.

say,

the

most

attention.

to grasp

here

central
the

to

indicates
are

whether

the

phenomena

not

be

old, not

nerve-mechanism
actions

reflex

that

it is not

some

of the

child has

normal
methods

such

the

in its after

due

is not

by

growth.

so

the
or

that

see

duly

ceptible
sus-

this

its construction.

which

nerve-mechanism
or

notice

light,and

of
in

by

We

objectpresented.

be

described

attracted

months

six

an

probably develop
mentation

may

when

attempt
the

give

to

child

it may,

of

imperfect subject may

an

not

beam

light
than
effect
a
stationary
moving light,a moving

to

of
as

moving

marked

object,attracts

These

area.

retentiveness

"

they

phenomena

more

that

light;

wide

many

has

the

stimulus.

produces
beam

when

paths

all these

In

that

causes

excites

recurrence

indicates

fact

the

of

evidence

the

on

also

light and
spread to

The
seen,

ments
move-

extremity,as result
grasping the object

and

the movements

but

head,

approaching

reflects

only produces

the upper

in

hand

which

and

eyes

movements

the

in

object not

an

normal

we

judge
as

functions

will

of

100

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

further

of

example

"

retentiveness

"

light

to

in similar
impressions is seen
repetitionsof facial
object.
followingthe sightof the same
expression,
One
effect of light,
then, is to excite,stimulate,or
stir up

reflex actions.

certain

effect of

second

inborn, reflex

actions,as

effects of certain
third

effect

produce new, not


indicated
by the tion
produc-

in the

of retentiveness

light is

to

nerve-mechanism

lightimpressions.
of light is to control

to the

modify
Examples are
previously existing movements.
in the effect of the sight of a bright light,
seen
in co-ordinatingor
the sight of certain
or
objects,
or

arrestingspontaneous movements.
A
light,or the sight of an object,may
instead of increasing their amount
movements

inhibit
and

frequency (seetracing,Fig. 9).


then be
followingphenomena may
produced by the action of lighton man

The
as

(1) Reflex

Action

spontaneous

on

of the

(4) Retentiveness

The

evolution

action

inasmuch

movements

(a) Excitant,

"

(6) Inhibitory,

part

is

"

be

of the

and

contrast

Co-ordinating.

of light.

building up

lightmay

it

In

passions

it may

or

effects

organism, and

structures.
"

of

as

the

"

effects.

( (c)
(5) The

action.

(2) Transmitted
(3)

observed

be

of mentation.

spoken

of

as

extrinsic,

stimulus

side
originating outproducing changes in its
we
"

may

speak

of

the

feelings as intrinsic stimuli,as


supposed that they originatein some
"

organism.

mechanical

by

the

when

as

contact

sightof

an

mediate
(1)ima
body
diate,
(2) meobject

which

stimulus

visual

produces a

"

when

action, as

in
acts

be

stimuli may

Extrinsic

101

LIGHT.

OF

ACTION

TROPHIC

from the
passes to the subject
These mediate influences
seen.

is

infant

the

In

the

sympathies.
birth, respiration

at

reflex

mediate

constructed child.

Air

act.
in

movement

cites
ex-

normally

Sucking

is

the

and is dependent upon


irritation,

oblongata. Such

medulla

fl

called

movements

"

instinctive."
in

that

actions

In

this

to

are

sense

tive,"
"instinc-

plants are

is,due

flex
re-

mechanical

to immediate

act due

have

called

been

sometimes

object

their essential

construction.

trophic
distinctly
effectsof light.Pigmentationof the
in the tropical
skin occurs
regions
when
lightis strong.
Charles Darwin
givesan account
animals
whose
of certain cave-living
As

to the

more

eyes

have, in the

course

been
generations,

lost

It is well

known

"

of successive

owing

to

that several

the
animals, belonging to
different classes,which
inhabit
caves

of Carinola
*

and

use.
dis-

of

"Origin of Species,"p.

most
the

Kentucky,
110.

102

In

blind.

are

for the

any

the

crabs

remains, though the

eye

the

eye

foot-stalk

be

gone

; the

the

for

which

of

two

therefore

from

mile

the

In

Professor

mouth

one

of

(Wotama),

cave-rat

captured by

were

half

about

disuse.

to

animals, namely, the

blind

the

attributed

be

loss may

their

at

of

some

scope
telescopeis there, though the teleAs it is difficult
its glasses has gone.
with
imagine that eyes, though useless, could be in
injuriousto animals
living in darkness,
way

stand

to

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

Sillman

of the

cave,

the

in

profoundest depths, the


lustrous
and
of large size ; and
these
were
eyes
informed
animals, as I am
Sillman,
by Professor
after having been
to a
exposed for about a month
acquireda dim perceptionof objects."
graduated light,
and

This
that
the

not

I suppose,

fact may,

in successive
stimulation

organs

to be

It
developed in the young.
is equivalent to saying that
of light are
in all
necessary,

this

that

me

expressed by saying

generations,owing to the want of


lightupon the parents'eyes, these

ceased

have
to

seems

of

be

stimulatingeffects
to prevent the organs
speciallysuited
probability,
them
to the
to receive lightimpressionsand
convey
nerve-mechanism, from
degenerating in successive
generations. This is a trophicaction of light.
The
sight of a good dinner has been shown to
the quantity of gastric secretion.
wise
Likeincrease
the

the

secretion.
her

sight
A

of

woman

husband

killed

and

suckled

infant

poisonous to

food

stimulates

the

salivary

good health, after seeing


(lighteffect only),took up her
in

it; the

the child.

altered

milk

proved

104

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

CHAPTER

PATHOLOGICAL

FACTS

VII.

AND

EXPRESSION

LOGICAL
PATHO-

IN

STATES.

Disease

destroy

may

corpus

striatum

Effects

of

area

palsy

in

in

to movements
of

study

plants

Tooth-grinding"

athetosis

of

Cases

Defects

"

and

destruction

of

of

of

the

in

the

"

brain

"Facial

Analogy

"

Mimosa

"

The

children

nervous

of

eyes

muscles

Chorea

"

with

in children

Headaches

Destruction

"

head

Epilepsy

"

Finger-twitching

"

the

sets

Experiments

"

chorea

different

disease

of

of

with

contrast
on

brain

the

deviation

of disease

Localization

"

of

parts

Lateral

"

irritation

Effects

"

irritate

or

"

physical signs

"

their

development;

frequent

coincidence.

THERE

is

intention

no

of conditions
of

point

view, but

made

be

ourselves
kind

of

of
;
or

In
one

case

side of

direct
of

disease

of

thus

from

prepared

destroy
observe

irritation

man,

of

or

we

the

for

us

irritate

the

effect

parts of

the

scription
de-

medical

experiments

derived

often

upon

from

living brain

disease
we

enter

to

direct

as

experiments

areas

of

information

of

conditions
brain

the

upon

here

cannot
avail

rough
when
certain
of

struction
de-

brain.

complete hemiplegia,or paralysisof


the body, from a lesion destroyingpart

105

HEMIPLEGIA.

of the

of

striatum

corpus

the

following phenomena

the

:
"

Complete Hemiplegia from Lesion


Corpus Striatum.*
head

1. The
2. Both
both

6. The

7. The
8. The

combination

is the

Such

lesion of the

both

of the
in

turns

the

the

the

to

rotates

of

case

condition

of

See

Dr.

the

of the
right as a

eyes

result

striatum,

corpus

This

and

and

is

an

for

comparison with
rotation
(see p. 185).

of
the

teresting
in-

modes

right-sidedbrain lesion,the head


of the
weakened
right on account
left muscles,
it

Hughlings

vol. ii. p. 537.

destructive

the

right side pull

the

special movements

direction.

same

left.

and

deviation

right

phenomenon
expressionby head
In

from

the

to

movements,

of the

to

turn

eyes

destruction

few

Lateral

detail.

more

of

ened
weak-

are

striatum.

right corpus

to consider

Now,

of

posture, resulting

compound

head

chest

passing from the trunk


are
paralyzed.
the left side.
face is paralyzed on
tongue on protrusionturns to the
left leg is paralyzed.
is paralyzed.
left arm

5. The

"

and

belly

muscles

left limbs

head

frequently

left.

the

4. The

in

the

of

muscles

right, and

fallen.

eyelidsare

3. The

of the Might

right.

the

to

turn

eyes

upper

on

to the

turns

find

opposite side, we

over

Jacksoii

to

the

so

that

those

on

non-paralyzed

in Russell's

"

System

of

the
side.

Medicine,"

106

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

The

to the

turn

eyes

the

right side.
parallelism; the axes
on

there

"

of the
the

is

eyes

Thus

of the

show

may

Now,

lesion

right

the

which

centres

convulsion

causes

In

such

lesion

case

of the

or

lesion

we

send

the

to

to the

one

lesion

in

of

tradistinction
con-

state, such

observe

the

as

effect

striatum

corpus

producing

as

and
limbs

eyes

to

These

CORPUS

of

(or

of

the convulsion
destructive

and

eyes

the side

facts

coincident
destructive

the

right.

left,and

the

left limbs

are

eyes
vulsed.
con-

STRIATUM.

help to give

and

Left

limbs

some

the

eyes

turn

to

the

left.

convulsed.

is, head

towards

and

movements
on

Head

That

turn

paralyzed.

lesion

striatum

IrritatingLesion.

paralyzed.

from

the

to

left,while

to the

turn

is, head

away

rotate

Lesion.

Destructive

side

brain

contradistinction

RIGHT

That

of

through it)as
of the parts previouslyparalyzed.
generally speak of an irritative

in

head

deviate

Left

deviation

produces paralysis.
irritative lesion of the right corpus

causes

Head

lel
paral-

their fibres

nerve-centre

spasm,

their

which

An

to

of the

person

lateral

one-sided

poisoning by opium.
a

lose

not

weakness

at

eyeballsremain

general

do

This

the

suggests
to

looking

they

strabismus.

no

brain, and

such

if

rightas

the

and
side

eyes

turn

convulsed.

tain
explanationof cerpostures (seep. 151).

right side

of

the

brain

leg,and the head rotates


often see
we
to the right. In an
analogous manner
in the nervous
the left hand
posture a sign of
of the righthemisphere of the brain ; and
weakness
weakens

the left

arm

and

"

FACIAL

PALSY

associated

this is often

right,with

the

Again,

FROM

with

if

that

muscles, the head

is rotated

thus

indicated

or

to

The

brain

to

of

the

condition

of

the

side

same

of

the

relative

the
the

as

brain

is

position of

side of the
lesion

equally all

affect

head

the

(see p. 151).

to

expressed by
the

the head

kind

the

of

hemisphere, instead
of
excited, causing spasm

be

rotation

one

being weakened,
spasm

107

DISEASE.

right inclination

see

we

BRAIN

the

body affected.
causing hemiplegia does not
extremity.
parts of the upper

of movement
in
comparing the degree of power
find that though the
the fingersand in the arm,
we
patient can open and close his hand, and carry it to
On

his

mouth,

the

hand

fair power
As

side

the

close

cerebral

-facial
facial

palsy

weakens

This

is
*

seen

See

palsy

nerve

in

of the

Figs. 10, 11,

and

has

still

hemiplegia,*all

face

weakened,

are

ing
slightweakenpalpebrarum. The
patient

on

close

them

chronic

the

two

that

the muscles
when
compare

the
with

'the

strongly on

so

both

cases,

sides.
due

in its distribution.

markedly

for

is very

differs from

mostly

middle

largerparts.

especiallyin

difference

no

of the

in its

up

power

but

parts,

although not
when
urged to

side

the

lost the

eyes,

tightly; sometimes,
discover

has

of

parts

pick

unfasten

small

there

orbicularis

his

paralyzed

smaller
cannot

paralysisseen

unequally

very
of

limb

the

on

he

or

He

of the

the facial

to

the muscles

can

table,

the

over

the

use

operations;

wooden

adjustments

fine

cannot

of his waistcoat.

button

but

fine

for

off

pin

still he

to

This
disease

Brain

about

facial

the mouth.

patient
Fig. 27,

we

shows
p. 202.

his

108

mouth

to the
In

are

make

any

to localize

desirable

than

is less marked

studying

running

; the groove

teeth, or whistles

to

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

seat

the

the

on

the
other

nose

side.

disease, it is very

of brain

case

from

of lesion.

The

ing
follow-

brieflythe principles employed in trying


life of the
localization .during the
such

patient.

It

is

make

impossible to

any

scientific

The
face
cerebral
facial palsy, right side.
with
Right Hemiplegia,
Fig. 10.
in the
act
about
the mouth
and
the muscles
/.one
right lover
asymmetrical,
this nde
this is well
is almost
lost
naso-labial
on
groove
very indifferently. The
and middle
the two
sides.
No
is seen
in the upper
on
seen
comparing
asymmetry
"

is

facial

zones.

diagnosis of the localityof the lesion unless some


main
the
localizing symptoms be present. Now,
of
localizingsymptoms are paralyses and spasms
the

muscles

affected

nerve-centres

of

the

different

corresponding
men,

with

supplied

by

motor

the
of

mass

whether

softening,paralyzes the

by
same

force

lesion.
brain

from

Destruction

substance,

haemorrhage
muscles

the

in

or

in

by

each, and

BRAIN

interferes

with

when

find

we

particular set

one

the

infer

we

Similarly,convulsion
set of muscles
the

from

of

indicates

leads

Fig.

set

or

11."

to

force

of

of

lesion.

in

of

or

extensive

disturbances
received

much

of

cerebral

The

irritation

may

be

that

observers, and

jointobservations

by

much

the

particular

causing

tumour,

nerve-muscular
from

whose

palsy, left side.

paralyses, and

attention

force

motor

nerve-centres

paralysis of

the

particular

one

that portion of
irritating
coarse

movements

dischargeof

Left Hemiplegia, with

muscles.

discharge of

set

seat

spasm

the

particular

destruction

hence,

corresponding movements;

with,

interfered

109

PARALYSIS.

FACIAL

local

or

brain.
other

flammati
in-

Hence

profound

system, have

clinical and
accumulation

knowledge

such

has been

gical
patholoof

their

gained

110

the

to

as

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

the

portions of
observe, in all
and

and

that

of muscular

observation

by comparing
the brain
and

destructive

paralysisor
corresponding.
is

Epilepsy
(1) attacks

of

(2)
of the

more

in

given case,
as
during life,

death, and

by collecting

of

less

or

muscular

accurate

of the

studying nerve-muscular

Chorea
seen

great

excess

amount
o

is

useful

disease,

or

and

convulsion,

and

and

knowledge

of

action

of

of disease

of

be learnt
and
do

possess

epilepsy.

It is characterized

children.

of

involuntary movement,
weakness.

their

condition, commonly

in

of muscular

results

can

of

of

means

the

still we

abnormal

sciousness,
con-

observation

movements,

concomitants;

practicaland

set

by

of

efficient

an

of

convulsions.

being studied as indices of


nerve-centres.
Epilepsy is a condition
know
but little beyond what
which
we

much

certain

and

spasms

movements

and

that

parts

disturbance

this disease, the movements

associations

found

been

of certain

spasm

with

spasm,

movements

from

is from

muscles

sequent paralyses,has proved

study

knowledge

disease, characterized

chronic

careful,detailed,and

record

In

these

of, the

outcome

nerve-centres

lesions

irritative

that

The

it has

cause

of muscles

The

after
cases,

many

or

ments
move-

by paralysis or

lesion found

comparing

the brain

of the

state

affected

be

may

the

to

disease,the

knowing

action.

tain
cerus

direct

of the

of

encourages

nerve-centres.

already possess

we

they

the

are

certain

of

states

and

of movement,

results

correspond to,

This

brain.
of health

cases

lesion

result from

that

symptoms

The

and

by
a

ing
vary-

movements

112

EXPKESSION.

PHYSICAL

be

children

produced by

condition

of brain-cells

growing parts of plants


be liable at
the cells of the pulvinus,it should
or
bations.
times, under certain circumstances, to great exacerThus
guided, I have taken tracingsof the
analogous

to

of the

that

of

fincfer-movements

children

nervous

and

of those

sufferingfrom
and

to indicate

seem

1. The

Figs. 12,

quent

13.

chorea.

"

and

of

involuntary

continuous

inspectionof

mere

2. These

but

given

often

chorea

movements

than

far

are

of the

might

fingerin

be

fre-

more

child.

nervous

expected

from

the hands.
be but

exaggeration
of a nervous
child, usually present,
overlooked, tracings of which
are

movements

of the movements

"

of

movements

Tracing

Samples are presented here,


the followingresults :

may

an

in

Figs.12 and 13.


3. The
of chorea
be
twitching movements
may
compound, each visible twitchingbeing compounded
of

many

of the

little movements

seen

in the

other

tracings.
tracings in
To

have

As

suggestive,and

Fig.

14."

of

treatment

the

have

to

be

class

of

children

following experiments

to, the

referred

would

cases

many

the

to

in

as

these

tracings from

compound

paralysisagitans.
points with certainty,numerous

tremors

prove

such

found

never

113

MIMOSA.

ON

EXPERIMENTS

the

analogy

to

the

The

twitching

Finger-tracings in chorea.

pared.
com-

are

very

of children

case

movements

are

compound.

hardly
M,

Voss,
the

me

Three

require verbal description. Mr.


to
Streatham, has kindly communicated

appears
of

results
years

to

of his

ago,

investigations.

(Mimosa pudica)

was

heat

of about

Fahr.

the

compound

seedlingswere
sand.

Those

90"

of the

seed

some

set
it

to

grow,

decayed vegetable mould

into
a

to

and

at

had

one

moist
Before

commenced,

different

soil of

plant

germinated.

soon

foliage growth

potted off
planted in

sensitive

two

of sand

earths

the
and

parts of
grew

more

114

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

vigorously both

in

and, after

others

much

less sensitive
of silver

thirds
mould.

One

silver

sand.

two

These

growth, they
others
planted in
of
only one-third

than
and

plants were
showed

slightesttouch ; even
jerk of the pot in
slightest
all the

turned

soon

thirds

robust

so

the
and

or

of

they

Those

up.

produce

which

the

caused

the

air,or

no

sand,

The

died.

plants in twodecayed vegetable mould

strong

flowers, and

any

leaf-

air,or

grew,

as

those

greater proportion of vegetable mould.


to

two-

plants having
in

gases

were

sensitiveness

breath

which

one-third

and

sand
not

were

yellow

the

entirelyin

grown

extreme

to the

foliageto shut
nourishment
beyond

foliage than

months'

two

sand

or

and

height

died

grown

in

They

failed

off at

the

lower

all the

plants were
exposed,
whilst those planted in two-thirds
vegetable mould
their growth,
one-third
and
sand, fully matured
to

temperature

flowering in a temperature
foliage being of that full
the

fact

in the

soil

50"

green

or

60"

colour

Fahr., the

denoting

sarily
spongiolesof the roots had necessuppliedwith the various chemical gases
of moisture)
(set free by a due amount

that

been

of

the

support
requisitefor producing the continued
sensitiveness
the plants. Their
had, at the end
August, almost left them; indeed, after a blow

of
of
on

fall, but
twig, the foliagewould
almost
immediately regain its horizontal position.
Many other useful analogiesmight, I think, be
full
the subject is one
in this direction; and
made
the

leaf with

of interest
health

or

to

all who

disturbance

look
of the

upon

the

conditions

of

system throughout the

STUDY

THE

OF

organized world.

whole

the

consider

might

from

Among

other

transmission
of

part

one

115

CHOREA.

of

the

matters,

we

sensitive

plant

pressions
im-

another;

to

metamorphosis of parts of a plant according to


the functions
tiveness
sensior
discharged; the irritability
is in some
of plants,
which
far greater
cases
in man
than anything seen
; the production of acid
in mobile
other
secretions
numerous
plants; and
in
facts
plants facts of great
easily observed
to the physiologistand
interest
pathologist; and

the

"

of

those
carried

Sachs,

different

brain

of muscles

it is very

2. The

greatest
*

See

and

upon

upper
mass

present

the

order

and

or

In

indicate

the

should

first to
and

of the

hand

any

of groups

be observed

:"

the fact of chorea

look

at

one

or

The

disengaged.
and

in

absent

of invasion

to prove

case

free

out

of movements

dwelt

very

choreic.

be

try

we

as

"

convenient

held

indicatingthe

may

their recovery

examining

1. In

hands,

for
and

"

or

groups

by speciallyindicatingthe
should
following points then

The

looked

be

different

affected

area.

described

case

of chorea

case

of brain

choreic

that

areas

to

very

be affected,thus

may

studying a

of chorea

cases

of muscles

always

time

different

extent

investigations
of Sprengel ; facts which
have us apply to the study

Paget would
pathology.

of human

ing
researches, follow-

climax

are

since the

on

Sir James

In

Darwin's

Mr.

direction

this

in

fingershave

both
kind
been

described.
and

of

lower

the

his Lectures, British

extremities

choreic
Medical

present

movements.

Journal, October

the

It
16, 1880.

is

116

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

important

to

the

be

movements

whether

note

affected

most

and

involuntary movement,

the

or

; the

of

amount

of

power

coarser

voluntary

is left.

act that

varieties

Hemiplegic

3.

finer

the

side

mobile

be

may

common

are

much

the

least

though

not

weakened,

moved.

much

4. The

group

of muscles

discussed.

been

have

in this

Varieties

face.

present marked
palate may
irregulartwitching kind, the

soft

5. The

of

an

ments
move-

levator-

working distinctly.I do not refer


palati muscles
here to the dragging of the palate by the choreic
ing
twitchingsof the tongue, but to the primary twitchof the
In some
the
cases
palatine muscles.
leva tors are
distinctly seen
twitching upwards.
This

symptom

seen,

I have

is often

observed

absent

that

in

it has

chorea, and

when

usuallypassed

off

early.
6. The

tongue

be

may

jerked

in and

When

out.

but
protruded, it may
movement,
present much
still be kept out a fairlylong time.
7. Eyes. Upper eyelidsoften strongly retracted.

Eyeballs often
head

8. The

much.
movements
to

to the
9. The

The
the

moved.
the

in

active

stage

is often

During convalescence, and when


have
passed off,a lollingof
side

one

much

is

common

same

often

scapular and

i.e. inclination

side,combined

spinalmuscles

child

and

balances
upper

with

trunk

are

itself very
dorsal

moved

the active
the

with

head
tion
rota-

slightflexion.
often

affected.

ill,throwing

region too

far

back,

NERVOUS

thrusting the pelvis too forward, the


remaining symmetrical,or being thrown

and
still

lateral

It

curves.

awkward

the

The

sometimes

other

been

and

the
we

it

may

is

action

recurrent

notes

of

we

fifty-eight

mobile

nervous

ment;
tempera-

a
practicalpurpose
the principalsymptoms

was

the

with

met
the

always

one

of

years

cases

of age.

prominent

most
in

summary

this

group

complained

of

of

by

Classifyingthe symptoms,

mother.

largest

fifteen

under

headache

symptom
not

the

nerve-

children

study

we

by

this

in children

was

if

and

naturally

we

characterized

cases

of

of

patientor
find

be

may

heart's

chorea

put together my

made

constant

cases,

ments
move-

abundant.

for

of headache

Though

The

of

cases

children

of

and
has

at

movements,

1879

cases

the

muscles

alse nasi

centres.

nervous

examples

In

in

bility
adapta-

irregular.

muscular
find

of

These

muscles.

little;the

or

looking

consider

the

muscles.

vascular

The

After

into

that

me

want

to

spine

also.

affected
11.

due

to

compensations

respiratory

much

affected

seemed

was

proper

of different
10.

has

appearance
of

be

117

CHILDREN.

referable

number

to

the mental

and

cerebral

that

he

is

fretful; that

of

condition

the

child.

We

are

excitable, melancholy, passionate,or

sleep

is

restless

and

disturbed

by attacks of terror
night-talking,
there
Often
screaming, or by somnambulism.
pains in the limbs, chest, or abdomen.
vague

dreams

told

and

See

"

Brain."

by
and
are

The

118

PHYSICAL

appetiteis

often

there

be

may

EXPRESSION.

variable,voracious

considerable

entirelylost

or

with

emaciation

good
signs of
a

appetite,and without
accompanying
any
nausea
organic disease ; often there is considerable
or
retchingwith the attacks of headache.
Hacking
for it,is
cough, without
physical signs to account
often met
with, and usually the child is excessively
fidgety.
In
studying
children

in whom
it

symptom,

first

of the

condition
the

these

limbs

face and

at

carefully

was

the

steadiness

He

eyes.

of the
as

well

was

body, trunk,
as

next

the

tion
condi-

directed

to

'

was

the

result

the
that

and
fidgetiness,
the

as

to

the

of these

irregularmovement
was

muscles

patient'sweight

of

often

was

examinations,

frequently there

trunk

the

heart,lungs,teeth, and

state of the

examined, and

observed

limbs

made

then

The

As

separating the fingers.

time

same

were

parts.

recorded.

and

system.

his

Observations

was

system, the teeth,

both
to hold
out
tongue, and, finally,
before
level with
the
straight
him, on
a

out

shoulder,

urine

the

Usually,the child
the heels together,looking
hands
being down
by his

these

be

cases.

observed,

then

was

of the

arms

of

for

out

they might
in
found
principally

condition

with

to stand

made

straightbefore him,
The
side.
general

put

look

which

nerve-muscular

in this group

main

urine, but chieflyin the muscular

observed

and

were

was

to

necessary

nerve-muscular

The

excitable

nervous

headache

recurrent

was

; and

indentified

was

of

group

objective signs by

certain

and

this

marked

was

of the

swayed

trunk

about"

it

120

PHYSICAL

the look

point was
fullness
If

about

the

of

so

especiallythe
to

as

face,the expressionobserved
the

condition

above

of the

face

the

eyebrows
the
lower
margin
expression seemed
paper

held

were

the face which

still

still

so

to

the

to

under

of the

flabbiness

about

too

loose,with

was

an

the
an

be

muscle
a

eyelid;

the

plane
of the

from

of the

as

the

ciliarymargin

the

patient'sface

general change

any

the flabbiness

inelastic

skin

of

seen

is not

if the

in
eye

in the

in

senile

expressionis not at
disappear with
may
removed

the

parts about

all

to

the

the

in
and

hung

of folds

lower

more

is often

that

orbit, a condition

looking at
by

surface, it fell

convex

skin

number

and, in place of fallingagainst the

neatly,as

and

of fullness

in the

increase

principally
palpe-

loss of tone

appearance

lower

due

orbicularis

Speciallyobserving this
to be
parts adjacent,there seemed
there

of

portion

consideration.

brarum.

the

eyebrows and the


seemed
impossibleto

expression must

condition

the muscle

if

the

margin of the orbit,it


recognize the peculiar fades
this

the

case

while,

that

cover

lies between

that

the face below

or

apparent;

as

forehead

orbit, in each

lower

It appears

remained, proving

covered,
the

eyelid.

half of the

bilateral ; if the

were

of

under

either

cover

and

heaviness

depression,and

eyes,

held

were

paper

EXPRESSION.

eyelid
less in

or

lower
best

margin
seen
by

tion
profile. This condiwas
unaccompanied
skin

of the

face,such

emphysema, and the loose


decay; further, the facial
necessarilypermanent, but

improving health,

patient can
suggested that this

be

made

muscular

and

it

is

laugh. It
condition
only
to

VISION

COLOURED

WITH

121

HEADACHE.

to other
accompanies headache ; it appears common
conditions of depression.
that we
Having attempted to demonstrate
may
of the brain in
ascertain something of the condition
children
these nervous
by observing these muscular

movements,

we

of the cranial

of the

signs of

irritation

of disturbance

Evidence

nerves.

division

motor

for

look

now

may

fifthnerve

is

of the

in the

seen

great

tooth-grinding; the condition of the


muscles supplied by the facial and hypoglossalnerves
has been referred to. Irritation of the pneumogastric
to be indicated
nerve
by many
symptoms.
appears
is often
The
voracious,
varying appetite, which
is deficient,while
at other times
though nutrition
it is markedly defective,the frequent epigastricpain,
and the retching or vomiting with
headache, appear
of the
disturbance
to indicate
gastric branches;
of

frequency

occasional
the
or

palpitation
mischief,
and

the cardiac
As

to

the

difficult to
often

signs of lung
probable irritation of

fourteen

respiratorybranches.

obtain
to
In

accuracy.

indicate

years

accompanied

evidence,

five

cases,

of age,

the

of

headache

also suffered

such

; in

of

from

headache,

all but

spectra with

with
nine

dyssesthesiaof

other

illusions
one

case,

to

vision

the

patient
during the

the mother

headache.

Tooth-grindingis produced by the action


deeply situated pterygoid muscles ; champing
7

was

patients were

sensations

varying

distinct

attacks

it

nerves,

the

as

their

describe

seeing colours,sparks, or
attack

of sensory

disturbance

unable

and

without

frequent hacking cough


throat

heart-disease,

without

of

the

of the

122

PHYSICAL

is

jaws

; all

and

of

become

has

ground
in the

who

suffer

incisors
in

and

be

may

Ground

for

imbeciles

may

teeth

children, such
headaches,

it

particularly
are

those

as

restless

finger-twitching. In

wards

tral
cen-

flattened

the

by

canines.

recurrent

and

and

the

the teeth, which

that

nervous

from

somnambulism,

asylums

sign

"

common

very

is indicated

tipsor edges of

down

of

condition

must

we

Tooth-grinding, when

nerve.

habit,

of the

condition

seen

the

the

fifth

the

that

condition

to

temporal

suppliedby

are

their
as

and

masseter

muscles

it is to

origin

be

these

for information

look

the

produced by

muscles
nerve,

EXPRESSION".

sleep,
lunatic

it is very

common

-grinding on every side ; in such cases


tooth-grindingis a sign of central irritation of the
to

hear

fifth

tooth

sensory

of this

branches
brain

of the

and

Seeing that
during sleepin

muscles
and

of

spasm

fifth

head.

occurring
pterygoids

surprising that

is not

cause

the

membranes

the

causes

the

as

nerve,

the
in

other

epilepsy

hysteria.
ninth

The

various
very

chorea
manner
cases
seen

is motor

nerve

being

organ

is

supplied by

that

disturbances

children

should

mind

parts of the

slight

many

in

supply the

nerve

external

the

disease

grave

the

bear

to

rhythmically,it

contract

to

is well

It

nerve.

mass

the

to

muscular

almost

directions

sensitive

of

changes

tongue

is often

quite characteristic
it is

to the

tongue,
fibres

condition

this

running

in

unsupported by bones,
in

the

jerked
of the

in and

disease

of constant

out

is
In

nerve-centres.

easilykept protruded,and

to be in

and

in

; in other

its substance
movement.

Such

children

As

tremulous

terrors

six

lot of

of

that

frequent

at

the

In

headaches

in

tabular

form

3-4

Ages

distinct

; in

at

of

lines

cases

according

to

age

8-9

9-10

5-0

0-7

7-8

the

attacks

were

remaining

cases,

period.

of

recurrent
in

arranged

were

and

one

observation,

earlier

an

of

performed

acts

causation

children, the

4-5

etc.

history

under

came

occurred

the

seeking

him,"

coming,

old, such

years

he

time

had

somnambulism

scream

kill

to

man"

these, the

of his headaches

account

on

nine

boy

night-

would

coming

the

insane.

complicatedand curious; in

during sleepJiadbeen
case,

the child

were

of

common

very

was

four

; in

somnambulism

the

turbed
centres, dis-

mental

school-board

there

cases,

the

often

people

the

"saw

is characteristic

tongue

sleep was

frequent ;

"

he

that

restless

were

that

of

in

common

very

general paralysisof

condition

the

to

and

out

alcoholism, and

of

In

is also

irregular movement

nervous

123

CHILDREN.

IN

HEADACHES

sex.

10-11

13-15

12-13

11-12

Males

25

1228212

Females

33

0231255

58

1459467

Totals

As

other

among

of

groups

nervous

cases,

is with
the
preponderance of number
Heredity appeared to produce a marked
to this

ii'

-in-otic condition.

four
cases

As

and

cases,

there
to

of these

in

headaches

of recurrent

were

in the

treatment,

the

children, and

the

tion
predisposiwas

mother

in

history
twenty-

of

eight,while in three
insanity in the family.

restless,excitable

the

sex.

in

father

examples

There

female

the

great

want

of rest

condition
in

sleep,

124

PHYSICAL

appeared

to indicate

sedatives

; and

EXPRESSION.

the

of bromides

use

and

other

this

was
plan of treatment
generally
adopted, tonics being occasionallyused, together
with
small
doses of chloral at night for short periods,
till the habit
of sleepwas
induced.
Under
ment,
treatmarked
in many
improvement occurred
cases,
the
child
gaining one or two pounds in weight in
month
six weeks, at the same
time
a
or
losing the
headaches, sleeping quietly at night, and
again
becoming fit for a child's school-life.
Dr. Hughlings Jackson
(Lancet,July llth, 1875)
aches
has shown
of chorea, paroxysmal headthat,in cases

of

are

the

that

described

small

ocular

appears

of

age,

came

in

frequent headaches,

C*

as

have

higher

of

group

and

in

as

tion
conjunc-

nerve-centres

that

same

the

two

of

the

;
ditions
con-

same

affected

are

girl,thirteen

in

years

observation, complaining of
with

ocular

and
nights,tooth-grinding,

ings, such

not

active

disturbance

chorea.

under

in

were

the

with

evidence

owing to
possiblythe

greater degree

In

met

of the

afford

chorea,

muscles, especiallythe

commonly

are

to

the

lected
col-

occurred

certain

paper,

be

nerve-centres,

of

headaches

spectra.

this

disturbance

may

of

in these, the

in

muscles,
with

this

of

conditions

passive

preceded by

cases

Herman

seventy-sixcases
paroxysmal headaches

cases
fifty-three

often

Dr.

occurrence.

histories

found

and

common

spectra,

slight muscular

described.

been

She

restless
twitch-

had

never

'

suffered

from

rheumatic;
years

but

rheumatism,
she

had

previously,she

no

had

the

cardiac
had

acute

family

disease.

were

Three

general chorea

125

FINGER-TWITCHING.

nerve-centres

same

lesser

illness,but

The

varieties

referred

affected

were

in

different

of

They

to.

the

flexion, followed

of

This

movement.
in

and

"

the bedclothes

be

may

particularis

in the

greater
have

in the

as

been

"

primary movement
being
by a secondary extensor
in a variety of cases,
seen

in what

seen

and

degree.

be described

may

the

probably

finger-twitching

(1) Flexor-extensor;
that

that

; it is submitted

months

for four

typhoid

is called

picking
preceding fully

state

"

developed coma.
the primary movement
(2) Extensor-flexor;
being
that
of extension, followed
by a secondary flexor
in the slighterforms
This is common
movement.
of

chorea

in

and

subsultus

the

usuallyconstitute
of exhaustion

children;

nervous

in the

consisting
followed
As
"

to

in

by

their

my

being

orbicularis

from

so

tive
indica-

typhoid fever.
; the movements

separations

of

the

fingers,
together again.

drawn

finger-twitching,"the

"

the relaxed
are

of

twitches

lateral

twitches

tendinum

course

(3) Abductor-adductor

such

"

hand,"

nervous

tics
oculi,"the following statis-

cases
analysis of thirty-four

an

note-books

of

and

the

East

London

from

Children's

Hospital:
"

Finger-twitching*in

19.

"

Twitchings
With

the

With

relaxed

alone
.

in
.

hand

nervous

cases.

8
"

orbicularis

"

3
"

"

19
H

TTio

nervous

hand

in 19

"

Nervous

hand

alone
.

With
With

twitchings
relaxed

"

7
"

8
.

"

orbicular id

"

4
.,

""

19

126

PHYSICAL

OrlicularuB

relaxed

EXPRESSION.

in 10.

Orbicnlaris

"

With

the

With

relaxed

alone

in

hand

nervous

cases.

4
"

twitchings

"

3
.

"

"

10
"

As

to the

four

generalcharacter

nervous

in

cases

which

were

speciallynoted,

brain

disease
years

the
"

of age.

I have

was

and

headache

"

and

:
"

anaemia

somnambulism,"

and

teen
fif-

summarized
in

cases

thirtysigns
organic

under

were

which

Headaches,"

"

seen

known

all

abstracted

"

hand

of

cases

nineteen

the

temperament/''3
"

no

of

nerve-muscular

included, and

were

diagnosisof

nervous

of this group

6 ;

the
"

rotic
neu-

headaches,"

2 ;

1 ; "restless

1 ;
sleep,"
laryngismus,"1 ; "a dull child with
congenital
old rickets,"1 ;
1 ;
2 ;
debility,"
ptosis,"
slight
of
chorea," 1. The cases
fingertwitching had the
same
nervous
general characters as those with the
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

hand," therefore

I do

to the kinds

As

noted

were

as

follows

adductor,

and

extensor

and

of

5 ;

not

further

describe

them.

the varieties
finger-twitching,
:
Simple twitching,9 ; flexor
"

flexor,3

abductor-adductor,

abductor-adductor,

the tables above, the "nervous

1.

hand

As

"

was

shown

1 ;
in

associated

"

finger-twitches in eight cases.


the rightand left hands
In cases
where
were
pared,
comfind a difference in six cases, always to the
we
presented
disadvantage of the left hand ; it specially
"the
nervous
position"in four cases, and fingermarked
the left side in
twitches
on
were
specially
with

two

"

cases.

The

cases

marked
specially
opticalillusions

with

by
and

"relaxed
recurrent

scarlet

orbicularis"

headaches,

zigzag forms.

some

were

with

128

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

ciently

tary
volun-

perform

to

such

luntary
acts, invoments
move-

of pronation occur,

while

the hand

being

is

moved
the

mouth.

All

through the
of

to

up

the

general
of this

movement

limb

time

it isobvious

that

there

is

much

perfectly
involuntary
of

movement
"

S"

the

causing

wrist, often
w

marked

J flexion,or

affect-

2, ing independent
digits.
As

to the

of

hand,

the

dition
con-

the

scription
dewas

taken
forearm

while

the
was

gentlysupported
by the mother,
the wrist
being
left
perfectly

CASES

free.

It

then

was

OF

noted

The

wrist

hanging straightdown,
rather
nated
quickly,but not
then
the
hand
slowly
passes
position,the series of movements
Flexion

extension

and

degrees
The

movements

the

primary

flexor,followed

they

are

The

such

back

being repeated.
through a few

movements.

sant,
inces-

and

being

slower
than

is

one

; there

extension.
the

jerks

The

of

like

looking

ments
move-

chorea, and

gesticulations;

extended.

adductor

in

These

the

on

and

in

usually seen

turned

mostly

extended, while

no

are

are

as

the

but

is

as

CASE

II.

"

or

often

merely
pulled
boneless
anemone's

an

rather

are

the

of

is

utterly

were

of

movements

narrow

also

automaton

an

an

hand, giving it

thumb

appear

tendons

are

twitches,

the

elephant'strunk
The
tentacle.
metacarpal bones
together by the arching
such

others

chorea;

finger movements

like

by strings,or

the

abductor

palm,

looking as if the
purposeless,
pulling upon dead fingers,as
limb,

its former

to

purposelessand glidingin kind.


fingers are
constantly going through grotesque
sometimes
movements,
another,
crossing one

sometimes
flexed

in

fingersare almost
quickest movements

deliberate, not

more

but

of the

by

slower

are

carpus
droops,the metafrequently supia
jerky manner
;

of the wrist

nearly constant

are

129

ATHETOSIS.

palm

tracted
con-

of the

appearance.

associated

Athetosis

with

Chronic

Hydrocephalus.
His
detected

general health
in any

organ

was

but

good,

and

the brain.

no

disease

The

was

condition

Case

Case

Fig.

16.

"

Cases

of Athetoeis

showing Hand

Postures.

BILATERAL

of

the

right

from

The

lirnb

and

When
it

at

was

flower

and

made

He

hold
could

the

up

of it,and

tried

the

take
was

fingers

"

power

the

and

left
to

hand

put

to

the

flower,

it to

his

mouth.

his

frequently kept

half

flower

extended

right hand.
flexed, while

flexed

and

the

two

The

right arm.
no

but

arms,

when
the

between

difference

no

mowd

was

elbow.

child, he looked

with

were

hand

the

over

generally

in a slow
and
rhythmical manner.
altogether,
and
nation
not common
supinationwere
;
of the wrist
were
usually confined
of the fingersas described.
and
extension
The

ments;
move-

noise, evidently indicating his

his

not

compiled

shoulder

to

is

purposive

any

the

over

moved

wrist

The

for

held

was

occasions

voluntary

no

little

pleasure,then
took

useless

but

various

on

was

there

hand,

following description

taken

notes

extremity especially attracted

upper

The

attention.

131

ATHETOSIS.

there

pricked.

similar
was

the
to

ments
move-

flexion

There

was

in

measurements

rigidity of

some

weak,

right leg was

Pro-

but

the

presented

athetosis.
Here

with

CASE

in

in extent

III.

and

disease

brain

occurred
limited

of

condition

the

"

the

limb

convulsions.

paralyzed

than

in Case

The
and

arm,

associated
ments
move-

were

more

I.

Athetotis

Double

was

not

associated

with

Epilepsy.
Eliza
a

R., aged four

and

half

playful,intelligent,pleasing

well-behaved,

and

soon

became

years.

little
a

She

girl,good

was

and

general favourite.

132

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

Her

good, and
general health was
but
appeared good in all particulars,
tosis ; she
The

child

herself
and

unable

was

of

account

on

feet,associated
of

want

some

appeared
the

over

hold

fingersso

When

of this effort the


When

the

it and

is unable

clasp it
fingersare

object is placed
drop

to

doubt,

muscular

dition
con-

There
power

so

that

she

to

take

hold

it,but

to

; all

is unable

through

in constant

in her

hand

for

hands

no

was,

The

told

to

as

of the

there

elbows,

toy she brings her hand


the

anything

appeared natural.
of voluntary
amount

and

her.

to

athe-

face

fair

shoulders

doll

which
power.

and
a

do

or

the movements

muscular

be

to

to stand

with

of the head

the

for

nourished.

well

was

development

could
of

to open

the

time

movement.

she clutches

it.

Supporting the left upper extremity free from


the trunk
by holding the humerus, it was
possible
the following movements
to observe
succeeding in
a rhythmical manner.
The
wrist
was
frequently bent backwards, and
abducted.
sometimes
The
thumb
is mostly bent
in under
in on
the palm, turned
the index
finger.
The
at the metafingersare frequently extended
carpo-phalangealjoints,remaining flexed at the
of
inter-phalangealjoints. The greatest power
extension

getting the
before

much
and

then

of the
she

to

seems

hand
it

cannot

of

near
comes

grasp

The

an

in
it

on

the

index

object it
contact
account

with

finger.
moves

the

In

about

object,

of the condition

fingersare usuallykept flexed ;


the
spread them
voluntarily. When

fingers.

cannot

be

DEFECTIVE

child

is

played with,
also

as

other

the

to

into her
unless

go

When
of bed

the

of

of

and

of

her

but

less

and

eyes

general sensation
The

they

kind

her

out

movements
ments
move-

flexed

less

are

in

special senses
is good. Heart
are

have

than

legs about

in

those
in

normal,

are

and

bed,

purposeless;

resemblance

more

in

and

lungs healthy.

and

strange

very

is usual

than

movements
the

legs

noticeable.

are

movements

kick

can

movements

kind

in

her

puts

walk.

cannot

The

of themselves.

continually being

are

characteristic

She

hands.

let it

increased, and

are

these

but

slipped

cannot

open

supination

feet

of both

extended,

the

fingers

is

finger

and

taneously,
spon-

speciallydrawn

it,and

to

open

feet, the involuntary

and

degree, and

one's

effort

an

pronation and

toes

is

fingersgrasp

makes

hands

The

When

fingers happen

show

to

fingersspread

attention

hand.

the

she

her

when

hand, her

133

DEVELOPMENT.

to

voluntary

athetosis, and

less of

gliding,successive-rhythmical character.

During sleep the

of

condition

This

birth.

from

existed

hands

usually quiet.

are

the

child

There

appeared

were

to

signs of

no

have
gressive
pro-

disease.
The

family

quite healthy.

were

PRINCIPALLY

In

seeking

attendant
*

and

From

CONDITIONS

DEVELOPMENTAL

DEFECTIVE

for

Medical

February

Times

11, 1882.

causing
and

SEEN

CHILDREN.*

explanation
and

upon

IN

AS

of
some

the

circumstances

of the

Gazette, January

special

21, January

28,

134

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

children,

it

examine

cases

where

of

normal

function,
For

this

the

imbeciles

and

idiots

These

arranged as

are

easily
I

purpose

books

case-

my

be

1.

follows

Heart-defect

"

Palate

"

Case

2.

of hands

3.

Mitral

"

Case

4.

"

I.

Fingers

clubbed

"

No

tricuspid disease

and

No

"

"

of hands.
"

Congenital

cyanosis
defect of right
"

cardiac

face,

symptoms

cyanosis One ear deformed.


6.
Congenital heart-defect,with a varying
No
cyanosis Patency of inter-auricular
"

Want

"

of

rigidityof
Remarks

illustrates
the

without

Heart-defect

of

"

septum
some

nosis
cya-

"

Case

bruit

nosis
Cya-

"

"

"

"

cyanosis Deformity

hemiplegia, dependent upon


hemisphere Bell's paralysison right side
with deformity of right ear.
5.

over.

Left

Case

cases,

family.

Heart-defect

"

from

twenty- three

No

"

in

Malformation

"

abstracted

corded.
re-

cleft.

Epilepsy

"

Case

"

Heart-defect

"

and

being generally passed

GROUP
Case

from

observed

have

of

notes

existing
co-

any

deviations

consequent

may

and

deformities,

ill-developments,and

and

defects

in

arrange

obvious

and

gross

of

kind

the

first,to

necessary,

seems

found

commonly

conditions

developmental

heart

defects

in

power

legs from

left.
I.

This

series

on

Group

the

concurrence

of

with

other

deformities,

of hands,

birth, with

"

ill-formed

of

congenital

ears,

six

cases

defect

of

cleft-palate,
congenital defect
e.g.

136

PHYSICAL

found.
the

In

Case

feet than
of

presence
cases

distinct

in

marked

more

As

in

seven

to the

in

signs of

the

in nine

present

were

fingersin three cases


the
dependent upon

of

No

heart-defect
In

six

toms
sympnoted

were

cases

to

as

kind

some

causation.
"

impression

maternal

"

of
irregularity
Clubbing of

noticed.

was

obtainable

was

children.

given.

cases

evidence

no

cases

in three

present

was

found

was

by forcible impulse,
dulness, strong pulse,or proven
by

present

evidence

as

congenital defects of the heart ; but there


in
evidence
against the family in four cases
deaths
several
carriages
misor
particularsas to many
preceding the birth of the patient. In
of

cause
was

such

two

there

cases

the

the hands.

of

area

in six of the
of

cyanosis

heart-disease,bruits

autopsy, was
the

10

hypertrophy,evidenced

action

EXPRESSION.

of

presence

was
a

bruit, and

no

bruit

was

Case

12.

case

III.

CLEFT-PALATE.

OF

Cleft-palate

No

heart-defect

Cleft-palate

No

heart-defect

"

"

another

doubtful

very

GROUP
CASES

in

"

Head

small.
13.

Case
small

"

Premature

Remarks

Such

worth

on

birth

Group

"

Head

Marasmus.

III.

"

Neither

any

of these

cases

known

question affectingprognosis
in operating,etc.
chloroform

"

coexistingdeformity,but in
heart-defect
1 a
accompanied cleft-palate.
not
coincidence
a
improbable, and is
appears
patientsas
looking for in other cleft-palate

presented
Case

"

"

and

the

safety of

MISCELLANEOUS

GROUP
UPPER

DEFORMED

137

CASES.

IV.
AND

EXTREMITY,

INTRA-UTERINE

AMPUTATIONS.

Case

14.

Fingers webbed
epicanthicfold

"

Excessive

"

Case

15.

No

(?)
"

Case

16.
"

Remarks

defective

Intra-uterine

tation
ampu-

Two

"

of these

extremities

and
is

it

In

The

asymmetry

Case

senting
pre-

looked

rather

14

and

of

the

velopment
deother

no

coexisting

see

we

if

as

than

that

surprising

not

cases

amputations,

accidental

coexisted.

defects.

"

intra-uterine

being traumatic,
defect

IV.

upper

been

had

they

tation
ampu-

defect.

Group

on

deficiency.

Intra-uterine

"

arm

other

No

(?)

"

defect.

other

Deformed

"

symmetrical

not

Cerebral

hand

Deformed

"

Ears

"

and

ears

the

surely developmental defects,


fingerswere
accompanied by defective ment
they were
develop-

webbed
and

of hands.
V.

GROUP
MISCELLANEOUS

Case

17.

"

Double

CASES.

of

coloboma

iris
"

No

other

defect.
Case
other

18.

19.
No

"

The

term

lies at the
This

smallness

of

one

eye

"

No

defect.

Case
bone

Congenital

"

is

of

Deformity

"

other

defect

"epicanthic"

inner

angle

of

"

and

ear

temporal

Rickets.

fold is

the

right

applied

opening

occasionally developed
epicanthicfold.

as

to the

of the
a

kind

portion of

eyes
of

towards

web,

skin
the

called

that
nose.

the

138

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

Case

20.

Case

21.

Case

Double

Congenitaljaundice
Ichthyosis No other
Ichthyosis,moderate
"

"

deformity.

"

"

22.

"

hydrocele.

in

degree"

defect.

other

of both

Ichthyosis Deformity
healthy.

Case

23.

Heart

"

"

consideration
not

was

in

and
size.

average

Cases

in

I., also

12

is

This

uncommon.

Group

Nos.

"

in

seen

and

14

head

"

and

the

point
worthy

deformities

of

coexistence

The

ears

males

twenty-threecases, thirteen were


from
ten females.
Looking at these cases
of view
indicated, the following pointsseem
the

Of

of

No

all the
20

also

cases

while

in

below

the

13

the

The

family history is noteworthy as


In Cases
of possiblecausation.

giving indications
2, 6, 10, and

14,

was

constitution

feeble

in

the

deaths,
family is indicated by miscarriages,
many
of the
insanitywith epilepsy in previous members
the birth of the patientsdescribed.
families before
histories that the tendency
in some
It also appears
to

of the

members

effects

secondary
clubbed

the

internal

of

cause

common.

inaction

to
are

ears

obstruction

with

heart

the

low

mental

low

lead

may

perhaps

fingers,and

is also said to lead

later

The

family appearing healthy.


of the congenital defect are
of

Defect

itself, the

exhausted

ill-development

cyanosis,

temperature;

development.

faulty,dumbness

may

bile-duct

common

to

portant.
im-

must

inanition, and

head

below

lead

to

size

darily
secon-

atrophy
may

If

follow

jaundice. Ichthyosis being attended


of the skin, secondary bronchitis

Cleft-palatemay

it

is

from

lead

to

DEFECTS

IN

; but

general organic feebleness


rectified, and

be

may
former

under

the

one

Of

the

had

cyanotic ;
without

however,

were,

history of

any

It will
and

there

probably

"

be admitted

the

is but

difficult is it in

of

as

average

all the

and

the

the

before

we

; but

diseased

its ancestors,

species,that
that

say

abnormality

is

only

symptom

(No. 7)
of

cases

in the

human

was

cyanosis

we

body

so

define

to

variation

the

"

"

is monstrous
narrated

above

Possibly, in

obvious.

; and

world
"

the

"

seedlingplant which
in the
or
genius in
look
must
carefully

cases

gross

structure

it is found

specimen

any

in the

extent,

"

between

in the

monster," either

human

six

organized

distinguishaccurately
from

brain.

some

case

that

the

and

is different

sized

convulsions.

general anatomy

normal

This

for.

constantly inquired

may,

heart-defect

convulsions

30,

children

is,to
of

cases

in

October

fairly

defect

eleven

have

to

appears

condition

atrophy

to

small-headed

developmental

removed.

former

Journal,

develop

care,

proper

Here

lead

not

that

showed

1880)

the

(BritishMedical

paper

139

DEVELOPMENT.

these

or

the
existing
co-

of

some
see
development we
may
explanation of the accompaniment of vulgar faces
and
low
minds, i.e.low development of the brain ;
be
when
such
samples are seen in a family it may

defects

well

look

to

scale

Among

for

of

common
or

excessive

the
the

lines

of causation

in

of

the

development

defects

may

ossification

be
of

epicanthic fold, defects


webbing of fingersand toes, nsevus,
of

the

the

family.

enumerated
the
of
etc.

scending
de-

fective
de-

skull, excess
the

eyeball,

140

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

CHAPTER

of

Definition

their

nerve-centres

to

difficult

gravity

"

affect

can

action

the

of

analysis
in

It

"

is

mental

records

of

of

action

direct

is

posture

of

ment
move-

muscles

mode

of

expression

limb

labouring

expressive

"

"

is

Organic postures,
gravity Effect
differently during sleep

expression

as

"

Postures

Gravity

acts

the

of

postures

"

EXPRESSION.

Historical

"

change

postures

due

in

Postures

to

face

"

to

It

reflex

Classification

"

postures

animals

due

Postures

"

Fallacies

"

of

"

"

postures" Coincident
art

OF

resultant

to

parts most

Spontaneous

"

"

breathing"

plants

on

parts

due

is

posture

susceptible

from

of all

disengaged

or

MEANS

Simplicity of study

"

Postures

"

"

Free

posture

postures

not

AS

CONSIDERED

POSTURES

and

VIII.

"

Symmetry
in

Postures

"

and
tures
Pos-

plants
"

Summary.
THE

the

"posture" indicates the


several members
of the body
term

another

and

the

body

in

relative

positionof
regard to one

with

general, or

the

relative

The
positionof the individual parts of a member.
of
expression is, in
study of postures as means
the
some
ments,
study of moverespects,simpler than
as

of

means

expression; for

posture is

quiescence,and, as such, is more


easily
observed, described, and analyzed. Further
postures
be representedby verbal
can
description,
by casts,
condition

of

photographs,
in

or

works

drawings
of

art

they

from

have
ancient

been

sented
repre-

times, in

MECHANISM

and

statues

in

pottery,

on

postures
and

the

upon

this

and

be

studied

with

action

of the

of

expression by

of

pronators

the

limb

and

is the

bones

muscles.

It may

resultant

action

be

of the

tone

of the

the

limb
upon

balance

which

abductors,

The

posture

of the

that

of

opposing
is the

posture

antagonistic

and

balance

said,then,

of

of the

mechanism

supinators,etc.

result

limb

extensors, the adductors

the

completeness
depends

opposing muscles

limb, the relative

and

decorations, and

considerable

precision. The posture


relative position of the
depends in its immediate

the

flexors

so

and

141

POSTURES.

drawings, in wall
that
the history

can

the result
move

OF

the

of

opposing
muscles
which
move
a
part of the body. Taking
this meaning of the term
posture, we
speak of
may
the
postures of other parts of the body besides
The
members
moved
limbs.
by opposing
eyes are
muscles
then, speak of their relative position
; we
may,
to one
another, and the position of each with
regard to the axis of the orbit, as the postures of
the

In

eyes.

mouth,

muscles,
postures
the

of
may

so

of the

change
posture

cause

of the

posture.

parts

face

of

postures
result

last movement
We

may

by opposing
speak

to

facial

of the

is the
of

eyes, nose,

the

postures, as

the

of

posture

is the

moved

are

facial

the

head

effect
last

of the
result

muscles.

of

and

We

trunk.

movement

the

in anatomical

the

movement;

is therefore

describe

called

are

face.

it is convenient

tone

or

of

the

face, or

speak

the

the

of

that

action

also

different

of the

features

are

features

The

the

face

cheeks, the openings of the

The

features.
and

the

cause

terms

of

142

PHYSICAL

the

EXPRESSION.

extended

open

hand

and

the

closed

hand

; to
.

the

that

say

is

other

that

hand

method

one

has

changes
of

If

occurred.
be

must

postures

from

describingthe
movements

Postures, like movements,


the

of

central

The

mnscles.

of

the

the

forearm.

have

stimulus

could

the

muscles

of the

probable

that

central

the

of muscular

to the

point and
of the
of

central

we

the

is the

part

is

the

result

can

of the

direct

sultant
re-

is regulated,

To

hand

and

though only

as

nerve-centres

time

same

to
; it is

or

that

of the

the

balance

balance

of the

It is,however, not

to

enter

or

this

upon

cussion
dis-

nerve-centres

many

proceed, neglecting this

admissions
which

outcome

the

portions of
lating
togethersending stimu-

one

action

nerve-mechanism.

produced,
some

making

muscular

limb

the

muscles, and

purpose

the

spoken

are

whether

to

posture

take

nerve-centres.
our

is

part.

nerve-system.

us

at

is the

action

for
as

cause

the

nerve-centres,

mechanism,

of many

necessary

limb

part, is

muscles, and

from

come

limb

of

the

upon

of the

muscles

the

result

other

or

dices
in-

as

of

the

are

of the

the

of

many

currents

action

of the

hitherto

one

taken

condition

hand,

consider

reasons.

nerve-system

large extent, by
one
part only,let

to

same

they

bones

action

expressive,

be

the

of the

balance

position of

The

of

central

posture

of the

result

the

the

of

the

may

nerve-system, because

action

the

and

action,

movement

are

expressive for

the

to

posture

one

of

that

the

balance

regulatesthe posture
some
portion of the

posture, when

expression of

nerve-mechanism.

the

thus

action

of

144

disengaged limbs

is,then, in free and


we

see

mental

of

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

parts that

and

examples of direct expression of


gaged
conditions.
Examples of free and disenbe compared with
now
examples
parts may
best

the

stimulated

engaged

the

condition

the

of

same

parts.
of

hand

The

his

digging with
is expended

such

of

finer

the

the

When

especiallyif
head

The

is

part

of the

aside

or

on

eyes

movements

however,

the

are

engaged in
expressive

nerve-mechanism.

gesticulatesand

ex^

move

of the

by slight stimuli;

postures of
The

under
or

body usually

head
a

the

head

be

thus

are

ever,
how-

may,

slight stimulus,

fisher-woman

carries

head.

freely in their orbits,and


expression. The eyes
give much

light (thisis
eyes

to

costermonger

basket
The

free

not

when

alter

to

talks,

moved

usually highly expressive.

as

muscles

spade, and

member

and

movements

be

his

hand

easily

disengaged, and
hence

energy

emotions.

his

presses

actions

rest, his

at

those

Hence, the hand

puts

man

to

impressionableand

very

motor

nerve-muscular

and

sent

this forcible stimulus.


is not

in

engaged

seen

driving his spade. It


circumstances, require a very

nerve-current

digging

is

his

spade ;

holding

under

would,
strong

in

labourer

move

their
may,

strongly attracted to an object, as a


the
probably a reflex action). When
fixed, they are not easily moved
by

be said to
slight stimuli, and cannot
disengaged.
The face, again,is a region in which

be

the

free

and

muscles

146

PHYSICAL

usually free

are

to be

The

slightcauses.
exceeds
The

that

of

of the

mobility

eating,and

when

Postures

Thus, in

leaningforward, with

assumed

some

he

the

postures
muscles
In

to

act

with

heart-disease

down, and

sits in

the

ditions
organic con-

of

commencement

drawn

the

he

sits

up, his elbows


his

supported by
Various

hands,

postures

are

respiration
; the patientstands
thrown
backwards,
seizing

assumed

are

to

eyes.

to rise up, and

forward

head

of the

the

objectto give greater vigour


leans

muscles

simple action of
spasmodic asthma,

once

breath.

head

his

erect, with

there

the

his knees

facilitate

to

body.

of

the

at

his head

his

for

labouring

facial

conditions

to

the

express

knees, and

the

be due

due

patient,if lying in bed


the seizure,is obligedat
his

greatly,and

muscles

may

be

may

nerve-mechanism.

on

by

expressionsof emotion, as when


a
strong light causes
spasmodic
body

not

part of the

which

of the

and

organs,

varies

orbicular

they

face

contraction

face for expression

the

other

of the

contraction

to

any

under

free for the

not

are

stimulated

capacity of

circumstances

are

EXPRESSION.

on

his

enable

to

his

to

hands.
the

greater mechanical
patient is often

bed,

or

in his
*

efforts,or
Such

respiratory
advantage.

unable

to

lie

chair, supported by

draws
attention
to pospillows. Sir Charles Bell
tures
in
his
organic conditions
resulting from
the Dying Gladiator
criticism upon
(seep. 303).
Gravity is often a factor of great potency in
producing postures of the body. All livingbodies
laws of gravity
under
the influence of the same
are
*

Op. eft.,p.

104,

EFFECT

OF

GRAVITY

as

non-living things.

as

affectingthe growth

have

of

referred

been

gravity

as

has

as

produce
Gravity may
to

human

the

be

of

low

as

man's

in two

arms

under

in

in

manner

limb

fall

its centre

of

when

the

stimulated

not

strong

gravity,
the

man

muscles

action

to

stands

man

of

in

to

itself with

still the

such

ways.

tendency

influence

in

mobile

or

causing postures

different

are

the

When

sides.

in

growth

place

and

effect

little investigated.In

possible. Thus,

as

nerve-currents,
arms,

but

the

growing

upon

gravity

of animals

authors, but

factor

Gravity produces
gravity

of

movements.*

i.e. to

development

many

been

various

body

downwards,

and

influences

plants gravity

147

POSTURES.

general effects

stimulus

in animals

parts

The

by

to

ON

by

erect, the
fall

head

by

his

bends

to

one

side, it tends

to

become

erect

again

the

muscles

tend

to

resume

such

balance

that

two

sides.

This

they

in

are

equal

receive

may
that

when

side

to

the

gravity causes

be

on

the

explanation

some

strained,

the

on

muscles

nerve-stimulus

through

muscles

those

tension

reflex

on

that

It

contract.

the

that

the

convex

is received

action

is,

supposition

causing

to

by
them

be

however,

must,

borne

in

facts

mind

concerning growth of seedlingplants


that
be directly stimulated
show
living cells may
kinds
of action
to certain
by gravity.
is affected
The
face
of gravity
by the action
when
paralyzed or passive. The jaw drops when
the masticatory muscles
the
are
relaxed, and when
facial muscles
are
paralyzed, the tissues of the face
*

Prantl

and

Vines.

"

Text-book

of

Botany,"

p. 87.

14"8

relative

their

in

fall

palsy

of

far

As

as

expressionsof

or

debilityis that

fails to stimulate

kept

put

on

due
the

of

Some

causation.

the

postures

gravity

slightstrain

direct

determine

the

are

eyes

sleepiness

erect

try and

must

to

indications

by bending (inclining)the head to one side.


In looking to the significance,
meaning, or
expression of postures, we

cases

position

part be

of the

is not

muscles

the

the

conditions

head

the

in

positionsof

One

which

easily compared.*

in

the

know,

moderate

is

then

may

by gravity.

or

skull

face, where
sides

two

face

affected

not

are

the

of

gravity.

the

on

the

to

easily observed

is

side of the

one

of the features
Postures

position

This

them.

supports
of

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

result

of

reflex action.
If

healthy child, a
This

is

posture
due

is

object

small

of the

to reflex

old, the

year

probably

purely

hand

of

contraction
influence

the
a

of

grasped

is

be

action, may

in

the

hand

in the

part of the subject;

part

of the

that

trunk

postures
oculi

without

of

in

seen

under
an

when

seat

posture,

are

conscious

arm

is the

it.

on

spontaneous

where
a

The

reflex

cases

many

of

results,being

so-called

orbicularis
in

light;

hand

movement.

termed

of reflex

the

the

fingers close

reflex

the

to

postures. Examples

in

fingerswhich

or

contradistinction

in

placed

the

object
act

kept
some

on

near

tion
irrita-

(being tickled).
Spontaneous postures
come

about

as

the

are

result
*

See

those

of the

chap.

xi.

which

intrinsic

appear
action

to
of

SPONTANEOUS

the

either reflex

classifyas
assumed

in

Postures

they

in

the

the

The

emotions,

that

when

the nerve-centres

mechanism.

the

the hand

often

are

of

ends

the
joints,

cases

of the

condition

ligaments

so

of the
of

the

not

postures are

nerve-system.

due

becoming changed
the

they

chronic

to

the

study

are

often

so

are

so

indications
Postures

of

in

the

in

are

tion
apposi-

contracted

and

thickened

of

result of disease, and

the

as

of

action

changes

which

bones

not

are

self-consciousness, and

purely spontaneous.

of the

that

movements

commonly

other

various

under

value

result

certain

nerve-

assumed

little,the

In

fluence
in-

the

of the

children, whose
of

assumed

from

as

indications

hence

reflex.

not

spontaneous,

evidence

are

has

be said to be

see

we

have

we

purposelyassumed,
in

birth

Postures

unconscious,

of the action

postures

postures

either

chloroform, may

outcome

postures

spontaneous if
reflex or voluntary,

consciousness.

when

present

termed

are

to be

by

subject
of

The

voluntary.

or

adult

known

i.e.accompanied

by

at

probably at
spontaneous if they are

the

not

are

cannot

we

infant, who

an

volition, are

no

which

and

nerve-centres,

14-i)

POSTURES.

to

as

them.

upon

action

of

If the muscles

cannot

freelymove

the
from
the stimulus
joints,
be
accurately expressed by
limb.
the

In

many

postures
and

condition
conditions

are

indicate
of

of

muscles

the

the

greatly with

interfere

cases

caused
the

cannot

the

of

postures

crippling

by

the
of

the

nerve-centres.

the

muscles

by nerve-muscular

nerve-centres

of

state

signs.

may

the

local

the
So

the

rheumatism

joint

tion
condi-

joints,not
also

the

diseased

prevent expression

150

PHYSICAL

Another

of

set

the

cord

brain

or

nerves

which

the

expressions are

of

defect

part of

the
nerves

are

the
nected.
con-

postures assumed

chronic

their

or

those

the

cases

result
of

or

The

mentioned.

the

limb,

with

expressions of
the

the

such

In

be

may

of

nerve

be

must

cases

postures observed
of

EXPRESSION.

diseased

central

are

of

condition

origin,and

mobile

indicated.

not

Voluntary postures imply voluntary movements.


have

all

We

idea

some

the

of

difference

between

It may
be
voluntary and spontaneous movements.
is an act of volition,
said that a voluntary movement
of consciousness.
and
is preceded by a condition
the question here; it will be
need
We
not discuss
referred to again in the chapter on
Physical Signs
"

of Mind."

assumed

postures

inquire
function

only

are

the

the

brain

be voluntarily

can

of the will.

its

of the

"

whether

otherwise;

signs,the

physicalbasis

is

will
or

with

concerned

nerve-muscular
the

exercise

an

what

here
of

postures

Voluntary
effect
objective signs indicating an
It is not
proposed that we
stop to
by

will.

the

of

that

all know

We

we

expression
motor

it be
are

in

here

objective

manifestation

of

will.

holding the hand of a friend,


nerve-muscular
are
physical signs,and doubtless
they express
feelingsand volition in the subject.
Grasping

We

are

outward
hand
the

here

spear,

concerned

to

describe

and

analyze

signs of expression the posture of


holding the spear, or grasping the hand
"

friend.

define

It

exactly

appears,

then,

what

voluntary posture is;

to

be

the
the
of

impossible to
we

152

PHYSICAL

from

rotate
or

it.*

To

series of

We

postures.

of the

speak

is to

postures

more

EXPRESSION.

coincidence

of two

speak of a member
speak of coincidences

in

the

of posture

of movement.
just as we speak of coincidences
The
study of hemiplegia and
hemispasm, in
comparison with
examples of coincident
postures,
and
which
movements
are
highly expressive, suggested
to

to look

me

postures such
In

as

is

energy

in

remain

unless

often

The

subject.

concerning coincident

recorded

are

art, movement

of the

above.

the

for

force

Darwin,
that

in his

probably

similar

"

on

could

to

the

expressive postures.
excitation

Drosera

of

so

Emotion
is

is
in

hung

with

of

sneer

is

dog

flexion

the

expresses

Mimosa

The

infolded
that

an

shown

expressiveof
and

man,

examples of analogy
produces many
by postures in animals and in
Lastly,plants,in their parts which
recent

not

Expression/'has

of the

snarl

emotion

expresses

head

The

postures

nervousness.

work

the

limb

adoration, rotated

in
in

hand

expended.

were

expressed by posture.
inclination

the

expressed by

outstretched

movement,

shame, extended
and

for facts

between

pression
ex-

man.

tentacles

have

move,

leaf

insect

he

expresses

of the
or

leaf

piece of

nitrogenousfood has been caught by it.


has been
what
said in
To summarize
Summary.
this chapter ; postures are the results of movements,
for that
and
reason
they have the same
logical
physio"

as
significance

Compare

this

with

what

hemiplegia (see chap. vii.).

movements

was

said

; that
about

head

is,postures
movements

in

153

SUMMARY.

of

signs.A posture
body or a member,

nerve-muscular

are

the

of

part

its mechanism

the

to

balance

then, speak of the

may,

is the
and

position
is due

of its muscles.

postures

of any

in

We

members

of the

body, head, face,eyes, etc. It is in free or


disengagedmembers, or parts,that we see the best
examples of direct expression. A hand engaged in
labour
is less expressiveof mental
than
conditions
Postures
be determined
an
unoccupied hand.
may
by organicconditions rather than by the state of the
nerve-centres
body is supported, when
; thus, the
there
is urgent difficulty
of breathing. In
the
the body is supported by the arm
Dying Gladiator
to assist the breathing. Gravity often determines
the position
of the head
and limbs, when
there is no
strong nerve-current
proceedingto its muscles.
be due
The
to reflex
positionof a member
may
action.
shows
Observation
that a specialposture
the
follows
stimulation
of a paruniformly upon
ticular
surface

sensory

the

and
subject,

parts

Postures

may
the

changes in
direct
The
are

indices

in

may

movements.
man,

signs are

be

due

joints;

to

in

posture is

the

not

originatesin the
likelyto indicate the
Free and disengaged

brain

conditions.

organic disease, or

such

cases

they

to
not

are

brain.

worthy of study ; they


than
in man.
plant-life

gravity are

understood

Postures
as

condition.

of the

effects of

better

what

expressiveof

alone

are

the

is less

posture

the brain

or

here

of

outcome

spontaneous
volition

be
We

in

classified

examples

see

animals, and

expressive.

in

in

plants;

the
of
in

same

manner

postures
each

case

alike

such

154

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

CHAPTER

POSTURES

Method

of

OF

examination
with

hand

in

rest

of
with

the

the

The

"

hand

the

Principles

contrasted

with

differentiation
General

analysis

and

forearm,

The

Symmetry
or

of

"

to

action

The

made

have

some

of

and

among

I
been

led

extremity
the

to
as

weak

Analogy

"

whether

of the

posture

the

as

result

accept certain
expressions

individual,

as

"

is the

nerve-centres.

life will be
discussed

arm,

have

been

described,
afterwards.

these

points in
healthy subjects,

subjects in
patients,males, females,
"

"

Antithesis

"

parts

centres

postures of the

upon

of

my

have,

of

principles
Collateral

"

postures that

observations

thousands

analysis

Interdifforentiation

art"

Table

"

Small

"

Excitation

hand
in

hand
of the

tlie

tion
Applica-

"

seen

nervous

trasted
con-

and

extended

application

frequentlyobserved in actual
and
their significance
will be
I

the

determining

speak

hand.

of

weakness

spontaneous

normal

hand,

Anatomical

"

hand

Straight

nervous

and

large parts

here

PROPOSE

analysis
"

feeble

hand,
"

"

"

of the

outcome

of

postures,

Methods

"

"

hand

convulsive

The

fright

antithesis

excitement

Fallacies

of

of

The

"

straight extended

drooped

giving analysis
"

in

principles

thumb

Energetic

Anatomy

hand

EXTREMITY.

UPPER

THE

"

the

IX.

of these

postures
of certain

physical signs,or

and

dren.
chil-

observations,
of

the

upper

conditions

of

objectiveob-

ANATOMY

servable

OF

THE

UPPER

expressions of

155

EXTREMITY.

the

conditions

inherent

at

the time.
In

such

making

is

standing, he

or

sometimes

This
free

the
the

be

affords

hold

the

of

while

subject

his

with

hands,

the

palms

opportunity
hands.

of

presence

balance

the

out

hands

disengaged

or

noticed

while

to

the

out

symmetry,

coincident

can

requested

hold

to

downwards.

the

is

examinations

the

The

serving
obtures,
pos-

movements,

any

head

of

spine, etc.,

or

observing specially

the

hands.
The

parts
the

with

humerus

the

bones

upper

the

of

of

bones, each

with
at

The
the

The

forearm.

of

consists

which

carries

of
its

collectively

the

humerus

the

shoulder

five

own

end

and

of

ulna,

articulates

of

the

as

lowing
fol-

the

radius

up

the

of

lower

forearm

is made

hand

termed

bones,

arm,

with

collectivelyspoken
the

consists

blade-bone.

wrist, which

of

man

articulated

is

articulates

the

bones,

palm

"

scapula or

the

with

The

bone, which

its

as

in

extremity

upper

eight

small

The

carpus.

metacarpal
digit. These

metacarpus,

are

to be
enabling them
capable of slight movement,
of sticks tied together,
approximated like a bundle
or
spread out. The junction of a metacarpal bone
its digit is called the
with
metacarpo-phalangeal

joint,or

fingers and

The

knuckle.

the

thumb

are

individual

termed

bones

of

the

internodes."

"

For

the

illustrated
indicative

Perhaps

general convenience
and
of

tabulated

of

of

the

have

eight typical postures

positionscommonly

one

description,I

best

seen.

known

spontaneous

156

PHYSICAL

postures
is the

"

the

of

hand

convulsive

This

the

of

adducted

the

Fig.

hollow

the

by

margins, the
The

of

have

have

measured

The

Convulsive

taken

many
or

thumb

of its outer

"

Clinical

Medicine,"

1867, p. 375.

sequence
con-

and

inner

conical

casts
It

more.

contracted

of

it is often

vol. i.,New

several

cases

is,as Trousseau

by approximation

the

might be described
pathologicalstates.

in

Hand.

metacarpal bones, which


of
together. Important variations
of

"In

shape."
is specially
metacarpus
a

the

it, arched

described

metacarpo-phalangeal
the hand
being made

of

palm

assumes

condition

tetany.

the

over

approximation

hand

noteworthy.
and

18."

in

as

is

of the

flexion

articulation ; and

lently
forciblyand viopressed closely
fingers are

semiflexed

of the

condition,

Trousseau

hand

thumb

the

together,and

brain

by

the

limbs, the

upper

the

to

described

condition

common

due

hand."

well

was

EXPRESSION.

seen

Sydenham

are

this
in

screwed

posture
various

tion,
Society'stransla-

ANALYSIS

Let

OF

and

observe

and

of

the

The

small

all in

the

muscles, and

posture, and

flexion; there
the

stronger prevail
posture

in

if these

is

the

move

Hand

in

to

the

the

fright.
Extended

second

and

First

in

the
the

general flexion.
hand
in fright.
Hand

Straight extended

in convulsions.

Flexed
"

intcrnodes
"

Thumb,

bones

Fright.

causing

elements

and
activity,

all in

Hand

stituents
con-

largerparts
generalstruggleamong

is antithetical

Metacarpo-phalaBgeali

tetany,

the

digits,and

The

Wrist

to

cases.

to be

appear

due

characteristic

see

stronger

Fig. 19."

This

the

157

HAND.

posture

describe

parts, the

are

nerve-centres

this

less-marked

in other

occur

CONVULSIVE

analyze

now

us

THE

"

"

"

"

metacarpo-phalan-

geal

"

internodo
...

"

Phal

allies

ivlative

position

"

All

"

"

in

same

piano

Contracted
adducted.

and

158

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

The

general strength of the nerve-discharge is


indicated
by all the strong centres being stimulated,
in the antithetical

whereas
centres

me

say

here, that

hand,"
convenient

as

tacit

hand

"

emotion
Now

"

the
*

an

do

to make

the

20."

the

the

discuss

The
The

described.
as

terms

hands

Feeble

The

wish

not

of

do

"

vulsive
con-

always

are

only

so

the

in this

Hand.

convulsion

in

the

hand

in

or

fear."

fright1'
(Fig.19).
well

extensor

using the
etc., I
fright,"

condition

the

to

been

in

that

Fig.

in

in

terms, and

assumption

posture

weak

stimulated.*

are

Let

posture the

posture
anatomy

small

of the
of the

parts, the

large joint,the wrist, are

jointsfurther
The

contracting

element

in this

or

from

the

trunk,

drawing together of

posture, seen

also

in the

the
*'

"

posture has

phalanges, as

alike
as

well

extended;
as

metacarpal
feeble

hand."

those
bones

is

160

PHYSICAL

the feeble hand

the

hardly

this I believe

and

it in

see

in

seen

to be

considered

in the

contraction

the

condition

The

man.

postures is

two

hand

in

rate

at any

is

the

in

is normal

in rest

hand

EXPRESSION.

to

the

be

abnormal,

because

in chronic

when

held

which

woman,

and

healthy

Fig.

holds

out

the

hand

extension, but

no

is founded

on

who

could

have

had

balanced

often

is the

out

posture

in

child

or

Straight Hand.

request;

is

there

This

other

students, or
hands;

also

so

flexion,

no

statement

I have

observations.

of

not

often

healthy

jects,
sub-

healthy children,

nothing of my object; and thus I


opportunity of judging that this well-

know
the

nerve-mechanism
is

indicates

difference

large parts;

of the

in the

action

contrast

feeble

hand

the
with
and

of

small

the

collateral

parts in

metacarpus
the

of the

act.

interdifferentiation,no

no

in
transversely,

normal

the

employed

differentiation,no
with

The

man,

perfectbalance.

their

out

posture

There

to

numerous

requested a body
to hold

22."

I do

rigiditysequent

is the

strong

in

marked,

it is

because

posture typicalof strength. This


a

normal,

is

metacarpus

etc.
paralysis,
The
normal
straighthand

to

as

; in the feeble

metacarpus

of

and

convulsion

resting;

principaldifference

strong subject,and

of

is

contracted
hand

trast
con-

straight
carpus
meta-

in rest.

STRAIGHT

HAND

the

Now,
extended

The

The

Fig. 23."

this is

of the

bone
specialized
in

as

in rest.

strong

Rg.

24."

The

and

Hand

two
that

earliest

the
hand

intermediate

have

to
my

clinical value

of

"

that

Having

the

between

of

modes

next

in

tired with

well, but

be

encouraged

Hand

in

most

the

and

who

man

is

day's work.

Rest

described

and

the

are

StraightHand.

hand

those

especial attention.
knowledge of the
to

the

hand,

expression by

me

direction

being adducted,

feeble

seen

"

drooped.

mobile, and

the

"

drooped

in the

metacarpus

is often

attracted

on

the

This

strength, is

Thumb

with

most

hand,

convulsive

the

hand

first and

of

thumb

normal

the

from

this ortho-

metacarpal bone.

with

Hand

from

type

thumb

Straight Extended

weakness, the

of

the
hand

departure

the

161

DKOOPED.

deviation

is

of

posture

ortho-extended

"

THUMB

degree of

hand, which

in the

seen

first

WITH

which
It

was

"

these

pursue

tures
pos-

nervous

gations
investi-

expression.

during

conditions

of

some

the

years

given specialstudy

nerve-system

in

to

children, my

162

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

to the various
especiallydrawn
tures
posnation
presented by children brought to me for exami-

attention

was

and

East

the

at
from

1878

kept

observed.*
hold

hands,

of each

hand

though
of certain

hands
the

to

the

in

Later

feminine

and

"

side

with
the

them

hands

anatomical

the

ing
visitof

the

Museum,

with

the

saw

Diana-

represented side

expressionof
of

guage,
lan-

children.

nervous

nervousness

in direct

marble

In

the

contrast

to be

the

and

side

was

exactly similar

British

by

or

characteristic

posture

was

in

seen

the

at

year,

the

first it

1879, while

that

me

often

so

coyness

side

In

be

to

condition

in anatomical

to

de' Medici

English Venus

the

by

it struck

posture

At

postures

conditions.

of the Venus

passive

seen

tures
pos-

requested

noted.

were

Children,

spontaneous

were

the

and
was

some

nerve

Florence,

of the

children

the

difficult to describe

for

Hospital

notes

The

their

out

posture

London

hand

strength

postures showed

antithesis.

it became

and

energy

While

easy

to

looking at

describe

their

postures.

the

hand"

the

wrist

is

slightly
flexed or bent, the metacarpo-phalangealjointsare
moderately hyper-extended (extended beyond the
straightline),the first and second internodes
being
either
slightlyflexed or kept straight. The thumb
backwards,

extended

is

the

from
*

"

of the
and
"

"nervous

fingers. This
of

Conditions

Chirurgical

Brain," part
t See

the

Society

xxiii.

Fig. 32,

Brain."

p. 296.

of

somewhat

abducted

spontaneous posture
of the

Postures

Spontaneous

and

Hand
Read

London,

considered
before

November

the

as

indications

Royal
28,

I have

Medical

1882.

See

THE

others

and

seen,

in

usually

with

from

is sometimes

seen

often

represented
on

side

one

from

chorea,
in

the

posture

same

The

ture
pos-

usually unequally

; it is also

only, especiallyin

cases

sleepers,those

The

is

sides

two

posture

25."

of

The

the

children

often

seen

convalescent

the

note

described
and

Saint-

brain

wrist

to

is

in

Main

du

dite

Dr.

Little

also

spastic contraction.
extended,
Here

flexion.

"

H.

under
so

the

have

doing

Meillet

name

of

Paris,

preMicateur

em-

Salpetriere,service de M. Charcot,
It is there
Paul, No. 6, Isme'ric Angot."
a
deformity resulting from
permanent

disease.

due

wrist,

as

since

frequently seen

La

phatique.
figured

less

posture figured by

the

with

Hand.

Nervous

hand

"

found

as

bad

of

partial hemiplegia.

pathologicalstates, I
the
energetic hand,"

salle

hundreds

etc.

bilateral, but

on

1G3

hemichorea.

Another

of

in

children,

Fig.

in

HAND.

me,

nervous

convalescent

is

NERVOUS

and

analysis

extension, the

the
shows

figures
In

small
the

opposite to

this

this

posture

posture

joints are

the

all in

large joint, the


the

condition

of

164

PHYSICAL

and

weakness,
the

gives to
the

EXPRESSION.

this

extension

posture
in

seen

in

The

joints

all

small

hand

of

the

to be

analysisshows
of the

antithesis

"

the

Wrist

and

or

indication

of

"

energetichand
hand."
Energetic

Hand.

Hand.

Flexed

Extended

Extended

Flexed

....

Flexed

internodes

second

"

Thumb,

sleep

Metacarpo-phalangeals
First

"

nervous

Nervous
.

the

are

Energetic Hand.

The

26."

in

man

resting,and this gives the posture


strength or activitywith rest.

Anatomical

large joint

of excitement

the

Fig.

the

the indication

nerve-mechanism.

flexed, as

of

Extended

metacarpo-phalangeal

"

internode
"

Phalanges,
The

This
the

suggests another

meaning

Charles

many
p. 28.

ucted

the two

postures

opposites.

antithesis

of

position

Add

Slightly abducted

physiologicalexpressions of
also

are

"

"

relative

modes

of

of certain

may

Darwin

principleof

be

uses

expression.

the

postures.

enunciated
principle
See

"

as

of

in

use

The

follows

antithesis

Expression

explaining
principle

of

the

to

"

In

explain

Emotions,"

THE

opposite

conditions

the
be

of

the

nerve-mechanism

joint, the

the

wrist, flexion
in

"

; this

or

ing
govern-

would

condition

should

we

will

weak

nerve-mechanism

excited

nerve-mechanism

ducing
pro-

postures

e.g. in

results

an

165

POSTURES.

antithetical

or

anticipatethat
of

of

condition

the

OF

postures of

opposite

inactive

CAUSE

lead
of

find

this

the

to

us

piece
wrist

extended.
The

of

postures

mechanism

limb

the

upon

resultant

muscles, the relative

tone

and

adductors

the

extensors,

Various

views

considered

of the

action

due
In

line

of the

portion

balance

that

posture,
In

muscles

what

observe

to

assumed

out.*
hold

Let
out

shoulder

See

the

by
her
in

hands
a

"Brain,"
6, 1879.

prone
part

some

of

cause

the

index

an

of

front

nerve-system
been

posture
be

on

position.
British

The

habit

my
would

forearm

child

nervous

and

is

years

the

when

xi. ;

that

produces

of the

several

in

sidered
con-

nerve-mechanism.

spontaneous

weak,

that

condition

hand

be

is the

posture

central

for

children, it has

in

be

may

may

granted

of

the

of

of nerve-mechanism.

nerve-system

the

to

regulating the

central

the

the

balance

will, I think, be

examining

regard

mechanism

kind

other

of that

etc.

contraction

action

the

or

therefore

and

condition

the

reflex

of

some

it

case

any

That

muscles,

to

with

abductors,

regulatesthe

of muscles.

opposing sets

opposing

antagonisticflexors
and

held

which

of

action

of the

be

may

nerve-mechanism

in their immediate

depend

be

held

was

requested

level

with

limb

Medical

is

to

the
now

Journal,

cember
De-

166

PHYSICAL

free

EXPRESSION.

disengaged,and

or

hand

is in

most

of the

outcome

From

action

after

subjects,cases

of

of

the

to

as

the

spontaneous

spontaneous

weakness,

indication

tures,
pos-

spontaneous
free

hand

in

strong men,
empirical idea

children, an

nervous

women,

by

nerve-centres.

frequentlytrying what
be
assumed
by the

various

obtained

assumed

believe, the

observation

would

was

posture

of the

posture
feeble

cases,

continued
and

the

of each

posture.

comparison,analysis,and analogy enabled me


definite
to suggest some
principles. In seeking a
rational explanation of this posture, I first tried to
find a solution
in
by looking at it after the manner

Then

which

posture of the
for

about

this

free

not

lean

the

droops at

is

muscles

looked

or

its

occurrence

was

of

ness.
weak-

"

hand

nervous

brought

or

of amelioration

"

tions
observafor where

assumed

was

kind

of his

most
were

purpose,

was

in

seen,

ing,
disengaged,in people who, standforward
with the outspread hands

the table for

restingon
rest

or

little

hand

some

Then
hand

Cases

useful

some

with

attended

made

postures.

upon

this

Darwin

Charles

then

wrist, and

weak,

This

support.

hand

if the

seeking

stimulus

to

the

weight of the trunk


the
bears
resting hands, hyper-extension of
upon
the metacarpo-phalangealjointsand of the thumb
If this be accepted
is mechanically brought about.
the

as

an

explanation,the argument

1. Observation
or

he

weak
2. The-

hand

as

often

that

shows

nerve-mechanism

is thrown

into

when

his hands

rests

the

stands

as

thus
man

"

is tired

described.

corresponding
special condition

to

the

corre-

168

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

by analysis to
the

probable

the

constitute

indication

hand," and

"

nervous

conditions

of the

analogous
kind
of explanation of this
to these, we
get some
posture. The drooping wrist is analogous to that
in
seen
hemiplegia ; the hyper-extension of the
and
is analogous to conditions
knuckles
thumb
such

chorea

as

appears

This

explanation than

rational

more

tendinum.

subsultus

and

that

first

analysisand analogy give


indication
of
of the physiologicalsignificance
some
the posture. Something very
like this posture of
the hand
is indicated
on
by Dr. Little in his work
deformities, 1853, as the result of "spastic contraction."
given, and

My

the methods

present object

postures

be

may

of

the

we

action

conditions

see

these

in

the

often

centre,

as

brain.

As

tions
indicato

the

primary
is
following principles,
inquiries.

or

repeated

in

the

there

that

be assumed

independently." In any
assumption of the existence

it could

be shown

that

would

there

is

some

nerve-

corresponding

act

nerve-mechanism

in different

and

same

nerve-mechanism,

are

which

particularinstance
of such
be
cases

centre

or

strengthened if
of

excitation

paralysisof such hypotheticalcentre.


The
following suggestions are offered as to the
methods
come
of determining whether a posture is the outof the spontaneous action of the nerve-centres.
cases

of

nerve-muscular

spontaneous

piece of
and

spontaneous

advantage
the

of

in

some

subjects,it may

the

with

that

"

"If

can

show

is to

studied

principlesinvolved
postulate,involved
that

of

NERVE-MUSCULAR

posture observed
of

outcome

mechanism

the

the

If the
in

holding

the

of

postures
of

limb

the

considered

in

of

part

of the

hand

the

be

action
or

muscles

object,or

an

only

can

spontaneous

when

169

POSTURES.

the

is free

hand

nerve-

and

engaged.
dis-

engaged
manipulation,

act

of

are

not

simply

action

the

are

an

spontaneous

as

the

the

of

come
out-

nerve-

mechanism.
Postures

frequentlyseen
accompanying, and
brain-disease
apparently caused
by, demonstrable
;
as
hand," cerebral facial
examples, the "convulsive
these
otherwise,
palsy.* When
postures occur
be
looked
apparently spontaneously, they may
nerve-muscular
as
signs produced by the
upon
nerve-mechanism
corresponding.
Postures
which
in very young
are
frequentlyseen
infants
children
and
are
certainly spontaneous.
Postures
to be frequentlyrepeated in many
seen
such
subjects are
probably spontaneous
young
nerve-muscular
actions.
With
regard to postures
thus
observed
in many
infants, it is probable that
the piece of nerve-mechanism
corresponding is well
definite so as to be
developed, and rendered
very
easilyexcited to spontaneous action.
When

be

are

posture

analogous

to

probabilityof
Postures
man,

and

one

its

in

seen

often

adult

an
seen

spontaneous

origin

disengaged parts, still


frequently represented in
See

f See
9

pp. 108, 109,

Fig. 35,

Figs. 10, 11.

p. 300.

found

to

infants, the

in

of

is

is

ened.
strength-

observed
ancient

in

art,f

170

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

of

probably

are

frequent spontaneous

occurrence,

and

highly characteristic nerve-muscular


postures.
The
applicationof the "principlesof analysis"
assist in determining whether
a certain
posture
may
is

observed
action

probably the

of the

In

action

studies

of the

Postures

has

due

this
the

as

to

the

especially
joint-disease,
M. Charcot
tiates
carefullydifferendeformity and the posture he

deformans.

described

avoid

to

nerve-mechanism.

be

between

taken

attributingall postures

central
may

be

must

care

from

errors

arthritis

spontaneous

nerve-centres.

these

certain

of the

outcome

"

to

"

hand

writing

often

in

seen

paralysisagitans.
Postures

may

inflammation,
Postures

due

be

determined

attention
the

of

action

of the

Gravity

leans

the

be

may

on

often

will

in

droop
*

critical

effect of the

direct

analysis
Such

spontaneous

flexion

p. 303.

"free"

be

figureof

Hercules

club

to

right
a

from

is

if the

or

rest,|

body,

determined
such

paretic arm
brain

at

his

support
arm

of

causation

member

the
In

the

in

factor

in the

chorea, or

into
See

Sir C. Bell

Gladiator.*

Dying

vertical

the

seen

the

the

posture of
mainly by gravity.
and

respiratory and

the

in his

matter

tions,
condi-

nerve-centres.

engaged," thus

he

of

whether

postures,
"

this

to

not

are

tumours,

"

causing orthopnoea.

posture

postures

causes

by organic

in

difficulties

as

circulatoryorgans
drew

local

to

etc.

may

such

be

as

is

disease, the wrist

forearm
t See

is held

p. 305.

out

FALLACIES

held

fall

will

but

prone,

TO

AS

into

171

POSTURES.

extension

with

together

gravity,

OF

Dorsal

supine.

out

MEANING

if the

decubitus

general

forearm

is

results
of

palsy

from

the

motor

nerve-mechanism.
Postures

disease,

be

may
thus

injury

the

musculo-spiral

the

third

postures

the

to

local

to

nerve,

parts

not

depending

nerve

pressing

produce

supplied

by
the

upon

to

upon

certain

these

or

injury

gumma

may

the

injury

nerve

facial

nerve;

cranial

of

due

tures
pos-

such

nerves,

condition

of

the

nerve-centres.
Postures

due

be

may

dependent
such

as

kept

separate

it

sclerosis.

be

from

the

have

been

exact
its

and

that

physiological
The

subjoined

typical
study

postures,
of

it may

of

methods

the

of

indications

as

useful,

that

is

the
be

that

of

contain

applying

the

the

central

proofs

spontaneous
of

the
as

Fig. 27,

p.

tures
posbrain
of

one

system

nervous

is
the
in

conditions.

descriptions
"

principles

of
"

each.
See

be

temporary,

some

considered
the

of

pathological

tables

to

condition

studying

and

due

study

lesion,

should

cases

hoped

traction
con-

brain

condition

It

given

Such

postures

momentary,

nerve-mechanism.

muscular

permanent

upon

descending

may

rigid

to

202, representing

facial

palsy.

eight
to

the

172

w
_J

"

")
H

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

POSTURES

PQ

OF

THE

UPPEK

EXTREMITY.

173

174

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

"D

"in
sM

B
S 6

Is

ss.3

P-^P

"^

t_

",o"

"-l

"

-SSs

"""
O

""

*-l

--^

111

tJDX"

"B 2 a

r-

.-.

"

T3
-4-1

"

"**

.22
Ui

"u

c?

T3

I
"u

s
s

dr?
A
H
cS T3
^ O

nd

b"
a

"

bfl

II

-"

a"
"4J

"c

1?
J
"U "S
TJ-S "S
hyp (SS6.
5

.2

"
-u
"

a"

-=3-g .lg "


"^'rr"'2S3-2

,rf

a"

-"

-9

'

^
P

'c

I
_2

Stt

rs

T3

a"

.2
"
*-"

^3

"U
E

i"

-u

2 "
m

coate
n

0-53.9

-^

B.a

lsi

43
*

tS 2'"-S;3 -2
"C
"-'C
" o'g
"

fl

^
"^"

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a3 2
g5fc ra

o3"U3a53c3-g.t:oj
O

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03

|.2

'eS

C3

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ffl
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=

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=

gT3
PH

HH

O.

176

PHYSICAL

It
of

EXPRESSION.

desirable

seems

further indication
give some
it is hoped to gain from
the

to

the

knowledge that
systematic study of postures. I
indicate what
specialportions of
in
think

different

producing
details

such
localize

the

attempt

brain

be

for the

to

cerned
con-

do not

given.

hand

"

are

and

postures,

present

centre

motor

at

can

do not

in

not
can-

fright ;

could

do

we

so, it

portionof

what

idiot,whose

posture,I

took

were

of the

casts

in the

the

case

the

convulsive

and

hands,

to

as

is concerned

fright. In
usually in

called

hands

evidence

some

brain-mechanism

condition

mental

afford

would

"

'

of

an

subsequently

opportunity of examining the brain, which


marked
defects in the posterior
showed
convolutions.
It is probable that difference in hand
posture on the

had

the

two

sides indicates

brain, and of this

of the
evidence

on

of
difference

the
These

centres

in the

the

posture on
the

not

e.g.

the

usually the left;these


in

in many

enunciated

seen

observations

the

in

hands

that

the

nerve-

action, the

being asymmetrical,

of one-sided

is often

give

idiosynr.hronism.
of

free,a

condition.

people

and

on

may

study
application of

above, and,

ning;
grin-

side

one

evidence

The

ciation
asso-

sides,or different

different

occurrence

healthy people,and

gives examples

in

the face

hand

held

are

strictlysymmetrical

frequent

nervous

are

that

postures of

average

the

hands, give evidence

two

show

two

spheres
hemi-

give further

to

upon

the hands

studies
are

hope

postures. When

hemispheres

two

of the two

occasion, founded

another

in

movements

different action

only,

be conducted
of

the

of
the

vidual's
indi-

postures

ciples,"
"prin-

think, affords

some

ANALYSIS

177

POSTURES.

OF

practicalimportance. Most of these


points are commonplace clinical considerations, but
planation
exprinciplesvi. and vii. perhaps require further
their

proof of

It
and

and

defence.

be

readily

may

to

know

of excitement

or

important

also

centres, and

motor

cases,

where

some

but

the

are

nerve-centre,

of

strength

stimulation

the

outward

different

physical

weakness

or

In
has

experience

common

among
numerous

shown

general

widespread stimulation, etc.,


analysis have been applied,and

strength,weakness,
these

of

tions
indica-

motor

nerve-mechanism.

the

of

portions

it is desirable

the

are

over-action

what

signs of widespread

that

what

relative

the

know

to

admitted

or

principlesof
general knowledge
exact
knowledge
more

experimental method,
of Physiology* to be
much
more
precise and
an

been

thus

has

obtained,
I

is wanted.

able

the

in

described

give

to

definite

by

trust

Journal

hereafter

of these

account

principles.
the

brain

others
that

in

are

change

Thus

in

state

Again,
in

the

posture

often

of

Vol.

be

see

of rest

to

is

the

hand

the

corresponding
iv. No.

free

condition
the

to

2, August, I"g3

also

than

indicate

passively supported,
from

passes

posture, thus

convulsive

in the

and

nerve-mechanism.

the forearm
that

may

of

while

in action

posture

corresponding

parts

weakness,

weaker

of

change

some

excitement,

strength or

may

indicating the change


mechanism,

of

condition

chorea, when
we

the

in

hemisphere

one

other.

the

be

may

that

evidence

afford

studies

These

of the

muscles
see

chap.

nerve-

of
xix.

the

178

PHYSICAL

hand.

EXPRESSION.

daily recording the

By

postures
the

of

indications

the

of

most

hand,

free

condition

daily

voluntary
in-

common

of

we

obtain

the

nerve-

corresponding.

mechanism

analyzing any posture of the hand we may


the subjectof the following
consider the bearing upon
or
points of analysis. These are the
principles,
In

used

been

have

that

same

in the

tables.

Every posture can be described in anatomical


language, giving the position of each joint of the
I.

limb.
II. Consider
the

limb

In

chorea

much

the

the

in

with
of the

use

the

the

of brain

out

quite

unable

to

of

use

of

larger parts.

small

parts

hand

and

disease

are

man

orange,

pick

to

with

be able

may
an

grasp

write, or

fere
will inter-

fingersthan

the

arm.

upper

his

stretch

up

to

but

pin

be

from

table.

the

Consider

III.
in the

largeand

the

small

joints may
large joint may

the

small
the

joints are
nerve-centres

such

ation

of

case

the

in

of the

postures

give important
be

pare tic

extension,

which
there

postures

seen

joints.

small

and

relative

different

InterdifFerentiation

In

parts

more
probably much
of the largerparts ; more
ment
movefingersthan in the elbow and

slightamount

more

the

those

seen

the

the

of

movements

small

obvious, and

frequent than
wrist.

the

from

distinguished

as

more

is

of

posture

govern

would

nerve-centres

be

of

from

while

the

of
irritability

these
an

large

indications

weak,

or

the

movements.

interdifferenti-

governing

the

different

PRINCIPLES

joints.
the

In

FOR

the

The
of

be

similar,as

dissimilar,as

collateral

plane, and

that

of

of

the

it is marked

the

or

is

been

the

the

ments
move-

the

taneous
spon-

healthy

serve
Ob-

corresponding

the

body

of

either

said

about

and

head

the

lateral
Col-

symmetrical.
the

posture

same

of athetosis.

cases

of

the

in

seen

fingers

some

that

indicates

be

hand

be

this

face.

in

Perfect

halves

two

metrical,
sym-

of

the

acting similarly.
if there

such

the

extensor

Observations,
the

extension

muscles), as
flexion.
subside

as

the

of

movement

and
or

weaker

Observe

analysis seem

action

than

when

centres

joint.

mechanism

if such

sleep,or

or

nerve-mechanism

or

the
joint (i.e.

being
in

centre

comparisons,

ment
of excite-

nerve-centre

any

nerve-centre,
of

indications

be any

of

over-action

governing

the

usually

posture

of

rest,"or

adducted.

of

has

usually weak,

indicate

is

in

the

Much

Consider

VI.

four

are

of

the

symmetry

in

in

whether

posture

straighthand with
the metacarpal bones,

halves

describing postures

are

in

the

"

postures of

two

hand

chorea, also

in

the

the

on

same.

brain

posture

The

in

if the

whether

the

thumb

is

hand

Consider

parts

in

the

movements

V.

in

parts,

differentiation

is weak,

of

joints.
"

drooped," where

are

infant

wrist

condition

collateral

are

be

thumb

which

the

joints.

may

it may

the

the relative

knuckles

each

179

POSTURES.

irritability.

Consider

collateral

OF

hand

nervous

fingersshow
IV.

ANALYSIS

the

governing
of the weaker
centre

indications
at

to

rest

ing
governof

ment
excite-

they

do

so

180

in chorea.

Some
hand

nervous

the

limb

is

when

free,lose

assistant,the

hand

and

individual

the

posture during sleep.

In

be

an

falls

the

the

constantlypresent

the

forearm

awaking

on

which

cases,

this state, if the

but

EXPEESSION.

PHYSICAL

is awake

gently held

into

the

patient,the

by

out

posture of rest,
nervous

posture

is resumed.

tion
general,
equal,widespread stimulaof portionsof the nerve-mechanism
or weakness
governing the postures of a limb, or part of the
prevails.
body, the action of the stronger muscles
General
weakness
be indicated
by general
may
slight flexion, showing all the nerve-mechanism
and the stronger flexor muscles
prevailing.
paretic,
in the posture if any joint,
VIII.
Consider
set
or
be in positionanalogous to that of any
of joints,
other posture, and
whether
the significanceof the
in the posture
as
positionof that joint be the same
the analogy is made.
to which
If we
hand,
study the analogiesof the nervous
it seems
probable that the wrist flexion has an
VII.

If there be

indication

similar

each

the

case

governing

to

that

weakness

it is indicated.

in the
of

the

Now,

in rest.

hand

In

nerve-mechanism
as

to

the

over-

do we
that
see
knuckle-joints,
of
In chorea, in the finger-twitching
?
elsewhere
children, in patients exhausted
nervous
by fever
ments
move(subsultustendinum), we often see extensor
of these joints. This seems
to indicate such
not rest.
action as a sign of weakness
or
irritability,
Now, looking at the elementary conditions shown
hand," and
nervous
by analysisto constitute the

extension

of

the

"

POSTURES

the

these,

chorea,

the

in

that

the

nerve-mechanism

produce

antithetical

modes

of

p.

This
John

as

in

exemplified
the

oi

It

conditions

opposite

will

postures,
Darwin

Charles

postures.
antithesis
"

ing
contrasthand.

energetic

cases

(see

antithesis

to

Expression

explain
of

the

many
tions,"
Emo-

28).

principle
Bulwer

knuckles
such

the

be

producing

expression

the

posture.

and

of

that

exhaustion.

many

principle

the

used

this

to

conditions

to

been

hand

of

analogous
of

posture

has

nervous

probable

of

the

analogous

explanation
is

spontaneous

principle

This

is

if

known

other

any

of

analogous
and

Consider

conditions

drooping

nervousness,

IX.

the

over-extension

is

181

EXTREMITY.

kind

some

the

rest;

thumb

and

of

wrist

The
in

seen

get

we

posture.

UPPER

indication

probable

to

THE

OF

(see

of

p.

antithesis

325).

is

also

recognized

by

182

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

CHAPTER

X.

EXPRESSION
and

Positions

symmetrical
movements

movement
;

conditions

head

forms

head

weak

posture

such

of the

head

of

in

the

only
head

causing

brain

in different

stimulus

gravity

"

head

The

principles of analysis

the
of

Flexion

"

light

Effect

"

Movements

"

of

of

Application

"

defined

Action

"

eifect of

postures

certain

the

varying
A

"

free

usually

of

movements

HEAD.

THE

IN

the

to

jaw" Physiognomy,

or

Summary.

"

expressionin the head, as in other


look to the conditions
parts of the body, we must
of its development and
its special trophic states,
the

IN

and

study

of

result

those

from

The

Form
to

"A

face

may

without
the

Bell's

other

beautiful

in

be

and

He

inquiry

divides
and

expression may
ordinary. Hence
itself into

face, and
*

the

the

"

in

Face,
on

goes

give

to

tradistinction
con-

say,*

20.

charm

it appears

permanent

motion

Op. tit.,p.

is, Of

sleep,and a statue
highly beautiful; on.

hand,

most

head

Expression."

may

first essay

Head

of the

expression

face the

the

be

postures which

movements.

title of Sir Charles

the Permanent

the

and

also to its movements

of

the

that
form

to

our

of

features,

184

PHYSICAL

occiputbehind.
positionsand
A.

backwards
the

axes

of the

head,

In

this

in

as

remain

ears

movement,

axis

axis

in

the

erect, and
flexion

horizontal

the

to

is maintained.

antero-posterior
head
remaining

the

movement

look

at

occur

may

object;

an

maintained.

is not

symmetry

case

Such

head

the

turning

level

same

axis horizontal, without


interparietal

extension.

or

pressed,
de-

horizontal,

remains

of the

plane,

and

end

anterior

posture, symmetry

or

Rotation, i.e. rotation

B.

its

at the

the

flexion

In

nodding.

has

the transverse

the two

all

head.

of the

axis
antero-posterior

and

define

can

we

positionsand

extension, i.e.bending forward

and

but

in

these

movements

Flexion

the

By referringto

of

movements

EXPRESSION.

in this

rotation

Eight

to the
moves
imply that the forehead
the right side.
right,as in looking towards
other
C. Inclination, i.e. depression of one
or
case
extremity of the interparietalaxis, in which

is used

the

to

ear

the

on

than

is lower

side of inclination

the

means
depression of the
Bight inclination
right extremity of the interparietalaxis, or the
means
depression of
right ear ; left inclination
is an
Inclination
the left ear.
ment
asymmetrical move-

other.

; it may

is

but

flexion

are

and

conditions

in the

shall not

two

with

halves
many

or

tion,
rota-

both.
of

inclination

the
and

head
tion
rota-

involving unlike

movements

consider

flexion

movements

extension;

asymmetrical

are

We

associated

commonly

only symmetrical

The

either

without

occur

of the
head

brain.
movements

and

MOVEMENTS

THE

OF

postures, but

those

that

will

afford

examples

to

serve

we

will

demonstrate

and

be

and

healthy

how

modified

by,

unless

changes

centre

of

the

and

in

particularthey

are

horizontal, with

In

this

is

is

of

man

the

mid-plane

of the

the

transverse

the

on

axes

level

same

posture of quiescence.

normal

Rotation

metrical,
sym-

external

or

strong

ears

strong

erect, and

the

is in

both

In

condition

posture.

from,

result

may

antero-posteriorand

the

application of

is held

central

forehead

the

the

agencies.

head

some

agent

body,

external

examine

to

of

movements

the

man

about

are

principlesof movements,

our

185

HEAD.

always involving

movement

and

; flexion

action

extension

are

metry
asym-

trical
symme-

movements.

slight stimulus, as the sight of


cause
hearing of a sound, may

A
the

of

of weakness
slightcondition
expressed by flexion.

"

called

the

condition

brain

the

In

A
is

nerve-centres

mental

state

of mental

function

kinetic

lessened

rotation.

whose

in the

and

shame,"

the

object or

an

action

of the

is

tion,
abstrac-

brain

leads

head-drooping. Rotation, from the pathological


hemispasm, has been
conditions, hemiplegia and
to

in

described

We

the
will

sight of

an

the

direct

rotation

object is

towards

an

object,or

it,it

to

as

head.

is said

by
to

the

have

the

head

hearing

of

sound.

sight of

object,in

luminous
When

result

may

effects of the

the
of

rays

of the

followed

of the

rotation

inquire first

objects,or
causing

vi. p. 105.

that

all know

We
from

chap.

the

sight

forehead

being

attracted

the

ot

turned

attention

186

PHYSICAL

of the

The

only connecting link between


object that attracts his attention

man.

the

and

man

light reflected

owing

object

or

source

seated

at

table

plate,and
in

will,as
view,

plate of

rotation of
(brain),
the plate of food,

at

it

head

time

one

that

child

is

plate

of

said

have

child

is

of mind

state

occur

the

to

the

from

away

expression;
rotation

causes

the

repelled by it, not

of

other

head

the

nerve-centres

be

may

be

may
mode

will

peevish

stimulation, in

of

source

object

towards

If, however,

the

is

Here

attracted.

say,

plate comes

rotation

food

it,

towards

the

as

cause

irritable,cross,

very

stimulus

soon

attention.

his

forehead

is the

may

light. Thus, if
duly hungry, bringing

the

attracted

the

the

the

from

we

of

field of

his

within

from

light

rotate

to

him

toward

luminosity;

the

is

the head

food

surface, or emitted

inherent

it

then, that

its

from

its

to

causes

EXPRESSION.

similar
the

towards

conditions

rotated

is

of

the
from

away

the stimulus.
The

attraction

stimulus

effects of visual

are

nerve-system

the

think

this

be

studied

the

and

eyes.

head

result
centres.
movement

of

the
In
of

the

head

the

head

modes
of

effects

of the

head.

and

repulsion
of

rotatory movements

action
is

as

the

the

frequently occur

there

as

conditions

expressed by

spontaneous

infants

curious

varying

of attraction

in

of the

Movements

head

causing rotation

kind

that

best

can

in

sound

light and

of

often

are

the

very

the

expression. Probably

of

repulsionof

and

of

the

as

the

nerve-

frequent spontaneous

of

other

parts.

Head

EOTATION

movements

mental

187

HEAD.

in

excessive

of the

head

state.

This

rotation

contrast

THE

number

in

ditions
con-

irritability.

Rotation
the

often

are

of

OF

is often

is

with

expression

an

speciallyseen
of

movements

when

of

we

flexion

and

extension.
Bulwer

the

expressiveof
JRotation

system of
desire

or

that

the

such

as

rotation

of

condition

the

and

sounds,

indicates
or

appears,

mental

mental

child

so

irritable

(brain) condition
the

head

sounds

is

rotates

at

bed,

the
The

etc.

part

is

of

the

rather, irritable

or,

state
the

to

mental

of

frequent

stimulus

of

state

of

head
word

ready acquiescence,

humour.
the

then, that
of

state

"

condition

of

the

ready acquiescence

symmetry

of

movement

condition

of

"negation"

"

prevails,and
is

brain
is

one

the

expressed by

action.

asymmetrical brain
Certain

express

centres.

child's

the

good

existing
organization,
of "negation,"

extension

irritation

extension

flexion

where

find

mental

as

the

to

proposal to go to
proposal to walk,

mental

Conversely,

the

state
and

all word

to

expression of

in

the

eat, the

proposal to

It

mental

predominant mental
all negation
to be
"

head

mind.

nerve-muscular

we

propositions

all

the

movements

acquiescence.

sometimes

Now,

head

Flexion

of

state

of

is,according

the

of

deny.

to

mental

the

head

English

our

of

states

of the

expression

an

much

speaks

postures of the liead


*

Bulwer,

op. oil.

are

expressive of

188

PHYSICAL

brain

conditions,

often

the

observed,
have

as

free upper

to

left

hold

hand, with

left
and

of

inclination

the

to

we

hand

nervous

weak

head

often

posture, that

that
in

have

child

front,we

flexion,and

and

when
a

see

rotation

inclination
the

of the

shows

flexion

head

on

tion
slightrota-

the

we

the
right. In such a case
hand
is the expressionof the weakness
nervous
of the right side of the brain, the
irritability

inclination

and

with

flexion.

hands

the

out

nervous

head,

extremity

opposite to
Very commonly

in

girls and

chorea, etc.,

hand

side

rotation.

told

the

coincident

In

from

side,and

same

in the
the

on

of

inclination

see

to

emotions.

or

convalescent

people

young

EXPRESSION.

to

weakness, and

the

right

left side of the

express

neck

are

its rotation
that

the

muscles

than

weaker

and

those

right,giving another indication of the weak


of nerve-centres.
state of the right group
In
have
to
studying postures of the head we
curious
consider
effects of gravity, explain
some
how
These
them
we
principlesaffect,also,
may.
postures of the trunk, but I hardly think that they
into play in explanation of postures of other
come
on

the

parts.
In
is

held

erect.

shoulder,
of the
be
This
This
an

full health

with

man

as

the

muscles

If

the

outcome
of

the

stretched, being
is the

effect

stretchingof
impulse to the

on

of

the

and

head
of

strength

falls,say,
a

temporary

right side, these


the

to

side

convex

the
the

as

left

relaxation

muscles
of the

gravity acting on the


right muscles transmits

nerve-centres

head

stimulates

will
neck.
skull.
such
the

OF

EFFECT

and

right muscles,
If the
is

man's

have

make

sleep, and

them

sleepiness.

fallingof

the

is

lead

to

to

is

factor

to

this

expression

reflex

of the

consciousness.

I
the

concerning
analogous
head

as

always

carried
not

free, as

the

fixed

brain
to

been

just

sion
expresthe
is

gravity

which

produces
phenomena

that

extremity

want

that

of

of any

sciousness
con-

we

show

condition
aware

of the
free

is not

exactly

are

described

head.
result

body

ing
concern-

moved

free

very
a

to

heavy

also

be

load

of

organic conditions,
in

pression
ex-

is

being
engaged, and

may

head

it is

afford

It

the

the

by

disengaged, but

or

when

emotions

the

an

such

attack

as

of

asthma.

Applying

with

by

that

signsor

action

position of

spasmodic
small

It

the
the

on

compare

of the

the

usually

so.

to

of

the

because

case,

from

not

has

of

say

to

member

is

nerve-centres
not

to

want

upper

what

to

is lessened

We

brain

am

appear

head.

the
The

in the

enumeration

an

we

in flexion.

purposes

consciousness.

lessening of
an

our

the

principlesapply

same

forward

useless

up

of

head

of

the muscles

Here

which

he

while

right side

expression

The

again.

erect

pullupon

action
an

condition

It

the head

contract.

is therefore

189

HEAD.

left shoulder

the

by

of reflex

case

THE

for the

stimulated

to
sufficiently
to

falls to his

nerve-centres

not

are

ON

they pull up

head

asleep,the

neck

GRAVITY

and

the

principleof

large muscles,
of

movements

movements
movements

of

the

of the

the

or

eyes
We
and

facial
may

head.

action

have

should

we

head.
hands

of the

contrast

to

muscles

also

pare
com-

Extension

190

PHYSICAL

of the

piece

is the result

head

of

of the action
mechanism

nerve-muscular
of the

extension

with

occurs

EXPRESSION.

hands

head

extension,

flexion

knuckles

in the

as

weaker

than

and

at wrists

of

often

expressionof

astonishment.

ofLower

Movements
to

on

the

skull

Jaw.

; in the

The

"

natural

the

lower

the

are

both

suppliedby

fifth

pair of nerves
arisingfrom

muscle

of
the

the

cheek

is jointed

upright position of
the jaw fall. Two

body gravity tends to make


pairs of muscles, the masseter,
raise the jaw, and
keep the teeth
muscles

jaw

and

the

temporal,

in contact;

these

division

motor

brain.
bone

the

The

(the

of

masseter

malar

and

zygoma) is inserted into the angle of the lower jaw ;


the
arises from
the fossa of that
temporal muscle
and
is seen
swellingout and may be felt as a
name,
hard
in the temple when
the jaws are
mass
tightly
The
clenched.
jaw is depressed by a group of
muscles
of the
supplied by the ninth pair of nerves
The
is often
mouth
brain.
the jaw
opened when
is depressed, always when
the jaws are
opened
widely,but the lips can be parted while the jaws
still closed, showing the
teeth.
The
are
jaw is
depressed and the mouth
opened in the expression
of astonishment.*
The

a passivemoveas
ment,
jaw often drops somewhat
of the muscles
which
owing to relaxation
support it. It is strongly depressed in yawning,
to cause
so
as
occasionally so much
dislocation;
this is owing to strong extensor
depressionof the

bone.
*

Darwin,

"

Expression

of

the

Emotions,"

p. 280

192

PHYSICAL

for

suggested
of the
of

EXPRESSION.

defining the postures


the

head, and

It is shown

flexion

that

symmetrical
action

causing

head

of

rotation

expression,and

of

mentation

under

movements

the

of

the

are

only

of

objects

in

interesting examples

present

the

explained.

are

sight

variations

stimulus

same

conditions

varying

expressed by

are

combinations

head.

the

and

some

movements

extension

of the

light

of

head

the
and

movements

The

and

movements

possible to

movement

and

in

such

different

on

occasions.
Head

rotation

of the

side

head

with

indicates

exerts

The

sleep.

expressive
The

face

and

occurs

pairs

of

spasmodic
Certain
of brain,

of
brain
in

the

the

influence

rotation

the

upon

weakness

of
is

larger parts,

ly
the

yawning

are

the

right.

contrast

and

and

in

therefore

in

of the

the

of

the

action

illustrated

with

movements

those

head

of

and

of

by
the

hands

astonishment.

lower

jaw

depend

Depression

nerves.

forms
and

of

Extension

coincidental

Movements

to

same

when

seen

posture, the

nervous

usually free,

head

eyes.

the

to

conditions.

with

the

comparing

is often

marked

is

of brain

parts

inclination

head, especiallyin

head

Semiflexion

negation.

this

being
a

principle

small

of

and
;

the

then

of the

postures

sign

rotation

is in

inclination

Gravity

weakness

free left hand


and

is

of

; it may

be

head

indicative

commonly

are
seen

in

due

upon

the

to

idiots.

two

jaw

is

gravity.
of defects

CHAPTER

face

as

index

an

structure

THE

the

mind

Direct

development
of

analyzing

symmetry

face

vulgar

in

seen

the

as

mental

states

of facial

the

THE
index

of

the

of

the

facial

of

dull

conditions

of

movements

"

on

nerve

palsy
The

in

face

from

brain

has

been

"

"

the

for mental

free
"

the

idiots

What

"

be

may

of

movements
"

disease

fatigue

disease

"

both

or

"

bodily suffering

with

brain

from

,ii::n,'rdface

expression

face

previous

one

anxiety

of

Faces

"

bright

lower

nerve-muscular

considering

and

and

"

intellectual,and

The

"

face

muscles

of

expression

thetic
sympa-

expression by

middle,

winking, snarling

the

of the

facial

the

upper,

Impressions

"

the

of

headache"'!
Cases

of

suffering compared

paralysis

to

expressions

Asymmetrical
due

face

Mental

"

merit

perm;

face ;

man's

face

necessity

the

of

Nutrition

face

face

the

face ; its

the

conditions

in

Action

"

of

supply;

nerve

mobile

action

analy"is

The

"

well

as

their

by trophic signs, skin

Expression
signs

of brain

expression

Method

Definition

"

colour, and

Form,

"

coincident

zones

and

F;t"-i;il muscles

"

nerve

"

of

FACE.

HUMAN

IN

EXPRESSION

The

XL

Conflict

The
sides

long fuce,
:

due

to

Intellectuality
of

expression
expression

"

of muscles

in

face.

face

human
to

the
countenance

the

mind,
and

pa"ive
are

that

I
10

and
the

often

in most

described

treatises

changing

on

conditions

as

an

sion
expresof

the

It is,then, unnecessary
largely discussed.
that
should
say anything to prove

PHYSICAL

this

subjectis

treated

EXPftESSION.

of wide

one

interest; but it

be

must

of here

of
according to the general purposes
the volume, and
according to the principles and
of expression already enunciated.
modes
We
are
here
material
dealing only with
things and with
the action
of physicalforces.
The

human

of the

head

face

passingjust anterior
portion

attached

thereto.

facial muscles
and

certain

the

covers

of the

which

is continuous

The

of the

the

mouth,

supplied by
brain

nerves.

to the

parts and

consist

features

of

and
the

of
the

supply

skin.

Branches

fat.

Skin
to

The

muscles

by

branches

fifth

the

blood

walls

control

pair

all

to

of the

being

of

the

the

amount

the

by
When
its

we

the

sympathetic

look

at

form, colour, and

human

face

is

these

small

one

of the

of

sympathetic

nerve

colour

the

of expression,

supply ; palsy of the sympathetic


half of
side leads to flushing of that
mobile

the
skin

at

blood

the

face,

eyes.

of

Vessels

the

with

of mastication

nerve

thus

parts

interstices

stimulus

division

the

; the

them.

by

nose,

supply the muscular


arteries,and by their action

soft

part adherent

muscles

motor

plane

membrane

motor

the

nerve,

the

parts

mucous

proper,

supplied with

facial

the

filled in

part

includes

with

is moved

facial muscles
are

This

the

; it is in

and

with

for the

openings

are

that

as

vertical

of mastication

face

subjacentmuscles,

soft

move

muscles

whole

of

ears.

skull

These

muscles

the

between

the

to

of

spoken

lies in front

which

anterior

be

may

of
on

face ;

trolled
largelycon-

nerve.

face

conditions

we

of

may

observe

mobility.

The

MO

general

VK

form

determined
There

is

brain

than

face

so

brain

exj

of

direct

which

is

skull

largely
beneath.

snion

exprt

the

the

in

seen

The

body.

mobile

conditions

of

the

fine shades

of

expressions
those

especiallyare

the

part

195

FACE.

face

of

other

many

AN

of

direct

more

of the

are

11 I'M

shape

in any

condition

emotions

accompany

mentation.

We

also

see

in the

empirical form
probable
These

see.

the

of

development

the

face many

examples
coincident
development ; *
of expression,in which
the

uniform

by
of

T11H

outline

the

index

variation
and

and

probably

an

of the

OF

NTS

by

is

the face
face

MK

parts

of the

state

di tierent

we

modes

of

this is

an

condition
indicates

see

can

which

brain

of expression

cannot

we

be

expression must

considered

separately.
difficult and
In studying such
a
complex subject
methods
the direct expression of the face, certain
as
i and
the different facial expressions
be follow,
must
that

have

Tho

described.
muscles

".l"served

b"M-n

are

"

and

analyzed
of

principal movements

the

facial

:"

1. Dilatation

foramina

be

must

the

and

contraction

openings

of

of

the

eyes,

the

facial
and

nose,

mouth.
2. Elevation
the

depression of parts, as

angles of

3. Retraction

grinning

and

and

and

the

mouth,

drawing

screwing

up

brows,
eye-

etc.

forward

the

the

mouth,

of

parts,as

in

corrugation

of theforeh.
Either

side

of

the
*

See

face
chap,

can
xviii.

move

separately;

196

PHYSICAL

hence

EXPRESSION.

in analyzing
a facial expression,
necessity,
it be symmetrical.
to observe whether
An expression
affect the face principally
in
may
the upper,
and
it may
middle, or lower portions,

the

more

appear

on

side than

one

analyzinga face,each half and


examined
separately.I have
method
convenient for making
To examine

it,with

the other ; hence,in

on

each

regionmust

found

be

the

following
analysis.

an

face,hold a sheet of paper in front of


and oppositethe middle of
edgevertical,

one

the face ; either half of the face can


then be covered
in turn while the other half is examined.
Again,
O

the

face

horizontal
observe

with

be

may
areas,

each

zone

"

divided

into

three

zones,

'

or

-the upper, middle,and lower.


To
in turn, hold the sheet of paper

margin horizontal,leavingthe forehead


the
the eyebrows uncovered,
above
this shows
only that part of the face
; then view
upper zone
is below
the lower
which
margin of the orbits,
showing the mouth, the greaterpart of the cheeks,
this is the lower zone
and the openingsof the nose,
;
alone
be demonstrated
the middle zone
lastly,
may
sheet of
by holding the horizontal margin of one
the eyebrows,and
all above
paper so as to cover
one

"

"

another

sheet

of paper

so

as

to

cover

all below

eyebrows,the
with the bridgeof the nose.
and eyeballs,
we
can
easily examine
By these methods
symmetry in a face, both as regards form
orbits,thus

action ; and

leavingto

we

can,

view

at the

specialnerve-muscular
zone.
particular

any

the

same

the
lids,
eye-

for
and

time, also observe


conditions

in

any

OF

LOCALIZATION

To

by

illustrate

tells

experience

common

supposed

11)7

EXPKESSION.

case,

that

us

that

say

certain

our
man

mental
anxiety,"
expression of
and
on
personal inquiry he acknowledges that he
is sufferingfrom causes
anxiety."
producing mental
On
making a physical analysis of the expression by

presents

facial

"

"

the
is

methods

equal

either

on

symmetrical;
when

more

looking

find

suggested,we
side

we

observing
the

at

therefore

"

the

see

middle

forehead,

the

upper

and

lower

signs of

the

localized

face

look

we

action

kinetic
We

which

face

the

teach

face

brain
case,

its form

etc.

The

it be

fine and

of

the

the

"

once

looking
struck
of

.SOUK*

at

with

mental

In

action

is

region,and

thus

studying

condition
the

effects

of

of the

teaches

coincident

size, the
of the
or

"

different
the

expresses

fact

conditions

of the
form

skin

of

of the

thick

and

coarse

mouth

trophicconditions
for those
signs in
us
are
commonly

look

lips,cheeks,

the

the

nerve-muscular

frontal

the

conditions

"

and

proportionsof
In

We

structure

face

the

what

certain

thin

when

principally located

observe

experience

development

anxiety

brain.

us.

with

associated

of

than

nerve-muscular

inquire

next

may

of the

of the

is

expression

parts "hence

expression.

the

to

expression

zone

whose

in

regions,and

various

the

direct

the

The

condition

brain

"anxiety" are
these signs are

and

zone.

upper

or

the

special signs

expression is symmetrical
in the

that

nose,

demand

types

of

that

the

and

skull
the

or

of
brain

forehead,

face, whether
;

the

features

the

size and

attention.

faces, we

passive

while
intellectuality,

are

at

ance
appear-

others

198

PHYSICAL

EXrRESSION.

marked

by inborn
vulgarity, apart from
action.
special expression by nerve-muscular

are

any

immobile

make

fitted

bear

to

of

action, and

in which

the brain

that

the

action.

such

is

will

indeed,

it is

observations
nerve-muscular
character

face

does

development

which

of

type

thick
more

nerve-

the

is due

be

of

mode

the

to

coexist
makes

to

observation,
in

true

and

before

individual.

we

determine

can

somewhat

Such

sign.

corrected, by noting

be

as

particularcase

untrustworthy

an

signs

of the

to

act

results

to

need

fine

and
vulgarity in mentation
empirical statement
only an

the

often

show

to

is

are

to

is

likely not

face

expression as

this

tend

upon

the

probably

of brain

This

dependent

the

that

state

individual

in

than

exposure

fact

Here

skin, etc.

muscular

empirical

vulgar type
jaw, thick lips, a

under

large prominent

with

the low

contributingto

Elements

many

the

plain

or

vulgar-lookingface may receive an intellectual


is in action
the brain
from mental
expression when
work
most
pleasing when
passive,
; other faces are
even

but

in action

when

show

in

poverty

their

nerve-

of low
organization
expression indicative
of the brain-centres.
Speaking of idiots,Dr. Langdon
remarks
Down
Transactions, vol.
(Obstetrical
muscular

prognosis is,contrary to what is so


thought, inverselyas the child is comely, fair

xxii.)that
often
to

look
The

face is
of

the

amount

"

upon,

the

and

condition
an

winsome."
of

nutrition

of

important index of the


its different
body, and
of malnutrition

makes

the

tissues

of the

general nutrition
A
slight
organs.

the

face

looks

dull.

200

PHYSICAL

between

the

EXPRESSION.

pain originatingin
signs mainly in the
mouth

drawn

are

the

the

lower

mind

maternal

limbs,

or

; the

zone

In

the

instinct

of the

animal-like
ing
child,wound-

it is the

"

the

see

we

angles

more

the loss of

as

"

expressionof

the facial

body

down.

pain of

of

causes

In

eyebrows.

angles

of the

mouth

that

of the child

of the

memory
is

child has

of age

of,say, fortyyears
marks

of

forehead

the

to

action

is the

of

in

the

the

see

we

facial

upper
in the

then,

pain

anxiety, and
suffering
Both

these

alike

on

I
that

know
are

the

and

what

not

left

these

do

to
we

by

the

are

direct

the

coincident

which

centres

expressionin
the

the

expression in
of expression are

mental

conclude,
mental

cause

facial zone,

upper

concerned

centres

in

the-

come
out-

physical

lower

zone.

symmetrical,

or

sides.

only

two

symmetrical

forms
"

of

facial

snarling

and

expression
winking

"/

and

due

facts teach

the

signs are

its

forms

of

of his

what

but

bodily suffering. We

of

from

both

man

muscular

nerve-

same

so

brain

its

different

are

skin

impression

zone,

action

the

that

signs.
expression of mental
anxiety
and
pressed
bodily suffering exzone,

lower

of brain

anxiety and

the

upon

nerve-centres,

nerve-muscular

These

us

ing
suffer-

present the permanent

may

permanent

of
frequent repetition
If

The

sign of anxiety observed may be


of body, nor
early original make

an

present

observe

idealized;the

anxiety impressed

; this

neither

loss

corrugation.

causes

become

after the

years

mental, less animal-like.

more

now

to it

reference

Some

depressed.

are

certainly these

;
o

asymmetrical expressions

are

IN

ASYMMETRY

the

not

tooth
the

In

intellectual.

most

the

of

levator

upper

nerve-centre

only.

the

action

of

one

side

only.

Suppose

acts

"

frame

quiet

of

This, of
the

sponding
corre-

In

on

one-

side

one

of nerve-action.

asymmetry

in

man

muscle

canine

action

side.

on

also shows

This

the

by
that

orbicular

the

eyed winking

the

snarling

lip on

directly indicates

course,

201

FACE.

is uncovered

side

one

on

THE

"

mind

of

we

general good balance of the mus"


and nerve-centres,
presentingsymmetry of the facial
The
then
muscles.
man
voluntarilywinks with one
unconsciously. Here an asymmetrical
eye or sneers
should

the

of

part

expression of passion
of the

of action
Writers

of

depressing
a

Can

The

of

the

longest

twenty

over

face

in childhood,
In

acted

on

muscles

and

this
bv

had

destroyed

poor

the

become

stretched
of

the

in

sides

The

pression
exa

of the

palsy was
commenced

nerve

on

each

being constantly
had

tissues

and
had

chin

of

was

both

facial

face

the

man,

gravity,

skin

elongat-

the

mode

saw

which

ear,

some

observation

ever

years'standing.

result of "lis"-ase of either

side.

is

face

long

times
some-

presenting

as

"

actual

complete paralysisof

patient with
face

of nature,

bill

from

we,

that

analysis,say

metry
asym-

just received

has

heavy

say,

"

Ion-

very

and

news

who

man

be

may

nerve-centres.

fiction,if also observers

describe

features.

the

of

replaces the quiet symmetry

action
A

see

fallen, the

permanently

fallen

far below

the

long

chin-boil.', and
one.

In

paralyzed l"y

case

literallythe
where
iction

one

of

its

face
side

was

of the

motor

nerve,

very

face

is
the

202

PHYSICAL

paralyzed
of

side after

gravity,and

of the

of

in action.
be

be

Fig.

27."

drops
to

the

paralyzed

action

the two

compare

I have

case

the

under

demonstrated
side may

longer than the other side


actual
length of the face can

if the

relaxed

muscles

from

Complete Paralysis

Side

Right

of the

Face

Face.

by
when
then
also if

so

of nerve-force

want

of the

paralyzed ;

are

sides

be three-

inch

an

The

increased

they

such

that

measurement

time

it is easy

In

face.

quarters

EXPKESSION.

coming

drawn

to the

left side.

to

the

muscles.

face that

muscular

conditions, may

the

condition

brain

is

be

relaxed

long,owing to nervea direct


expression of
fall and

muscles, allowing the

face

the

nerve-currents

from

outcome

feeble

its nerve-centres.
weakened

the

of

mental

brain

condition

to

long

force,and

of the

condition

face

lengthen,is
coming down

may,

this often

followingfrom

facial

cate
then, indi-

accompanies
sudden

disap-

ZONE

LOWER

as

in

203

FACE.

producing

long

face

of the lower
condition, is the falling

temporary

THE

factor

Another

pointment.

OF

jaw.
Several

of facial

modes

the lower

This

zone.

is the most

brain

of weakness

the

smile.
the

The

face when
in the

muscles

mouth
from

act

the

lower

the

side of

is almost

lost ; that

than

other.

the
and

upper

this

of

region

mouth

in

is

the

than

another

Some

on

Dr.
each

11

ago

tlu-

of the
with

the

muscles
in

seen

muscles

one-sided

nervous

in different
brain
we

ditions,
con-

say

that

represents intellectuality
more

years

problem

face

in the

seen

; it is these

question presents itself,can

region of

one

side

falls lower

grinning. Seeing,then, that the muscles


facial regions are
differentlyaffected by
the

that

commonly

in imbeciles

the

running

on

Now,

most

its

teeth, or

grove

mouth

zones.

awkwardly

so

face,in

side about

asymmetry

those

action

work

that

such

facial

are

the

will

amount

his

one

of the

angle

No

middle

spontaneous

on

to

nose

slight

asymmetrical, and

indifferently;the

very

that

strated
easilydemon-

show

is

zone

the
is

patient

in action

certain

of

facial weakness

by making

face

hemisphere

one

least,a

at

the

disease.*

opposite side

This

part.

time

the

on

in

damage

of

region

brain

by

usuallyproduce, for
inferior

is the

weakened

of

amount

expression affect specially

attempted

m-^itive

side

face in fifteen

trher
face

Beach,

according
*

See

to

this

by observing the
idiots.

of Darenth
to

determine

the

Fig. 11,

In

conjunction

Asylum,

followingform

p. 109.

ditions
con-

lyzed
ana-

"

204

PHYSICAL

muscles

relaxation, of the

of

action,

The

"

the

limbs

and

or

body

noted.

generally were

muscles

aspect, and

Facial

"

Condition.

Muscular

General

Face.

EXPRESSION.

action

in

or

relaxation.
Zone.

Upper
and

Frontal

"

is

region, occipito-frontal

corrugator.

Middle

Zone.
Zone.

Lower

Eyelids

"

muscles

Mouth

"

orbicularis

and

oculi.

; muscles

of

nose

cheeks.

the

Summarizing
the

showing

results,

into

respectivelycome

spontaneous

This

manner.

is

perhaps

degree

the

corrugator

orbicularis

and

muscles

in

action

ingless
mean-

oculi

less

much

were

than
into meaningless action
frequently thrown
and
zygomatic, and probably
occipito-frontalis

former

the

than

the

muscles
of

faces

their

most

middle

other

side

are

most

commonly
smile

that

which

region
disease.

It

question, and

frequently put
people

in the

that

we

in

expression

of

ality
intellectufrontal

grinning, yawning,

are

seen

is the

is

not

in the
most
uncommon

lower

noting

in action

see

in the

expressed

while

meaningless
brain

of the

states, I think

zones,

the

expressive of intellectuality
tion
Again, applying direct observa-

intellectual

mental

the

more

latter.

the

to

which

much

are

of

indication

some

representation. Thus

of their intellectual

the

figures

these

which

with

frequency

obtained

we

and

and
the

facial zone,

readily affected
for

by

nervous

people frequently to produce a peculiar,awkward,


grinning expression,owing to unequal action of the

THE

muscles

the

on

face

by

relaxed, toneless

face

the

mouth.

unpleasing

Such

effect.

fatigue is expressed
condition

of the

and
slightly,

expression,the play

mobile

the

falls

elongates or

of

very
of

205

EXHAUSTION.

sides

general condition

of

IN

two

produces

asymmetry

the

FACE

in the

muscles

the variation

of the

features,

is lost.

Fig. 28."
and

exhaustion

specialsign of

Imbecile;

of fair size

moving

head

well

be often

parts around

in those

seen

Fig. 29.

shapen

smiled,

"

Imbecile;

same

who

case

quiescent,

t Ims

mouth.

and

eyes

is

headaches.
habituallyfrom recurrent
When
speciallystudying the faces of patients,the
subjectsof n current headaches, and analyzing them

have

suffered

daily,my
middle
an

attention

that

It is not

zono.

individual

Analyzing
there

particularlydrawn

was

looks

"

such
was

if

as

faces, it
a

look

of

he

soon

had
became

to

observe

to

uncommon

the

that

headache."
noticeable

depression,heaviness,

full-

206

PHYSICAL

the

about

EXPRESSION.

especiallyabout the under


be
eyelid. It appeared that this expression must
of the orbicularis
due
principallyto the condition
ness

muscle.

palpebrarum

therefore

pressure,
the

muscle

laugh,the
in well

there

of

folds

in

and,

eyelid neatly, as a
less in a plane from
of the

margin

the

This

the

skin

seen

flabbiness
the

of

condition
face
was

the

in it ; there

tone

ciliarymargin

the

often

tucked

; the

was

skin

number
the

surface,it fell

convex

to

parts adjacent,

fallingagainst

at

by looking
when

of

made

the

the

increase

an

orbit.

seen

and

is

expression
ing
Speciallyobserv-

and

fullness

place

thus

time.

loss of

loose,with

too

full appearance

patient were
energized,and

muscle
be

to

pitting on
dropsy,and when
no

the

lost for

orbicular

seemed

hung

relaxed

became

was

appearance

an

if

no

againstthe eyeball;

of headache

the

was

obviously

Further,

seen.

skin

There

dropsical this

is

face

not

eyes,

of

lower

more

to the

or

lower

is often

best

in

profile. It was
healthy and elastic

especiallyin children, and it could be completely


removed
by energizing the child. It passed away, in
health improved. It is not suggested
as
cases,
many
condition
indicates only the
that the nerve-muscular
in
states of brain producing headache; it may
occur
of nerve-depression.
other
states
We

have

of facial

several

expressiondependent

conditions
contraction
conditions

considered

now

"

difference
of the
are

action, because

in the

different
direct

they

result

upon

tone

facial

distinct

modes

nerve-muscular
and

conditions

muscles.

expression

solelyfrom

of

the

brain

of

These
brain
action.

208

PHYSICAL

Clark

John

1878

he

then

was

was

there

stood

up

all

and

there
the

but

confined

quite silly.
good complexion ;
was

the

face.

The

not

spoke well, and was


twitching of the face.

of the

parts

appearence,

He

of the

the

to

he

of

face

carefullyobserved.

were

The

age.

violently. As he
ing
twitchirregularmuscular

body.

movements

May,

twitched, his face

movement

some

was

conscious

The

of

years

times

at

twitched,

over

himself

that

much

was

hand

right

twelve

well-grown lad, of
presented a constrained

features

and

observation

my

that his hands

was

much, and

He
his

under

came

complaint made
worked

EXPRESSION.

were

very

They
the

about

were

eyes,

not

striking,
principally

nostrils,and

mouth.
In

July, when

he

Children's

London

in-patientat the East


Hospital,I took the following
an

was

description:
Face : complexion somewhat
anaemic,
membranes
little pale, not
a
markedly so.
"

is

considerable

of

movement

the

mucous

There

muscles

of

the

frequently closes his eyes, next draws


up
the
the
on
same
side, then
angle of the mouth
his eyebrows (corrugators),
he elenext
vates
contracts
them.
He appears
that he is
quite unaware
face ; he

inner
portions of the
grimaces. The
(griefmuscles) frequentlycontract
occipito-frontales

making

in

of

excess

of the

movements
The

orbicularis

indicated
movements

other

by

the

of the

portions
hair

of

these

muscles

no

scalp seen.
is frequently contracted, as

or

oculi
furrows

around

the

lower

lid,while

at

eye,
the

same

and

the
time

ATHETOSIS

the

is

eye

OF

sufficientlyopen
and

orbicularis
The
and

levator

eyelids are

turned

Fundus

protruded

at

the

is

and

he

they
fingers,

holds

and

movements

of

almost
the

fingers are

tongue

is

there

is

and

The

been

two

spreads his

slightabductor
; there

seen

He

old,

well

never

date

of his
later

walks

the

was

manner

"

at

of

till

well
to

also

are

well, with
ment
move-

he

went

he

months

some

changed;
times

the

as

if

right
it

he

was

became

silly.

He
when

of

did

1876

About

time.

contortions

made

frequently nodded
fingers of

him.

autumn

He

and

year

school

to

till this

that

and
intelligent,

and

pain

case

seeing

my

till the

noticed

was

After

work.

vacant

it

face, and
on,

boys

complaint

any

bright

was

other

as

and

previous

convulsions

five years

that

and

very

toes.

strong

years

had

never

the

and

always
or

heels
of

lungs appeared normal.


the
history of the
following was

heart

His

as

his

head.

of the

half

structure.

slightirregularswaying

steady gait,but

had

hands,

bismus.
stra-

inappreciableflexor-extensor

of the

slightmovements
a

his

the

any

The

kept out,

kept steady,but

are

movements

out

manner,

never

of its muscular
irregularmovement
As
the
patient stands
upright with
is scarcely any
movement
together, there

When

the

when

upwards

normal.

oculi

request,

restless

much

body.

pupil

of

action

There

closed.

being

in

moved

frequently

are

of

palpebrse?).

much

are

eyes

allow

to

(coincident

distinctly seen

being

201)

FACE.

THE

his

head

then,

hand

began

noticed

that

to

his

forgetfuland

210

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

When
He

sent

appeared
in

found

was

from

home,
where

or

and

times

at

could

and

times

at

hospital he

He

had

himself.

One

road

If

his

well,

at

he

how

became

lost

conversed

wrong

say

passionate.

if he

as

worse,

to

of the

not

lived.

went

lose

to

middle

the

he

he

errands

on

day

there

came

he

beaten

boy,

became

entirely.

reason

mental

no

he

distance

tiresome

and

shops.

In

failure

noticed.

was

sound

Sleep was
to the

As

the

The

25

(2)

Male

22

(3)

5 children

they

mother,

and

appeared
of the

account

lateral
col-

"

healthy.

years,
"

(4) Patient, aged

"

died

in

infancy.

possibilityof

The

and

members,

were

following is the
of the family :

members

(1) Male

refreshing.

inheritance, the father


of which

families

healthy.

and

(5)

Male

(6)

Female

9, very

7, not

defective

some

12

years.

healthy.
strong.

inheritance

is

of the boy's illness.


only probable cause
When
January, 1879, he went to school, was
seen,

the

less

much
face
of

absent

and

of
forgetful; movements
less,principallyconsistingin contractions
muscles.
No
fits or
occipito-frontales

were

both

attacks.
Now
or

is

(August, 1880)
falls

never

peculiar,

without

"the

into
and

he

goes

he

frequentlythrown
by a slow movement.

the

skin

into line

; seldom

His

face

expressionless,but

somewhat

talks

school

lost condition."

pathologicalmovement
As

to

except
of

the

in the

head.
fore-

forehead

long transverse

wrinkles

is

INVOLUNTARY

MOVEMENTS

Hemiplegia

OF

involuntary

THE

211

FACE.

of

movements

and

awi

face.
Arthur

T-

aged

"

observation
left
been

ten

(May, 1880)

the

as

hemiplegic affection.
His left upper
good.

under

came

years,

subject of

His

my

chronic

general health

extremity

had

wanting

was

in muscular

voluntary power and in muscular


sense
;
certain
of the hands
and
of
involuntary movements
the fingerswere
also observed.
I now
collect the
notes
condition
of
describing the nerve-muscular
hand.

the

the

on

The

left

the

average

curling
the

use

the

right

left.

As

similar

36 '5

I had

on

distressed

appeared
at

of movement,

was

the

the

father

action

in

frequently

the

fingers
it

the

of

certainly

occasions

The

mometer
dyna47,

as

the left side.

he

was

time

being
one

the

tion,
examina-

right hand

of the

power

fingers were

repeated.

seen

the

that

I examined

same

face,

the

several

on

of

seen

would

kind

the

so

amount

his

will, he

and

not

the

left

much

looked

boy

arm,

and

surprising,considering that,with

not

the

when

the

when

bodily health,
and

during

strengthen

noticed

often

to

to

"

certain

hand

showed

lad's

times
his

out, assumed

fingerswas

the most

movement

against

of the

voluntary,

not

was

natural.

against

up

held

position;

nervous

other

at

when

"

was
right, which
involuntary movement
middle
finger moved

and

hand,

out

losing the
there

was

of

work.

observed
upper

zone,

of the

use

family

distinct

causing

good

left arm,

from

trouble

Looking

this

at

the

over-muscular
in

the

middle

212

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

forehead

of the

deceived

by

depressed,but
inquiring

this

his

of

mental

grief.

he

appeared
but

therefore

was

those
than
The

unconscious

hand

to

the

straighten out
the

on

up

in

child

; no

to

feel

compelled
were

tive
sugges-

analogous

other

chorea

indicate

to

appear
to

chorea, both

Throughout
the muscles
to

are
one

extensors,

likewise

in

the

an

hand.

There

analogy

in the

to

in

arranged
another.

and

of

have

were

those

no

that

These

up

did

points

athetosis,rather

to

hand

mechanism

puts

fingerswhich

and
general twitching movements,
not
exist were
twitching in character.

the

and

which
resembled
athetosis
more
fingers,
other
phase of involuntary movement.
any
of the fingerswere
movements
tary,
slow, involun-

curled

than

boy

of the

and
his

only

not

not

which
regard the facial movements,
of the expression of distress,as

to

the

thought

movements

distress.

time

long

an

condition

cross-questioninghim,

mother,

these

furrows,

the

For

face, and

later,on

of

unconscious
any

with

associated

of brain
was

resultingfrom

commonly

appearance

vertical

and

transverse

in the

the

groups,

In the limbs

human

face.

body

acting antagonistically
flexors

oppose

pronators oppose the supinators,etc.


the face the muscles, which
contract

openings oppose the muscles which dilate them.


These
opposing groups of muscles may be energized
by nerve-currents, either separately or together,or
in
to contract
more
commonly they are stimulated
the
muscles
which
are
so
unequal degree, and
stronger, or the most stimulated, produce the actual
the

movement.

If

the

flexors

are

the most

stimulated,

CONFLICT

OF

If

results.

flexion
currents

sent

are

muscles

the

Such

result.

of

the

Fig.

30."

loss

of

of

all

under

fine

of

of

often

it
,

muscles

about
of

"

flicting
con-

hurt

has
we

the

shall

his
the

see

almost

expressionless

presented

dull

Face

stage.

expression

cry,

ing
quiver-

the

seen

child

to

nerve-

influence

the

not

advanced

in

udju"tuieuts

the

injury

the

is too

angles
of

outbreak
or

the

hard

trying

unequal

by

213

FACE.

one

with

uiouotony

appearance.

centres

the

the

is

Suppose

Par.ilyei* Apitans.

muscles
of

is

and

moved

part

mouth

THE

opposing muscles,

action

emotions."

finger but

IN

strong
the

to

of

tremor

or

may

EXPRESSIONS

the

muscl.v

mouth
to

the

.strong
of

quiver,

finger acting

upon

action

of

for
mouth

the

sobbing

are

follows.

conflicting
cause

the

the

the
his

depressed

nerve-

will, and
and

the

tions,
conflicting emo-

The

nerve-currents

expression

effect

finally the

until

about

acting
the

upon

mouth.

214

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

CHAPTER

XII.

EXPRESSION

their

eyeballs:

The

muscular

Iris, a

"

position

and

stimulation

of eyes
of

of

Movements

"

from

eyes

common

"

"

the

eyes

chloroform, and

brain

stimulation
and

in

repulsion

of

"

of

MOST
human

that
the

and

vertical

upward

the

eye

and

of

associated

the

"

Horizontal

eyelids

parts
ments
move-

Movements

free

most

by sight

of

an

disengaged
repulsion of the eyes
or

contrasted

movements

the

movements'
eyes

portance
Im-

"

"

emotion

the

deep sleep

Eyes
object Spontaneous movements
Mental
states expressed by attraction
or
"

of

of

Horizontal

"

The

"

vision

near

in conditions

Loss

"

under

Attraction

for

Mechanism

ment
move-

supply

nerve

accommodation

its variation

their

for

its

distinguishing expression by

of

around

mechanism

apparatus;

dilatation, and
brain

on

the

by light, and

pupil contracted
its reflex

and

EYES.

THE

IN

"

"

lectuality
Intel-

movements.

in the
people,if questioned,would
say that
face
is great expression in the eyes ;
there
the eyes are
expressive features,and that
very
soul

mind

and

conversational

of

that

eyebrow,

loosely;

study

expressionseen
parts

in

the

eyes,

etc.

In

"

somewhat

method

out

is not always quite


language, which
term
eye,"as a feature of the face,is

precise,the
used

shine

to

in the

surround

etc.

but

it is necessary

differentiate

in

this

carefullybetween
eyeball,and expressionin the
the eyeball the eyelids,the
"

216

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

by the third nerve, causing contraction


the pupil. Light falling
the eye contracts
upon
pupil.
stand
in front of a man
(2) If an observer
reflected

is

looking out

his

pupils of

of window
certain

subject to

look

his

movement

eyes,

contracts,
direct

to

This

at

the

at

their

three

the

pupil is

who
sees

from

inches

seen,

eyes

the

the

requests the

now

iris is

towards

of the
for

the

time

axes

eye

If he

fingerheld
of

he
object,

distant

size.

same

contraction

of the

at

of

the

pupil
so

converge

finger looked

due

to

as

at.

tion
accommoda-

vision.

near

pupil may vary as the result


of a mechanical
stimulus
distant
applied to some
part of the body. Thus, gently stroking the palm of
the hand
cause
slightdilatation of the pupils ;
may
also
to
be
observed
react
to stimuli
they may
applied to the face and neck.*
emotional
so-called
states
-cause
(4) Certain
(3) The

size of the

"

"

variations

changes
the
the
in

on

the

in
in

the

emotions

size

the

of

pupil, that is, the


pupil are expressions of
produces
change which

size of the
the

material

the

time

change
Ferriert
showed
the iris.
by direct experiment,
of the
that, in pigeons, irritation
optic lobe
the
side
causes
one
opposite pupil to become
emotion

produces

at

same

intenselydilated.
short

for the

mechanism

must

account

now

be
of the

movements

given of the
eyelids. The

/
*

See

Dr.

partxxi.,

Wilks

"

On

the

1883.

t Ferrier, op. cit.,p. 78.

Pupil

of

Emotional

States,"

"

Brain,"

THE

lids

closed

are

the

the

by

the

orbicular

which
facial

nerve

supplied by
oculi;

and

opening
this

to

the

that

so

of

in

of the

has

expression

been
the

in

in the

of

muscles

the

features

thereby,as
in

be

may

silence, wearing
face, with

the

absence

In

holes

in other

of

signs are

and

in the

If

so

man

little

to

the

in

movements.
11

other

expression
individual
It is the

beg in
hood
loose garb, and
a
covering
showing the eyeballsonly,and
of

modes

parts of the
seen

wear

ball.

for

of

changing

hiding the

masked

Italy

expression is

of

looking

as

at

seen

parts

some

the

is

face, there

face,

action

the

impossible to recognizethe

it is

that

custom

the

of

about

the

of

the

in

in

eyelids than

eyeball itself.
the eyes
only and

showing

mask,

the

authors

descriptionsdo
the
expression is

expression

more

refer

them.

the

of

conditions

seen

is

there

I think

in

shall

features

parts around

the

eyelids,and

the

many

the

in

eyeballs,or

the motor

points concerning
eyelids.

whether

to

particularizeas

lid is

upper

We

different

but

eyes,

the

concerned

are

and

by

muscle,

nerve,

eyelids.

eyes

said

of the

nerves

closingthe

opposition

supplied by

third

again, in consideringsome

Much

seen

the

in

termed

orbicular

muscle

different

movements

not

The

elevator

branch

this acts

eyelid;

of

lid is

upper

special muscle,

lids, is mainly

the

The

eye.

muscle.

the

closes

the

of

upper

the action

together by

ot

action

of the

elevator
to

muscle

orbicular

raised

drawn

or

217

EYELIDS.

the

to

men

marked.

of

expression in

body,

the

greatest number
conditions

nerve-muscular
When

the eyes,

the eyes

are

directed

218

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

right hand

to the

or

Both

another.

eyes

right hand

the

left,the

and
horizontally,

move

the

to the

to the

or

of movements

This

balls
eye-

parallelto

their

one

directed

axes

the

left,but

is maintained.

axes

remain

have

may

of the

axes

to

parallelismof
of the

co-ordination

is constant

during health while


awake.
If, however, the patient be placed under
the influence
of chloroform, so as to produce perfect
centres

the

unconsciousness,
of

the

eyes

associated

complete. If, in

be

may

of

loss

anaesthetized

with

movements

adult

an

pletely
com-

chloroform, the

upper

eyelids be gently raised, the pupils will be


minutely contracted, often to a pin-point,the
time
at the same
having lost the parallelismof
axes.

One

while

the

move

inwards

other

remains

quiet,

direction

or

eye

different

may

at

causing a temporary

and

these

mostly in

less
one

movements

downwards.

frequently
have

varying squint. Usually


horizontal

the

These

plane ;

that

unconnected

the

way

level,
other
I

movements

in

demonstrated

seen

thus

pace,

different
a
commonly the eyes assume
being in the horizontal plane, while the

is turned

and

are

their

in

moves

different

eyes

outwards,

or
or

seen

have

healthy subject,

though they
during the coma,

occurred

in

this

they regained

the effect of the chloroform


parallelismwhen
moment.
passed off,the pupil expanding at the same
in profound sleep the
infant
loss of
In
same
an
their

of

association
may

also

sucking
serve

us

be
at
as

the

seen

the

of the

movements
in young

These

bottle.

indications

and

of

eyes

feeble

occurs

infants

points, then,

sleep,coma,

; it

when
will

health, etc.

OF

MOVEMENTS

shown

has

Ferrier

of the

which, when
from

the

excited,

be

centre

there

region

in

lesion.

of the

to

eyes
the

of

in the

brain

volutions
con-

centre,

turn

away
thU

contrary,

excited,

the

sponding
corre-

the

brain,

the

other

half

turns

both

eyes

This

219

exists

both

causes

instead

destroyed

acting unopposed,
of

EV

ex/eited; if, on

centre

side

that

frontal

si"l"-

THE

of

towards

physiological

fact

the

suggests

importance of studying lateral movements


action.
eyes as a sign or expression of brain

the
the

In

the

health

of the
of the

plane

the

with

patient

the

under

inasmuch

muscles
do

horizontal
is the

same

do

the

case

in

eyes

The

involve

not

vertical

involve

not

ments
move-

chloroform.

eyes

the

as

the

of
of

of the

they

as

; the

influence

movements

separate

orbits
movements

spontaneous

horizontal
many

of the

axes

ordinary

in

probably

are

eyes

of

number

greater

of

as

movements,
of

movements

the

eyelids.
of the

Many
of

sight
to

objects.

attract

towards

the

"

attention
the

from

child's

sight
do

to

the

attracted."

of

the

with

flower
its

child's

which

the

It
*

Here

If

to the

is

is

child's

not

is said

his

is

ing
interest-

an

flower

has

every

Ferrier, op. ct7.,p. 220.

visual

thing
some-

is

the

reflected
and

the

results

There

eye

eyes

that

movement

light

to tho

turn

between

connection

passes

he

movement.

it

"

flower

flower, the

eyes;

movements.

of

expressing

movements
"

due

are

if

attention

material, structural
and

sight

presented.

eye
is

movements

eye

The

"

flower

of

case
"

lateral

no

flower

by

the

stimulates
stimulus

220

PHYSICAL

that

the

causes

object;

EXPRESSION.

be

to

eyes

directed

towards

the

the

objects repels the eyes.


sight of some
The sight of an
time
attract, at
objectmay at one
another
We
then, that the
repel, the eyes.
see,
attract,"

"

terms

conventional
in the
of

As
the

; there

is

in which

sense

the

word

of the

illustration

an

of

the

sight

I have

observations

thing
is

purely

are

attraction

as

applied in speaking

the

upon

objects,I

made

sitting opposite

passenger

When

window.

distant

train, the

of

of

fellow-

looking

rail

is

of

out

running

on

an

being no tall objects near


objects remain
long in view,
attracted

are

eyes

after

distance

line

to

observations

eyes

and

refer

may

there

embankment,

the

the

to make

the

under

people during

upon

is easy
of

movements

of eyes

movements

of

often

railway travelling. It

another, the

slowly, their

but

such

no

used,

gravity,or electricity.

effect

as

here

repel,"as

"

to

eyes

being

axes

and

the

in

object

one

the

horizontally,

move

directed

to

object

one

beyond the field of vision,then moving


another
the train
object. When
passes

till it passes

towards

through

remain

and

that

so

as

the
hundred

cutting all objectswithin view


within
sight but a fraction of
one

eyes

"

times

with

regard

now

be

to

directed

expressionas
eyes

are

seen

attracts

second,

the attention

often

think

over

minute.

these

considered

Having

the

objectafter another
move
rapidly I

near,

are

movements,

eye
to

in

the

the

preliminary
our

attention

principlesand
eyes.

constantly moved

In

while

matters

must

modes

young

of

infant

it is awake

THE

we

may

as

of

PUPIL

conclude, then, that


other

spontaneous
of the
the

of

EMOTIONAL

IN

parts,

may

action

of

of

object

"

is followed
the

the

by
and

object

that

inhibited

the

nerves

it

the

the

of

light,and
be

can

of

anything
eye

directed

the

the

mental

towards
from

under

that

the

object by

move

the

light
ring
occur-

which

expressed by

the

when

optic
the

evidence

whether

mentation

Can

intellectuality
are

the

to

most
are

eyes
has

axis

visual

this

often

eyes.

of

stimulus

opticaxis

stimulus, and

the

words,

to the

a
object (i.e.

that

which

If

be

movements

conditions

an

is

of

Eye

in

there

other

regard

often

emotions.

mind

movements

the

pupil

changes
changes

to

produce

with

shown

be

the

in

which

disengaged.

centres

owing

the

eyes;

movements

reflected

of

whether

of

changes

expressive of
or

determine

variation

any

produce

or

synchronous

cause

remain

size

it varies

condition

brain

free

The

inquire

us

movements

the

with

let

Now,

of

movements

brain, particularly the

along

those

the

apparatus stimulated

its

independently
in

that

pupil.

falling upon

occur

directed

movements

muscular

the

of

varies

an

shows

effects of

the

of

sight

"

kept there, this

spontaneous

the

certain

size

the

vision, are

by light.

Again,
by

special presentation

optic axis being

subject impressionable to
shows

the

field of

when

Movements

expressive.
the

to

ments
Move-

nerve-centres.

with

eyes,

due

spontaneous,

the

within

spontaneous

towards

be

very

of the

movements

coinciding

not

eyes,

probably

are

eyes

221

STA'l

been

light

stimulus),
its

position

positionof

the

222

PHYSICAL

is maintained

eyes

EXPRESSION.

till that

stronger stimulus

some

While

the

object, or

free

the

them

varying

effects

of the

one

glassof

water

it ;
of

vision

these

Ferrier's
When

number

then

under

these

facts
more

in

does

seen

the

influence

of chloroform,

that

stimuli.

he

of the
the

horizontal

evidence

direction

that
be

are

eyes

speaking
The

condition

plane.
horizontal

also

makes

are

It

We

has

taneous
spon-

and

seen,

spontaneous

; this

the

movement.

this

in

less

is

Touching

movement

excite

field

referringto

on

show

occur

the

hydrophobia,
explanation

Some

be

reflex

not

do

'likelyto

vertical

that

towards

within

placed

facts

excite

not

that

mostly

direct

may

turn

to

eyes

eyes.

outward

movements
are

those

as

probably spontaneous (automatic).


already stated that in this condition

been

the

the

of

patient

movements

are

emotions

repel them;

suffering from

man

patient is

does

the

if

water,

impressionable to
cornea

gether
alto-

not

are

an

the

his

causes

phenomena may
experiments.
a

to

from

repulsion of

causes

of

sight of

object. In these
of the sight of an
have
objectwe
of expression.
interestingmodes
the field of vision
placed within

most

of

object,or

away

thirstyman
the glass of

stimulus, they

the

towards

eyes

of

the

by

or

nerve-centres.

or

is, direct

fixed

removed,

disengaged to express
nerve-centres
are
engaged as much
hand
while
digging.
sufficiently
strong visual stimulus

their
of

visual

other

is

the

excites

thus

are

eyes

stimulus

they

have

in

movements

than
it

those

in

probable

224

PHYSICAL

In

parts,

of

it

small

parts

the

there

of

movements

the

head

eyes

is

is

turned

with

with

eyes

those

of

should

we

those

towards

instead

the

contrasting

of

intellectuality

more

the

of

that

probable
of

Probably

when

principle

seems

movements

by

the

applying

movements

EXPKESSION.

an

of

the

larger
compare

the

head.

expressed
object
eyes.

than

CHAPTER

EXPRESSION

OF

AND

"

Nutrition
of

emotion

VARIOUS
the

outcome

we

shall
or

Activity

"

mentation

of

expression,

of

brain

action, have

the

accompanying
of

the

of

pain

pression
Ex-

"

The

"

considered

been

conditions

brain

and

emotions,

noting

man,

tability
Irri-

"

physical signs,

or

the

of

some

Exhaustion

"

Expression

"

modes

discuss

THE

Impressionability

"

beautiful.

conditions

general
are

and

Fatigue

"

of the

now

causing

Rest

"

instinct

Sleep

"

OP

EMOTIONS.

THE

OF

consciousness

of

CONDITIONS

GENERAL

BRAIN

Expression

XIII.

certain

how

they

directly expressed.
It

proposed

is

conditions:
;

speak

of

irritability
;
expression

nutrition

pain,

followinggeneral

rest

and

of the

pressiona
im-

activity;

and

instinct

of

expression
of

the

tion
sleep; fatigue; exhaus-

Consciousness;

"

to

emotion

tion
menta-

of the

beautiful.
As

to

the

conaciousne**

sphere

of

direct
in

the

observation,

but

is

itself

expression

most

of

is

abstract
the

important

consciousness

beyond

expression
to

our

of

:
our

sciousness
con-

subject,and

226

PHYSICAL

EXPKESSION.

We

interestingto study.
question;
is,just
what

mind

no

is in

the

life,mind
manifestation.

In

condition, such

as

must

we

; we

let

me

consciousness
life

what

is, or

study

can

we

can
an

sciousness,
things, constudy their physical
emotion
or
general

methods,

consciousness, by these
and

such

such

the

are

of

condition

that

signs produced by

physical
meta-

unknowable

studying

that

say

what

abstract; but

these

expression of

the

idea

no

knowledge

have

as

clear

to

I have

speak plainly.

getting near
the
ground,

are

physical

the

brain

The physical
usuallyproduces consciousness.
ness
consciouswe
commonly
signs which
express
say
not actually the result of consciousness, but
are

which

they

the

are

is the

would

problems

to

Now,

lost

be

in
and

of

"

in

pursuing

of consciousness, let
direct

is

nerve-

is

; it

expressed,it

which

produces

state

contrast

consciousness

our

signs observed.
is

"

becomes

quiry.
metaphysical insubject,the expression
be learnt
what
can
by

of individuals

there

it not

of

of consciousness
the

naciously
perti-

authors, in treating

consciousness
maze

thus

adhere

procedure,were

many

see

us

observation
the

of

that

me

in which

factor,become

to

that

to

methods

our

it appears

that

endeavour

not
to

the

consciousness

nerve-mechanism

of the

state

that

of

expression.

the

of

"consciousness"

the abstract

not

affords

also

which

mechanism

action

of the

outcome

acknowledged
or

ness,
unconsciousIn

conditions

great impressionability,

the
to
impressions upon
susceptibility
specialsense, producing reflex movements

organs
; in

of

states

PRESSION

OF

227

SLEEP.

of

profound unconsciousness, as
follow
movements
impressions

rule, no

the

on

reflex
of

organs

sense.

We

considering, at

are

healthy subjects only,

present, expression

in

the

and

dition
cononly normal
of unconsciousness
is sleep. We
on
pass
by a natural
step to study the objective signs of
from
sleep. Sleep is a condition
apt to follow

The

fatigue.

principal si^ns
minished

impressionabi
of

effects
absence

gravity

of

muscles,

Many
for

in

of

alteration

details

mi^ht

of

space.

postures
the

the

be

to

resist

of

the

so-called

organic

given,
The

diminished

sleepare,
power

the

upon

movements

want

of

voluntary
suffice

must

of

tone

body,

movements.

few

the

the

orbicular

sleep,sufficient
to keep the eyelids closed; on
awaking, the levator
lid preponderates,and
of the
the
muscle
upper
If during deep sleep the
eyelid is r;
upp"-r
minutely contracted,
eyelids be raised, the pupils are seen
muscle

the

of

and
loss

of

One

eye

the

other

is, in healthful

eye

infants

in

associated

the

move

may

remains

direction,

at

or

usually

we

outwards

different

pace,

thus

these

movements

confined

the

and

the

; at

is restored.
in

horizontal

infants
*

See

of

moment

of

co-ordination

asleep
paper,

the

in

plane

of the

waking

the

in

BrUith

their
Medical

mothers'

arms.

Journal, March

eyes.*
while

different

causing

are

of

axes

the

pupilsdilate,
of

movements

observed
iiiently

I ha

the

upwards or
quiet, or moves

squint. Usually

orbits

complete

of

movements

temporary
to

see

the

these

eyes

facts

It is also
10, 1877.

228

not

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

muscular

body.

We

depths

of

the

two

say

there

may

may

be

different

tone

commonly
sleep ; sleep

on

of

condition

find the

during sleepto

uncommon

of the

sides

different

be

complete,

full and

jective
impressionability.Obof a subject during apparent
observation
to
as
sleep does not necessarily give evidence
be
whether
there
impressionabilityor not ;
any
of impressions
it may
that the outcome
be found
loss of

with

received
child

forms

most

is

of

long delayed.

apparently asleep

visible result at the


learn

that

time

of

we

may

Here

it.

before

child

produce any
subsequently
sound

at

tell

may
know

the

what

us

the

impressionability
subsequent speech

we

in

effects

its

before

said

impressionable to

was

by

not

may

time, but

observation; the

said

was

it

Things

(movements).
is

Fatigue
force

in

expended

in which

Fatigue

in

and

is illustrated

by

posture

the

there

The

free

posture with
of the

feeble

an

excess

of

hand
the

become

of

thumb

hand.

The

small

The

the

in

bility,
irritaexcess

speech.
tary
volun-

when

as
a

straight
drooped," or the
head

flexed.
the

we

uncertain,

handwriting

assumes

asymmetrical posture, and


effects of gravity determine
than
body to a greater extent

an

is often

coexist.

to

change

the

by

fatigue and

particularan
apt

of

latter character

the

between

are

is tired.

extended

and

often
irritability

movements

man

In

condition
and

of movement,

slight amount

movement,

distinction

some

the

by

of movements.

number
see

indicated

"

is often

The

direct

position of
the

in

condition

the
of

iAUSTION

strength,hence
tends

the

to

the

of

preponderance

levator

of the

is bent.

spine
into

on

pass

If this condition

sleep, this

the

is

orbicular
the

lid,and

upper

229

IRRITABILITY.

"

expressed by

muscle

other

the

over

signs of sleep

supervene.

Exhaustion
in which

is

(the kinetic

movement

lowered.
devoid

of

The

fine

palpebrarum
from

ition

'

of

slow

and

and

the

and
the

yawning

the

the

the

do

as

occur

feeble

is

his

out

altered

Sighing

is
in

quired
re-

hands,

hand"

speech

is

voice

ordinary
by the

excited

hold

to

"

the

ened
length-

strong stimulus

man

is

be

movements

is altogether

orbicularis

may

not

common;

are

of

tone

such

posture

the

muscles;

are

fatigue,

toneless, and

face

its

laboured.

induce

then

of

expression

and

to

becomes

the

of

function)

expression;

relaxed;

ordinary stimuli,
are

face

mobile

is

movements

condition

extreme

an

slow,
some

and

cases

twitch ing, especially of separate fingers,indicates


fingerexhaustion

extreme

and
in

is expressed
Irritability
noise

makes

excess,

health

on

stimuli

him

reflex action

besides

action.

Not

movement.

but

only

is the

and

out

series

of

movements,

following
three

years

from
of

the
age,

kind
may

reflex
not

In

of
of

in

in

perfect

other
irritability

excessive

reflex

sudden

causes

of reflex

ment
move-

proportion

movement,

differ from
in

slight

movement

occur

amount

stimulus
when

when

man

shoulder

the

the

produce

may

upon

excessive,
stimulus,

does

that

sound

touch

is

stimulus.

slight a

so

This

start.

irritability.

the

special

or

that

health.

irritable,may

to

usually
A

turn

child
away

230

PHYSICAL

his
of

head
his

the

from

from

it.

and

by

from

which

voice

and

the

the

described

not
in

of

of

movement

all

is

nerve-centres

direction

would

produce

signs we

to

he

find

the

answer

may

force

The

uncommon.

chap. vii.

often

children

nervous

show

spontaneous

marked

postures

the addition

with
fatigue,

twitching

the

generally is lessened
kind; twitching irregularmovements

The
irritability.
those

sight
sight of

opposite

reflex

spoken

kinetic

irregularin
are

these

when

"

the

the

the

object,moves

stimulus

same

Besides

reflex

the

in

from

here

towards

movements

altered

sharply;

no

of
irritability

indicated

health.

"

causing

hands

The

that

of

object,or

No,

"

say,

object,instead
eyes,

in

familiar

food, and

head,

EXPRESSION.

of

signs

assumed

are

slightirregular

If this condition

movements.

of

lasts long

"~"

usually

trophicsigns are
and

wasting

discuss

the

It is not

occurs.

abdomen,

the

to

the

to

refer

some

periments
ex-

described.

the

in
render

may

here

trophic changes
but let me
irritability,

conditions

Abnormal

lowered,

convenient

phenomena of
reader again to chap, vii.,
p. 113, where
the sensitive
plant are
upon

the

body, particularlyin
the subjectirritable ; so

fever, gout, etc.

may

Nutrition

is

must

consider

We

unwilling

to

so

extensive

this

of the

highest importance.
its expression. I am,
however,
at any
the expreslength upon
sion

matter

enter

of nutrition

of

is

of such

relation

motor

is

seen,

nutrition

in this
and

volume

gain knowledge

so

is

volume, because

important ; in fact,the

preparatory

upon

the

the

to

an

subject
whole

attempt

to

subjects nutrition, and

232

PHYSICAL

pea-plant,if kept

in

not

well

nourished,

by

the

small
That

stem.

the

by
In

and

deficient

the ill nutrition


leaves

yellow

and

the

not

occurred

has

the

it grew.

relative

being

children

Here

growth

long

often

we

leaves

small, the

very

see

than
is

and

intern odes

growth

for

the

fact

the

seed

expressed
stem, the

long.

very

time

white

during

by

ill nutrition

of

light,is

is indicated

the

which

leaves

with

room

plant is demonstrated
plant when
dry weighs less

the

from

assimilation

life of

that

EXPRESSION.

in

occur

lateral development ; then the


height without
portions
proof growth change, and the child fattens.
Rest is probably a condition
of nutrition, leading
to the

signs of
activity. The
of

the

recreation
most

indicated

essential

condition

by subsequent

element

is the

rest

in

the

pression
ex-

subsequent

i.e. the sequential series of movements


activity,
Take
reflexes.
a
case
uncomplicated by

and

sleep.

which
affords
During rest there is impressionability,
a
distinguishingcharacter between
simple rest and
sleep. Arising out of this we have the fact that in

rest, uncomplicated by sleep,the


remain

open
a

; that

is,the levator

stronger impulse than

eyelids usually
ceives
palpebrsestill re-

the orbicular

muscle.

of
is the
rest
special characters
is
of movement,
absence
although impressionability
and
retained.
Rest is usuallypreceded by fatigue,
it is followed
by activity; the sequential signs of
and
recreation
activity indicate that during the

period
rest.

the

of

One

in

which

Rest

rest, followed

is

movement

was

absent

there

was

expressed by the present signs of


by the signs of recreation and activity.

BEST

As

forces, such

produce
of

function

kinetic

the

abeyance
nutrition

of

the

ill nutrition

of

body

mat

that

wh"-n
is in

prevails, and

One

for

reason

more

this

general good

view,
of

state

Conditions

rest.

promotes

often

are

As

rest.

may

nerve-mechanism

action

place.

may

Music

probable

me

the

that

noted

soothing music,

and

others, is that

many

nutrition

of

trophic

takes

among

to

seems

be

may

movements.

uiet

it

speculation

the

of

of

to

man

it

-omul

inhibition

233

ACTIVITY.

interest

an

cause

of

matter

AND

accompanied

by signs of

irritability.
contradistinction

In

The

activity.

the

to

condition

of

actions, i.e. movements.


the
in
and

movements
the

Healthy
of

of

sequences

movement

movements

actions, the
series

of

short.

quick

is

ready
the

ditions.
con-

resj"

is to

say, for

quickly

is

answer

period

upon

sound.

a
as

upon

implies also

course,

two

reflex
ret

of

latencyis
ability
impression-

that

good.
'//,

is

mechanism,

necessary

looked

where

Inij
essential

and

the

quick

than

combinations

hearing

on

or

are

Tliis, of

by

follows

movement

object

an

the

by

strength,

in number

stimulation, that

the

indicated

differ in

-idicated

upon

such

fewer

have

we

activitywith

movement

act i i

example, that
the
sight of
If

In

and
irritability,

of

state

activity is

probably

are

of rest

state

factor
to

as

property

of

especially interesting
among

mentation.

the

In

as

properties of
the

first two

the

nerve-

being
the

an

brain

chapters

234

PHYSICAL

explained what

EXPRESSION.

is here

and

it

meant

by

the

to

be

shown

was

pressionab
im-

term
a

property
as
living

possessed by inorganic bodies as well


impressionabilityof the brain
beings ; and
in the chapter on
dwelt
"Expression of
upon
This
is a very
Mind."
large subject,and there
kinds

many

effects of
A

such
impressionability,

of

light,sound,

and

eyes

of

from

in the

retentiveness

and

the

picture

makes

by
then

It is

of

brain

field
an

light it
always turn
difficult

more

spreading

time

is said

turn

the

the

to be

is very

follow

can

When

impression.

readilyretains impressionsit

head

within

eyes

period

ready

quickness

series of movements

single short

and

considerable

some

over

the

the

little ; the

comes

it is in view.

how

to understand

but

nerve-centres

head

it when

it

time

the

the

reflects,and

certaintyand

after

impression upon
towards

attention

picture when

vision, but

the

building up
picturewhen

or

reflexes.

with

do not
the

towards

formation

the

attracts

seen

are

etc.

the
to
susceptibility
(trophicaction) of new
first

the

to

as

is
impressionability

of

form

curious

is

brain

retentive,

important

to

intellectuality.
emotions

The

of the
the
what

be said

Instinct

be

mind,

expressions of
can

done

usually considered

are

is

and

mind

about

defined

before

by

Professor

"Mental

and

Moral

of

to consider

expressionof

ability. "It is the name


prior to experience or

come
out-

considering any

it is convenient

the

the

as

instinct.
*

Bain

given to
education

Science," 1872,

as

what
;

p. 68.

as

taught
un-

can

suck-

235

or.

in the

ing

child, walking

all fours

on

dropped

calf, pecking by the

from

shell, the

its

generally."
In the
larger
Bain

maternal

of

works,

is

newly

just emerged

attentions

"Instinct

says,

bird

of his

edition

in the

animals

fessor
25G, Pro-

p.

defined

by bein^

opposed to acquisition,education, or experience; \\


it as
untaught ability to perform
might expn
of all kinds, and
actions
more
especiallysuch as
"

"

are

living being
of

powers

useful

or

necessary

of

the

conferred
later

Again,

he

for

con

succession

aggregation
of
the

the

of the

series
Sir
the

is

birth,
sequently
sub-

primitive
ments
arrange-

aggregation

at

upon

the

and
the

birth

or

struction
con-

in

seen

eyes.
be

to

due

instinct

to

describes

in

walking

the
as

of movements.

Bell,* speaking

Charles

the
and

as

and

etc., and

arms,

direction

of

startled

muscular

the
of

he

the

originalconstruction
*

actions

of the

Op. crt.,p.

191.

of

influence
of

movements

exertion

then

will, but

alteration
the

the

example

an

of

under

movements

suddun

combinations
to the

in

dependent

Marey

passion,cites

hands

the

said

respiratory

alarm,

the

primitive

nerve-mechanism

animals.

lower

of

of movements

movements

Walking

"the

education."

examples, locomotion,

as

on

movements

"

"

stress

movements;"

combined

and

it

those

as

by experience

lays some

of

moment
nature

same

In

animal.

the

at

possesses,

;i

the

to

of

the

adds, "Such
are

not

left

provided for
animal
body."
are

in

236

PHYSICAL

It
called

instinct

aggregation

or

of

meaning

the

"

instinct,"we

"

of the

condition

born

or

acknowledged that what is


in
is expressed by
movements
in succession," due to the congenital
what

and

of

the

outcome

central

nerve-mechanism

actions, and

the

by

these

the

of

outcome

centres, and

"

mind."

We

exist

In

"

class

of

we

"

by

abstract

or

of the

action

birth, or

at

the

in

of reflex

chief notion

upon

implied
which

movements

the

reflex,are

or

of

the

nerve-

instinct

mentation
concerned

the

called

emotions
and

observers

their

thus

of
of
is

defined

things.
in the

Mind
a

with

the
have

what

function
a

of

certain

emotions.
been

well

authors, and

descriptionsinstead

of

task.

emotion, and

is outside

as

condition

phenomena

certain

nothing;

proves

Expression

that
now

are

reattempting their
body

the

movements,

condition

on

expressions of
described
by many
to
analyze
propose
an

is that

property

mental

is

the

is that

The

Pain

expressed

part dependent

definition

it is assumed

brain;

be

term

not

chapter

our

Infant

the

as

the

sequences

spontaneous

demonstration

does

by

to
acquired; if they are shown
they would be called signs of
suppose
less arbitrary
have, then, a more
or

definition,and
needs

in

inborn

are

acquired I

be

"

it, whether

express

and

I think

instinct

"

term

of

it exists

as

are

stimulus.

may

spontaneous

combinations

by

external

instinct

sequences

direct

addition

understood

be

If this

nerve-system.

is

that

see

combinations

by

to be

then,

seems,

EXPRESSION.

can

be

expressed in

the

in the
physical signs. "Pain"
the sphere of objective
knowledge,

EXPRESSION

incapable of investigationby physicalmeans.


some
talking of pain in this work, I take

and

is

In

of

description
adopted by
is

present, and

deal

by

and

note

about

in

grant

do

we

do

the

not

say

emotion

is

(a) the

force

The

is the

in the

or

our

work

'

t-x

is

with

signs
of

of

brain

only

indicates

which
of

physical

We

mutual

the

will
relation

press

is beautiful

matter

of interest

to

consid"

that

Here

we

importance

by

what

reason

touch
to

"

physical

the

have

we

will

"beauty

is affected

man

i-

It

ideas.

what

observe

what

him.

another

the

beauty

not

can

we

of

which

as

abstract
of

sense

that

and

taken
aside

put

beautiful, or

believe

be

may

I know

is, but

of

expresses

nerve-centre

states, and
the

not

expression.

we

attention.

signs which

the

us

indications

in the

change

of

know

be

may

sul"j"ctive

ex|"i

engage

thing
any-

say

(6)the physicalsign which

this

In

of all

ation

sL

to deal

nerve-centres.

of beauty

ev"

example.

To

outcome

nerve-muscular

produces the

to

an"l

physical sign can

direct

in the

what

emotion

(c) the

here

physical sign

the

force

discuss

now

it ;

the

that

or

physical

itself,but only

that

general,

say

change,

wish

ii

previouslyexistingphysical force.
emotion
is a physicalforce, but
that an

produced by

We

the

physical signs.

wo

the

emotion,

abstract

not

pain

coincide!

take

we

physical signs,or

are

changes, and
be

the

emotion

the

expression

emotion

is to say,

I do

it

the

analyze

an"l

where

cases

principles with

our

accompanying
its

observe

all, then

us

understood

generally

pain

physical signs. That


social
description of

we

PAIN.

OF

our

upon

to
a

subject,

238

PHYSICAL

beautiful

be

Objects may

to another.

beautiful

instrument
another
is

no

the

property

"

of

them

the

beauty

only

in

The

at

some

that

man

one

object

same

to

say,

"

one

not

are

tific
sciennot

man,

to

differently.Probably there

beauty

instrument;

to

is beautiful

"

; it affects

found

EXPRESSION.

"

resident, as
of

sense

beauty, and

the

sight of

men.

It

the

in

property,

the expression

instrument,

are

follows,then, that when

of beauty in a man
expressionof the sense
of
at the sight of the instrument, this indicates
one
his properties,
of impressionability.
of his forms
one
of beauty at the
In fact,the expression of the sense
of a
sight of a certain object is a reflex movement
we

see

the

kind.

certain

regret

to be

to describe

unable

the

I
of beauty in man,
but
expression of the sense
think
the following are
important points in such
the
sight of the object causes
expression: The
"

head

and

to

eyes

turn

is attracted

attention

towards
then

the

it,

as

visual

when

the

impress

of

lating
object is usually inhibitory,rather than stimuare
commonly inhibited thereby,
; movements
of rest are
and
the primary appearances
produced,
is attracted
the attention
by anything ;
just as when
the

sometimes,
excitation
sometimes
which

rather
a

may

in

as

children, there
than

inhibition.

tendency
even

to

There

extension
to

occur

such

be

may

of
an

signs of

is,I think,
the

extent

head,
as

to

positionwhere they can see


motor
the object. These
signs at the sight of a
only in some
people; they
particularobject occur
kind
of
as
serve
physical signs indicating what
brain
they have, or, as it might commonly be said,
remove

the

eyes

from

240

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

XIV.

CHAPTER

EXPRESSION

OF

Materialistic
what

they?

infancy

by

us

to

mentation

"

outcomings
with
of

Impressionability

to

afferent

adult, and

the
an

infant;

"

of
their

Modes

expression

Brain

"

of

and

its attributes

expression
Memory

"

"

of

signs

delayed

Subjective

known

necessary
of

infant

an

Description
potentiality
"

expression

criteria

are

from

Relation
of

child"

healthy

mind

properties
"

mind,

of

only

Comparison

"

with

is

Retentiveness

"

development
of

distress

stimulus
idiot

an

its

Impressionability

by

"

ADULT.

criteria

study of signs
subjective condition

physical expression

its

to

The

"

Physical

"

upwards

AND

INFANT

THE

only entertained

questions
are

IN

MIND

of

of

mind

conditions

"

pressions
impression
Ex-

studied

Thought.

"

physiologistand the
physician, dealing in
work
their
of
only with
things material, must
of investigation
necessityseek for realistic methods
and
description. We have not here to consider any
metaphysical propertiesof mind, but, putting aside

THE

all such

considerations, it

consider

to

signs by
of the
What
the
be

only

which

faculty

the

to

be

business

our

at

physical investigatormay
is called

taken

mentation

partiallyanswered

present

realistic,objective, physical

of what

presence
are

the

is

as

We

in the

the

judge

mind.
criteria of mind

leave
course

this
of

question
this

or

to

chapter.

METHOD

It has

been

of mind

to refer to the

brain, and

round

the

mind,

or

to

the

of the

such

give

that

basis

to consider

of

the

its mental

when

may

enable

note

with

as

to

or

into the

said

been

by

potential,

of

exercising

the

observers

as

us,

how

exactness

signs
physical

of mentation.

function

authors

the

that

study

we

their
by recording subjectivefeelings,
and

'inations, but

com!

of

subjective feeling

the

first

definition

elicit
acting upon the man
and
generally to attempt a

forces

mentation,

mind

all

development
object of my

The

age.

brain

of mentation,

often

actual

description and

experim*

has

of

signs

experimental inquiry
It

here

of mind

adult

conditions

certain
of

the

towards

is to

and

the

of
properties

from

argue

I propose

faculties

trace

faculties

and

the faculties

infant, seeking for physical signs of its

upwards
work

inquiriesinto

structure
to

2H

INQUIRY

in

then

subject.

human

and

usual

very

adult

the

OF

physicalexpression in

only

can

we

another

ations,
associ-

know

by

man

speech,and

movements,

its

other

results of movements.

and

evolution

the

the

of

account

objects, it
have

as

be

directly

is also

is

action
of

upon

intended

to

faculty

the

of

nature
to

"

this
deal

observation
ledge
elicit know-

forces

factors

as

mentation."

and

inquiry

with

the

On

of

elements

in each

or

mind,

for

its

question

physical point of view, so


do
with
"feelings"or
_- to

observed

necessary

is based

of external

is necessary

from

purely
we

the

to

inquiry
and

experi
as

in

of

method

Our

they

that
sciousness"
"con-

cannot

Jt
experimented upon.
portion of such an inquiry,

24-2

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

and
experiments as
giving observations
tion,
proof of points concerning any property or functo
to decide
are
physical signs which
upon
before

considered

be

function.

that

of

physical signs that

these

only

criteria

as

we

It

is

observe

can

or

experiment upon.
The
principalpropertiesof the brain necessary
the effect
to mentation
are
(1) impressionability,
"

and

the

of

outcome

impression varying according


stimulus
or
; (2) retentiveness

force

to

the

afferent

or

tion
permanent impressionability
; (3) specialassociaof

the

outcomings
Or

stimulus.

afferent
of

dependent

as

we

properties in

these

signs of

granted

mind

One

method

to

although
An

it is

it shows

but

of

none

possess

be

"

; it

at

actual
may

mind

birth

for the functions


potentiality
indicate
catalogue the signs which
the

child

"in

may

dition
con-

be

said

of

mind

potentialities,

growing up from infancy,does


objective signs appropriate to its

summarize

man

actual, present signs of mentation.

indicate
To

"

idiot in

those

principal

than

faculties

possess

does

adult

An

to

others

birth

; the

mindless

infant

the

healthy

no

to

An

of amentia.

birth.

signs of

more

be said

birth, would

at

is

with

at

mind

the
of

mind

infant

an

signs of

absent

are

presented no

who

that

well-marked

show

not

at

be

sion
expres-

indicates

determining the physical signs of


subjects possessed of mind
compare
of mind, or nearly so.
devoid
It will

the

part

mentation.

for

potentiality

that

say

may

the

upon

signs of

the

absence

not

age

show

which

of mentation.

idiocy,is
of

mind

to

(see

THE

chap. ii.p. 13).


of

signs

infant

and

head

of

its movements

that

the

the

the

The

impr-than

permanent

Again,
its

to

brain

of

either

mode

its field

within

in

light or

oculi contract

any

sound,

cally
spasmodi-

less

impressionable,
produced by light,etc.,are less
adult.

of infant

mental
of

its eyes

turn

modified

of

is

actual

potentialities.

or

not

action

development, the signs

development

its

signs

talk,

infant

in the

speak

show

are

orbiculares

light.

to

it may

to show

not

bright object

degree by

except

is said

walk,

not

towards

marked

of

infant

243

INFANT.

though

does

vision;

and

The

mind,

The

II

identical

are

development.
in

development

with

of

Speaking
infant

an

the

we

may

give its expression.


born
The
full time
at
healthy infant
weighs
six and
between
and members
t"-n pounds ; its limbs
are
complete in all parts fingers,toes, nails, etc.
"

head

The

vault

the

observe

of

"utures

the

skull

not

are

form, size, and

the

the

from

eleven

closed

is open.

degree

ossified,

or

We

the

signswhich

as

and

also

may

proportions of

head,

to

the bones

junctions of

or

fontanelle

extent

some

circumference

the

particularlyof

and
to

anterior

the

and

inches

twelve
of the

mea

body,

indicate

condition

of brain

development.
Respiratory
at

the

child

when

the

birth, and
cries

in

movements

continue

when

stomach

the

without

its skin

has

been

infant

lished
estab-

interruption;

is cold

empty

are

or

more

wet,

and

than

t\\.

hours.
The

nerve-muscular

mechanism

and

the

sensory

244

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

surfaces
An

allow

of the

object placed

mouth

the

in

certain

of

occurrence

reflexes.
the

stimulates

sucking ; cold to the skin is followed


contraction
of the orbicular
by crying ; lightcauses
and if the eyelids are raised
of the eyelids,
muscles
of the
the
iris contracts
tone
to
light. The
of

movements

retain

their

hours

old, the

In

contents.

flexed

when

be

almost

are
irregular,

and

short

toes.

limbs

in the
say

movements

period of

present physicalsigns showing


the

temporarily, by
objects; it does not move
even

give

not

surrounding
towards
objects

there

where

unable

child

is

but

tends

to do

to grasp

an

definite

"be

may

the

cate
indi-

of

"

touch

to

so

pain.

with

object by

When

the

its

own

other
act

one

it with
foot.
is

sight

there

is

it in
is
the

of

part

scratch

to

not

impressed,

impressed thereby reflexes


and
almost
sound
entirelyabsent.
are
the
In
early stages of development
inability to put out the hand, moving
an
object. There
straight line towards
inability

sion
expres-

movements

no

We

of

its hands

it is

that

ment
move-

it does

it is

that

sight

its field of vision, and

within

seen

eyelids.

of the

mind, because

of

of

subsidence

does

infant

faculties

the

of

by

closure

newborn

the

that

elbow

apparently
in the hands, fingers,
is usually
wakefulness

constant

and

few

be

may

to

; movements

by sleep,indicated

followed

child

newborn

is awake

infant

the

viscera

straighten the
stronglyresisted.

Frequent spontaneous
while

hollow

to

attempt

may

the

enables

sphincter apparatus

also

body

leg

itches

the

hand,

The

later

power

develop-

.1'

246

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

The

ment.

hand
and

the

to

object from

an

acquired for

is not

other

of the

association

the

transfer

abilityto

months,

some

in

hands

two

one

playing

objectis still later in development.


cating
indiVery important signs are the movements
of wellrecollection upon
hearing the names
known
objects(retentiveness). In such a case only
with

an

of sound

waves

and

the

act

the

has

sound

brain
in

results

that

movement

that

the

upon

the

cates
child,indiA

heard.

been

without,

from

certain

facial gesture
the same
always cause
the
bed," excite
bottle,"
(expression); thus,
facial expression of pleasure,disappointment. The
face
the
word
is said, and
changes. However
name

may

"

"

which
that

the

moves

face

the

stimulates

objectis

very

objects

shown

indicated

by

when

shown

be, still it is the sound

may

effects

the

an

the

Here

it?

to

of the

the

movements

it has had

objectthat

sight of

the child

Does

important.
the

brain

movement.

of

Retentiveness

the

function

and

mechanism

in

complex

an

remember
is

"memory"
infant

makes

sight of

often

lightare reflected from


the retina,
the particularobject; these, fallingupon
produce, by their action on the brain, the gestures
in the face, hands, etc.,the expressionof joy,pain,
etc. ; the
sight of this specialobject always producing
before.

The

similar

sight of
dog makes

effects, subject

it cry

by

doll

funny

The

Upturning

of

undulations

and

of the

elevation

makes

of

the

the

modifications.
child

laugh;

its fists.

clench
eyes

to

in

their

orbits, accompanied

eyelids,in looking

at

248

PHYSICAL

hands

together
propertiesof the

EXPRESSION.

these

"

the

are

of

outcome

nerve-mechanism

itself.

The

of my
on
one
followingobservation
when
old
illustrates
eighteen months
is indicated
dawning intellectuality
by
and
"

The

to

child

both

having

third ; he

grasp

hand

quickly between

hand

free to take

The

of

fitness

hold

certain

full of

then

put

his

knees,

following kinds

the

(untrained) properties

how
the

the
plication
com-

movement.

toys, desired

and

thus

one

set

one

object."
as
signs

separate attention
external

the

of

:"

agencies,
light,

of

outcome

of

children

toy from

of movements

healthy infant brain deserve


Movements
followingcertain
Movements

the

desired

sound.

of

sets

hands

of the

the

the

essential

nerve-mechanism.

resultingfrom the acquired association


of nerve-centres
similar
(training). Movements
to those
previously occurring from a like cause,
Movements
in
different
showing retentiveness.
Movements

areas,

such

the

as

small

joints

largejoints; or a different
of adjacent parts,such
as
also be
The
in the

of the

expressionbefore
which

face

zone,* those

lower

condition
the

with

contrast

of movement

fingers. There

may

of movements.

asymmetry
muscles

in

those

on

are

about

to

seen

the

act

earliest

mouth

causing
(corrugators),

the forehead

with
tion.
mentaspeciallyconnected
If the organizationof the infant is not very
in their orbits do not
strong, the eyes as they move
maintain
of their axes
a strict parallelism
; f this is
seem

to

Compare

with

See

account

be

cerebral

of eyes

in

facial

palsy,

see

sleep,chap. xii.

p.

108, chap. vii.

p. 218.

CHt

from

Now,

the
be

child

the

to

as

the

while

the

child

be

of the

functions

head

child.

is

the

light or

the

head

object,the
inhibit

may

sight of

and

The

impression

caused

the attention

the

an

amount

of movement

in the

effects of the

the

it has

towards

condition

tl i is

On

object,after

the

expressionof

an

is attracted.

turned

and

kinetic

to be

difference

to

further

eyes

increase

object, may

head

brain, arrestingall movement

hand, the

the

caused

the

this,after the stimulus


the

brain

when

happens

other

towards

the

of

than

object has

an

turned

stimulation

often

su

old, we
four months
easily attracted, bec;t

is

More

of

sight
to

eyes

is

when

attention

of sound.

of the

the

observable

sight of objects and sounds


cause
moved
(by reflex action) towards

source

the

ATTRACTED.

its bott

that

say

ATTENTION

commonly

most

ing

LI)

the
in
visual

of

the

child.
the result of

Playfulness is probably

spontaneous

togetherwith an increased susceptibility


The
to reflex action.
playful child" has a happy
face, owing to the healthy tone of the facial muscles
movements,

"

and

their nerve-centres.
The

table

given

on

well-developedinfant
Perhaps of all the
those
the
most

most

important,
to

Thoroughly
consider

the

of

healthy,

class.
rated,
expression enumeimpressionabilityare
particularsthe
some

of

means

and

in

understand.
to

grasp

attributes
*

good

indicate

which

difficult

250, is for

page

See

chap.

this
of the

vi. p.

nin-t
conception we
impressionproperty

101, Fig.

"

9.

250

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

ability" quantity, time,


"

made

by

at

time

one

; the

outcome

an

question

mere

outcome

of

delayed till certain


An

the

the

impression
be immediately followed
be long delayed,a
may

attribute

forces
be

impression may
call

not

may

again
latent

effect

The

kind.

of

time; it

act

upon

the

till certain

that

may

be

subject
stances
circum-

impression

into

activity.

We

only know
impression.

itself
that
A
one

at

the

know

cannot
; we

child

of four

putting a
the time

see

letter

the

impression

the

effect in

upon

the

the

outcome

brain
of

quietlylooks at some
cannot
into a pillar post ; we
impression produced upon the

years

old

IMl

child's

brain,

but

turned

impression has
child finding a
The

the

the

under

or

less

as

such

important

movements

do

letter; the

depth

of

sight

the

In

the

the

above

of the

at

movement

The

stimulated

moving

or

the

and

the

property
the

kind

stimulus

of
of

termed, the

by

its

the

which

with

An

production

indicated

is

bility
dura-

special

infant

possesses

is,that

its attention

an

the

to

light, and
inhibited.

the

eyes

In- not

too

towards

turn

It

known

is well

rapid.

the

Can

the
is

movement

spontaneous

object especiallyattracts

movement

more

important

visual

mentation

?id
the

the

sight of objects,and
stimulus
produces expression by
early age in a healthy infant.

head

object or

the

an

of

it is often

great signs that

Such

light.

day,

is excited.

potentiallythe faculty
is easily attracted
to

the

of the

example

the

as

readiness

case

impression,

time

upon

series of movements
One

it and

letter,are

is,then, very

attribute

impression
the

and

the

faculty mentation.

It

quantity, or,

of the

on

the second

on

of

so.

of movements

in this

factor

impression is susceptibilityto
series

an

ability,
property impression-

of the

evidence

that

day,

next

eyes

"

nature

impressionability.
of

know

impressionability and

its

not

We

and

table, he takes

as

of the

permanent

would

head

door."

stimulus

are

the

time, of the

appreciate

to

on

child's

expressionof

idiot

letter

attribute

series of

child's

when

has

impression

an

pillarpost.
made

the

is very

the

been

it behind

that

guess

the

towards

posts

we

because

produced

jeen

\ ABILITY.

that

attention,
we

give

if
anv

252

PHYSICAL

EXPilESSIOX.

explanation?

As

portions of

the

greater the

area

the

stimulus

which

the

retina

will

the

to

the

eyes,

; and

tha

stimulated,

transmitted
and

different

moves,

stimulated

be

of retina

the head

move

object

In the
modes

the

objective criteria
the

expression;

; and

shown

all these

to be

mind

the

modes

the

direct

action

of

of the

that

directly expressed by

are

the emotions,

expression have

is, then, admitted

are

mind

the
been

nerve-

conditions

of

nerve-muscular

This

signs.

material, physical
implies that some
mentation," which
occurs
along with
of the
change is expressed in the muscles
"

change
material

body. It is this inherent


directlyexpressed,which
his

in
inherent
mind

the

upon

indications

are

of

produced by

It

system.

of

expressionsof

feelings,passions, thoughts
mind

also

greater

movements.

adult

of

greater

nerve-centres

inhibitoryor stimulating effect produced


spontaneous

the

studies

physical change, thus


the physiologistinvestigates

of mind

nerve-change, thus

itself,or

in

some

and

whether

that

directlyexpressed,be
allied

way

to

mind,

is

metaphysical questionI shall not attempt to discuss.


Here
we
only discuss material, physical action.
Let us take
A
mother
an
example or two.
just
after

the

death.

We

mouth
with

the

We

of

then

her
see

quivering,the
a

The

loss

infant
the

"

mind

"

to

speak

of its

face

tending to flush,the
angles depressed; she speaks

trembling voice,half
term

comes

is used

choked
as

the

by

her

emotion.

collection

of all

propertiesthat make up the faculty mentation.


cannot
by physiologicalmethods
investigate

SUlUKiTivi;

"

"

mind

itself,as

of

criteria

or

observed.
but

certain
and

these

is

memory
of

criteria

is,but

of the

we

determine

can

memory,"

"

property

with

inquiry

be

phenomenon,

physical signs can be observed


thus
experimented upon,
enabling us
of

we

can

these

physical processes
memory."
Subjective

if

indices

as

criteria

abstract

an

analysis

indices

as

it

physical signs

certain

processes

what

not

mentation,

Thus

by

know

we

consider

to

agree

COXDITK

and

even

deal

to

the

by

faculty

"

studied

that

expression

When

child

that

us

the

touches
not

he

and

sequences

felt

the

ncy.

stimulated

the

It will

will
a

produce

comatose

or

can

of

account

be

deaf

one

of

complete

thou_

much,

the
as

taken

the

inhibit
hot
a

so

at

An

man

""f

of

blind
or

all

object

flower, may
of

may

sign

object.

beautiful

affect

is not

as

he

reflex movement

movements

is not

he
man

otherwise
is

No

idiot, when

move

effect, present

no

man

Similarly, a

not

vince
con-

strong-minded

spontaneous

man.

An

not

very

impressing by si^ht,such
inhibit

movements

of

touch

by

his

It

analyze.

be

Spartan type might

the

and

of movements

heat.

be

expression.

would

all ; this

defi

his mental

teapot

teapot, does

hot

at

move

hot

of

record

can

we

touches

combinations

and

modes

their

by observing

is the

pain, joy, fear,etc.,can

gent
intelli-

an

and

man,

it

prospective, on
impressionable.

stimulated

to

ments
move-

impressed by sounds.
sionability
Impresof the expressions of mentation.
methods
the
of studying mind

without

Now,

reference

"thought"

to

is

not

the
a

processes

physical

254

PHYSICAL

is not

thing, and

therefore

consideration, but
of

what

he

know

outward

there

is

mental

functions.

fresh

the

unknowable

interesting to

notice

indicate

analogous

that

little
of

the
its

performing
series

of actions,
ments,
move-

reflexes

new

and
of

expression

Table

the

of

brain

perties
pro-

faculty of mentation.
the

properties

of

the

potentiality for mentation,

properties

to

inorganic things

its

but

mentation.

or

the

by

deeply

spontaneous

the

are

factors of

necessary

are

is

of

mind.

study of

which

it

thought

While

functions

subsequent

these

process

Physical

kinetic

susceptibility to
"

thought

movement,

while

The

impressions

brain

the

our

expression

has

does.

little

of

range
the

man

and

modification

sequential
and

It is

but

the

with

says

suspended

are

deal
that

expression;

brain

within

can

subsequently

thinking

the

we

We

thought.

EXPRESSION.

found

in

plants

and

"

Impressionability :

phonograph,

telephone (pp.

18, 19).
Retentiveness

Reflex
A

"

actions

actions

of

(6)
as

Change

of function
:

see
see

(a) resulting from

combination

result

the

Inhibition
Nutrition

(p. 19).

(p. 152).

machine

organ

paper

Mimosa;

phonograph
Drosera

action:

series

force,

of

see

p. 94.

p. 234.

folding
or

stimulus.
p. 39.

apparent

an

of

leaf

aggregation

of
of

256

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

not

free;

rest

on

the

and

free) to

be

then, to

the

face

is free

external

the

observe

hands

rests

the

and

the

on

eyes

that

hold

are

stimuli.

signs of expression in
to

are

(their nerve-centres

face, eyes, tongue

him

limbs

foot-stool,the

chair, the head

by

on

request

may

we

acted

free

also

are

best

then

may

on

the

chair;

tongue

the

rest

sides of the

the
of the

back

for

feet

The

talking.

chair, doing nothing but

we

must

the

man.

his

out

It

spontaneous

is,

look

We

hands, that
that

postures

and
results
of
study his movements,
movements,
ments
analyzing the face,observing the moveof the eyes, and
noting the speech, at the
time describing the postures seen
same
; by so doing,
in
the
factors
all the
be
motor
expression may
analyzed and classified according to the principles
We

follow.

of

analysisand

in

chap. v.
We

want

to

classification

lay

modes

analysisof

of

the

1. Localize

down

expression ;

given

movements

kind

some

of rules

thus

for the

"

expression.

whether

2. Notice

of

kind

the

of

expression be
trophic or motor ; if motor, analyze it accordingto
*
for analysis of movements,
the principles
giving
anatomical
description.
an
is

3. If there
?

and

thus

4. An

See

be considered
in

element
of

5. The

is it stimulated

or

to

is it

movement,

an

primary
by external

reflex

expression

spontaneous J movements
mode

chap.

v.

of
p. 75.

action

expression
f See

p. 100.

may

and

taneous
spon-

f forces,
?
be

the

hibition
in-

usually present.
may

be
} See

trophic
pp.

58, G4.

in

257

VUGHTEU

kind

; if

this

be

search

so,

expression direct, or

of

If
of

the

modes
and

nature

analyze

to

in

it, and

if

classical
in

given

description,we
replace, if

used

terms

by

the

submit

the

description to

Such

in

thus

such

in

points

by

our

our

the

as

of

test

author's

our

translated

suggest

us

sion
expres-

Taking
to

analyze
the

purposes,

terms, thus

own

terms

to

enable

will

to be able
to

author

account

true

physical terms.

necessary

his

be

somewhat

descriptionof

ought

giving

cannot

be

expression

good

any

mode

development.*
expression and descriptions

practically useful, they

man,

such

any

of

if it be

see

coincident

by

principles of

my

to

enable
direct

to

us

vation.
obser-

descriptionas
that

either

our

principlesare defective and incomplete,or that the


author's
description is metaphysical or imperfect
from
our
point of view.
take
If we
C. Darwin's
f descriptionof laughter,
find

we

widely,

all his

well

with

the

as

little

of

terms

signs,

"

the mouth

is open

drawn

corners

upwards;
Tin-

somewhat

nerve-muscular

:
descriptions

During laughter

"

as

in

given

almost

are

as

it

much

the

and

drawing

back

more

or

less

backwards,
upper
of the

lip
corn"

is
i

"

especiallyin
the
the latter epithet showing how
broad
smik
a
Dr. DuchenneJ
is widened.
mouth
repeatedly
of joy, the mouth
the emotion
insists that, under
is acted
on
exclusively by the great zygomatic
is best

seen

in moderate

laughter,and

"

muscles, which
*

See
'*

MeVamsiue

t
d"

la

the

to draw

serve

"

Expression

Physiouomie

corners

of the

backwards

Emotions,"

Huuiuiiu!," Album,

p. 202.

Legcudo

vi.

258

PHYSICAL

and

upwards

which

the

but, judging from

teeth

upper

broad

laughter and

sensations, I

own

muscles

running

brought

into

time

more

or

lower

and

the upper

without

eyes

; and

in

from

my

of

the

likewise

are

and

upper
at the

are

there
the

is

an

same

mate
inti-

chapter

on

orbiculars, especiallythe
muscles

running

to

lip."

Sir Charles
"In

some

The

of the

some

that

action.

of the

the

as

lip

explained

as

in

manner

well

upper

less contracted

between

ones,

doubt

the

to

muscles

connection,

weeping,

smiling, as
cannot

the

always exposed during

are

moderate

orbicular

lower

EXPRESSION.

joy

Bell

the

says

eyebrow

"

is raised

moderately,

but

is smooth,
angularity; the forehead
the eye
full,lively,and sparkling; the nostril is
moderately inflated,and a smile is on the lips. In
all the
exhilarating emotions, the eyebrow, the
the nostril,and
the angle of the mouth
are
eyelids,
raised.
For

the
mouth

any

In

the

depressingpassionsit

example, in discontent
nose
peculiarlyarched,
drawn

the

brow

and

the

is the
is

reverse.

clouded,

angle

of the

down."

make
before us, we
can
Having these descriptions
and
can
some
comparisons, or analogies,
apply the
In laughter,which
is an
principlesof antithesis.
have
material
expression of joy or happiness,we
gation.
problems to deal with capable of physical investiThe
said to be
are
angles of the mouth
drawn
upwards; this is the very opposite to the
expression of physical suffering.By defining the
*

Op. dt., p.

172.

ANALYSIS

expression of
of

the abstract

nerve-muscular

Bulwer's*

given

in terms
Bell's

is

the

of

joy,

"

the

tension

due

of

action

cular
mus-

depend
that

trust

include

to

us

to

eye

Does

outside

parts

sparkling"

enable

may

,'e

analyze.

"

"

comes

sparkling."

lively apply

the

is

paragraph
; then

I fail to

muscular

to

kn

"

term

Does

first

condition

mean

Does

the

full,lively,and

eye

were

signs.

movements

condition

further

the

"

eye

eye

on

of

account

problems

expression

nerve-muscular

arti

an

full

"

the

descriptions of

paragraph,

This

material

terms

physical investigation,

of nerve-muscular

in terms

the

find

of

capable

John

In

thing, happiness, in

signs, we

with

deal

to

259

KM'UKSSloN.

OK

these

principlesof expression.
find, then, that
we
Analyzing Bell's description,
the
with
exception of one
paragraph the terms

under

our

used

all

are

What

and

nts

good,

what

results

being
such

muscular
We

""

property

other

The

term

to
we

happiness
material

indicate
all
in

used

terms

more

the

less

abstract

Sec

abstract

Our

sons
compari-

quantities
as

ner

developmeiit

or

to describe

the abstract

expression of the
tended
in"happiness" is a word
of feeling
condition
certain

or

existence

of

these

see

allow

of form

in

the

terms

we

terms, such

concrete

conditions

into

abstract.

no

the

translate

which

into

"joy"

as

translate

We

made.

what
as

movements.

is there

advantage

of describing
special modes
such
modes
of description are

of

as

understand;
is

an

an

tli

abstraction, it

entity;

chap, xviii.,p.

the

323.

but

if

we

lia-"
can

260

EXP11ESSION.

PHYSICAL

define

can
we
expressionof happiness in man,
deal
material
with
the
expression of happiness,
and
successions
analyze it, study the coincidences
an

of movements

in this

seen

condition

their

and

comitants,
con-

etc.

Sometimes
which

be

cannot

is used

term

thus

analysis,such
John

in

directly translated,
the

as

common

jolly." There is
expression "John;" and the modes
"

thus,

shall

that

agree

then,

and

function,

of

can,

in

which

his

analysis is

then

lot of

condition,

the

partly kinetic;

"

"

"

"

compound

quires
re-

jolly;
metaphysical

term
no

but

jollyboys, I think
the predominant characters
are
active
movements.
Jolly is,

observe

we

nutrition

good

material

expressedare

If

possible.
we

looks

is

condition

language

common

movements,

brain

ponents
analyzed and its comother
expression by
any

in

as

kinetic

or

and

be

course,

classified

partly trophic

movements.

will

We
of
"

the

This

heart

swell'd

grief

and

and

high,

now

wrath,

of

oppress'd ;
in

his

his bosom

by

find

breast.

rul'd,
cool'd."

reason

principles,on

our

hard

to

account

analyze
of

the

metaphorical expressionsused.
of analyzing an
author's
descriptionlet

consider

Pope's

example

common

drawing-room
*

rage

should

descriptionwe
to

and

labour'd

Now

Instead

in her

heard, with

fir'd uy

of Achilles

turns

number

now

analysis Pope's description

Distracting thoughts by

according

us

for

condition

Achilles
His

take

now

looks

translation

"
"

nervous."

of the

"

Iliad,"line

This
251.

lady
may

seen

be

STUDY

one's

general.

before

development

NERVOUS

the

"

body.

As

to

the

head,

lip^,eyrlids

either

on

postures

side

seen

the

angle*

be

the

on

hands, and

face

the

whether

also

free, or

whether

holding

book

the

hand

the

In

observable.

young,

be

seen.

free

look

note

the

usually
most

to

arm

of

the

and

and

twitching

preventing

being socially
the

hands

will

will, unless

hands

out,

very
wh"

engaged

gesticulateunduly

feeble

of

ing

but

"

be

may

or

if it

may

see

hang
"

we

hand;"

if this

hand,

the
be
ar.d

the

posture

of

the

head,

which

the

side

which

shows

from

to

slight
the

other

hand.

nervous

movements,

inclination

her

in

as

of

away
the

she

chair,

posture

over

kept

are

occupation

so

lady

is held

"the

or

cident
coinnote

parts

twitch
free, finger-

hand

markedly
and

not

coincident

lolls

postures

other

fingersfrom

keep

are

and

for movements

mechanical

"

may

posture"

seen,

occasionally,
cially
espeand
eyes, spin*-,

purposely engaged,

free,

her
the

nervous

and

nervous

to

she

hands

When
over

looking

not

learnt

have

her

or

fidgetinessfrom

this

kept

talking,that
when

the

the

and

nervousness

probably

Observe

this

"

facial

symmetrical.

ineaniiiirless antics, and

performing

the

the

are

fan,

preventing

of

whether

hands

they
or

size, ]

signs of symmetry
In

movements.

of

note

he-ad, head

note

expression

its

shape

nose;

average,
of

postures

ceed
pro-

proportions

note

; the

we

conditions

head, tli"" build, and

features
form

the

the

and

ears,

shall

permanent

portions,form,
"

How

analyze

to

pr-uvss

2C1

SUBJECT.

i.il impr. ssion.

"

us.

the

"

scientific

by

of

OF

same

Among

flexion
side

is

with
common

head
tion
rotain

262

PHYSICAL

the

condition

nervous

extension

the

EXPRESSION.

of the

liftingup
upwards and
or

eyes

there

head

so

their

place

occasional

be

may

to

as

field of

carry

vision

above

objectsaround. f
of
Among the muscles

be

over-action, especiallyof

and
"

and

unequal

broad

"

very

the two

on

indicate,after

that

she

of

is

The

to

the

erect

in

excess

side

same

independent
to

seen

action

for small

parts ;

the

"

surprise

this latter is often


and

other

points
lady'sexpression,

head

without

nation
incli-

frequent inclination
a

expresses

certain

amount

great

nerve-centres,

and
by analysis,

thus

likelyto

people.

nervous

of small

action

"

is

of nerve-centres, such

Fidgetiness of fingersshows
separate

occi pito-fron tales

These

general firmness

rotation

amount

the

analyzing the

nervous.

shows
with

there

smiling;

sides.

may

is

face

causing respectively

zygomas,

look

as

the

or

the

of

centres

applying the
we
study
may

principlesfor analysisof movements,


the lady'snervousness
by analyzing its expression;
the

at

time

same

increase

it may

and

what

be

what

noted

diminish

stances
circum-

it.

be
inspection the children
may
observed, and the expressionof their condition may
it would
be analyzed. In carrying out such a work
At

be

school

well

observations

make

to

(1)

ordinary
(3) when
made

See

children

the

different
are

at

cumstances
cirtheir

the
hibitory
in(2) while under
influence
of being told to keep silence;
be
at play ; (4) a personal inspectionmay

school

of the
*

while

under

work;

individual

chap.

x.

p. 188.

child.
t See chap, xiii p. 238.

264)

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

indicatingthe

condition

of nutrition*

large,of

at

which

present size
and

fatness

looking

the

of

should, of

ill nutrition

cause

is not

medical

and

body
we

essay,

the

note

we

of

examine

course,

of

the

ill nutrition

consumption

"

part

body

body, the fullness


In
paleness or colour.

face, its

causes

disease,

is

proportions of

of

for

brain, we
of

and

the brain

of the

body

and

the

signs

for

heart-disease

and

brain

pass

but,

such

over

may

this

as

matters

here.

While

looking to

the observer

the

should

special diathesis.
the signs of the

general trophic conditions,

look
In

out

chap.

scrofulous

for

the

xvi.

signs of any
descriptionof
is given ; to

diathesis

certain
indicate
signs,which
tendencies, is important in analyzing

the

detail

physical
child's

condition.

be

there

If

of

absence

signs

movements,

movements

important
A

certain

valuable

matter

the

result

or

to

still.

find,

To

that

as

they
the
See

inhibition

its

stops

of

of spontaneous
is

very

discipline.
is

movements

movements,

and

makes

It is
the
are

examine

training and

the

display of intellectuality
; it is
the self-contained
of training when

child's movements
is to find

of

Inhibition
occasion

the

that

suspect

may

due

of school

child

stand

we

upon

degree

of the

power
it sit

result

to

necessary

good nutrition, with

is inhibited.

function

kinetic

of

are

obviously a very different


of analysis,that
result
a

inhibited

absent

child's

at

from

will,to

it

ill nutrition.

nerve-muscular

expressionof nutrition,p.

what

230.

system

INS!

farther
his

"")L

and

hands

free, then
described

postures
conditions
feeble

the

facial

the

or

hand.

The

condition

be

speciallynoted.*

be

may
as

reflex

at

seen

him

actions,

them

should

we

see

; that

is, we

afferent

the

condition

of

and

turn

about

head

if his

is

he

eyes

the

the

stances
circum-

him,

to

the

be

any

specialsenses,

towards

or

outcome

there

If

the

in

impressed

observe

stimuli.

following certain

Finger-

speak

we

how

orbicular

signs
vary

child:

the

of

time.

same

nerve-muscular

many

things, and

by

the

brain

straight hand

of the eye, should

affected

certain

particular the

surrounding

note

of

the

as

out

spontaneous

in

are

doubt

the

hold

and

Inasmuch

show

such

nervous

muscles,

twitching
child

of

expressive

seen,

2C5

"l

results, let him


some

as

be

may

the

muscle

the

analyze

CHILI

we

sound

or

light.

and

in

note, then, signs in movement,

We
in

proportionaldevelopment,

and

nutrition,
what

consider

they respectively

"

In

class

we

of various

kinds

(a) Spontaneous
(/})Spontaneous

action

of

"

movements.

'"

modified

movements

mo\

child

ments
move-

(y) Spontaneous movements


ments.
(8) Hell
at
Observing the children
kind
of judgment
form
some
spontaneous

children's

the

observe

may

at

play

See

chap.

and
with

inhibited

play
to

as

by

by
in

us

amount

to

of

comparing

tin-

in

class

its action

xi. p. 206.

part.

enables
the

roundings.
sur-

PHYSICAL

form

we

of

be

would

day
an

to

of

each

respective

the

describe

in

meet

animated

were

countries

an

curious

national

gesticulation.

Irishman,
in

engaged

the

inhibition

to

and

interesting

an

and

analyze
and

one

susceptibility

movements.

It

to

its

of

idea

an

EXPRESSION.

railway

modes

much

was

and

and

different,
of

their

the

Frenchman,
tions
gesticula-

characteristic
birth.

pression
ex-

man,
English-

an

conversation

of

interested

carriage

Italian,

inquiry

of

CHAPTER

^CONSIDERATIONS

AS

Tho

AS

TO

attributes

TO

of

TIME,

"

property

of

subject, in

two

of

Proj"ortionai growth;

action

"

developm

similar

actions

trophic

Heredity

"

ANY

and

kinetic

"

one

sequences

equal proportional growth:


of

series
of

kinetic

action

may

and
result

in evolution

element

important

an

and

Combinations

combinations

this

action, in

Summary.

"

function

or

three

the

"

time, quantity, kind

between

nlogy

Special

f""rcea

property

having

"

afferent

from

subjects

more

trophic

functions

or

KIND;

QUANTITY,

function

or

Attributes

the

PERTY
PRO-

OP

RELATIONS.

T11EIR

ATTRIBUTES

THE

FUNCTION

OR

AND

XVL

be

may

attributes

(1) time

"

described

as

(2) quantity

(3) kind.
examples

As

growth,

or

Con

whether

it be

and

physical

we

function.

the

or

kinetic

property,

or

describe

may

time, quantity, kind.

to

of

consider

us

movement,

vital, we

or

may

observe

the

of the

active

action, frequency,duration
and

let

function

every

attributes
As

function,

vital

trophic action,

action.

the

of

quiescence

Time
functions

is the

that

or

only
can

be

appearance,

disappearance
attribute

of

of

moment

of

the

similar
totallydis-

directly compared.

268

PHYSICAL

As

Quantity ;

to

EXPRESSION.

if

we

observe

can

and

measure

tliis at each

the
period of time, we thus determine
total quantity of
the function.
To
describe
the
to adopt a
quantity of a function, it is necessary
unit of quantity. If any
unit
of quantity can
be
found

as

comparison

two

dissimilar

made

between

to

common

be

may

functions,
them

to

as

quantity.
to Kind

As

In

here.
in

; it is not

some

the

cases

of

terms

convenient

time, and

"

only two
commonly

attributes

series

of

having

its

time

"

of

that

remarked

and

time

of

one

the

of

described

function

or

has

separate

movement

It may

quantity.

the

this

practically
and
we
quantity. What
movement,"
are
usually

each

movements,
own

be

may

movement

"kinds

call

"

kind

quantity

Nerve-muscular

action.

to consider

great differences

be here
between

propertiesof living and non-living things is,


in the former
that
properties often vary in time,
in non-living things
quantity,and kind ; whereas
the

in

property,
its

duration,
the

under

such

and

more

of

obvious

agency

its

retains

hardness,

as

is

unchangeable, except
afferent

except under

hardness

permanent

more

forces.

the

influence

Iron
of

heat.

When

we

consider

to

come

the^ attributes

of

kinetic
or
growth, or trophicaction, and movement,
other points present
action, in two or more
subjects,
themselves
As

to

in two
in each

to

the

our

notice.

attribute

subjects.
subjectmay

The

Time

of

time

of

coincide, or

growth
growth
it may

or

movement

or

not

movement

coincide.

QUANTITY

three

With

subjects, A, B, C, growth
in

occur

may

or

growth,

following

or

We

have

the

to

each

then, in

may,

action

are

time

of

and

thus

are

and

John

and

also

evidence, and

They

of the

"

the

are

and

are

head

statement

alike
and
nmg

of further

And

or

We

or

any

subjects,

more

may,
function

same

twin

in two

or

to

the

as

brothers, and

analysis
twin

tli"-v

enable

may

brothers; they

proportions
alike

in

evidence.

some

statement.^

(2)

two

growth,

us

of

their

the

are

head

manner

of

arbitrarystatement, presenting
proposition. Paragraph II. is a proposition

giving

capable

the

"

body ; they are also


walking and speaking/1
Paragraph I. is a mere

"

equal quantities

height,form,

ment
move-

or

quantity.

and

(1)

two

alike."

II. "Arthur
in

find

may

the

observation

write

alike

considering

combinations,

nces,

growth.

John

and

much

very
Further

to

in

function, in

or

considering

ratios

Arthur

"

A, B, C,

subject,or unequal quantities.

subjects,compare

attributes

We

function, in

or

the

compare

I.

action

have

may

Q"i"tufityof growth

subjects.

(inequal times) in

more

then,

coimi"l"

attribute

in two

other

we

sen

sequences,

We

movement

or

combinations

may,

other

any

subjects

more

As

separately, or

BC, ABC.

AC,

the

each

in the

coincidence

AB,

QROWXH,

OF

they

us

analyze

the

made.

in

height, form, and proportions


All
these points are
body."
trophic action, and

analysis and
are

Let

alike

they
description.

in their

manner

are

of walk-

270

PHYSICAL

ing, and

of

and

Both

speaking.

of

have

of

series

described

and

said to be

to

growth"
actions."
we

in

When

and
If

of

demonstrated

alike

It remains

walking

manner

; it is

movements

cern
con-

statements, (1) here

movements.

similar

statements

we

equal proportional development ;


examples of similarityin walking

have

we

the

analyze

to

examples
here

latter

action.

Further

(2)

These

speaking."

kinetic

have

EXPRESSION.

speaking
Arthur

that

in

of

series of kinetic

in Arthur

explain
.and

and
the

John
be

can

series of

actions

that

equal

tional
propor-

is

John.
"

terms

similar

"a

and

walking,
terms

consist

series

of

kinetic

speak of proportionalgrowth
really refer to two subjects,and we
compare
each the function
growth as to its quantity.
is meant
We
will first inquire what
by "proportional
we

growth/'

then

and

consider

some

of

term,

it

concerns

its

variations.

Proportional growth.
"

This

as

the
imply something about
proportion, must
quantity of the growth ; it is only as to quantities
It conmake
that we
a
can
cerns,
proportion or ratio.
tion
at least, two
subjects,and implies the condithat the ratio of growth of two
or
more
parts
members
of one
subject,is equal to the ratio of
or

of
corresponding parts or members
the other subject.
When
we
speak of proportionalgrowth in John,
are
we
really consider two
subjects,not one; we
(1)
phrase. Statement
using in realitya condensed
speaks of equal ratios of the head and body in

growth

of the

272

PHYSICAL

We

proportional growth.

Good

"

certain

EXPKESSION,

is well

man

often

that

proportioned, or
This

presents good proportional growth.

that

say

he

is

one

form.
expressionof beauty in the human
refer to two
In speaking of a proportion we
must
we
subjects,as to the quantity of growth. When
of

mode

the

say

that

the

subject(head

making

ratio

body) is good,
We
comparison.

further

of
ratio

John

in

say,

parts of

two
we

his

to

as

this

between

the

compare

John,

compare

really

are

with

the

corresponding

model
: the
perfectlyformed
ness"
goodthe
how
near
proportion depends upon
of the size (quantity)of head
and
body
approaches to that of the perfect model.
in

members

in

growth

and

growth observed,
and
body; and we
found
on
inquiry

head

in

of

of

ratio

the

proportion

"

the
good proportional growth depends upon
with
comparison of the ratio actually observed
the similar ratio of the perfectmodel.
Thus, when
is in good proportion,I
child's head
I say that
a
A

and

body

ratio

the

and

of head

body

ratios,

two

ratio ;

size

of

perfectmodel,
It

development

we

perfect child,

contrast

be

may

kinetic

actions

examining

"

is

that

then,

seems,

consideration

The

say

of the

John

that

question

the

of

the

actual

is well
"

If
of

portioned.
pro"

kind

of

similar

series of

postponed (see p. 276).

the attributes

of

proportion.

"

term

its

then, ascertaining

in

and

the

perfect proportional development.


that
as
proportionalgrowth is the same

John's

In

with

the

with

the

its head

obtain

thus

the

compare

of

size

the

compare

functions, we

have

PMENT.

inquired

to

as

Now,

quantity.
character
that

of

the

of

happens

that

that

the

in

indifferent.

"ad, or
it tho

be

be

of

good,

the

is

seen

cannot

growth

It

the

growth

of

good.

This

is likewise

seen

of

th-

generally

of

parts

sh""

part

have

Observation

growth occurring

and

essential

can

that

Kind,

to

as

t' growth.

kind
be

attribute

here

give

to

may

body

the

to

as

suggestions

no

points concerning time

some

bod\
or^.
is

an

empirical statement.
This

leads

referred

in

to

of

part

one

of

presence

dull

""

examples

between

the

fold

two

no

of

of the

The

want

pin.

the

symmetry

subject

not

slow

panies
accom-

This

action.
and

empirical ;
be

can

similar

dull

mentation,

usually

connection
of

the

of

indirect

accompany

because

eyelids (chap.vii.

seen

growth.
of

p.

the

137)

In

epi-

is oft-

-n

dulness; here, then, there


'

-:teii

in

development

\e

of

indicates,the

usually

with

causal

'

development

or

features

subjects

accompM
is similar

cident
Coin-

observation

condition

brain

Engli.-l-1!

canthic

"

special sign obeerved

features

cast

in many

an

the

expression is,then,

of

expression

term

or

expresses,

(brain),not

of

make

growth

inactive

this

because

mode

of

-t^l with

an

cause

the

extended

properties

mind

inactive

after

body

heavy-looking

features
but

the

certain

directly connDull

that

condition
of

of

at."

happens
the

find

we

de\

mode

42, under

chap. iii. p.

similar
It often

study

to

us

of

indicates

in

eyelids

bilateral
poor

or

and

in brain.

ing
correspond-

development

of

274

PHYSICAL

brain.

EXPRESSION.

of

Asymmetry

in

ears

dull

children

is

common.

Similarity of development
in

good
face

kind.

often

list of

be

of the

perfection. In giving
similar
development it will

of

coincidence

Emaciation

of

fatness

or

be

can

the

always) indicates emaciation


regions of the body.
and

be

are

some

the

cases

Absence

may

empirical,and not at present


explanation; such are probably due to
both
force acting alike on
subjects. In

common

other

parts

mental

examples

capable of
a

two

regular features

Handsome,

accompany

that

seen

in

of the

usually

Congenital

indicates
of

absence

face

usually (not

fatness

or

of

organ

explained.

hearing

of

other

indicates

ness,
deaf-

deaf-mutism.
eyes

indicates

blindness,

probable atrophy of the optictracts.


of the skin, termed
A congenitalcondition
icthyosis, indicates
usually a liabilityto bronchitis; in

and

the

skin

perspire,and too
is thrown
the lungs.
much
work
upon
leaves
show
much
Plants with small ill-developed
leaves
constitutional
cannot
delicacy; the small
material
assimilate
enough for nutrition.
is a sign of
head
small
A very
or
inicrocephalic
this

condition

cannot

absence
of
congenital idiocy. The
mentation
depends upon the smallness
the microcephalism.
consequent upon
of

infant

the

will

not

occur,

microcephalic;
brains

of such

at

birth

the

and
but

be

of
If

faculty
the

brain

the

skull

fullyossified expansion
brain

must

still it is not

children

the

would

be

ever

certain

remain

that

the

capable of growth

DIATHI

and
in

as

if the

development
normal

be

palate
and

due

lead
lead

may

The

patent foramen

to

principle has
be

in

and

then

and

such

functions

kind,

one

the

following description of

and

shows

disease, have

for
loved

have

writers

of this

features

enable

us

for want
terms

scrofula"

class

are

class

are

refer

more

the

man,

that

that

such

certain

tln-n-froin

the

stmmous

to

certain

the

gives

diathesis,

pathological

of better
M

into

the

and

two

be

words, may
"e

their

imaginative
"The
general

well
sufficiently

marked

to

divisions, that,

known

the old

by

phlegmatic types

of

(p. 85).
Individuals

sanguine type.

"The

it
it-sis,
as

in

say

infer

we

(p. 83).

them

rate

"

the

"

diatl

adult

or

tendenc

exercise

to

descriptive powers"

and

the

the

physiognomy of scrofula, the type


supposed to be indicative of the
which
been
subjects upon
ages

form

and

of face

child

individual

liable

persons

"The

conditions:

Thus, Mr. F. Treves

functions.

such

that

to

us

the

in

"

of

of other

admitted

his constitutional

"

are

child

heart.

observed

are

enables

experience

we

el-

in the

of

l.y d"-tcnninin"j

be

the

or

IV-rdin^ the

been

development

4-3

will

in

ovale

long

"

When

kind

the

studied

is called.

vrlopment,

Congenital collapseof lung

marasmus.

tendencies
may

ill d.

both

marasmus;

diilieulties

cause

to

expansive

were

accompany

similar

to

may

case

child.

Cleft-palate may
may

bony

with

credited

these

particularlyto
*

"Scrt.lui

.1

.iii-l Gland

placed

in this

features, and

children.
DUeaae,"

They
1883.

are

they
tall,

27G

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

slight,and

graceful,with,

and

fine

feet,a

features

and

and

bright,and

are

eyes

plexion.
usually a fair comoval, the lower jaw small, the
The
regular, the lips thin.
covered
with
long eyelashes,

face is

delicate

the

hair

limbs, hands,

skin, and

clear

The

well-formed

is often

remarkably fine
A sprightlyand
excitable
dispositionmay
and
the picture is complete
(p. 86).

and

silken.

be

added,

"

In

"

the
as

largehands and
jaw large,the
features

the

and

The

The
of

amount

the

is

of the

generally
ears
large,

is coarse,

skin

harsh,

subcutaneous

cellular

sufficient to conceal

often

of the

outlines

lower

prominent,
nose

lobes

the

considerable, and

muscular

often

irregular.The

unshapely.

thick.

the

bones

malar

limbs,

face is broad, the

The

lips tumid,

neck

tissue is

feet.

and

coarse

thick, the
and

duals,
indivi-

comprised
phlegmatic type are
rule, short and burly,with coarse

The

body.

skin

in

previous type is fine,and it is possible to pinch


in
with
the fingers a little portion of it; but
up
but a large fold of skin can
these individuals
none
the

be

picked

up,

this

of

persons

it is

as

looking; they
power,

and

tissues

appears

tired.
be

of parts
peculiarities

We

by

meant

action."

time, and
of the

have

now

term

the
This
in

to

term
is

appear

apathetic, have

soon

to

Speaking generally,
flabby and
heavy-

coarse.

class

are

are

so

and

leads

to

their

certain

(p. 87).
define

and

of

series

the

series

second

kinetic

of

alike

movements
series.

consideration

is

what

illustrate

similar

"a

quantity, to
involves

muscular

vascularity of

The

impaired,
"

little

of two

The

in
use

series,

SERIES

and

takes

MOYI.MI.N

OF

the

of

cognizance

attributes

and

time

quantity.
The

term

other

in
we

the

idiot

as

tjood

series

sight of

of

follow

in

series

of

child

be

may

adjective
mo\

"

fied
quali-

.simila
In

in.-iits.

"

following

upon

they

not

good

not

are

the

by

movements

apple

an

movements"

tan

have

may

of

are

the

from

an

the
siu-li

sight of

an

apple.
If

the

measure

we

the

part

probably

find

are

not

size

the

for

constructed

of

observed

normal
find

ser

the

ino\

kii
The

measuremt:

recorded

the

by

according

to

compared

with

previous
Many
a

cm.-nts,

we

series

of

be

might

Op.

the

probaMy

the

series of
be

may
and

analyzed
thus

ascertained

as

'has

cit.

been

been

taken

kinetic
f See

to the

as

attributes

as

modes

of

said

to

illustrate

presented
has

sufficient

trophic and
"

shall
as

for

by

nts.
ations

car.

has

the series

movements

principlesof analysis advocated


Some

idiot, with

defective

normal

the

as

principles of analysis,!and

the

the

to

proportions

compare
the

child's

"

but

ments
measure-

Roberts

experimental method.f

e":

function

Mr.

we

shall

according

child.

in

as

such

ferent
dif-

we

anthopometry

If, further,

movements

and

idiot,

indicatingsuch

children.

normal

of the

age

the

not

are

by

proportionnormal

head

-oportionsof

they

the

of

body

tha

good

of

tod

in this
"""""]

xix.

sion,
expresthe

work.

il"e the attributes

functions, in the
chap.

of

hope that,

J Page i

278

in

PHYSICAL

the

studying
further

gain
how

found

be

may

of the

knowledge
this

towards

Working
conditions

Examine

and

kinetic
there

Is

kinetic

which

by

we

may

of nutrition.

processes

object,we

trophicactions ; this
by examples.

infant.

affectingmotor

proceed to show
other
expression of development and
be described
by series of movements
may

the

and

forces

physical

method

action, a

EXPRESSION.

not
and

activities

will

principallybe

strated
demon-

trophic combinations
much
as
expression

in

successions

trophic

in

as

in

the

an

the

actions,variations, and

growth ?
say a body is well proportioned,or ill proportioned,
large headed, small bodied, big mouthed, etc.

We

All

expressionsindicatingthe results of proportional


development ; the development or growth

are

result of

is the

series of movements

the

So
not.

If

the

series

is

apt

be

to

its

is
and

idiot

the

an

series,in place
abnormal

are

of

being

also

occurs

be

the

in

or

kinetic

movements,
and
The

that

trophic

abnormal.

as

the

probably
in

automatic
varied

normal.

infant, ill-proportioned

abnormal.

will

reflexes

series

normal

movements,

expression

movements

trophic action

be

to

the

the

an

body,

the

the

abnormal

of

series

apt

be

In

and

head

actions, are

abnormality

be

abnormal.

and

combinations,

movements

may

trophic series

in

reflex

of

trophicactions
proportioned according to

well

be

may

series

in

abnormal

the

In

an

uniform

health

the

series

ducing
pro-

growth.

be described
Expression may
and
trophic actions.

by
A

series

series

or

of

ments
movesucces-

280

PHYSICAL

ject.

"

The

of
grows

seed

each

and

EXPRESSION.

swells

"

cotyledon

protrudes

"

"

this is due

"

to

(trophic).

"

ment
enlarge-

The

radicle
In

(trophic action).

this

example of growth, the ratio of the quantity of


growth in the testa and the radicle is not constant
as
more
occurs
germination proceeds. Growth
rapidly in the radicle than in other parts. The
covering, or testa, bursts as a secondary result of
growth of the cotyledons; the rupture is due to the
of
absence
equal proportional development in
embryo and testa. The plumule protrudes ; rapid
here (quantityof trophicaction).
occurs
growth now
We
now
inquire more
closely as to each of
may
It is obviously desirable
these
trophic processes.
whenever
we
actly
exspeak of a function, to know
is the subject displaying that
what
function.
When
we
speak of the trophic function displayed
in a bean as the radicle
elongates,we do not mean
to

say

radicle

that
to

all

parts

are

grow,

though

that

the

nourished
this

radicle

may

to

be

cause

true

the

clearly

displays the trophic


the vital action
function; the radicle is the subject,
in it is said to be
The
trophic action."
question
now
arises,is this subject one and indivisible,or is
it an
assemblage of cells ? If the latter,do all the
colls composing the radicle go through a similar
series of trophic action ?
The
of the radicle involves
regular circumnutation
minor
numerous
subjects,the cells of the
radicle
undergoing a regular series of trophic
It is also true that the nutrition
actions.
produces
partly trophic, partly kinetic, expression (see
we

mean

"

p. 283).

GROWTH

We

AND

will

]f"

description

be

may

of

and

tadpole

the

between

growth

individual.

the

Th
if

perfect

more

given;

were

of

all

the

followed

thus
of

in

note

the

of

the

more

the

quiescence :
of the

this

contrast

the

"

"stages
plete
com-

with

has

tin\V.

hand,"
"

hand

we

postures, stir
them

between

that

growth

extended

or

of

much

hand.

convulsive

difference

movement

the

of

passive conditions,

two

indication

by

the

and

straight

"

i :

of

of

movements
open

be

number

fuller

Now

observe

may

the

difference

would

stages

"?r

d-

description

the

of

body
the

"l"-\. lopment

or

iption

growth"
the

the

frog ;

to

descriptions.

of

desirable

scientific

give

to

growth

It

'-merit.

how

".M I'AKLD.

f"

descriptions of

compare

description
know

is

occurred.

an

The

ments
descriptionmight be given by stating all the moveof aU
the
that
actually occurred, flexion

joints of
the

upon

in

be

trophic and
quantity, and
The

.reat

such

to

bring

action

kinetic

is

calculation.

And

form
so

thumb

and

and

they

as

description
fullness,
of

sequences
occur,

in

time,

kind.

common

the

the

exactness

combinations

the

object specially in

on

energy,

examples

the

of

"adi

recording

by

of

palm.

Again,
might

adduction

digits with

all the

that

of
we

of

view,

is

within

also

expression
may

thus

description,is

processes
it

in

more

the
the

desirable
of

insisting

trophic

attempt
range

to

and

easilyapply

have

of
a

kinetic
the

same

282

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

be

I think

"

it is true
do

environment,
combinations
kinetic

succession

of

in

the

the

special

here
of

and
have

we

of

evolution

species.

subject

series

kinetic

the

that

process

the

to

may

trophic action

imagine

of the

and

afferent

Forces

factor

individual

the

It

forces,or

about

of

sequences

; and

important

an

external

bring

often

and

action

that

"

functions.

both

principlesof analysis to

the

or

alter

may

the

succession

of

trophicseries.
is at

child

and

movement

child

the

"

sound

of

is altered

actions

branch

by
vine

of

small

and

often

it is

brains,

easier

If

by

internodes

The

is altered
appears
in

this

does

occur

that

this

methods.

result
the

kinetic

two

each

upon

becoming automatic.
theory be true, it may

subjectmay, as the
nutrition, display
action,

long

it will

to

the

tional
propor-

the

by

that

me

kinetic

"

experimental

my

in darkness

vine
It

voice.

I believe,
trophic functions.
often
in organic nature, plants and
very
indicated
by permanent
trophic action

function, and

this

the

in the

"

movements

the

observe

to

impressionability
kinetic

totally alters

fruit.

bear

darkness.

lightor

functions, than
also, that

the

force, your

placed

will
in

trophic series
of

to

speak

the series of his kinetic

afferent

be

leaves, but

action

spontaneous
;

with
porportions,

in abnormal

grow

actions
voice

your

the

much

us

reflex

many

of his movements

character

If

play, showing

is the

be

explanation of
put

of its vital
functions

action;

display of

to

believe

the

test

that

propertiesand
T
trophic
=

but, however

much

these

two

may

both

either

or

the

total

fun

the

"time

time

made

total

tion.
func-

time

and

tion
dura-

hence

subject.

is thus

the

we

ami

duration

The

element

essential

an

may
of
or

of

part

description.
In

investigationas

an

evolution

of

child's

follows, in
the

different

a-

by

we

also.

tlii-" -till

produces

and

his

mouth,
or

so

resulted

jaw,
a

by

ic

uniformly.
xternal

"

because
Has

are

in front
series
in front
the

wo

and

agencies?

occur

automatic

upon
similar

of

born
new-

of

ments
move-

of

sight

may

they

this

sounds

upon

movements

that

at

and

movements

bread

the

uniform
"

find,

by light

uniform

him

etc.

functions

following

placed

eat

so

uniform

at

tions
special combina-

uniform

no

uilates

the

placed

food

i;

movement

head,

food

Thus

infant

age,

not

un,

stimulations.

move

in

histology,

by light,later by

movements

are

yea

as

automatic, and

these

old

early

of

of

structure

controlled

or

imulus

stimulus

six

inhibited

'

and

development

movements,

thiv"" months

At

At

its

investigateits kinetic
muscular
signs. We

may

readily

co-ordinat"

proceed

may

its material

first,purely spontaneous

sound.

we

or

etc.

recording

not

development

;lit,anatomy,

chemistry,
Again,

brain,

in

changes

the

to

iting only

growth,

of

the

alike;

are

the
"

cases

indicate

to

DRAIN.

-f K

most

functions

use

attribute

in

THE

vary,

Probably
of

OF

boy

of

it to

butter, his
of han

call
so

them
larly,
reguaction

284

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

Given

descriptionof

old, such

years

as

material

little direct

evidence.

of the

case,

and

of

observation

We

whether

we

can

of

size

but
take

and

skull,

the

be
As

gain

can

the

it

thus.

measure

test

can

we

child two

brain-

or

the

changes occurring during

any

examine

structure

and

form

of

observations

conduct

may

brain

indicate

may

healthy, we
regards its
note

the

period

special senses,

optic nerve, etc. But these methods


of examination
give us but little idea of the real
condition
compared with the knowledge gained by
the

observing

conditions

ditions
sleep (trophic)and conThe
rhythmical successions

of

of movement.

sleepand

of

of the

successions

are

of

health

of

; the

stimulation

teach

coincidences

and

that

In
few

may

few

parts may

of

an

to

that

influenced

object and

movements,
external

this
forces

sounds

is,then, the

many

of

body

parts

or

many

or

cause

makes
the

it

why
this

form.

coincidences

can

regulate

upon

time.

external

action

series

trophic and kinetic


of expression.

same

the

by

child,the

of

reasons
give some
give descriptionsin

ample proof
are

It

will

desk-able

more.

growth

at the

grow

their

movements

In the

the

and

kind

best
of

concur.

Now

have

successions

coincidence

much

us

give the

of

movements

of movements,

coincidences

action

appetitefor food,
trophic conditions, highly expressive
of

recurrence

forces

of
:

is

We
ments
move-

the

sight

specialseries of
it probable that
series

of

trophic

actions.
In

studying examples

of

proportionaldevelop-

KNVIl:

ment,

illustrated

as

John,

and

of their
and

it will

equal

this

be

may

What

and

definite

heredity,we
of heredity
A

be

nal

is

heredity
series

in

like

in

more

that

certain

external

given

be

other

or

and

be

due

to

with
of

than

conditions

the

express
with

kinetic

regard

series.

It

observation

common

growth

of

manner

It is the series

admit

to

in

parent

in

that

to

regard

mode

then,

may,

direct express

actions

accord

should

that

follow

certain

on

series

1 succeed.

of movement^
the

In

one

with

heredity;

proportional growth,

writing, etc.

kinetic

than

cause

form.

Tl

trophic

Arthur

the

is

movements

measurable

and

heredity.

seems

If

(trophic combinations)

trophic

to

question

..?h series

walking, speaking, or
of

development

of

hav

twins

doubt, that

The

true.

of the

case

said, no

is gr

child

features

in the

pr"

raised,
a

2S.~)

iN.

growth

children,

of

the

on

the

average,

and
parts of the
proportion of growth of limbs
in different
subjects at the same
body, is similar
Is tli
the
impress made
upon
:ig to the
age.

(or

embryo

that

certain

the

growth
and

by
In

from

or

hands,

plant

the

easily

are

upon

forces

afferent

size of head,
In

and

rm)

its ancestors

may

alter

this,increase

etc.

variations

affected

by

of

proportional
light (internodes)

heat.

the

the

twin

brothers, the rr;idi-r will,

general knowledge, probably

accept

It is

the

view

that

Arthur

and

proportionaldevelopment owing

be

John
to

inclined
are

of

to

equal

heredity,owing

286

PHYSICAL

the

to

of

fact
of

events

each.

Is

connected

EXPRESSION.

their

being twins, owing


uterine
life having been
probable that the same

in tra-

it not
with

similarity of

the

trophic actions, and the


It is possibleto describe
of

terms

This

series

is

series

of

actions

that

suggests

in

speaking

"

If

two

living
during the period of
similar proportional
to
or

more

'

series

of

kinetic

'

actions.'
us

try and

see

what

exactly

it is that

is

compared.

thus

of

series

The

in

shows

Arthur

kind,

similar

in

period

of time

actions

trophic

corresponds,or is similar
growth ; only observation
and

in
can

and
in

in

the

subject
periods of

same

prove

this.
that

John

quantity, in

; it is the

each

attributes

each

tion
Observa-

growth

kind

time, quantity,

of

"

attribute

time

frequency, duration

includes
of the

the

active

moment

appearance,

be

may

time,

"

This
be
illustrated
quantity, kind.
may
regard to growth, or trophic action ; and also
kinetic action.
or
regard to movement,

The

is

successive

growth that are similar.


Summary.
Any property or function
described
as
having the three attributes
and

series of movements.

subjects be co-nourished
development they will tend
'similar
development' and
Let

to

cause

kinetic
and

walking

similar

the

of

all the

to

of

with
with

action,
and

of

quiescence or disappearance of the function.


of totally dissimilar
Time
is the only attribute
be directly compared.
that
functions
As
to
can

the

quantity, this

is

measurable,

but

some

unit

of

288

PHYSICAL

When
of

part

good

growth is found to be good or


subject,it often happens to
bad

or

EXPKESSION.

principleof

in

other

parts

; this

in

bad
be

one

similarly
the

termed

is

similar

development. The similarityis


In some
this similarityas to kind
to kind.
as
cases
is explicable,
in other
it is empirical. This
cases
the
termed
are
principleis the basis of what
"

temperaments,
One

diathesis,"in medicine.

or

object of

ciation
analysisgiven, and the enunof principles
in this chapter,is to show
the
usefulness
of analogy between
series
of movea
ments
and a series of trophic actions.
A
series of
be compared with
the normal, as
movements
may
is compared
easilyas a series of measurements

with
The

fixed

the

tables

of

normal

the

expressionsof development

in

of

terms

series

this is illustrated

Probably
afferent

combinations
I

be

that

kinetic

of the

may

function
kind

of

the

all this may

we

action

vary

of

subject,as

display two

trophic and
two

here

in

subject
result

or

the

result

of

functions
relative

quantity
"

from

individual

the

the

more

may

forces

bring about
special
trophic and kinetic
have
an
important

of evolution

species.

action, may

of

sequences

imagine

that

demonstrated

subject may

and

of the

trophic actions;

by examples.

factor in the process


and

described

be

may

and

of kinetic

may

the

to

action.

it

measurements.

the action

say,

proportion

thus

appear

"

vital

to

the
vary

total
in

of afferent

forces.
Some
may
this

of

the

in heredity
principlesconcerned
be illustrated
in
by the principlesenunciated
chapter.

CHAPTER

ART

Art

teaches

the

opinion

muscular

action

mind

states

hand-

of

"

As

for

many

and

the

be

of

hand

for

the

of

Principles

of

in

of

in

"n

beauty

other

art

ix.

sculpture

of

and

the

14

"

Fixed

"

Antony

"

getic
ener-

I'itti

Writings
Raj

Weakness

ghoul, 1
hand"

free
and

mobile

to

of

modes

to

as

Thu

sion
expres-

suggest

principles

some

representations of

art

of

are

art

in

conditions
which

those
has

pottery

the

art

perhaps
I, though

if

of rashness

to

expression

therein, I may

charge

aid

works,

on

at

indebtedness

my

general

Ancient

"

Cuin

"

Tho

"

Diana,

tin;

analysis.

the

guidance

principles l"y
criticize

art

principles involved
from

expression

of

tho

Gladiator

Dying
action

of

place

"

drawing

Mrte-nmsrular

sii^r^tions

and

hand

of

Expression

"

indicative

specially

Tho

"

"ns

artist, venture

an

and

fright

in

lij_'nr"

excused

studies

nervous

gladly acknowledge

not

v.

Medici,

expressed

ohject

the

"

of

such

t'.ice

study expression
fVrlinjr is by ucrvc-

can

i ;ruscan

Study

bo

not

,m"l

his

Camper;

Mengs"

'

men

of

Importance

Hand
d"

all

expression

'

the

Gallery,

All

"

"

"

Venus

"

CRITICIs

physiologist;

Bulwer's

mental

XVII

man.

the

tions
emo-

The

proposed to
in chaps,
described
it is

recorded
modes

indelibly in
of

expression

200

PHYSICAL

in

seen

former

Lavater,

and

far modern
the

times;

the

Brun

have

Le
and

expression:

EXPRESSION.

shall

we

and

inquire presently

how

complies

with

art

contemporaneous
of

high requirements
in

writings of Camper,
to
as
taught much

the

principlesof
of

conditions
illustrating

the

sion
expres-

the

and

body

mind.
It

is

not

technique
thinks
of

execution;

and

knowledge

such

on

himself

for

speak

to

necessary

and

can

of

artistic

without

even

matters

here

any
compare

special

observer
the

who

expression

painted figure,with

living men
form
his opinions. If the
ciples
prinwomen,
may
for the analysis of expression contained
in
and
be
volume
true
capable of wide
cation,
applithey should be applicable to the criticism
statue,

and

this

or

those

of expression. In framing
representations
"principles" the analysis and comparative

study

of

of artistic

well

as

then,

paintings

sculpture gave

much

analysis of examples in life ; it is,


to apply the
unnatural
principlesthus

not
and

enunciated

to

postures

such,

been

indices

are

of

its

the

kinds
central

outcome

condition, and,

of
as

of

study by observation, description,


treatises
have
and
analysis. Many admirable
written
on
expression, describing,in such
are

terms

of

are

function,

its

All

criticism.

art

produced by the action of


nerve-mechanism,
and, being the direct
of

help,

the

as

framed

and

as

those
are

John

worthy

above

are

conditions

brain
the

referred

to, the

whose

outcome

motor

mental

tions
manifesta-

emotions.

Bulwer

gave

his

descriptions in

terms

of

JOHN

muscular

BUI

action

the

subject
this

to

and

the

An

their

Essence,

II

with

and

is

manifest

to

assurance

the

What

is

it

as

motions

will

delight

but

so

of

movings

of

the

Head

to

acrew

an-

to

-tying

the

and

know

will

with

the

himself
or

of

into
the

Internal
all the
are

m;i

whip
the

Sea
without

nrin.

nee

of

tin-

what

expressions

are

Muscular

outward
i.

""f

may

fore
Whereperformed ?
d
it a thing worthy to be correctrashly plunge
Ignorance, if any

1 Face

think

the

understanding?
kind
by what

we

in

we

aske

and

motions

parts

touch

if you

the

Ocular

Muscles,

Mind;

touch, that

our

feele

Soule,

was

wrought

the

were

delightfull as
tl.

to

motions

of" the

h".-nce

Body

the

of

the

fidelityof

of

see,

inward

very

those

of

of

discerne

subject

so

are

tl

only

not

that

to

the

and

Sense,

semblances

parts by

the

than

easie

able,
honour-

relation

ument

more

greater glosse

properties

well-strm

for, what

with

miums
Enco-

Dissections,to have

their

d.

fections
per-

Anatomists;

gloriousand

;ore

together

the

the

or

moderne
set

the

the excel In.

or

unique Art,
1

hav

or

inriched

whose

:ild have

Art,

than

at

all

to

Fabrique,
Body,

nothi

the

upon

the

Humane
of the

the

antiquityof

whereas

in

of

this

have

discourse

Symmetry

of

made

should

"

only
or

have

but

of

Day,

structure

should

Artists

no

Art," p. 5): "More

on

strange yet, that

291

IICIS1L

the
the

Soule

Muscles,

y their

of

corporalAnatomv.
any

only
wh"""-

mention
is the

Opifex of

invisible

operationsin

of tin-

those pa

292

PHYSICAL

into which

they

to allow

EXPRESSION,

inserted.

are

If

they

...

endeavoured

to linke

together in

the

the first that

bin

have

to

me

Muscles

tented
con-

by

Art

the Affections

and

Pathmyogamia

new

are

ask

...

no

more."
"

All

outward

the

expressions

have

we

performed by motion, and


signify the affections of the mind,
motions
; the moving of the instruments
make

"

in

proportion,to the
The Eyes of Man
the

of

they

for

were

motions
are

that

the

and

are

parts,

tive
representa-

mind

"

(p.4).

ters
Interpre-

; wherefore

be

all motions

therefore

Muscles,

mind
to

which

cleere

most

purpose

and

and

of the

the

of the

affections

voluntary motion,
by

of semblance

kind

can

therefore

are

answering

or

endued
are

since
with

performed

great Architect

gave

Eyes, whereby they are most swiftly


motions
of the
moved
according to the inward
the Eye by the Philosopher is said
mind, whence
moveable
to be the most
part of our Body, by which
muscles

to the

advantage
motions
All

Bulwer

of
the
are

it hath

opportunitiesto express the


mind
our
(p.166).
descriptionsof expression given by
more

"

muscular

movements

or

nerve-muscular

signs.

expression of feelingis effected by muscular


it be by words, by facial movement
action, whether
effected by voluntary muscles;
or
gesture,movements
or
expressionmay be produced by dilatation of the
All

pupil, erection
the

of

heart, these

the

being

involuntary muscular

disturbed

hair, or
due

fibre.

to

the

action

conditions

of
of

ATTITUDE

Examples

commonly judge
gait
the

"

"!' the

Note
of

man

when

Incipientintoxication
unsteady hand,
be

may

muscular

indica

and

by

it is

commonly

and

girlsconvalescent

held

on

side

from

asymmetrical

in

the

head

shame;
wmnen.

good example

The

gesture.

i'

in

nervous

chorea,

of

Expression

tremor.

one

that

-Inched.

defiance,drooping

in

less
spirit-

reelinggait,

position of

firmly upright

an

rested

we

muscular

by

man

is indicated

and

seen

of

how

stooping attitude and


as
compared with

individual

same

of

state

the

tired

EXPBKSS1VK.

easily be given showing

may

conditions.

TOUCH

AND

artist's

brush

the

pencil,the sculptor's modelling tool and chisel,


pianist'sand violinist's finger-touch,indicate
of the working
actual
condition
training and

of

his

or

the

brain.
and

trains
is

may

express

well

muscles
musical
In

in

the

infant

hand

child's

his

he

as

of

action

the
and

song

directed
conditiin

healthy

with

All

muscular

any

these

the

the

object
action.

ul.sive

thumbs

examples
"ns;

nerve-system

nerve-muscular

nomena.
phe-

playful; reflex
finger is placed

mouth;

towards

of the

is

and

when
or

of

terms

laughs

marked

well

closed

brain,

soul,"

the

producing

condition

the
in

re"

It

that

singer

not

is best

is

in

out

HCS

"whole

his

that

aware

refined

mind, i.e. his

whole

refin

and

and

educated

The

state

turned
of

the

eyes

It

the

well

fists

the
and

these

at;
is

in

moved

are

looked

acti"ii

are

known

are

often

in.

expression
movement,

are

the

nerve-

attitude,

294

PHYSICAL

the

gait,result

EXPRESSION.

from

of the

states

brain

spinal

or

cord.
In

the

observations

chieflydrawn

are

and

those
If

from

of the

matter

all

those

and

the

idea

of his

expressed.

interest
who

in

of

the

physician but
It

use

is

express

by

form

and

weakness

and

used

feelingbe

muscles

system,
which

limbs

the

field for

the

artist

as

conditions
o

sculptor,to
he

conceptions
of

of

states
mental

and

feminine

repose,

has

and

men

mind,

describe

to

is

characteristic

subjectbefore

expressiveof

may

the

observation
and

together,observing
exactness

poet

or

only

all

mistake

of

disease
the

result of disease.

is,then, in

There
of the

the

of

work

unless
expressionsof feeling,

mere

as

and

Clearly,also,it

words.

this
not

condition

rest

the

in

expressionsof

of

states

of the

for conditions
to be

defiance

things in

the

conditions

certain

physical pain,
these

of

man

whereby
feelingsmay be

posture, the

produce

to

strength and

coyness

painter

of

in

women,

the

work

wish

may

artist.

of

mind,

or

concern

the

of

body

discussed

also

the

classes

means

and

direction,they

the

man,

brain

of the

states

matters

this

are

the
his

of

of

several

to

study

mental

If the

facial muscles,

studies

our

indicatingthe activities
as
giving the knowledge

as

to, examples

and

ocular

aid

of

referred

extremity.

can

becomes

writers, to

the

upper

anything

be

to

and

be, the

of the

states

us, conditions

of

the

nerve

and

in
description,
the
work
physician may
much
as
analyzing with
the varymodes
by which
ing

brain

and

mind

are

indicated

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

It

is

posture

often

represented

in

drawings

wrist
is slightlyflexed or
sculpture. The
bent, the knuckle-jointsare
moderately extended

and

in

Fig.

back
the

beyond

32-"

Venus

de' Medici.

straight line of the metacarpus


is extended
slightlyflexed ; the thumb

the

fingersare
backwards, and

often

slightlyseparated

from

the

M"

fingers.

Th

ontaneous

hundreds

of

excitable

in
In

during

posture of

"

child

when

the

sir,

the

hand

liand

is the
and

the

thumb

or

line
At
Diana

the
;

out

in

character

may

of

hand

holding

tli.

Band.

Net-row

of this

the

of

be

hand,

nervous

knuckle-joints
in

seen

\\cll
each

of the

The

33."

this

knu

more

child

of the

some

in

illustrated

Fig.

35, where

the

in rest."

knuckle-j"

engaged

during

out

is

posture

by the wr
naturallyfalls into

backwards

extension

n"

If, in such

held
j

essential

most

is held

be

of

this

rest

in

sut"n

rhildivn, bad

in whom

at

Pig

The

females

nervous

hand

set-i

asleep, the

band

posture I have

tily in

cast

sleepers,etc.
usually seen
day, it is not
when

POSTUKi

the

shield

-cnt

figures,if

seated

bowl, presents

or

back

beyond

the

not
one

straight

hat
British

Museum
;hat

strong energetic woman

of

\vo

the

have

Venus;
in contrast

the
with

statue

figure
the

of

of
a

figure

298

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

and

expressingnervousness
the

head

expression

of

Fig.

postures :

the

34."

hangs

by

the

gravity,but

the

hand

arm

British

Diana.

right

examine

Now

firmness.

is

Diana,

the

an

hand

Museum.

grasping

side, under
is

the

right foot gives

advanced

is erect, the

In

coyness.

the

left

influence

of

spear
the

free, it is not

engaged

in

UUKKK

doing

any th

of the

posture is the

11

"f brain

out

of thi-

posture
condition

m"l

of brain

it is that

hand;"

which
in

"!

it is often

lesson

in

VA

class

action
the

makes

holding

and

influence

ix.

"the

as

to

tho

of that

energetic,

woman

in children

seen

As

only.

under

chap.

tion
representa-

energetic
to

eager

answer

out

their

it is

commonly

hands,

in

or

child

running

orator

an

the
I

the

an

at

the

same

If

the

hand.

as

have

mental

energy.

composition
of mental

upon

Kirk,
Greek

in

which
causes

energ.

the

left

of

the

woman's

the

right

hand

the

in

appears

hand

the

state

wt

of

Vases,

"Outlines

etc., of

an

Figures

from

late

the

engra

William

Sir

XIV."

and

wh"-r

work,

his

I. represents

"Plate

already

the

"n

so

photographic copy

Hamilton,

never

mon
com-

.')""

1"\ Mr.

is

mind,"

cases,

indicating by

thus

physical strength, in
Fig.

of the

artist's skill

The

in

hand

condition,

expression

less

had

should

moderate

composed bis figure


the
well
as
right,had been
in holding some
object,we
had

artist

represented engaged

the

brain

the

time, in many

hand,

left

the

that

that

energetic condition

"

also

and

wards,
back-

active, energeticconditi"

"f an

mind,

causes

of the

posture

on

all in

are

in

seen

is extended

wrist

thumb

and

the

as

of

The

preacher.

or

flexion.

lYirnd

;i

""

ts

of

festival

both

all the
ot

in

engaged

these

of the

hands
in

chus,
of Bac-

honour

who

sexes,

Iit

in

seldom
feasts."

seated

holding

sunn-

or

As

figures,
object.

.300

PHYSICAL

present over-extension

this

is

an

essential

EXPRESSION.

of

the

element

knuckle-joints,and

of

the

"nervous

STATUE

hand."

Now
is

who

not

affected

he

in

the

and

another,

of

the

are

is not
in

the

figureshas
the

hand

that, just

note

to

antithesis

hand"

nervous

antithetical

are

Genius,

arc

the

all

us

energy

hand"

energetical

hands

contrast

leads

"the

so

the

feast, and

of

This

plate

nervousness

one

alone

dod.

of

the

of

His

energy;

wrists

as

hands

nervousness.

of

postures

the

partaker

to

posture
the

observe

301

CAIN.

OF

and

of

"the

postures (see

chap. ix.).
Now

let

and

extended
the

something
force

iMI;

com

the

which

Here,

as

it

the

in

is here

in

learn

we

of
man

to

be

All

this

mortal

the

agony,

whose

ition
wli irh

acted

are

upon

thus

of

not

solelyby

the
left

the

nerve-

ture
pos-

man

of

of

doing
the

brain
or

are

In

"

of

in

are

of

fear.

similar
in

seen

the

lesson.

postures

figure are

of

is horror

group.

the

hand

result

postures

different

free.

detenu

limbs,

hand

Niobe

of the

Gladiator

"

hands

both

Venus,

sake

condition

that

is

the

to

the

only

manifestation

Analogous

members

hand

from

mental

"

posture.
the

off

be

to

seems

wrist

This

arms.

the

for

engaged,
dis-

or

of

amount

purpose

performed

act

-an

The

energetic

the

of

Pitti

expresses

is free

hand

large

useful

no

figure

the

muscles

the

to

could
it is not

the

the

in

posture.
in

as

indicating

going

Each

similar

backwards

Diana,

force

in

Cain

whole

fear.

mental

or

the

at
The

Florence.

Gallery,
horror

look

us

of

Dying
Neither

the

position
com-

representationof
urgent

body
free

or

dyspnoea

and

of

the

disengaged

spontaneous

action

302

of

PHYSICAL

the

Sir

brain.

analysis of this
point ; he says

EXPRESSION.

Bell,*

Charles

posture,

drew

in

his

attention

critical
to

this

"

Fig.

"The

36."

Dying Gladiator
of antiquitywhich

"Philosophy

and

Anatomy

of

Cain.

is

one

exhibits

of
a

Expression,"

those

pieces
master-

knowledge
3rd

edition, p.

of

195.

304

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

the

the
heaving chest. If he have at that moment
sympathy and aid of a friend,he will cling to him,
half raising himself, and
twisting his chest with
the

utmost

the

trunk

of the

stands

neck

remain

while

fixed, and

exertion; it

In

then

is in

the

and

fall

he

exhausted
of the

moment

will

mouth,

this condition

of

those

prominent,

throat, nostrils

excitement;

muscle

every

and

abrupt

out

and

the

partake

and

exertion;

will

with

chest

the

sinkinoO

'

the

that

voice

fallen

have

that

from

of
the

on

turf, it is

indescribable

struggling,that the
body is lodged and torn."

around

grass

of the

he

pain,

but

tive
instinc-

the

"

Rest

If

and

want

Hercules
at
figureof
limbs
is mainly determined

the

In

from

not
of

agony

heard.

be

sufferingmay

lifeless

the

position
by gravity ; the
signs of gigantic
no
expression of

"

figure presents in its build the


strength,but there is little or
mentation.

indicating brain
by

upon

the

deeply

the

of

influence
the

face, but
of

the

quotes
"

Dell' Arte

he

who

wrote

muscles

been
in

the

"

group,

in

not

the

della
the

does

merely

of

the

Paulo

of

face, and

of

the

still

to

the
and
the

muscles
on

Somazzo's

Pittura," published 1531,


influence

dwelt

figure

"

words

as

1821, has

legs in short, all the


indicate
anguish." Further

describes

muscles

this

long

expressed

arms,

body
from

ancients
as

of

as
presents evidence
had
investigated

Laocoon

In

the

has

Camper,

pain

muscles.

action

conditions

writers.

how

shown
how

the

significanceof

The

he

work,

in which

passionsupon
more
minutely

the

the

different

and

there

Camper
either

post urrs

confined

themselves

the

'

but

to

Hercules

authors

the

have

appearances,

body.
usually
or

have

at Be*.

icallyconcerning the operati

"reason

causes

37."

of

contortions
that

Fig.

of

.SO")

CRITICISM.

CAMPERS

"

in my

physical
these operations,
opinion [that is,Camper's] speculations
attending
'hanges produced by
without

to

the

306

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

concerning the
concerning the

seat

artist.

belong

the

These
lose

way,

words

or

in

the

of

manner

of the

of

working,
no

the

to

use

or

metaphysicians,who, by
in a labyrinth of terms,
meaning, without
having

to

definite

no

soul's

soul, are

themselves

with

the

explained the action of this immortal


the
frame."
principleupon
corporeal and mortal
Camper proceeds to give examples of the conditions
of the muscles
as
indicatingconditions of
the

least

and

mind,

from

these

mind

then

effects

the

with

in

is,that

particularnerves
painter ought

every

the

"

says,

construction

every

himself

make

and

connection

deducible

emotion

affected ;

are

to

observation

of

the

consequently
acquainted
of

the

nerves

productive of these changes."


*
(p.134) givesthe followingillustrations
Camper
of expression,
which
he describes in terms
of nervemuscular
from
signs thus (the figuresare borrowed"
his

work) :
Contemplate first the placid countenance
(Fig.
is at rest; no
is
muscle
one
38). Every feature
brought into particularaction ; all are in a state of
inert.
There
or
appearing relaxed
repose, without
in the eye
of languor,and
is a tranquillity
void
in unconstrained
the lipsare
contact.
Let us suppose
something to present itself which
excites a degree of surpriseor wonder
(Fig.39). The
are
nerves
immediately affected,and act
jnjbercpstal
"

"

"

"

the

upon
and

the

same

nerve

third
eye

pair ;

stands
acts

the

motionless

upon

Camper, Works,

hence

the

transLitcd

in

eyelid
the

is

socket.

eighth pair at
by

T.

opened,

Cogan, M.D.,

the
1821.

The
same

time;

ivsj''.

heart

the

maxillary

is

affected;

mouth

is

the

the

"The

these

as

extend*

from

iiied to

but

maxilla,

The

frco

the

imped.-d, and

the

are

l"-d,the

motion

of

""!,

not

ro

alone

act

"-e

fifth

Fig. 38."

are
oi'cttnti-mjit

of

fingers,

j"I"-\us.
different

put

in

motion.

39."

Exprwring

Fig.

perfectly

oo'tntonancc

hands

the

very

are

nerves

lov

The

particularly
r

pair

the

upon

as

are

purpose

discovered.

a"

effects

this

opened,

(Fig.40).
Thus

Surprtw.

are

the

the

mouth

e\

in

rises

i;

tl

"lle it

as

the

arched.

muscultis

lower
The

lip
eyes

abducens

and

of

habit.

"

a"l"luc"'n"

By

makiii

the

eyes

ilrivl

'ther
t ""!,'"

I to
toward

turn

left

the

the

force

towards

the

by
hand,

the

right,ami

passion

is

ve.

(Fig. 41.)
and

but

becomes
tin

dra\\

are

downwai

and

inwards

awn

complacency,friendly greetings,

"In
ose

j-.irtsalone

act

which

have

an

308

PHYSICAL

immediate
of

communication
The

nerves.

drawn

EXPRESSION.

with

angles of

alone,without

the

other

the

seventh

mouth

must

tokens

of

pair
be

never

incipient
smile.
Great
should
be taken
to avoid
care
drawing
the eyebrows inwards
an
:
error
mitted
frequently comby the French in their portraits.
"Laughter (Fig.42). In laughterall the effects produced
the
former
affection are
by
greatlyincreased,
and

up

others

Fig.

40."

are

superadded.

The

Contempt.

an

whole

Fig. 41.

"

countenance

ness,
Friendli-

Complacency,
Tacit

forwards,

inclines
fixed

upon

edges

of the

any

determinate

orbicular

producing
The

eyes.

orbicular
the

without

but

muscle,

object.

wrinkles

lips are

and

the

external

teeth, particularlythe

appear

mouth,

; small

and

the

wrinkles
cheeks

arise
become

the

upper,
at

the

are

eye

folds

being

outward

The

of the

opened by
on

attention

the

muscles

Joy.

tracted,
con-

the

around
of

action
sides
are
corners

fuller,etc.

the

hence

made

to

of the

LAUGHTER

"If

place

A\

you
the

i.

lil

arch,

an

and

eye

809

SORROW.

"

or

look,

wanton

the

contract

upper

eyelid expr"In
of

nerves

drawn
To

art

made

pally affected;

l.y tin- descent

tit

the

brow

the

middle
In

42

"

upwards

of

Fig.

furrowed

be

must

of the

eyebrows

the

fifth

pair

Hence

manner.

the

lu-ows

"

closed, and

tears

are

wrinkles;

in

lower

and

of

the

ceive
re-

forcible

mouth

descend, the eyes


of

which

very

the

part

pressed out

be

upwards.

of

corners

lip.

"Sorrow.

muscles

act

nerves

the

downwards,

upwards.

of

must

is

obliquely;

be drawn

ri),all the

upper

face

43

with

pair

mouth

the

somewhat

Laughter.

w"

drawn

and

the fifth

the

,n, the

look

to

Fig.

"

downwards

add

(Fig.43)

untenance

"om

the
are

are
nose

nearly

lachrymal

glan
The

Antony

following
R;

'

({notationis
Mengs.

He

the

from
says

"

writings of

310

"

PHYSICAL

By expressionI
the
The

signs.
such

EXPRESSION.

the

mean

affections,by
union

the

covering
judiciouslydisof

sort

every

Soul

with

emotion

of

of the

nature, that

of

art

the
the

external

body

is of

cannot

one,

in
excitinga correspondentmotion
the other.
As the Painter ought therefore to represent
his figures in action, he
to
ought likewise
in their
in everything else,
and
express
appearance
without

happen

situation

that
would

and

those

in the

produce

body

Fig.

in

that

enter

state

more

others

which

ordinary,

depends
know

and

how

and

are

of

therefore
to

likewise

natural,
a

upon

choose
to

know

among
which

less, some

or

the

how

precision" (vol.i. p. 117).

reallyfound

were

these

other

Taste

which
to

emotions,
forced,

are

noble,

some

thousand

those

soul

"Weeping.

since

but

44."

if it

the

which

emotions

and

manners

of the

and

others
;

Painter,

it
to

produce Beauty ;
produce it with due

312

PHYSICAL

Painters

"

have

than

more

EXPRESSION.

occasion

sculptors,and

Raphael,
the

of

and

sufferable

in any

"The

structure

called

it

another

; and

The

the

to decide

I know
than

six heads

would

idea
is

has

has

body
of its

such, that

to

wish

would

one

to make

the

may

smallest

head

able
is

being
the

size

rule,

of, is the
painting admits
figure,and the largestis a sixth

the

two

be

it.

that

these

and

observe, what

to

one

part;

such

motion,

design the head of


likes, observing, notwithstanding, for
part of

be

not

design. I shall therefore proceed


succinctly,
proposing that which

obtain

to

one

ninth

some

of

figurewThich

determined,

human

gives the

of this

to do

taste, of

Raphael.

effect,one

correctness

ought

than

able

being

order,

sculpture

from

or

plied
multi-

second

of which

rule

of members

that

to treat

"

than

of

concordance

produce

one

of the

truth

from

other

that

symmetry,

to

ancients

jections.
less sub-

only

sense,

proportions,without
better

have

course

certain

certain

varietyinfinitely

use

which
have little more
figures,
an
half; a proportion which

of his

this

of

the

it with

were

one

in

availed, either

not

all sorts
if

of

taste

by uniting
has

to

dimensions

are

the

two

extremes;

general size being of an eighth or a seventh


neck
should
then
be
part of the figure. The
made
equal to half of the head"
(vol.ii. ch. xii.
the

p.

159).

Mengs
discovered
emotion

held

by
cannot

corresponding

that
every

the

affections

sort

occur

motion.

in

of

of external
man

He

man

sign ;

without

points

may

out

that

be
an

exciting a
that

the

given
descriptions
body do not agree.
Some
points in

of the

of

the

of

THE

the

face

passive,expressionlessface

the

313

FACE.

proportions of

favour

conditions

muscular

IN

EXPRESSED

MIND

the

human

of

study

nerve-

illustrated

are

which

woke

be

may

by

soul
"the whole
to express
"lighted up," made
of
face"
of tension
in the
simply by conditions
the facial muscles
state.
resulting from the mental
often great and
most
Thus
pleasing beauty is seen
unattractive
when
in faces
rest.
at
Conversely
beautiful
in their passive condition,
faces are
some
in action
lack
but
expression and interest when
up,

work

mental

from

these

from

Surely

the

that

the

as

Possibly
of

out

thoughts

mobile

and
as

colour
much

is

of

gested
sugface

cating,
mind-indi-

expressions produced

may

our

groove

see

by

or

and

shows

modes

of

to

planted
imfeeling,
produce an

do

higher nerve-centres;

observation

forces

allowed

education, and

and

can

individual's

certainlydirect

how

thought,

individual

the

these

of

be

moment

and

habits

the

on

for

we

and

in
effect

form

it

little.

tension.

muscular

step

but

considerations

great, not

as

talk

women

two

passive

qualitiesnot

are

such

that

these

force,alter the

for

ciples,
prinfacial

expression.
is

It
work

of

beauty

to

tale to the
less

true

not

that

presumed
art

the

the

whole.

nature.

quality of
10

composing

object is

looker-on
to

in

the

The
at

the

The

and

executing

give expression and


expression,to tell its

to

picture,must
beauty

of

be

the

picture merely;

more

or

picture is

it is such

314

PHYSICAL

EXPKESSION.

qualityin the pictureas shall excite in the average


the sensation,feeling,
or
particularobserver
or
tion
emoof beauty. Sir Charles
Bell * says,
In proceeding
"

define

to

been

able

Albert

mark

us

it.

The

the

approach

next

writers

is, that
Diirer

it

is

the

have

art

on

of

reverse

If
expressed himself.
the
representationof beauty, then let
to avoid
deformity, and teach ourselves

intend

we

affirm

to

deformity.

all that

beauty,

deformity,

beauty."

to

Leonardo

that

page,

from

remote

more

so

Bell

da

tells

Yinci

the
us,

nearer

the

on

searched

for

ugliness.
o

I would

of

submit

the
of

member

every

propositionthat the posture


the
body, in a drawing or

would
be
such
in nature
as
sculpture,should
produced in the subject under the circumstances
representedor supposed in the composition.

is

allowable

Again, it
haphazard.

The

nervous

except when

the

subject

of excitement

or

as

be

appear

in

arm

grotesque
A

head
is

towards
level of

hand

use

should

is weak

with

posture

not

not

represent beauty, and

to

energy

would

hand

nervous

produce

most

at

at

used

degree

some

should

be

be

used

should

It should
never
represented in men.
a
subject coincidently with
signs

strength and
strong

to

it
irritability;

posture merely

seldom

not

be

the

end

curious

of
of

and

appearance.

posture

with

appropriate to a
an
object on the
the

head,

or

to

tion
slightrotation and inclinasubject directing the head
side
a

of rotation

female

Op. tit.,p.

21.

below

subjectwith

the

slight

THE

HAND

but

weakness,

FREE

is

AND

315

IMPRESSIVE.

inappropriate to

and

sternness

defiance.
A

not

modification

some

or

this

hand

uncommon

is

of

inappropriate

slight modification
of
of

slight

sculpture

hand

in

for

brain

which

in

an

free

the

act

it.

governs

of

and

not

are

of

free hand

when

condition

by gesticulation. When,

the
of

hands
the

expression of

to

look

and

the

the

for the

general

in these

action

mind

of

to

the

when

the

aim
the
the

mental

contrary,
the

hands

by

express
mental

their
of

state

movements

It is

as

be

hand

voluntary, purposive acts,

reasonable

expressed

in

engaged

in

to

as

look

for

is

shining full
the
in the
engaged in eating,or
lips are
eyes, or
of dyspnoea. Still
with
movements
the other
moved
of performthe manner
it is true that in either case
ing
expression in

the

act

the

the

the

muscular

mind.

of the

state

the

with

case

on

the

object,or

disengaged, as

the man's

position and

definite

be

may

unconsciously

have

speaker, we

an

the

as

movements,

of

employed

an

unconsciously expressing

orator, which

position,or
the

brain,

left free

are

condition
be

must

we

as

condition

the

that

sewing, then
to
accomplish the
of
simply indicative

directed

are

attempted,

such

manipulation

movements

hand

holding

as

"the

of terror.

If the muscles

such

work,

pressive
ex-

piece

but

outcome

illustratingthe

examples
definite

the

disengaged

or

the

Dirty Boy;"

is

in

as

but

rest.

hand

terror,

or

"You

called

of

expression

"

shock

"

fist,

hand,

convulsive

fright is,I think,

look

some

the

closed

convulsive

the

"

It is to

in

the

to

of

is the

posture

may

face

be

indicative

sun

of the

mental

state,

316

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

but

the

muscles

face

hand

or

there

not

are

in

state.
expressing the mental
art at the
but
seldom
see
present day we
represented as disengaged; usually they

engaged
In

hands

painted

sculptured holding some

or

of the

part

some

on

the

of

are

object,or resting

such

figure;

the

hands

are

engaged

resting from labour, or performing some


toil,not engaged in expressing the action

of

act

or

of

the

mind.*
As

the

to

in the

time.

present

taken

always

care

proportions,and
to

the

compose

something

signs of development
postures, and

the

of

livingsubject?
A thoroughly
his

figure

he

represents,

shows

to

indications

other

or

the

us

results

Do

the

action

brain
the

to

parts of

our

In

Cain

Examples
in the

British

and

what

of

the

express

mind

of

at

draws

so

It

canvas.

that

is

the
the

the

of

man

signs
time

of

postures

directlyrepresent

the

time.
annual

order

and

figure-picturesrepresent
to

face.

disengaged

Pitti,Florence;

Museum.

to

kind

man

so

movements

artist

give

the

highest effect
expression, some

representationof mobile
be left free
the figureshould

especiallyhands

of

then

nerve-muscular

the

of

the

at

his

; and

as

able

thereby
by

mood

of

most

and

of movement

of mind

state

condition

show
and

results

movements,

educated

to

as

of
brain

representationon
and

figure-compositionsproduced
When
expression is desired, is
give to the figure its due form,

average

How

hand

the Venus

are

and

disengaged,
it is to

common

seen

de' Medici;

in the
and

statues

the

of

Diana,

the

supporting
of

the

the

Such

body.

hands

they

emotions;

than

317

COMPOSITION.

engaged in holding some


body, in resting upon

hands

the

see

ART

OF

PRINCIPLES

to

other

no

express

other

free

not

are

object,in

fatigue, rest, sleep, etc.,

parts
express

conditions

states

of

mental

the

mobile

inactivity.
_

think

there

conditions
of

of

brain

action,

are

and

representations by
least

intellectual

colour
of

all

principles,derived
the

analysis

the

same

here

convenient
and

and
those

as

to

propositions.

composing
the

body,

of

the

the

mobile

art

"

but

the

postures

scientific

in

chap.

put

them

in

We

study, may

ix. ; but
the

have, then,
consider

and

it

form

in

the

to

the

tables

in
are

seems

of

rules

analyzing
proportions

fixed

or

of

conditions
and

of

looker-on

joint

every

it should
each
at

be

portion

the

also

in

chap.

any

and

in

picture
of

analysis of

part

the

his

should

only

be
for

imagination,

should

figure

ix.

ing
figure-draw-

possible,not

posture
the

to

In

"

see

in each

applied

analysis."

considered, and
artist

"

expression.

posture

the

tain
Cer-

Composition.

(coincident development),

Anatomical

the

pleasing.

given

"principles" are
typical postures in

I.

are,

as

The
the

mere

not

and

from

productions, but

permanent

more

body

than

the

least

artist

figure,to

the

outcome

likely to be useful
composition of figures; they

the

to

direct

suppose,

effects

Principles of Analysis
suggested

the

higher in artistic value


signs of body growth

necessarily,therefore, the

be

that

doubt

no

expression,being

proportions

mere

be

can

see

intended

the
to

318

be

PHYSICAL

so
expressive,

and

The

impressed by

Small

"

their

meaning

of the

in the

eyes

of the

movement

III.

large,and

action

the

of

would

there

small

joints;moderate
in rest

seen

is

condition
IV.

condition

whether

it be
a

certain

movements

of

quiet,even

brain

similar

of all

the
"

mind,

and

of all

condition
is the

parts

condition

posture
in

in

all the

Consider

"

collateral

parts,

fingers,etc.

of difference

in

the

bably
Pro-

posture, or

fingers,is highly expressive


it may
at

Fig.16,

fingers that

of

amount

Look

in

disease

of the

differentiation."

similar

conditions

inind.

of

In

sleep. A departure from such


therefore noteworthy and expressive.

relative

brain

be

postures seen

in

Collateral

"

relative
"

flexion

and

movement

significationfrom

joints."
parts

probably

and

(see p. 189.)

different

different

differs

movement

in

differs

skull
the

Consider

"

the

in

head

large parts."-

with

parts contrasted

significanceof a shoulder
that of a finger movement

from

of

to be

as

significance.
II.

EXPKESSION.

indicate

the

hand

them

of

postures

look

like

absence

or

It is the different

p. 130.

makes

mind

brain

postures

hands

"

of

gone

mad."
When

hand

nervous

has

all the

expression of nervousness
of them
are
only some

is

bent, the
when
the

wrist

Fig. 35,

flexion, as

seen

in

knuckles

greater than

over-extended

the

over-

seated

with

figuresin

p. 300.

This
term, as applied in art
Symmetry."
and
literature
description,is usually employed to
that the form
of the body is alike on
indicate
the

V.

"

"

320

PHYSICAL

posture
the

analogous

very

child

executed

for

them

by
does

at

the

very

expressive
the

though
strongly
posture
to

pressed
is

he

the

fingers

well

the

the

semi-convulsive

is

flexed
is

thumb

finger.

convulsive

the

to

and

it,

hand

somewhat

index

the

free

"

Boy

against

The
are

against

statuary

Dirty

"

was

exhibited

rebels

could.

straight,

are

and

the

he

knuckles

analogous

so

express

the

Co.,

and

of

if

seen

analogy

piece

washed
if

escape

be

This

Exhibition,

being

would

fit.

Pears

Paris

and

into

would

admirable

Messrs.

like

not

the

In

what

to

off

going

were

pleasing.

not

EXPRESSION.

hand
condition

This
as

of

boy.
Antagonistic

often

indicated

conditions

by

Fig.

of

the

antithetical

45."

Showing

Facial

mind

postures.

Zones.

are

probably

CHAPTER

XVIII.

LITERATURE.

B ul wer

Hartley

"

Tyudall

looking

IN

Gregory

"

C. Darwin

"

the

over

subjects cognate
there

the

with

of

the

that

that

me

such

from

Bulwer

the

the

work

is

says,

show

the

we
our

use,

as

universal

and

intention
*

of

it

can

useful

the

be

proposed

now

long past,

men

value, it appears
results

their

so

are

motions,
their

do, the flexion

we

assent,

of

Being

diametrically opposite,
for if

in

to

following

strengthened.
"

thoughts

probability

volume,

condition

If

inquiry

still of

are

in this

present advanced

of

few

in accord

are

matters.

on

work,
the

in

enunciated

not

are

methods

works

whose

but

the

present

of them

cognate

with

unison

in

are

to

authors

some

evidence,

some

they

in

knowledge

shown

that

"

dates.

with

the

of

abundant

course,

owing

way,

of

that

of

Hull

"

general principlesexpressed

although,
same

be

made,

here

extracts

writings

Marshall

Blane

"

Bibliography,

"

to

to

appears

Camper

"

Bulwer,

that
of

then,

significations;
of

the

Head

properly according
Nature;

op. cit.,p. 56.

are

the

to
to

contrary

322

PHYSICAL

motion

that

to

dissent,or
"And

EXPRESSION.

must

resentment"
I

who,

pray

Philosophy,does

affect

with

plunge himself
Anatomy, or

the

of

it

of all the

made

parts into which

Head

sequence
con-

to

of

is not

without

since the

Soule

of the

by

they

the

man,

their

is

only

operations
Not

inserted.

are

the

since

any

Muscles, whose

knowledge

exact

in the fearefull and

Creator
the

are

perfection or
be acquired ;

can

subjected

Principal

manifest

in those

nature

by

so

man,

movings

Acts

any

and

Muscles

man,

invisible

that

is

outward

of the Internall

Opifex

the

and

causes

thing worthy to be
the whip of Ignorance,if any
rashly
Sea of Corporal
into the Muscular

will think

we

mention

this

effects of

of their

Sense,

Internall

Intellect,to- wit, the


wherefore

Soule

in

versed

cold

Discourse

to

But

Beasts.

to

corrected

is familiar

that

Since

the

behold

to

Agents, the

intrinsicall

and

is well

that

you,

Actions, without

common

the

naturallyimply dislike,or

as

wisdome

wonderfull

this

of

of the
of

structure

out, although it has

yet fullyfound

much
with
sought after by illustrious men,
Piety and Deligence" (Introductorychapter,p. 10).
Of the Muscles
serving to the generall expressions,
beene

"

or

most

motions

important

the

of

Face

or

Countenance.
"

in

Many are the affections


the significant
motions
Bones

the
our

skin

in

their

other

are
are

at

rest

of the

for

thereof

over

versatile

the

that appeare

Face,

whereas

altogetherimmovable

circumduction

parts

of the Mind

even

some

and

when

parts

of

pertinacious

subjacent parts;

indeed,

but

they

are

JOHN

with

actuated

not

the

of

participatesof

does

being voluntary,
Muscles, by whose

motion

in the

moved

motion

benefit

skin, and

of

the

at

"All

make,

Man

time

any

to

the

answering

in

moving
a

kind

proportion,to
"Now

the

voluntarie

motion,
The

it hath

"You

clock

of

semblance

shall
work

"

Desire,

and

"

length

(p. 101).

have

we

and

and

of the

or

can

therefore
which

are

and

parts,

instruments

the motions

come

inconvenient

mind,

the

tive
representa-

mind"

(p.4).

Universall

organ

of

great mysterie

whereof

is

is
the

Nerves

Countenance

be

to

the

the

under

that

Will, Mind,

of

the

Braine

/ whether

prosecuted

very

motion,

by

Braine

ordered.

his

expressions

affectionsof

the

Nerves

at

by

Face, (being all

of

happened

performed

the

it in words

open

ordered, that

originals with

all his

it

so

of

with

outward

signifie the

or

be

voluntary

working

Conjugation

expivss.se

are

motions

their

in

Braine)

unlawful

thus

should

of

organs

Muscles

certaine

third

alone, should

or

of

use

streightannexion

have

would

furnished

the

when

the

affectingthe parts

them

from

motions

the

by

are

for,Nature

from

Face

which

Muscles,

of

the

in
whereEmphatically significant,
perturbations of the Mind discover themselves,

being

the

which

is most

that

the

to

those

skin

performed
significantly
(p. 97, No. ii.).
the face, it hath
a
publique and locall

in

But

motion,

necessarilyimply

benefit

the

"

orderly and
"

motion

voluntary

any

Face

whole

323

BULWEB.

commandeth

the

thing

as

is to be

soone

as

avoided

(p. 13).
find

of the

in it that

Head,

or

which
the

use

Springs

to

and

call the
inward

324

PHYSICAL

Contrivance

of

the

give

and

motion

all

outward

our

regulate the Dyall

Nature

Affections, which

face of Man

the

of

Instruments

motions, which
of

EXPRESSION.

hath

placed

in

Light, and the first


which
sections
ever
appeared through the Disa
Corporeal Phylosophy" (Dedicatory,

Irradiation
of

Being

New

2).

p.

whole

"The

head

of

the benefit
and

with

mind"

"Having

resolved

the

Actions

Head

of the

comprised parts, by
might be enabled to

Muscles

certain

by motion,
(p.51).

move,

its

to

to
to

the

expresse

the

trace

their

affections

Spring

of

Discoursing
and

Principle
which
their outward
significations
depend;
upon
I had
when
passed the superficialparts, and digged
than
little more
a
skin-deepe into the Minerall of
to
the
Muscles, the
Cephalicall Motion; I came
of

instruments

of those

voluntary
motions

affection, that

motion;

that

is, from

done

are

the

or

by

an

ments
instruearnest

inward

principle. The
effects of whose
in
moving significantly
appeare
the parts moved, when
we
by an arbitrary motion
freely reject or embrace
things understood
(not
with
minde
mind
and body
our
only, but with our
both)
"

had

"

(p.4).

There

hath

of the

necessary

Mind,

been

not

undertaken

tion

an

generall Survey

muscles

of the

Instruments

which

the

by

all the

parts of

of

Body,
all those

apparently

are

manifest

who, Data

one

any

effect of their
the

Body

and
as

Opera,
Cognominathey are the

motions

expressed
use

and

although more

and

of the
made

moving in
Emphatic-

BULWER"

JOHN

those

ally,by
and
"

the

most

When

we

remarkable

forward

thereof"

parts

cast

use

(A. 3).

backward

up

resent

or

Nod

of

diametrically opposite
of

motion

this

; arid

assent

Head

the

lightlydislike,refuse, deny,

motion

in

have

operations they

thing, we

Head,

325

HARTLEY.

our

the

to

of
signification

of the
performed by the extension
Head
"(p. 54).
Bulwer
(pp. 56 and 54) suggests the principle
mind

the

of

is

He

antithesis.

that

saw

movements,

or

nerve-

muscular

signs,are indices of the brain condition


which
states
(see p. 4).
accompanies mental
Mind,"
Hartley,* in his
Theory of the Human
writes
not
only converts
(p. 31): "Association
automatic
actions
into
voluntary, but voluntary
"

automatic.

into

ones

the

mind

is

it were,

sensation, idea,
of

the

than

mind,

of the

motions
both

from

from

the

this

automatic.

bend

upon

upon

the

action

of

ones

into

of

Edition

be

to

the

body

referred

to

the

head

call

them

automatic

distinguishthem
originallyautomatic, and
shall now
and
give a few

fingers

the

effort

ascribed

to

of

voluntary, and

the

follow

any

transmutation

every

grasping,in
"

The

almost

palm

are

double

automatic

into

be

I shall

which

voluntary
of

to

which

and

without

and

secondary kind,

those

instances

to

i.e. are

motions.

of automatic

viz. of

rather

actions, of which

precedent diminutive

some

motion,

or

are

mind

the

conscious,

scarce

mechanically, as

these

For

of

impression
hand,

thus

of

motions,

voluntary

young
which

children
is made

performing

originalautomatic

by Joseph Priestley,F.R.S.,

1775.

manner.

the

326

PHYSICAL

(a) After

this

which,

favourite

and
a

those

plaything
doctrine

action

repeat the

plaything presented

known
the

that

fact

after

the sound
the

sight

of

child's
other
and
at

of the

the

the

of

motions,

will

will

associated

It

this

; and

case

in

this

to

obtain

in

actions

the
do

with
very

same

the

how,

see

tions,
associa-

proper

take, hold, etc.,


a

and

that

state, and

of

state

traction,
con-

particularlyof

the

innumerable

or

state

child
of

grasping,till

upon

mind, which

we

may

is

generated,and sufficiently
action
the
to produce it instantaneously.
is,therefore, perfectly voluntary in

by

the

innumerable

repetitionsof

sufficient

connection

manner

same

as

it

at

comes

with

motions

so

as

it

last

many

to follow

originallyautomatic

the
to

the

it is

pursuing

may

hand,

sensations, ideas, and

diminutive
them

in

perfectly voluntary state,


a

By

grasp,

hand

put the

to grasp,

with

this.

But

such

circumstances, i.e. sensations, ideas,

last,that idea

call the

in

hand,

associated

do

words

nurse's

idea

own

sight.

reasoning,we
repetitionof the

sufficient

to

uses

having

upon

of

method

same

child

sight

ought, therefore,
association,to perform

his

children

the

by

the

grasping
to

of

common

He

of

of

most

which

which

associated

are

excited

his hand.

in

the

according to

ideas

ideas, the

are

hold

and

grasp

their

other

suppose,

the motions

repetitionof

action

with

strongly
of

sufficient

in

concur

EXPRESSION.

sequently
corresponding sensations, and conbe automatic
secondarily. And, in

manner,

hands

similar

may
be

in life

all

the

actions

performed

explained, all those that are


passing from the originalauto-

328

PHYSICAL

EXPRESSION.

required only labour


subject was
permanent
in

position,and
pleased.

"

The

Human

; the

Mind,

Anatomist
what

the

on

not
object extremely fleeting,

individuals,

and

To

person.

ever

it

trace

varieties,requires the
the
knowledge, and
tho' it
genius. But

mental

constitution,

be

laws

philosophy

of

the

of

is

laws

it may

those

have

one

either, examined
understood.

For

another,

apart,
the

have

and

same

that

has

that

can

such
the

never
reason

the
to

of

its

invariable

It

Mind,

of

seem,

System.
who

culty
diffi-

reason

been

of

the

the

Animal
are

mutual

constitution
be

as

study'd the
they have

little

on

an

two

great

no

fixt and

as

Human

intimately connected,

on

collected

acquainted with the structure


Human
Body, and with the laws of the
and
and
Body
(Economy;
yet the Mind

been

is

any

and

the

there

yet

Material

of most

in

of

ascertain

by

misfortune

hand,

same

matter

being governed
the

other

piercing

most

fluctuating as

of

fix it

could

experiments

the

doubt, however
those

The

in
the
same
varying even
endless
through its almost
most
profound and extensive

investigateand

to

hand.

steady

make

any

it he

and

so

fluence
in-

of

thoroughly

it has

been

an

unspeakable loss to Physicians,that they have been


so
generallyinattentive to the peculiarlaws of the
the Body.
on
Mind, and to their influence
in a
celebrated
late
"A
professorof Medicine
rather
a
neighbouring nation, who, perhaps, had
clear and methodical
head, than an extensive
genius
of Nature, wrote
a
System of
or
enlarged views

329

GREGORY.

he

Physic, wherein
entirelyas

Stahl, his

principlesalone.
had

sentient

of the

Human

the

added

Nature,

into

of the

principle,and
Mind

with

vain

and

of

his

the
his

style occasion

the

and

penetrated

the

philosophy

Human

Body

imagination

writings

to

rival,

consideration

of the

perplexity

the

chymical

and

united

that

of

luxuriancy
him, and

his

feeble

cotemporary

enlarged genius,

more

deeply

but

Man

explain all the Phenomena


and
(Economy,
by mechanical

Animal

more

makes

considered

to

attempt

who

and

Machine,

have

to

seems

and

be

often

wildered
be-

obscurity of

little read

and

less understood.

renders

the

Man

"

that

has

had

The

and

their

too

The

close

philosophy
from

the

very

weak

up

of

particularly

more

will

the

the

of

manner

brute

with
of

of

Animal
and

Animal
of

source

anatomy

Animals,

and

of

Being

anatomy

the

comparative

some

the

the

most

Human

(Economy

of

comparative Views
life,have

been

little

pride of Man is alarmed, in this case,


the
a
comparison, and
dignity of
not
easily stoop to receive a lesson

instinct
and

rest

as

cultivated

been

in

other

states

regarded.
with

the

But

been

hath

discoveries

Mankind

lame

very

considered

the

to

indeed

and

attention;

usually

comparative

hath

Body.

which

cause

Nature

propose

analogy

Creation.

useful

we

been

no

Animals

another

into.

enquire

to

is

of Human

knowledge

imperfect,which

and

of

there

these,

"Besides

of

foolish.

parts, which,

But

Brutes.

Nature

though

this
is

distinct,

conduct

whole,
are

yet

is

made
inti-

330

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

is

another
where

the

highest of

this

account

that

"The

wisest

in

first three

in the

thirty

that

of

years

lively

and

close

which

stillness

sinks

at

the

be
at

flowing
over-

perpetual
it in

and

for the

of

period

it has
it.

in

around

infancy

in

Life,nature
for its

is necessary

latter

But

it,gradually

advances

that

last into

to

more

of its life than

than

motion

requiringno more
preservation,and

do

spirit,which

Child

On

can

and

in

be

to

to

everything

the
as
itself,

contracts

it.

knowledge,

vigorous

future

any

below

to it."

more

years

is

species,

one

objectaround
activityis given it

restless

to animate

seemed

of

the

so

This

every

it has

as

purposes,

learn

have

to

into

great chain

it loves

exuberant

This

motion.

the

nearest

are

Child, that

and
itself,

motion

of

principleis

active
in

that

links

runs

ends.

lowest

without

perfectly understood,
least,of the

other

immediately

link

one

no

nection
con-

it is difficult to say

the

with

case

This

speciesoften

one

imperceptibly,that
one
begins and the

so

the

another.

one

close,that

so

particularlythe
and

with

connected

mately

days

calm

of

and

human

life"

(p.61).
mind
an
as
object
Gregory speaks of the human
and ever
varying. He believed it
extremely fleeting
invariable
fixed and
to be governed by laws
as
as
those
material
of the
Gregory thought
system.
that

inquiry as

an

to

mind,

should

embrace

concerning other living beings in


besides

difficulties

mind

It would

man.

was

that
the

he

saw

appear
in the

that
way

fleetingcharacter

one

siderations
con-

nature

of the

of

the

of

its

great

study

of

signs, or

CAMPER'S

If those

manifestations.

Camper

is

thus

he

that

longer maintained

by

raises

and

head,

of his

sides, as

it

were

his

legs begin

to

fall to the

Deep

"

the

in

his

downwards
this

accompany

crimson

equipoise

of the

neck

muscles

are

the

his

of the

his

hands

to

length

office,and

he

would

of

in

the

is

are

beats

rage,

with

shakes

under

thousand

motion
eyes

forms.

falter,an

to

tongue

heart
as

breast

endless

these
mind

and

orators
.

"

the

At

expressive

similar

from

advantage

In

agitated.
both

hand,

body.

the

emotion,

be

in

deducible

other

of the

body

abashed,

are

; if

flutters

shame

frequently the

case,

immediately painted

colour.

would

emotion

wards,
down-

fit continued.

; the

face, neck, and

emotion

is

impetus

and

look

their

makes

reverence

and

"It

; the

those

to

is convulsed

face

lively

support

if the

most

sink

muscles

places

refuse

the

of

the

breast

trembling impedes

inward

the

his hand

feet,stamps till the ground

and
; and

him

his

to

ground

person

hands

head

laugher, on

emotion, he

his

"A

jection
ob-

inert.

his

excess

his

belonging

nerves

livelycontented

this

oppressed, sorrowful,

lets

person,

it with

rendered
"

supports

is,the

An

"

wrote

melancholy

no

permanently

greatly lessened.

seems

or

be

signs can

automatically enumerated,

recorded, and

and

331

LECTURES.

of
"

On

to

particularizeevery

effects

observation

The

manner.

is, that

particular nerves

have
public actors
giving the greatest
Painting, Sculpture, etc.,"p.

in

are

the
force
129.

every

affected

superior
to

the

332

PHYSICAL

expressionsof

the

in the

movements

features, by

exciting requisite

parts themselves."

Camper is one of
the significanceof
of

EXPEESSION.

the writers

who

fully recognized

nerve-muscular

signs as

means

expression.
Gilbert

Sir

delivered
"

So

any

before

far

or

Blane*
the

his

Croonian

either

from

from

analogy,there does
thing as absolute rest;

such

the

motions

of

the

exist

in nature

not

for when

earth

complications of

revolutions

in

rotation

in the

paths

of their

the
arising from
gravitation, and

equinoxes, not
innumerable
be

may

from

mention

sidereal

matter

of

time,

instants

particleof it ever
one
point of
any

in

has

nature,
it ; and

originallyand
as

considered
senses,
*

1822.

and

"Select

does

rest
in
in

not

on

their

mutual

of

the

be, for

will

or

which

it

other,

no

two

that

no

return, to
it has

ever

motion, therefore, can

property
actual

of matter

or

of

constitution

indefeasibly impressed
exist in nature, but

several

the

of

each

will

vulgar sense, as
philosophical
sense,

Dissertations

irregularities

place, and

space

axes,

that
principles,

returned,

formerly occupied. Whether


strictlybe called an essential
not, it is, certainly,by the

own

influence

or

same

absolute

planetary

upon

was,

the

the

the

the

systems

ever

heavenly

precession

incontestable

affirmed,on

and

of

the

template
con-

we

their

disturbances

to

particle of

round

orbits,in

tion,
observa-

various

their

(p.233)

actual

bodies, the

and

Lecture,

Royal Society,says

know,

we

as

in

upon

may

be

fallacy of

the

as

an

Subjects of

abstraction

Medical

Science."

GILBERT

SIR

inertice
from

it

mind,

of the

of

is not

motion

to

rest

resistance

belongs, it

it

other

any

the

same

be

of

of the

nothing
of which

which

energy

which

planet to
the

than
must

to

or

is carried

that

more

alleged,that

matter

answered,

each
particles,

of such

of

is

planet

change

rest, but

to

it should

motion

be

may

the vis

retardation,

portion

of the

value

along by

to

motion
or

If

direction.

is called

resistance

from

or

given particle or

any

what

acceleration

to

of

change

follows, that

matter,

333

BLANE.

earth

congeries

possess

animates

or

share

the

whole

mass."
"

already acknowledged

I have

the

manner

and

that

this

the
for

the

general operate,

as

operation

ultimate

an

of

of

the

fact

will

through
involved
double
in
seems
obscurity;
nerves,
the nature
of thought, it canit depends on
as
not
be made
a subject of experimental investigation.
this

For

shall

reason

being adapted

to

impossible

seems

the

in

admitted

be

must

But

in nature.

stimuli

which

in

ignorance

my

All

such

attempts

the

of

this

the

ends

for

human
with

of matter

connection

decline

unsatisfactory inferences
The

assumptions.
relation

subjects
relation

perhaps
upon
human

the

each

to

of
to

the

sensation

and

of
from

properties of
to

mind,

the

are

and
no

we
more

may

volition.

fathom

and

bodies, in

only

only

venture

it

hypothetical

the

effects,of their

remote

can

they

and

abortive

different
be

not

penetrate

experimental reasoning; for,

E
reason

to

drawn

other, appear

Society :

sagacity

consisted

have

enquiry, as

the

intimate
to

the

proper

in

their

effects,
nature

affirm

that

connection

334

PHYSICAL

of

thought with
corporeal organs,

EXPRESSION.

the

corresponding changes

than

the

can

eye

in

the

itself"

see

(p.258).
Not

"

and

fear
there

the

to mention

joy,

which

certain

are

well-known

affect

effects of

the

whole

and

passions

the

to

circulation,

sentiments

produce partialand local effects.


"Fear
produces debility,almost
palsy. Courage and ardor of mind,
adds

grief,
which

amounting
the

on

to

contrary,

natural

the mind
is
strength. When
agitated by some
interestingobject,and calls upon
the body for some
extraordinary exertion to effect
its end, the muscles
are
thereby enabled, as it were
by magic, to perform acts of strength,of which they
would

be

entirely incapable

circumstances
honour

of

mechanical
and

would

of

sort

in

exertions

are

resistance,wThich

that

of nature,

idea

an

we

ascribed

to

the

lead

almost

accounts

"

the

The

or

mind.

us

have

of

to

doubt

the

individuals

coming
over-

not

other

external.

"

of life.
is also

in

the

motion

strength,
The

great

referable

to

considerations

whether

the

in

should

of
of

great
in

mind

powers

These

or

incredible,

seem

in the

the

augment

moment

passions of

fabulous

in

the mind
not
impossible,were
phrenzy ! and it is truly admirable,

resources
inspire additional
calls
adequate to the occasional
of strength in maniacs,
increase

would

life

made

and

the

In

blood.

be

economy

thus

cold

danger, for instance, where

stake,

at

are

in

feats

heroic

not

or

of

the

strength
ages

are

(p.259).

class of stimuli
These

consist

to
in

be enumerated

are

impressions made

336

PHYSICAL

of

established

an

of consciousness.

each

other,

of

The

actions

nature, and

The

choice.

both,

and

that

they

with

the

liable

are

rendering sleep

in

consciousness

their

of

muscles

the

over

regulatethe
"But
though

and

be

should

former

instinctive

something
in the

very

stimulated

brain

in

could

not

they

could

be

the

will

form

in

are

those

animals

to

the

instinctive.

similar

to

tendrils

this

and
of

contact

are

in

even

other

that

of

sciousness
con-

which

capable

of

There

is

vegetables,

bodies, to cling

will

scientific

submitted

that the

creeping plantsbeing

particulardirection

be

some

voluntary,

are

nerves,

subjectsof

not

which

; for

(p. 258) taught

Blane

The

is to

man,

and

the

by

them

round

of

case

which

will.
of

power

motions

those

sensation

analogous

actions

this

of the

of

void

are

confounding them,
compatible with the want

of

destitute

constant

far from

so

and
are

the

which

respirationin

into

even

are

muscles,

no

voice.

convertible

cases

are

concur

ordinary exercise,but
by

the

thought, in

of

which

life,and

answered

principalend

thereby

There

the control

occasionallyunder

are

obeying

and

sensation

to

of

heart, in this respect,

necessary.

is necessary

action

deliberate

instruments

muscles

respiration,of

of

those

except

the

fatigue,and

to

of

exercise

the

of

matter

the

as

into

first instinctive

at

are

differ from

they

stimuli, such

internal

be

muscles

same

those

and

imperceptibly

was

to

come

independent

of instinct

run

what

that

so

afterwards

may

as

law

volition, nevertheless,

of

we

EXPRESSION.

to

"

(p.260).
and

thought

inquiry,because
experimentation.

BLANE

MARSHALL

"

337

HALL.

of different bodies in relation to each


properties
other appeared to him to be the only proper
subjects
of experimental reasoning. If, then, we
show
can
The

under

how,

the

of

action

various

forces, the

parts

thought act in relation


obtain some
to each other, we
knowledge as to
may
that
what
forces bring about
relationship,
although
of thought with
affirm the connection
cannot
we
the corresponding changes in the corporeal organs.
about
do
know
much
We
not
heat, light,and
electricity,
except as to their display in corporeal
subjects.
certain
Blane
then proceeds to describe
means
of expression of the emotions
by motor signs. He
that
be
drawn
considered
no
sharp line could
and
instinctive
between
voluntary actions; he
movements
to be
thought instinctive
comparable
with
in the tendrils
of plants.
movements
seen
Marshall
Hall
The
stances
said,
particular circumof the

brain

in

concerned

embraced
states

of the

the

cellular

in

are

surface,the

" Gl. The

observe
the

and

loss

trace

of

be

must

state

the

system,

some

general expression"

emaciation,

in

chronic
and

morbid

changes induced
cutaneous
circulation,

of

cellular

the

the

substance, the muscular

particularfeatures,and
"

of

examination

an

countenance

cuticular

the

in

"

so

important

diseases, depends

muscular

always distinguishedfrom

to
on

substance, and
mere

vascular

shrinking.
"

by

" 62.

The

diseases
*

"Tlie

muscular

attended

system
with

principallyaffected

pain,languor,or paralysis."

Principles of Diagnosis,"
16

is

vol. i. p. 31, par.

58.

338

PHYSICAL

"

" 64.

Of

EXPRESSION.

the

general expression of
to speak.
rarelyventure

I shall

the
It

tenance
coun-

affords

of information
in
important and essential source
" 50, and assists the experienced
Dispensary practice,
of the
disease
physician in discerning the nature
an

where
look
"

the
of

"

observer
superficial

121.

head, the

motions

the

intending

body, the

actions, and
125.

the

actions

of the

general

manner,

"

" 127.

usual

In

that

and

side, the

one

to

the

and

of

the
ticular
par-

hereafter."

undisturbed

frequentlyinclined rather
supine position; the head
somewhat

of
peculiarities

noticed

be

on

head, certain

characteristic

as

will

healthy

posture is

certain

occur

diseases,and

some

of the

movements

also

debility,
particular

of the patient"

manner

hand, and

under

postures and

muscular

motion,

general

Certain

the

of

rather

embrace,

to

of

state

contraction, and

in

attitude

term

consideration

the

of

power,

""

general

indisposition."

employ
comprehensive sense,
this

the

only

sees

prone

sleep,the
body being
than

shoulders

to the

are

rally
gene-

raised,and

togetherwith the thorax,


bent
generally forwards; the thighs and legs are
in a state of easy
The
flexion.
position is apt to be
changed from time to time, the person
lying on one
other side alternately."
or
forms
of Typhus Fever
the
" 133. In the severe
"

position of

the

supine,and

the

from

able

being
perhaps,the

lower

patient
actions
to

and

more

retain

patient falls

extremities

becomes

extended

the

and

his

more

tremulous

more

posture

upon

and

more

on

the

side,

back, with

sometimes

with

the
a

MARSHALL

and

hands

arms

are

at

length

there

this

state,

and
To

of

debility,any change
as
denoting a
omen,
of

out

bed,

movements

the

the
of

muscular

of

favourable

The

""140.

form

morbid

perhaps

on

nervous

system.

various
the

conclusion

Marshall
his

condition

and

movements

the
of

and

body

their
of

the

various

the

hand.
in

kind

body,

He

was

says

"Heat

in
Mode

brain

scribed
de-

and
of

tremor

notice

from

occurs

general

towards

modes

of

his
of

the

of

movements

the

the

position

of

in conditions

that

in

the

latter

symptom.

lectures

Motion,"

expression :

attitude, postures

described

often

of

appearance

sleep,in typhus fever, and

tremor

Tyndall

of

shall

debility,especially noting

condition

the

which

have

debility,and

of

nutrition, the

of

present chapter."

studied

patients and

the

head

of the
Hall

which

porting
sup-

indication

an

which

character,

and

causes,

is

covery.
re-

mark

certain

"

condition

There

spasmodic

more

capable of

is

muscular

on

of

disease."

tremor

depend

to

seems

These

symptoms

side

in the

of

arms

head.

strength,and

change

the

puts

or

first

the

The

strength.
his

patient

position on

returning

of

above

the

length

At

of flocci

favourable

of

is

knees,

the

among

are

tendinum.

superadded."
occasioned
by extreme

posture

places them

or

the

is

return

patient,perhaps,raises

tremor,

bed-clothes, or

the

position is

this

As

" 135.

and

subsnltus

coma,

or

effort

with

is constant

picking of

of the bed

bottom

moved

volitantes, delirium,
"

the

towards

to sink

tendency

339

HALL.

p.

"

501,

The
par.

matter
722.

of

340

PHYSICAL

bodies

our

is that

Are

air.

from

kind

in

different

animal

rocks, the

of

organic

those

of

the

constitutes

show
in

brain

of

it is

man,

impossible to

doubt, continue

of

which,

people
Still, though

most

science

may

beyond

her

the

reach

of the

distances

Given
or

the

ether,

we

nature
can

their

on

of
infer

which

and

will

future

appear

mutual

the

to

region

does

the

not

and

masses

infer

can

is

she

the

disturbance
from

side

of

men

Given

planets,we

consequent

taking

Problems

unlimited, there

osculate.

to

avoid

offspring of insanity.
and
development of

line with

the

would

now,

progress

"

and

body

consciousness

to

direct

to be

seem

tend

even

the

as

the

combinations

the

such.

ask

enunciated

if

is

it

daring questions,and

themselves

assuredly present
age,

to

tive
nega-

organic world,
the inorganic,that
of vitality.
miracle

of

glances at the phenomena


thought. Science has asked
will,no

that

material

formation

the

in

result

All

the

the

and

mystery

"(723.) In discussing the


which

then,

matter,

inorganic?
to
present day tends

belonging equally to

forces

and

water,

of

philosophy of the
to
the
question, and
directingand compounding,
the

is

is not

which

tissues

the

forces

the

There

inorganic nature.

from

derived

primarily
the

of
the

in

substance

no

EXPRESSION.

bations
pertur-

attractions.
in

water,

propertiesof

air,
the

In
all
particleswill be affected.
with
deal
this we
physical laws, and the mind
the
connects
runs
freely along the line which
But
when
we
phenomena from beginning to end.
to pass,
endeavour
by a similar process, from the
medium

how

its

of

region

problem

physics

transcending
we

powers

that

to

of

only beyond

not

thought,
present

our

conceivable

any

meet

we

think

may

but

powers,

the

of

expansion

We

possess.

now

341

TYNDALL.

PROFESSOR

the

over

lectual
subject again and again, but it eludes all intelpresentation. The origin of the material
is equally inscrutable.
universe
hausted
Thus, having ex-

science, and

mystery

it will

thus

man's

loom

ever

intellect

that
"

dreams

As

by

inquiiy

as

did

We

ages

such

are

our

in

not,

little life

1868, look

possibilityof

to the

an

of mentation

causes

hopefully
mental
experior

I think
produce mind.
of
methods
inquiry proposed in chap. xix.
analogous, not to say copied from, the modes

the

faculty of

to

physicists. It

the

by

brain

successive

sleep.'

the

to

the

with

deals

be

may

"Heat

entitled

work

of

bourne

"

Tyndall

forward

'

And

"

of, aiid

made

are

Is rounded

Professor

of

giving the poets

"

real

us.

the

beyond

ever

"

to declare

just occasion

around

still looms

existence

of

rim, the

its very

reached

obvious

maintained

Mode

of

that

Motion"

expressions

of

the
the
are

used

the

chiefly

heat

in

we
analogous to that in which
propose
to study mind,
by observing and
experimenting
with
the forces
To
trate
illusproducing "mentation."
taken
from
the
tents
"conthis, quotations are

manner

very

"

I.

of the

volume

Instruments

Expansion

IV.

of the

The

referred
II.

The

to

"

of

nature

Trevelyan

instrument

dynamical theory

VI.

heat

; V.

III.

plicatio
Ap-

Convection

342

PHYSICAL

of

heated

loss of

air; VII.

motion

dark

Conduction;

IX.

distance; X.
of

EXPRESSION.

Law

of

of

Absorption

solar

; XIV.

rays

VIII.

Cooling

diminution

heat;

Dew.

with

XIII.

the

Discovery

These

matters

are

concerning relations, time, quantity, visible mena,


phenoSuch
the proper
etc.
are
subjectsof scientific
study, and

tion
phenomena accompanying mentacapable of experimentation. I think, then,

are

Professor

that
work
as

such

Tyndall's remarks
the advisability
of

sustain

of brain

study

Darwin

Charles
infant

of

illustrative

the

his

work

whole

proposed

centres.

biographicalsketch of an
The
1877.
following extracts are
subject:
first
reflex
seven
days various
gave

Mind,

in

and

our

"

"During the
actions, namely

sneezing, hickuping, yawning,


stretching,and of course
sucking and
screaming,
infant.
On the seventh
well performed by my
were
a

his

time

that

jerked

it away,

much

his

curlingat

older

to

excited

impossibleto
have

come

warm

wish

reflex

or

believe

touch
into

of the

state

but

so

soft hand
suck.

an

instinctive

the

tary
volun-

early,it

to

action, for

of his mother's

breast

play. During

the

his
sidered
con-

it is

association

could

first

seat

seemed

be

must

experienceand

or

of the

applied

This

to

that

that

to

time, though

this

that

me

the

when

muscles

clear

with

child

the

the

due

At

as

with

movements

co-ordinating centres,
to

foot

perfectionof these reflex


the extreme
imperfectionof

of the will.

face

sole

toes, like

is not

ones

of the

of

naked

The

tickled.
shows

he

and

bit of paper,

same

the

touched

day,

so

soon

fortnighthe

344

PHYSICAL

of his

right arm
in his

left hand

make

to

him

week

doubt

When

all sorts

three

or

he

and

then
In

often

time

C.

in

movements

infantile

"

his

could

his

mouth,

this

two

skill ;

some

with

nose

in

the

object

into his mouth."


what

clearly see
as

capacity for

and

with

to

ance
importand

movements,

modes

of

development, especiallyas

system and

tendency

being left-handed.
ninety days old, he

do

attached
children

infant

or

his

it down

was

grandfather, mother,

been

descriptionwe
Darwin

this

Yet

it

I tried

hand

right

left-handed, the

first touched

dragged

this

be

take

not

although

the

left.

eighty and
objectsinto

of

weeks'

but

to

the

having

between

drew

of

would

later

that

so

he

week

inherited

brother

so

proved

being no
and

until

advance

afterwards

and

nurse,

do

in

EXPRESSION.

to

expression
the

to

of

nerve-

mentation.

Bibliography.
following works

The
or

contain

modes

interest

of

matter

referred
in

to

relation

Vinci

da

Leonardo

died

this

Painting" published 1651.


1644, Bulwer, John,
Chirologia, or

the

His

year.

on

"

Language

of the

1649, Bulwer,
of the

Mind,"

1667,

to

text,

"

"Treatise

of the

in the

expression:

of

1519,

are

Le

differents

Hand,"

the

Natural

etc.

John, "Pathomystomia,

Muscles
Significative

or

section
Dis-

of the Affections

etc.

Brun,

"

Caracteres

Conferences
des

sur

Passions."

1'Expressiondes

345

LITERATURE.

1747, Parsons,

authors

forty-one old

list of

Human

"

Illustrated.

explained."
a

M.D.,

James,

Physiognomy
author
gives

This
who

have

written

on

PhilosophicalTransactions.
1750, Mengs, Antony
Raphael, the works

Physiognomy.
translated

1796.
of

1775, Hartley, "Theory


Edited

Gregory, John,

of the

of the

the

Human

State

Faculties

and

World."

Animal

"A

M.D.,
of

Seventh

Comparative

Man,

1792, Camper, Pierre, Discours


diverses

1805, Moreau

(de

Hommes."

Moyen

de

Illustrated.

Sarthe).
"I/Art

de

les

connaitre

Illustrated.

1822, Siddons,
Gesture

and

M.

le

sur

Passions," etc."

G.,

Lavater,

1807,

la

those

Lecture.

"

representer les

with

edition.

1788, Elaine, Sir Gilbert, Croonian

by

Mind."

F.R.S.
by Joseph Priestley,

1777,
View

of,

'"

Henry,

Actions,"

from

member

of

Engel,

Practical

Illustrations

work

the

the

on

Royal

of

subject

Academy

of

Berlin.

Sartandiere, "Physiologie

appliquee aux
1844,
of

Bell,

1855,

Third

edition.

J.,M.D., "On

Spencer, Herbert,

1862, Duchenne,

musculaire

Charles, "Anatomy

Expression."

1853, Little,W.

1'Action

d'Imitation."

Arts
Sir

de

"

Mecanisme

and

Illustrated.

Deformities."

lustrated
Il-

of

chology.
Psy-

"Principles
de

la

Physionomie

humaine."

1865, Gratiolet, "De

la

sophy
Philo-

Physionomie."

346

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

John,

Tyndall,

1868,

et

New

describes

Tetany,

on

Syd.

Heat

"

Motion."

of

Mode

edition.

Third

Charles,

Darwin,

1872,

in

Emotions

1872,
Influence

1874,

Tuke,

Daniel

of

Mind

the

E.

de

manentes

la

J.,

"Illustrations

the

H.,

of

the

of

the

Body."
Mechanism."

Animal

"

"Des

Main."

Ferrier,

1876,

Expression
Illustrated.

Hack,
on

Meillet,

The

"

Animals."

and

Man

Marey,

1874,

the

Physionomie

hand."

convulsive

"

article

In

translation.

the

la

Medicine."

"Clinical

Trousseau,

1868,
Soc.

De

"

Parole."

la

de

Albert,

Lemoine,

1865,

Deformations

per-

Illustrated.

David,

"The

F.R.S.,

Functions

of

Brain."

1877,

Charcot,

Lectures

the
other

Roberts,

Charles,

1879,

Lindsay,

N.

1883,
Evolution

Romanes,
in

Animals."

"A

Lauder,

With

Animals."

in

Diseases

of

translation.

Paralysis

the
scribes
De-

agitans

"

Illustrated.

postures.

1878,

Lower

Soc.

Syd.

hand"

"writing

the

on

New

System."

Nervous

also

"

Manual

of

"Mind

M.D.,

pometry."
Anthro-

in

Bibliography.

George

John,

F.R.S.,

"Mental

the

XIX.

CHAPTER

METHODS

AND

APPARATUS
OF

RECORDS
AND

MOVEMENTS

BY

Movement

as

the

apparatus

emotion

"

THROUGHOUT

of

infant

an

of

counter

movements

mind

tambours
method

the

using

in exhaustion

by light

"

Retentivencss

Co-ordination

of

twitching

"

"

Apparatus

"

Inhibition

"

mentation
physical experi-

recording

to muscular

as

for

Potentiality

has

been

conviction

About

describe

have
modes

and

done

"

ment
Measure"

Signs

Athetosis

all the

outcome

endeavoured,

as

of

in

results

purposely,

that, of

is the

direct

essay

movements

movement

for

electrical

;
;

this

of

terms

my

TIGATED
INVES-

BE

movements

the

of

capable

record

to

Problems

possible,to

as

This

TO

Chorea.

"

far

is

gauntlet

differentiation

of
of

"

Movements

"

action

tambour

contact-making
the

of vital

motor

AND

METHODS.

Early attempts

"

described

THESE

result

PROBLEMS

ETC.,

LIMBS,

MOVEMENTS

SUCH

COMBINATIONS

GRAPHIC

THE

IN

ENUMERATING

THEIR

OBTAINING

FOR

or

for

expression

of

movements.

it has

results

result

long

of vital
most

been

action,
suitable

experimentation.
five

with

years

the

ago

object

of

commenced

producing

some
a

ments
experi-

mechanical

348

PHYSICAL

method

EXPBESSION.

of

At
first I fixed
recording movements.
writing points to the tips of the fingers,making
them
touch
This
surface.
a
travelling sensitive
was

of

arrangements
parts

tambours

the

M.

Marey, and
At length it
might be used
it free to

Various

plan.

attached

tried, after

were

The

inefficient

and

clumsy

the

moving
employed by

to

methods

in his work.

described
occurred

to

attached

that

me

the

to

arrangement

an

hand,

but

leaving

move.

following

published
Medical
Journal, September 22, 1883
apparatus * employed consists of

British
The

account

was

in

the

"

"

1. A

"motor"

to the

hand,

made

of india-rubber

tube

to each

one

attached

to be

finger,or moving

part

these, pieces of

(Fig. 46, A, B, C, etc.). From


conducting-tube (a, b, c) carry

air

to

thin

of

set

cording
re-

tambours.
2. A
and

supporting the recording tambours,


signals(Fig.49).

frame

electrical
3. A

"

new

is

It

(Fig. 50).

electrical

adapted

to

contact-making

modification
the

of the
of

purpose

"

tambour

Marey

bour
tam-

actuating

an

electrical counter.
4. An

electrical counter

Now,
the

is

the

Towards
British

Scientific

the

to

In

of each
the

piece

motor

of

which

(Fig. 46), the principleemployed


When

:
"

of

this

Association

Committee.

details

uses.

hand

expenses

Medical

Grants

its

follows

as

the

further

and

apparatus

is attached

the

to

as

(Fig. 51).

cylindrical

apparatus,
oil

the

grant

recommendation

was

tube

made
of

by
the

closed
its
out

at

end

one

capacity
of

is

it and

driven
The
moved

of

the

recording
of

of

attached

motor

the

the

central

needle

46."

to

needle

finger

therefore
the

into

by

Fig.

the

bent, flattened,or

lessened, and

it is connected.
is thus

is

349

GAUNTLET.

MOTOR

and

Motor

air is

tambour
of

the

the

bending

pressed

with

which

recording
of the

bour
tam-

tube

of

Gauntlet.

the

finger;

the

corresponds
the

nerve-mechanism

compressed,

to

activity of
which

movement

the
that
moves

ment
move-

part
the

350

finger.

PHYSICAL

These

red rubber

by

tubes

in

are

47."

Motor

external

tube, X, is pointed and

for

moulded

Warne

Messrs.

Fig.

millimetres

EXPEESSION.

Gauntlet

Co.

and

on

in

me

they

are

soft

7f

Hand.

diameter;

pierced,the

one

other

end

of the

end, Y, is

352

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

the

movements.

means

"

The

"

of

Marey's tambour,

which

fixed, to

holes

having

Fig.

49.

"

Frame

arbor, b, has

in

e, and

end,

the

india-rubber

main

three

smaller

them

to

supporting

one

other

electrical

The

signals give
of marking time, indicatingevents, etc.
is reelectrical contact-making tambour
presented
the
in Fig. 50.
Across
ordinary shell

various

the

take

two

wires,/, g, with

and

nearly

touch

by

and

small

short

tambour.

of ebonite

is fixed

platinum ends,
the

beam

d,

e.

a,

which
Each

is

screwed,
One

electrical

the

of

a,

arbors.

two

e, with

is connected

arbor, C, a block

are

ones

recording tambours,

beam, d,
head

bracket,

signals.

weight
link

To
to

at

with
the

insulate
lie under
of

these

CONTACT-MAKING

wires
of

is connected

thin

inserted

between

resist

to

d,

copper

has

the

ends

the

motion

platinum

platinum

terminals

with

wire.

ebonite

of

h and

light bent
block

the

soldered

of the

353

TAMBOUR.

wires

on
are

by a coil
blade-springis

and

arbor
the
to

C.

the

bracket,

The

beam

part where

the

touch.

ter-

354

PHYSICAL

minal, k, is fixed

EXPRESSION.

the

to

bracket.

main

Increase

of

end
raises one
of
air-pressurein the tambour
the beam, e, and depresses the other, d, which
thus
in contact
with
its insulated
wire /, comcomes
pleting
circuit through the terminal
i ; diminished
a
in the oppoto move
air-pressureallows the beam
site

direction, completing
terminal
The

89,

51.

Electrical

"

Bolsover

(Fig. 51)
of which

attached, oppositean

of

electrical
a

Leclanche'

of

small

by

me

Mr.

The

of

W.

clock,

to

electrical
the

piece of soft iron,


electro-magnet,d. In use

counting the movements


tube
(Fig. 50, I) from
the

the

Counter.

Street, W.

consists
a

for

made

are

Fig.

counter

through

h.
instruments

Groves,

circuit

dulum
penc, is

for

finger,the conducting
the finger is attached
to
One
contact-making tambour.
pole
battery of four cells is connected
a

METHOD

with

k,

while

OF

and

ENUMERATING

wire

Each

battery.

escapement

the

hands

of

the

If

of

in

times

to

of

the

"

of

of

Let

the

tooth, and
of

are

there

such

of

each

has
finger-flexion

by

digits;

each

of

five

digits

be

called

A,

nations
combi-

ABODE,

AB,

following method,
counters, how

thirty-two

on

the

binations
possible com-

digits

the

flexor

five

the

factors, viz.

Now,

possibleto show,
times

the

may

thirty-two possible

five

etc.

times

thirty-two

we

only

are

of

are

these

ABODE,

There

flexion

Let

cidences
(coin-

made,

consider

many

of

number

movements

been

us

how

flexion.

B, 0, D, E;
of

have

count

There

many

allows

by figuresthe

fingers.

possible combinations

it is

thus

fingerportion of the
finger-flexion

the

special

movement)

required to

ABC,

of

number

with

record

certain

follows

as

occurs.

the

the

pole

one

pass

of times

connected

that

movements

it is

to

Fig. 51,

activity.

of

proceed

finger

dial

number

desired

it be

the

in

other

the

clock

on

nerve-mechanism
been

the

of

the

indicate

flexions,and
has

with

flexion

the

i with

connects

is connected

355

MOVEMENTS.

possible combinations
in a given length
occurred
these

of time.

Say
how

it is desired

together.
At

are

The

to be

the

actuated

these
counter

every

counter

digitsA and B
conducting tubes from
each

connected

indicated

as

in

the

time

with

in

Fig. 50,

circuit, that
that

electrical

the

then, by making
between

the

times

many

make

to

the

enumerate

have

flexed

the

fingers

bour;
contact-tamconnection
and

ing
includwill

counter

fingers A,

be

bend

356

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

together,and

to make

endeavouring
and

simpler;

numerous

is

recording

the

of

to the

In

each

hand

suppose

full

electrical

being

as

arisen,but

the

for the

how

to the

to work

inquiries.

at them.

we
simplicity,

and

movements,

nerve-

problems,

such

out

of

sake

for

head, arid

eyes,

propositionsand
to follow

will

account

arranged

are

the

been

complete

more

completed. As
investigatingthe

problems, and
case,

I have

not

of

have

obtaining results

delay have

of

I propose

how

As

of

are

means

centres, I will state


say

results

mechanism,

completed

they

this

and

replacingall

am

movements

fontanelle,but

occurred.

year

Experiments

published.

and

this

has

apparatus

causes

whole

the

when

the

of
last

pneumatic

by

apparatus

uses

the

serviceable.

more

be

labour

great. During

is very

used,

been

the

but

obtained,

been

has

apparatus

times

many

of movements

specialcombination
This

how

will enumerate

the

will

nerve-centres

causing them, to be the subjectsof inquiry.


times
(1) In exhaustion, finger twitching is someHere
the
an
expression of the condition.
time,

fingertwitchings in

of

number

finger has

moved,

while

the

external

enumerations

the

during

and

half

also

combination

any

The
say

be

may

counted;

frequency with

the

enumerate

which

hour,

one

say

subject is
an

hour

of

which

alone

while

we

each

frequency
fingers twitched

taken
and

he

may

of

can

separate

the

circumstances
are

given period

with
gether.
to-

be varied

for half

an

hour

unoccupied, then
is engaged in con-

357

PROBLEMS.

versation.

of

centres
excite

smaller

The

(2)
in

infant

an

and

the

of those

of

object,or
on

The

the

hearing

of

the

of movement

of

joints; (6)

if

show

of

interdifferentiation
; that

without

move

is,the
the

(5) Retentiveness,
is best
same

similar

stimulus

movements,

all

the

joints

compared
the

vice

frequency
with

small

frequency

will
with

the

be

which

versa,

of

strated
demon-

fingers

etc.

impressionability,
If
graphic method.

permanent

or

demonstrated

or

tracing (see

relative

frequency

an

signal.

enumerating

the

of

spontaneous

by

movements

elbow,

sight

the

taken,

be

the

over

as

combinations

electrical

and

large parts

larly
particu-

easily indicated

an

is shown

(a)

tracings

is

lightupon

extremity,
will

of

of

tubes

motor

upper

movements,

the

of

infant

an

Fig. 9, p. 101).
(4) Applying
of

action

the

objects

by taking tracings

time

sound,

inhibitory action

movements

best

of

and

nerve-centres,

The

tracing by

sound

producing special

movements.

by

records.

will be shown

of movements,

demonstrated

sight and

of the
in

effect

alone

experiment

similarly

by graphic

action

the

upon

in

occur

spontaneous finger movements

effects of the

The

(3)

to

the

points.

be

may

enumeration

them

cause

may

of

may

separate discharges of

these

amount

nerve-

Conversation

combinations;

demonstrate

can

the

upon

man.

the

information

some

conversation

and

nerve-centres,
or

obtain

exhausted

an

inhibit

or

larger

thus

can

effect of

the

to

as

We

by

the

different

on
we

may

occasions
conclude

produces
that

the

358

changeful.
(6) Special
be

may

graphic
be

best

of

combinations

by

demonstrated
A

series

demonstrated

by

method.

think

that

Thus,

brain

conditions

may

much

with

as

body,

which

some

accuracy
is

be
as

of

very

the

as

emotions,

or

enumeration

the

by

or

would

movements

graphic method.
of the signs of general
recorded
by numbers,
the

the

temperature

sign of fever,and

one

not

movements,

conditions

brain

of certain

outcome

is

retentive, and

is

nerve-mechanism

by

EXPRESSION.

PHYSICAL

of

the

be recorded

can

the thermometer.

show
its
(7) All those signs in an infant which
capacity for the development of mind, in as far
is expressed in
mind
movements,
as
might be
in terms
of lines,
recorded
by the graphic method
in figurescorresponding to isolated
and enumerated
and

movements

repeating
may

examinations

the

external

various

under

be

evolution
the

At

of mind.
observe

in

obtained,

indicatingthe

of

combinations

same

different

at

and

ages

circumstances, expressions
of

terms

lines

and

figures,

physical indications

of the

time, it

be

would

to

easy

circumstances

effects of external

the

By

movements.

upon

this evolution.

co-ordination

question is to find .out


interesting
is brought about.
of movements

co-ordinated

movement

(8) A

series

movements.

by
is

very

of

combinations
A

series

is
of

of movements

and

single

be recorded

can

of each
the

movements,

movements,

graphic method
; the time
indicated
by the tracing,and
the

of

series

how

movement

time

of

the

360

PHYSICAL

know

recognize

or

the

orange,

The

EXPRESSION.

and

"

counting

period

of time

shown

the

in

will

the

of

child, with
on

get
of

show
show

to

the

and

of

time

tween
be-

co-ordination

vary

useless

of

that

these

frequency of
together

may
very

with

say
few

the

by

unison

external

with,

of

child, owing

that

our

combinations

the

wise
Other-

high degree

combinations
fact

on

frequency.

that

and

the}'

so

results

certain

high degree

expressed, we

excited

give

that

showing
with

of movements

Such

brain, would

in

seen

are

stimuli, and

external

individual.

the

to

and

monotonous

in

not

idiot

an

(see chap. vi.).

not

are

special

combinations,

few

movements

are

the

with

of

combinations

they

mean

movements

athetosis

be

birth,

at

results.

very

healthy

experiment

defective

was

on

the

again, in

Such

termed

defective

only,occur

observations

over

directly, and

enumerators

of

interval

repetition of
and

useless, I

its

been

often

the

different

succession.

stimuli

are

has

tion;
increasing co-ordina-

spontaneous

in the

condition

not

infant

that

the

brain

very

the

By saying

do

the

making

occurring over

are

certain

higher figure during

whose

one

consists

the

of

healthy brain,

may

useless

enumeration

ments
move-

resulting.

instead

feature

the

stimulation

movements

we

of

which

tracings will

made

co-ordination

orange.

Enumeration

If

it remembers

of

power

expressed by

movements

that

orange,

it is.

so

growing
is

the

these

of

ments,
move-

combina-

STUDY

tions

the

the

chorea

studing

possible
in

show

to

movements

is

increase

causes

in

in

movement

have

been

the

due

the

to

of the
I
that

there

is

conditions
of

limbs

that

trust

in

of observation

what

as

brain
-

mental

in

this

said,

development,
moral

17

evolution

senile
and
those

and
the

been

ments
move-

the
are

such

as

are

is

of the

results

capable

but,

work,

necessary

necessary
child.

brain

I cannot

inquiry.

undertaken

forces

shown

describe

signs

from

was

such

Tracings

health

and

these

as

has

to

movements

what

determine

and

trying

come

it

sit

circumstances

etc. ;

it

experimental
may

her

athetosis,

chapter

of

making

pulsation.

for

terms

to

in

infant,

the

talking

sternum

an

to

reason

results

to

due

and

previously

desire

of

ment
move-

ankle-clonus;

of

inasmuch

movements,

tell

the

what

of

investigated.

movements

sucking

smaller

show

to

these

as

showing
of

of

each

others

amount

darkness,

be

can

taken

chorea;

the

cases

some

several

possible

far

as

movements

tremor;

of

been

another

one

; in

effects
in

etc., in

bed,

affect

in

the

her

patient, keeping
up

been

diminish

or

limb;

from

movements

compounded

has

it

Again,

it has

methods,

singularly simple, in

are

movement

ones.

the

of

of

defect.

differ

cases

action

the

by

brain

these

by

that

character

gross

the

stimuli, indicate

external
In

readily changeable

not

are

361

CHOREA.

OF

with

the
to

to

aid

the

INDEX.

Artistic

composition,

expression
of

Absence

movements

touch,

expressive,

Aspect
as

series

of

its
of

nerve-mechanism,

of

fear,
of

33

expression

Actor

stage,

on

Afferent

of, 233

described,

Analogy

ears,

of

face,

of

movement,

83

between

Athetosis,

chorea

and

series

78

208

of

trophic

attracted,
of

of

expression,

255,

59,

249,

and
a

278

actions,
of

78

200

face,

Attributes
kinetic

action,

274

127

Attention

Analysis

upon

111

plants,

between

depends

ments
move-

of
in

of

of

37,

mind

Asymmetry

40

42
Amoeba

cause

206

that

structure,

eliciting expression,

force

16

Assumption

Activity,

84

indicates

headache,

45

trophic,

anxiety

ments,
move-

70

kinetic,

152

227,

Ascidian,
described

317

postures,

293

263
Action

313,

by

function

as

257

251

267

property,

of

modes

pression,
ex-

277
of

75

movements,

Anatomical

of

analysis

movements,
B

79

principle
description
Anatomy

of

of

the

Anger,

head

Antithesis,

lose

corps,

319

not

teach

wings,

its

39

of,

reflex

Bee,

51

action,

317

faces,

38

237

by

represented

ness,
weak-

Sir
;

of,

Charles,
joy,

of

on

to

313

flower

from

to

62

permanent
289

be

movements

Gladiator,

74

movements,

physiology,

36

flame,

314

Bell,
197

sensitive

manhood,

at

of,
to

every

referred

50

anger,
the

314

313,

flower,

productions,

average
may

Beauty,

51

by

on
on

growth

emotion

325

their

for

of,

F.,

its

Beautiful

expression

Apparatus

Art,

on,

W.

17

51

indicated

principle

Bulwer,

Anxiety,

Army

is

50

49

movement,

Ants

of,

Professor,

Barrett,

Beard,

155

Bain

description,
force

by

183

extremity,

description,

Antecedent

75

movements,

upper

Siddons'

Bain,

75

movement,

expression
Bell's

to

of,

of

of

description
258

of

anger,

Dying

the

303

form

expression,

258

52,

laughter,

of
182

head

in

on

contrast

the

364.

INDEX.

Bibliography, 344
Biography of an infant, 342
Biology capable of advancement
mathematical

Blane,

Sir

Coincident
151

by

281

processes,

affected

areas

disease

in

169

of

means

contrasted

Coloured

evolution

of, in child,283
of monkey,
experiments on, 86
to mentation,
properties necessary
242

eyes,

art, 281

on

form,

with

headaches,

38

317

of

sequences

121

action,

279
of

321

70

movements,

Combined

Bain

movements,

series

ments,
move-

179

expression, 27,

and

Comparison
on

and

with

vision

Combinations

Bulwer, John,

of head

differentiation,
77,
Colour

chorea, 115
produce special postures,

may

deviation

105

Blindness, congenital,274
Body, proportions of, 278
Brain,

similar

Collateral

Gilbert, 332

development of postures,
and hand, 151, 188
development, 273

; of head

of

of

of

kinetic

actions, 277,
idiot and

an

an

on,

and

235

trophic

281

intelligent
man,

Complacency, Camper's descriptionof


facial

expression, 306
of figure-drawings,

Composition
Cain,
Camper,

statue

"

of,301,

Compound

331

his value

of

Conflict

ing,
metaphysical reason-

of

coincident

defective

its

ment,
develop-

expression from

of

face,

brain

disease,

208
Cast
Cave

lose

physical indications

of physical phenocause
mena,
189, 226
Contempt, expression of, described by
307
in two

subjects produces
proportions of growth, 286 ;

similar

and
;

Convulsive

hand

postures,
Character, judgment of, 15

Co-ordinated

Chorea, 110, 115,

Co-ordination

Child

143

its

301

of eyes,

by

external
destruction

forces, 286
of, 105 ;

of, 106

Criteria of life,12
of

parents, 285

Criterion

irritable,2oO

mind, 28,
of

252

property, 12
Crystals, growth of, in process

117
in

156

71

movements,

irritation

20
impressionability,

nervous,
Circumnutation

movements,

described,

Corpus striatum,

study of a, 284
Children
growing like

of

227

k/82

play,

at

series

286

in stomach.

39
of

man,

the

similar

facial

in

262

Co-nutrition

sight,101

palsy, 107
localization,108
Change of function, 38, 39

expressing

213

Camper,

21

animals

Cerebral

226,

not

133
of

112

in face

Congenital blindness,274
Consciousness, 225

expression of joy, 307


to feel joy, 42
of athetosis, 127

Capacity
Cases

movements,

of muscles

emotion,

305
on

313-

317

319

plants,26,

40,

280

of

pair,
re-

41

City life,62
Classification
of

of movements,
79
spontaneous postures, 151

Cleft-palate,136, 275
Chlorophyll, significance
of, 22
Coincidence
few

members

Coincident
273

of

action
or

of

many
units, 284

development

of

Dance,
or

of

parts, 42,

movements

of, 80

Darwin, C., biography

of

an

infant,

342

descriptionof laughter,257
on

snarling, 15

305

INDEX.

Darwin, C.,
Deaf

on

of

stamping

rats, 54

in art, 314
Deformity to be avoided
Delayed expression, 250
effect on face, 201
Depressing news,
of a series
Description by means
kinetic
or
trophic actions, 278
in anatomical

"

fold

of

abnormal,

eye,

Epilepsy, study of, 110


of vegetal growth
Epinasty, a mode

Defiance, 293

"

Epicanthic
137, 273

274

mutes,

39

of

Evolution

of child's

Excitation

178

terms,

Equal proportional growth,


Equilibrium of posture, 58
of

271

brain, 283

weak

(a

nerve-centres

principle), 179
229
280
Exhaustion, signs of, in man,
movement
248
of growth and
pared,
commethod,
Experimental
281
hand,
Explanation of the nervous
of the growth of a frog, 281
Expression by a series of movements
and
trophic actions, 279
Despair, 309
of
mode
expression,
by
change of function, 38
a
Development,
by colour, 27, 38
35
indicated
ment,
by form, 27
by growth and move39, 48
by movement,
71, 278
of an
infant, 247
by results of movement, 53
by sound, 38
Developmental defects, 133
by temperature, 27
of, 143, 298
Diana, statue
described
by Camper, 305
Diathesis, 275
of

seed, 279

germinating

lyzed,
ana-

167

"

"

"

living

between

Difference

things,

and

living
non-

268

ovule,
Direct
expression by postures, 148
denned, 20
Disease, expression of, to be avoided
Differentiation

by

empirical, 21
free and
mobile,
in the
of
of

figures,190

of modern

eye,

study,

Gladiator,
Dying
criticism,303

of

their

282
kinetic

and

regulatetrophic
series, 282

273

countenance,

11

forces, importance

rotundifolia,152

Drosera

43

defined,

term

External

wrist, 168

182

217

feeling, 292
the emotions,

the

artists, 294

Drawing
Drooping
Dull

23

of

direct, 20

145

Sir

C. Bell's

of the

Evolution

resulting

brain, 283
the

from

environment,

285

Eyeball distinguished from

the

lids,
eye-

214

217
nearly expressionless,

Eyelids, 217
of, 274
deformity of, 134, 137
Education, defects of, 313
Emaciation, 275
evidenced
Emotion
by postures,
expression of, 43
of the beautiful, 237
Emotions,
how

to

coma,

importance, 282,

285

condition

express

of

224

the

mind,

221

Eyes, applicationof principleof


and large parts, 224

small

attracted, 144

Empirical expression
Energetic hand, 164
speaker, his postures, 143
Environment,

and

227

intellectualityof, 222,

149

defined, 21

external

on,

sleep,

during

Eye-movements

312
movement,
be studied, 226

or

Gowers

Dr.

223

234

excite

of,

movements

Ears, asymmetry

force, its

and

attracted

attraction
under

visual

engaged,
free

or

repelled,220

repulsion
stimulus, 222
and

222

disengaged, 222

of,

366

INDEX.

horizontal

Eyes,

with

compared
lateral

218

; in

lost

vertical,223
of, 219

the

movements

of,

movements

of associated

loss

of, 222

movements

light in

of

want

cave-

Fist, clenched,

101

living animals,

Flexion

train, 220
movements
of, 222

of, in

movements

spontaneous

with

vertical

the

Formula

of

compared

movements

upward

their

to

as

giving

units,2n,

an

number

given

mechanism

of

under

Function

in two
and

69
120

subjects compared

as

quantity, 209

gravity on, 147, 202

of

action

"

of

70

of movements,
the eye,

Fullness

to time

193

mind,

of

disengaged parts,144, 315

or

Frequency

of the

the brains

of head, 184
possible number

Professor, on
voice,54

Free,

Face,

the

lectuality,
intelFoster,

219

index

on

57

extension

and

of combinations

infant, 220

action, 292
Ferrier's experiments
animals, 90

Figure-drawing, 317
Finger-twitching, 125, 229

sleep, 227
from

nerve-muscular

Feeling expressed by

of, 194
asymmetrical, 200
athetosis of, 208
defined, 194
dull or bright, 198
engaged, and not free
emotion, 207
fatness
of, 274
how
to examine, 196
anatomy

in

fatigue,229

in

headache,

intellectual

229

of

weakness
198

seen

fatigue,

in

; in

of, 195

case

of

211

usually free, 144


of idiots, 198, 204

expression :

mental

of

disease,

signs

202

ing,
suffer-

suffering,200

197 ; of bodily
of fatigue, 205

paralysis,

from

brain

107
of

of

with

denned, 196
Fat, absorption of, in face, 198
Fatigue expressed in the face, 105
signs of, 58, 228
274; regular,
handsome,
Features,
zones

of

Feeble

face, 141,

hand,

unison, 74
nerve-centres,

pink

197

flowers

of feeble

seed, 279
function, 39
change
Good
277
growth,
proportional
Graphic method, 348
Gravity, action of, on face, 147
on
living beings, 146
effect in producing postures, 146
of, on head, 147, 188, 192
their

Greek

vases,

299

Gregory's works,

327

Grinning, 203
Growth, 32
series

of

trophic actions,279

indicates

life,33
is a material
change, 33
of body, 41
results from
nutrition, 33

Hair, colour
grey,

158

in

nerve-centres, 180

274

Fear, 253

ments,
move-

of

Germination

previous nerve-muscular

action, 199

of the

of

constitution, 22

194

nerves,

Geranium

nutrition

Facial

excitement

General

vulgar,

disease, 208,
of, 198

brain

series

working

of slaves

Gang

analyzing, 196

movements

reeling, 293
293
spiritless,

to express

Glands

method

is

walking
72

205

Faces

in

179

and

long, 201,

Gait

119
or

its muscles

oil

of, 42

41

face, 39

368

INDEX.

in science

Materialistic views

sary,
neces-

240
"

Kind,"

attribute

an

as

of

property,

2n8

Kinds

in

movements

of

property,

Kinetic

of

of

infant,248

an

in

described

terms

and

246

indicated

Mengs,

Antony Raphael,

Langdon

Mentation, the
Metaphysical

of, 295
defined, 5

Camper's

Large

of,304

children, 278

in

heads

of

deviation

Lateral

and

head

demonstrating

105

hemiplegia,

Life,signs of,

the

than

movement

Mobile

by

expression, 183
Modern
pictures, 316
Modes
of expression, 12
Molecular
motion, probably

Movement
eye, 96
48
attracts
of,
attention,
a

produces permanent

impressions,

stimulates
Localization

Locomotion,

head

rotation,98

action

of, 101

in the

brain, 108

39,

in

indicated

art

by

postures,

152

73

indicates
in

face, 201
Ludicrous
idea, 53
of

expression,

capable
graphic method, 67
complex in the adult, 61
with
correctable
force,49

Long

Lungs

cause

physical action,48
measurement
by

visible and
of

ataxy, gait of,72

Locomotor

of

mode

the

99

the

development, 67
Motion, physical investigationof, 6
of coincident

99

trophic

experiments

is it ? 252

what

right,126

12

on

mind,

to

infant, criteria of, 244


physical study of, 28, 241

non-understandable, 12
Light,action of, on brain, indicated
reflex action, 98-100
on
vegetation, 103
inhibitoryaction, 100
its action

action, 168

113
upon,
in the
Mind

of nature, 8
Leaves, ill developed, 274
weaker

posture to be

physical inquiry as

of

Microcephalic idiot,274
Mimosa
pudica, 24;

Laws

hand

241

Laughing humour, 16
Laughter, Bell's description,53
Darwin's
description,257

Left

of

in

eyes

sidered
con-

of

nerve-muscular

Larynx, changes occurring in, 39

not

abstractions

work, 67, 226


of analyzing a face, 196
biological description,281

Method
criticism

term

in this

idiots' faces,

198

"Laocoon."

painting,

on

of,197
anxiety, expression
states,expression

digging, 144
Down, Dr., on

246

by movements,

310
Mental

Labourer

43

movement,

postures, 141

Memory,
"

277

body,

and

reflex

eyelids, 217, 223

of the

quantity,8
action,45

of time

Mechanism

2G8

of movement,
of

of head

Measurement

one

force,49

antecedent

subject,

58 ; in

two

or

68

foetus,39

more,
in the

is

body

change

of posture,

142
its time

change of function, 39
Magnet shows
Man, study of, 294, 295
Manhood, signs of, 38
Marasmus, 276
Marey, M., on walking, 73
Hall's
Marshall
works, 537

quantity,68

and

kinds

of,268
lessened
by

bad

feeding

or

ness,
ill-

231

of,48
notable
observers,49
by
of an aggregation of members,
of the
whole
subject or of
74
parts,
manner

or

kind
two

74
its

3C9

INDEX.

subsidence

Movement,

of, 58

Nutrition,its signs,23,

Movements,

analysis of, 75
classified according to attributes,
of production,
; according to mode

67

its total

function, 283
of vegetable ovule,
produces
trophic
functions, 283

of, 68

co-ordinated, 71
described

and

growth

anatomical

in

trophic and

kinetic

67

combinations

231

in

outcome

the

terms,

23
kinetic

and

283

movement,

defined, 22

term

75
in
Bain

aggregation

in

or

succession,

236

on,

in

children, 244
inco-ordinated, 71
in plants, 21, 114
in regular series,80

Objective, or physical facts, 12


Observation
of

movements

non-intelligent,

intelligentand
a

of

an

of

bee

flower

from

actor

hand

to

in anger,
described

flower, 62

36, 40
in

Orbicular

postures, 281
said

"

of eye in sleep,227;
headache, 120, 206
a
subject always expressive,

of

of

function

any

expression,

an

38

OxaliS)

100, 247

its

pulvinus,

25

corniculata,imperfect pulvinus,
or

in

considered

more

tion
rela-

26

time, 68

to

Musical

146

14

"

two

in

Outcome

proceed from feelings,80


reflex, voluntary,
spontaneous,
60, 67
stimulated
by external
forces,

tology
his-

muscles

relaxed

to

as

outcomings,

and

Organic postures,

of

terms

well

ingoings

on

structure, 6

as

wanted,

79
of

material

on

box

child's

attracts

attention,

20

Music, soothing effect of, 233


born
Mutes
deaf, 274

defined

Pace

as

series of

movements,

73

James,

Sir

Paget,
N

253

Pain, 236,
of

modes

National

head

by

tion,
rota-

Nerve-centre, 91,
Nerve-mechanism

"

of

Ascidians,

of reflex

36

action,

85

express

study of,

feeling, 292
to Art,

necessary

plant

Phonograph,

Nerve-system,

its

shows

face, 194

its

importance,

mind,

"

of

Nutrition, an expression
expressed by movement,
expression of, 230

life,33
59

be

indicated

by reflex

action

mechanical

sary
neces-

19
localized

pressionabi
im-

19
forces

Physical

children, 117
hand, 163, 297, 299
Sir Isaac, 327
Newton,

232

darkness,

working,
permanent

Nervous

in

33
impressionability,

to

to

grown

opposed to evolution, 33
Phlegmatic temperament, 276

294

Nerve-supply

movement

oyale,275

may
action, 33

Art, 107

may

Pea

Permanent

83

movement,

Nerve-muscular
in

vertebrates, 84

of

cause

children, 117

foramen

Patent

168

expression,17

or

Passionate

192

of

itself

not

expression, 266

expressed

Negation,

repair of crystals,

on

40

"

"

"

aid

development

of

pain, 200
capable of analysis,3
phenomena
hidden
properties,4
signs of
240
of
mind,
signs

370

INDEX.

Physiognomy,

Principles of physiologicalanalysis,

signs unsatisfactory, 2

its
of

scrofula,

77

275

Problems

Physiological principlesof

analysis,

useful

study
Pink

to

art, 294

of feeble

geranium

constitution,

Proportional growth,
development

of, 285

of

cast

Playfulness,

head,

Proportion
41,

21

270

sign

nutrition,

of

height, weight,

of

278,

74

age,

279

Proportions of

249

procession,its significance,

Political

external

232

movements
of, 26
unicellular, 23
Plaster

by

forces, 44

76

Plants, growth

ment,
move-

69

Properties demonstrated

77

of

to coincidences

as

body, 107,

human

the

311

Prostration

of the

55

body,

Pulse-tracing,14

Pope's description of Achilles,


Porcupines, noise made
by, 55
Postulate

as

to

causes,
Posture, term
Postures

Pulvinus, 25
Pupil, 119, 215

168

nerve-centres,

physical phenomena

260

due

to

in emotional

cal
physi-

in

Puppy,

defined, 57,
of

means

140

describing

states,221
sleep, 227
its development
described
of

terms

growth

and

movement,

in
71

ments,
move-

281

of, 151
of description, 162
difficult}7to
due
brain
disease, 1G9
reflex action, 148

classification

fallacies
in

to

Quantity

concerning, 149

animals,

attribute

an

of

growth,

of

movement,

152

Quiet

in art, 152

as

of

property,

268

frame

of

269
68

mind,

plants, 152
organic, 146

201

in

the

result

of

last

movements,

voluntarj', 150
Potentiality for mind, 242
Pottery presents ancient
ing,
figure-draw'299
Primitive
on,

stamping, 54
of a seedling,
tation, 280

Rabbits

57

combined

movements,

Bain

235

Primary meristem, 23
Principle as to small and large parts
76 ; applied to
(interdifferentiation),
head, 189 ; applied to eyes, 224
contrasting large parts and
small

parts
76

as

to

posture

or

Radicle

Rate

of

Records

68, 69

movements,
of

capable

movement

analysis, 49
Reflected
action, 36
Reflex
action, 92 ;
244 ; acquired, 36
a

its circumnu-

mode

of

of

congenital, 36,
expression, 35,

36
at

birth, 244

movements,

ment,
move-

mechanism

of, 36,

83

collateral
parts (collateral
postures, 148
Relation
of the
outcome
to afferent
differentiation),77
of antithesis,181
stimulus, 37
of nerveof nutrition,232
of general excitement
Rest, a condition
expression of, 232
centres, 179
posture of hand, 159
Principles of anatysis and composition
of movements,
Result
54
(artistic),
109, 317
75
of movements,
Retentiveness, 22
in brain, 234
of postures, 178

371

INDEX.

Retenliveness

reflex
indicated
by
actions, 234
in infant, 246
34
not
necessarily permanent,
to light, as in nerve-mechanism,

Spiritlessgait, 293
and
Spontaneous

of

plant,

Rules

its mode

of head,

for

of

expression,

256

55

Study

Seed, growth of, 279


Sensitive
flame, 17
in brain, 91
centres
Sensory
of
276 ; determined
action,
Sequences
forces, 282, 284 ; not
by external
determinable
by calculation,70
Series of kinetic
actions, 276
276
of movements,
and trophic actions, 279

signs

as
or

of

evolution,

283
276

of movements,

succession

of, 279

example
55
Shaking the mane,
by
Shame, indicated

head

drooping,

65

of

child, 284

of

of

man,
man's

of

nervous

294

face, 199
subject,

261

Subject displaying a function, 280


studied
Subjective conditions
by their
expression, 253
Subsidence
of
59, 61;
movement,
in sleep,fatigue,and when
attention
is attracted, 58
Subsultus
tendinum, 167
Summary,
chap, ii.,11 ; chap. Hi., 31 ;
chap, iv., 61 ; chap, v., 80 ; chap,
viii.,152 ; chap, x., 191 ; chap, xvi.,
286

293

Shuttleworth, Dr..

of

heads

on

idiots, Surprise, expression of, Camper

on,

307

191

Siddons, H.,

on

of

expression

anger,

Similar

Symmetry

of

movement,

77 ; its

nificance,
sig-

78

,52
Sight
Signs
on

sleep,58,

immediate, 101
Stomach, changes in its secretion,39
Stooping attitude, 293
Straight hand, 160

275

Secondary movements,

infancy, 59,

postures, 148
Stages of growth, 28
Statue, expression of, 36
Stimuli, extrinsic,101
mediate, 101

inspection, 2G2

School

in

; lost in illness,59
in deep
subside

26

growth,

105, 184, 185, 187

analysis

Sanguine type,

of

ments,
move-

children, 29

59

movements,
244

Rotation

in

movement

100
Root

voluntary

60

of

due

toy, its effects, 15


to

an

growth

force, 14

afferent
due

to

an

of postures, 179

Synchronous

movements,

68,

69

impression

285
the germ,
series of kinetic

actions, 276
Similarity of development, 274
Sleep, 58, 227
of signs of development in an
Table
disturbed, in children, 123
250
227
infant,
189,
expression of,
indicate
Teeth
15
age, 41
prevent expression,
may
in anger,
54
shown
Small-headed
children, 274
impressionability,
Small
parts compared with large parts, Telephone exhibits
18
a principle, 76
as
indicates
heat, 14
Temperature
Sneering, 201
indicates
Thermometer
heat, 16
Snow
plant, 23
254
309
Thought,
Sorrow, expression of,Camper on,
of a property, 267
attribute
Time
of expression, 38
an
as
Sound, a means
reflex
93
by
of
13
criterion
movement,
occupied
life,
Speech, a
two
in
269
action
of
68
of
subjects,
movement,
Speed
in chorea, 116
affected
Tooth-grinding, 119, 122
Spinal muscles
Tossing of head, 55
Spine bent in fatigue, 229
"

"

372

INDEX.

Tracing

of

Treves, F.,
scrofula,275
Trophic action

as

and

an

of

accompaniment

281

defined, 33 ; illustrated
of crystals, 40, 41
expressive, 33, 40
of light, 101
kinetic

action

by

or

to

result

of movement,
60

40

Voluntary movement,
postures, 150

Vulgar face,

196

considered

movements

more

in relation

de'

Vine

in

abnormal

idiot,277
Turgid face in anger, 51
of
coincident
Twins
as
examples
development or growth, 269, 285
an

Two

Medici, 162, 296, 319


branch, growth in darkness, 282
Visual
impression, effects of, 99
perception, its effects, 15
Vital phenomena
can
only be studied
by their physical signs, 28
in illness,231
Voice
230
in irritability,
mechanism
of, 54
Venus

67

physiognomy

on

of movement,

growth

analyzed,

movement

time,69

Tyndall, 341
Types of faces, 197

Walking,

72

movements, 235
to instinct,235
Wanton
look, Camper on, 309
Watch, movement
of, 53
a

series

said

to

of

be

due

Weakness
of high
not a representation
Unconsciousness, 227
39
of
in
214
beauty,
plants,
parts
Unequal growth
WTeak
Unicellular
posture of head, 188
plant, 23
of ex341
Uniform
pression, Weeping,
coexistence, a mode
12
Winking, 200, 309
in nature, 8
Uniformities
Wonder, expression of, 306
Work
56
done, 56 ; by movement,
Upper extremity, postures of,154, 156
of art an expression,56, 79

Vegetable cell growth,


life,reasons

26

for reference

to, 6

THE

Zones

END.

of

face, 196