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Double-loop Networked Control System of DC Motor Based on Dynamic Smith Predictor and Fuzzy-PI Controller

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Motor Based on Dynamic Smith Predictor and

Fuzzy-PI Controller

Baolong Zhu, Min Li

School of Astronautics

Harbin Institute of Technology

Harbin, China, 150001

E-mail: baolong_zhu@126.com

Yuyin Cheng

School of Mines, China University

of Mining and Technology

Xuzhou, China, 221000

E-mail: ck09cheng@163.com

kind of double closed-loop control system based on

network. At the same time, we propose different control

strategies for current loop and speed loop to overcome the

network-induced time delay in the network environment.

Finally, the simulation based on Matlab/Simulink and

TrueTime box is studied in this paper.

The paper is organized as follows: Section II

introduces the configuration of double closed-loop

networked control system of DC motor. In section III, we

discuss the controller design of double closed-loop

networked control system of DC motor and propose

different control strategies for current loop and speed loop.

Simulation analysis based on Matlab/Simulink and

TrueTime box are given in section IV. Finally, the

conclusions and future research directions are given.

based on network is investigated in this paper. System

configuration consists of the real-time network and three

intelligent nodes. In order to overcome the network-induced

time delay, the dynamic Smith predictor and Fuzzy-PI

hybrid control strategy are proposed respectively while

designing the current and speed loop. Finally, simulation

platform based on Matlab/Simulink and TrueTime toolbox

is established. Taking different delay upper bounds into

account, the dynamic responses of speed and armature

current is given and analyzed. Simulation results show that

system has excellent dynamic characteristics and robustness

when the network random delay upper bound is less than

one second. The effectiveness of control method proposed in

this paper provides a reference for other networked cascade

control system.

Keywords-DC motor; double closed-loop; network-induced

delay; Fuzzy PI; dynamic Smith predictor

I.

NETWORKED CONTROL SYSTEM OF DC MOTOR

Theoretically, NCCS has eleven different topology

structures [12]. However, only four kinds of them be often

adopted in the industrial control field. In this paper, we

choose the typical I structure configuration to build the

whole control system. The typical I structure is shown in

Figure 1.

INTRODUCTION

(reference input, control input/output, plant output, etc.) is

exchanged via real-time networks, are called networked

control systems (NCSs for short hereinafter) [1]. Because

of its enormous advantages over traditional point-to-point

control system, such as lower cost, reduced weight and

power, simpler installation and maintenance, and higher

reliability[2]. Cascade control system has been widely

adopted for many years in modern industry for its

numerous advantages (e.g. improving the dynamic

characteristics of the plant and overcoming the disturbance

from the secondary loop effectively) [3]-[5]. Taking full

advantages of NCSs and the advantages of cascade control,

the networked cascade control system (NCCS for short

hereinafter) emerge [6]-[9].

It is worth mentioning that the double closed-loop

control system of DC motor have been widely adopted in

motor control field of industrial production [10][11], due

to its improving production quality, conserve energy,

reduce costs, etc. Actually, the double closed-loop control

system of DC motor is a class of cascade control systems.

However, up to the present, relevant literature about

double closed-loop networked control systems of DC

motor have not been found. Therefore, in this paper, we

Qingbin Yu

Shandong Electric Power Research

Institute

Jinan, China, 250002

E-mail: yuqingbin001@163.com

cc

ca

networked control system of DC motor

DC-motor. The primary and secondary controlled variables

are speed and current respectively. There are three

163

distributed in the network. S1&C1 (Node1) indicates

primary sensor and controller (Specifically, speed sensor

and controller). S2&C2 (Node2) indicates secondary sensor

and controller (Specifically, current sensor and controller).

Actuator (Node3) indicates intelligent actuator of DC

motor. Network exists in between Node1 and Node2, and

between Node2 and Node1. The corresponding networkinduced time delays are indicated cc and ca.

According to the Figure 1, the block diagram of the

type I double-loop networked control system of DC motor

is shown in Figure 2.

model of DC motor.

The transfer function of the voltage, electromotive

force and current can be written as

I d ( s)

1/ R

2

=

=

U d 0 ( s ) E ( s ) Tl s + 1 0.03s + 1

DC average current, ideal no-load voltage, electromotive

force.

The transfer function of the current and electromotive

force is as follow

E ( s)

R

0.5

=

=

I d ( s ) I dL ( s ) Tm s 0.18s

r1 (k )

uc1 ( k )

y1( k )

r2 (k )

uc 2 ( k )

cc

y1 (t )

(2)

The transfer function of the electromotive force and

speed can be written as

ca

y2 ( k )

(1)

y2 (t )

n( s ) 1

1

=

=

E ( s ) Ce 0.132

structure of DC motor with rated excitation, as shown in

Figure 3.

system of DC motor

inputs for S1&C1) of control system is r1(k). y1(t) and y2(t)

are the primary and secondary controlled variables

(Specifically, speed and current), which are converted to

digital y1(k) and y2(k) by A/D convertor, and periodically

sampled by S1&C1 and S2&C2. The uc1(k)(output of the

S1&C1) is sent to the S2&C2 as its set-point r2(k) via the

network in each control period, with network-induced time

delay cc. uc2(k), the output of the S2&C2, is sent to the

Actuator as control signal through the same network, with

network-induced time delay cc. The two network-induced

delays incurred by the same network are denoted by cc and

ca, which may be constant, or even random, depending on

the network and hardware chosen.

III.

I dL ( s)

U d 0 ( s)

Value(unit)

UN

Rated voltage

220(V)

IdN

136(A)

nN

Rated speed

1460(r/min)

Electromotance

coefficient(rated magnetic flux)

Overload capacity

Ce

Tm

Tl

Electromechanical time

constant

Armature circuit

electromagnetism time constant

E (s)

n( s )

In the double closed-loop control system, the current

loop is a following subsystem and the secondary controlled

variable is armature current. In current loop, there is

network-induced delay ca, which increases the phase lag

and decreases the system stability and the quality. With the

problem of time delay, Smith predictor is an effective

solution. The main advantage of its principle is that the

time delay is eliminated from the characteristic equation of

the closed-loop system. In different applications, the

improved smith predictor had been found in some

literatures [13][14]. According to the characteristic of the

network-induced delay, we adopt the dynamic Smith

predictor with on-line time delay identification structure

[15] to overcome the current time delay ca. The dynamic

smith predictor with on-line time delay identification

scheme of current loop is shown in Figure 4.

CONTROLLER DESIGN

Physical Interpretation

Symbol

I d (s)

In order to establish the control system and design

controller, we should establish the mathematical model of

DC motor at first. We choose one kind common DC motor

as an example. Detailed parameters of the DC motor are

shown in TABLE I.

TABLE I.

(3)

r2 (s)

eca

W ( s)

I d (s)

0.132(V min/r)

2

e ca

0.5()

W (s)

0.18(s)

Figure 4. The dynamic smith predictor with nn-line time-delay

identification scheme of current loop

0.03(s)

164

transfer function of the secondary controlled object. Its

transfer function can be written as

1/ R

2

W (s) =

=

(4)

(Tl s + 1)(T s + 1) (0.03s + 1)(0.0037)

where T is the time constant of current loop. In this paper,

are the proportional term Up and integral coefficient Ki.

The output of the Fuzzy-PI hybrid controller is Uc1(k),

whose arithmetic can be expressed as

(8)

U i = Ki e(k )

The networked-induced delay is ca, which occurs in

the current loop. The dotted frame is the section of the

Smith dynamic predictor with on-line time-delay

identification. Its transfer function can be written as

E, EC, Up and Ki, respectively. By trial and error, the

membership functions for Up and Ki are chosen as

Triangular-shaped triangle-shaped; the membership

functions for E and EC are chosen as Gaussian curve. The

fuzzy sets of the inputs and the outputs, all are chosen to

be equal in number and use the same linguistic descriptors:

NB (negative big), NM (negative medium), NS (negative

small), ZO (zero), PS (positive small), PM (positive

medium), and PB (positive big). The range for E, EC, Up

and Ki are [-18 18], [-2500 2500], [-20 20] and [0 1.15],

respectively. The rules of Fuzzy controller are shown in

TABLE II.

U c1 ( k ) = U p + U i

H ( s) =

2(1 e ca )

(0.03s + 1)(0.0037)

(5)

identified on-line, expression (6), refer to [16] in detail.

k n

ca =

ica / n

TABLE II.

(6)

i = k 1

The secondary control strategy is ordinary PI algorithm

and the smith dynamic predictor. In this paper, PI

parameter tuning adopt engineering PID parameter tuning

methods, refer to [15].After calculation, the proportionality

coefficient Kp=1.1 and the integral time constant Ti=0.03.

PI regulator can be written as

1.1(0.03s + 1)

R( s ) =

0.03s

E

U p / Ki

EC

(7)

The master loop of system is outer (or speed) loop. Due

to the existence of the network, the control system

mathematical model will be uncertainty, which will

increases the difficulty to design the controller. Obviously,

conventional PID control method cannot meet our

requirement. We notice that fuzzy control method has

excellent robustness for the uncertainty of the controlled

plants [17]. The rich experiences of operators can be made

full use of by the fuzzy controller to deal with the

influence of network (e.g. network-induced delays and

data packet dropout). In this paper, combining

conventional PID with fuzzy control method, we propose

the Fuzzy-PI hybrid control strategy as the primary

controller. The block diagram of the Fuzzy-PI hybrid

controller is shown in Figure 5.

(9)

NB

NM

NS

ZO

PS

PM

PB

NB

NB/PS

NB/ZO

NM/NS

NS/NS

NM/ZO

ZO/NM

PB/NB

NM

NB/PS

NS/ ZO

NM/NS

NS/NS

NS/NS

PS/NM

PS/NM

NS

NM/PS

NS/ ZO

NS/NS

ZO/NS

ZO/NS

PM/NM

PB/NB

ZO

NB/ZO

NS/ ZO

NS/ZO

ZO/ZO

PS/ZO

PS/ZO

PM/ZO

PS

NB/PB

NM/ PM

NS/PS

PS/ZO

PS/PS

PM/ PM

PB/PB

PM

NM/PB

NS/ PM

ZO/PS

PS/ZO

PS/PS

PS/PM

PB/PB

PB

NM/PB

ZO/ PM

PS/PS

PM/ZO

PB/PS

PM/ PM

PM/PB

between E, EC, Up and Ki are presented in Figure 6. Figure

6 (1), (2) present the rule surfaces of Up and Ki respectively.

15

10

Up

5

0

-5

-10

I dL (s )

de

r1 (k )

dt

Up

U c1 (k )

-15

R

Tm s

1 n (t )

Ce

Ki

2000

1000

10

Ui

E(s)

5

-1000

-15

-10

EC

Figure 5. The Fuzzy-PI hybrid controller scheme of speed loop

depicted in Figure 5, the dotted frame is the section of the

Fuzzy-PI hybrid control. For the Fuzzy-PI hybrid

controller, there are two inputs: the error e(k) and its

165

-5

-2000

15

Figure 8.

1500

1460

1

0.9

Speed/( r/min)

0.8

1000

Ki

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

=0.05s

=0.5s

=1s

=2s

max

max

500

max

0.3

max

2000

1000

0

-1000

-2000

-15

-10

-5

EC

10

0

0

15

1.5

Time/s

300

Load current/A

SIMULATION ANALYSIS

networked control systems based on Matlab/Simulink,

which can give synthetic simulation for network delay,

network scheduling, network parameters, control method

and so on. By using the TrueTime 1.5 toolbox, the

simulation platform for the double closed-loop networked

control system of DC motor is established.

The simulation block diagram for the double closedloop networked control system of DC motor is presented in

Figure 7. As shown in Figure 7, four TrueTime kernel

blocks are used to implement the primary controller

(S1&C1, Node 1), the secondary controller(S1&C1, Node

2), the Actuator (Actuator, Node 3), the interference

(Interference, Node 4). They are all connected to the same

network.

=0.05s

=0.5s

=1s

=2s

max

272

250

IV.

0.5

max

max

200

max

150

100

50

0

0

0.5

1.5

Time/s

Figure 8. The dynamic response of the DC motor that start at rated load

with different delay upper bound

and secondary controlled variables (speed and load current)

have better dynamic characteristic and tracking capability

when the network random delay upper bound tmax is less

than one second. When the tmax is more than two second,

the armature current present greater shocks. Therefore,

with network-induced time delay, the dynamic smith

predictor and Fuzzy-PI hybrid control strategy are

effective solution in double-loop networked control system

of DC motor.

V.

CONCLUSIONS

control system structure of DC motor has been established

in this paper. Taking into account the network-induced

delay, we propose different control strategies for current

and speed loop. With designing current and speed loop, the

dynamic smith predictor and the Fuzzy-PI hybrid control

strategy are adopted respectively. Simulation results

illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

However, in this paper, we suppose the data loss

probability is very small (only 0.1%) and it does exist in

the network. So how to solve the problem of data loss will

be the next research direction.

REFERENCES

[1]

networked control system of DC motor

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cc and ca are both uniform random and have the same

upper bound tmax. Taking the value of tmax as 0.05s, 0.5s, 1s

and 2s, the dynamic responses of the DC motor that start at

[3]

[4]

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