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Prepared by Ali Murat Kayran

Room:
Phone:
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Housing
Bearing

Date: 19/10/2010

TUTORIAL 1
TOLERANCES & FITS

Shaft

Problem 1
The shaft shown in Figure 1 is fitted by roller bearings. If, the close running fit H7/g6
is used with 40 mm basic size for accurate location at moderate speeds, answer the
following questions:
a)

Which system is used to define the fit?

b)

What is the tolerance on the hole?

c)

What is the tolerance on the shaft?

d)

Sketch the dimensions of the fit showing the lower and upper limits of both

Figure 1. The shaft installation

shaft and the hole. (Hint: Use the page in the formula sheet named Nominal

Solution
a)

The Basic Hole System BHS is based on the minimum hole diameter and the

Dimensions, Tolerance Symbols and Deviations to decide on the

general form is H (ITn) / * (ITn) where * changes from a to z except i, l, o, q, w and

fundamental deviation of the shaft.)

(ITn) changes from 1 to 16. For general machining (ITn) usually changes between 5

Calculate the minimum and/or maximum interference and/or clearance and

and 11. On the other hand the Basic Shaft System BSS is based on the maximum shaft

specify the type of the fit.

diameter and the general form is **(ITn) / h (ITn) where ** changes between A to Z

f)

What is the tolerance on the fit?

except I, L, O, Q, W.

g)

What is the allowance on the fit?

h)

Repeat the calculations using the distributed tables and compare the results.

i)

Consider that the specified fit is H7/j7. Repeat the calculations using the

e)

As the fit specified as H7 / g6 conforms to the general form of BHS, the

distributed tables.
j)

system used is Basic Hole System.

b)

Since the system used is basic hole system, the nominal diameter equals to

Sketch the dimensions of the fit showing the lower and upper limits of both

LLh

shaft and the hole for 55mm H8/m6, 40mm H7/r6, 45mm H7/n6, 30mm

D=40 mm

H7/j6.

The unit tolerance on the hole is;

i = 0.45 3 D + 0.001D = 0.45 3 40 + 0.001 40 = 1.58 m

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K can be calculated as follows: Note that ITn for the hole is 7.

K = 10 (1.6)

( ITn IT 6)

= 10 (1.6)

7 6

40.025 mm

= 16

ULh

So the tolerance on the hole is:

Th = K i
c)

Th = 1.58 16 = 25 m

Following the same procedure above, the tolerance of the shaft can be

H7 hole

Cmax

calculated. Note that ITn for the shaft is 6.


i = 0.45 3 D + 0.001D = 0.45 3 40 + 0.001 40 = 1.58 m

K = 10 (1.6)

( ITn IT 6)

= 10 (1.6)

66

= 10

40.000 mm
Cmin

So the tolerance on the shaft is:

Ts = K i

LLh

39.991 mm

Ts = 1.58 10 = 16 m

ULs

g6 shaft
d)

The lower limit of the hole : LLh=40.000 mm

The upper limit of the hole is:

ULh = LLh + Th

39.975 mm

ULh = 40.000 + 0.025 = 40.025mm


The tolerance for the shaft is found but the upper or lower limits cannot be specified

LLs

Figure 2 .Dimensions of fit H7/g6

using the formulas. However, using the distributed sheets for a nominal dimension of
40 mm the fundamental deviation for g6 can be found as -9 m. The upper limit of the

e)

Maximum and minimum clearances are found as:

shaft can be calculated by adding (for letter codes c,d,f,g,h) the fundamental deviation

Cmin = LL h -ULs

Cmin = 40.000 39.991 = 11 m

(means either the lower or upper limit depending on the which is closer to the basic

Cmax = UL h -LLs

Cmax = 40.025 39.975 = 50 m

size) to the nominal diameter:

ULs = 40.000 0.009 = 39.991 mm

It is obvious from the calculations and the figure that the fit is a clearance fit.

Once the upper limit is found the lower limit can be found by subtracting the tolerance
value found to the LLs.

LLs = 39.991 0.016 = 39.975 mm

f)

Tolerance on the fit is the sum of the tolerances on the hole and the shaft.

Tfit = Th + Ts
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Tfit = 25 + 16 = 41 m

3
g)

Allowance is the minimum clearance for clearance fits or the maximum

interference for transition and interference fits. So as our fit is clearance fit:

UL h = 40.000 + 0.025 = 40.025 mm


LL s = 40 .000 0 .005 = 39 .995 mm

Allowance = C min = 9 m

h)

LL h = 40 .000 mm

UL s = 40 .000 + 0 .020 = 40 .020 mm

By using the tables in the formula sheet, similar results can be found. It can

be seen that, for 40 mm nominal dimension the maximum clearance and maximum

The deviations according to fit types are shown in Figure 2. It is easily


seen in the figure that H7/g6 fit is clearance fit.

interference of the H7/g6 fit can be respectively specified as +50 and +9 directly from
Deviations for Tolerance Zones Table. Moreover, Nominal Dimensions, Tolerance
Symbols and Deviations Table should be checked to decide on the lower and upper
limits of the shaft and the hole. For 40 mm nominal dimension the lower and upper
limits of g6 are -25 and -9 respectively. Similarly these limits are 0 and +25 for H7 for
the same nominal dimension. Using these values gives same results to the ones
obtained before.

LL h = 40.000 mm
UL h = 40.000 + 0.025 = 40.025 mm

(Roller Bearing)

LL s = 40.000 0.025 = 39.975 mm


ULs = 40.000 0.009 = 39.991 mm
i)

Now, the specified fit is H7/j7. The deviation and tolerance values for j7 are

not available on the given tables. However, they still can be found. When the
Nominal Dimensions, Tolerance Symbols and Deviations Table is checked, it is
observed that the lower deviation values of js for nominal diameter of 40 mm is -5,
which implies that j7 will also have a deviation of -5. To find the tolerance, another
letter with IT number 7 can be looked at and it is observed that, for a nominal
diameter of 40 mm, all letters with IT 7 have a tolerance of 25 m. Therefore the

Figure 3. Some fit types for internal and external diameter

upper and lower limits of j7 can be found as -5 and +20 respectively. Then, the
dimensions for H7/j7 will be:
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j)

ULh

55.046 mm

ULs

45.033 mm

Cmax
55.030 mm

ULs
H8 hole

n6 shaft

45.025 mm

m6 shaft

55.011 mm

Imax

LLh

45.017 mm

H8 hole

LLs

45.000 mm

Figure 4. 55mm H8/m6, transition fit

40.050 mm

Imax

Cmax
LLs

55.000 mm

ULh

LLh
Figure 6. 45mm H7/n6, transition fit

ULs

30.021 mm

LLs

30.009 mm

ULh

r6 shaft
40.034 mm
Imin

ULh

40.025 mm
H7 hole
40.000 mm

LLh

Imax

H7 hole
ULs
Cmax

Imax

j6 shaft

30.000 mm

LLh

29.996 mm

LLs
Figure 7. 30mm H7/j6, transition fit

Figure 5 40mm H7/r6, interference fit

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Problem 2
For 50 mm nominal dimension, H7 has a deviation of 0 and tolerance of +25 m. So,
It is desired to fit a shaft in a coupling as shown in the Figure 8. The hole of coupling
is produced with high quality turning. The shaft should be fitted tightly. The nominal
diameter for the shaft and the coupling is specified as 50 mm. Select a fit for the
coupling shaft pair such that the minimum and the maximum interferences are 5 m
and 55 m respectively.

to have maximum interference less than 55m, the upper limit of the shaft should be
less than 50.055 mm. Similarly the lower limit of the shaft should be higher than
50.030 mm to have a minimum interference greater than 5 m. This can be transferred
into lower and upper deviations of shaft. The lower and upper deviations of the shaft
should lie between +30 and +55. When the Nominal Dimensions, Tolerance Symbols

Coupling

and Deviations" Table is observed, it is seen that r4 and r6 satisfies these


requirements. However, IT quality of 4 is used for extreme precision such as for
gages. Therefore, r6 is selected for the design.

Shaft 1

Shaft 2
So the selected fit is H7/r6 with the dimensions:

LL h = 50.000 mm

Figure 8. Shaft-coupling assembly

UL h = 50.000 + 0.025 = 50.025 mm

Solution

ULs = 50.000 + 0.050 = 50.050 mm

Since the coupling is produced with high quality turning, the IT quality number of the

LLs = 50.000 + 0.034 = 50.034 mm

hole is 7. You can check the other machining operations and the resulting IT quality

Allowance = I max = UL s LL h = 50.050 50.000 = 0.050 mm

numbers using the table given on the last page of the tutorial. It is known that the shaft

I min = LLs UL h = 50.034 50.025 = 0.009 mm

should be produced with a finer or equal quality with the hole, so IT quality number
of the shaft should be 7 or lower than the hole.

50.050mm

ULs
r6 shaft

Selection of the designation system is a must. According to TS 2417, BSS should only

50.034mm

LLs

be used if it is economically superior to using BHS. (e.g. several holed machine


elements with different tolerances should be assembled to the same shaft that is drawn

Imin
50.025mm

without being machined) Otherwise it is better to use BHS to avoid unnecessary

Imax
ULh

H7 Hole

dimension controls.
So BHS is decided upon. For IT quality of 7 use H7. Now the tables should be

50.000mm

LLh

checked to satisfy the maximum and minimum interference values for the given
nominal dimension.

Figure 9 Dimensions of fit H7/r6


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Other alternatives which are not available in the tables can be found using the same

Degree of Accuracy which can be reasonably expected from various manufacturing

principle given in Problem 1, question (i).

processes under average conditions: (Available also at Useful Information on ME 307


web page.)
TOLERANCE
IT QUALITY

APPLICATION, PROCESS

(m)

Slip blocks, reference gages

1-2

High quality gages, plug gages

2-3

Good quality gages, gap gages

3-5

Gages, fits of extreme precision produced by lapping

4-10

Ball bearings, machine lapping, diamond or fine


boring, fine grinding

5-12

Grinding, fine honing

6-20

High quality turning, broaching

12-35

Center lathe turning and boring, reaming

14-50

Horizontal or vertical boring machine

30-80

10

Milling, slotting, planing, metal rolling, extrusion

50-100

11

Drilling, rough turning and boring; precision tubing

70-140

12

Light press work; tube drawing

120-240

13

Press work; tube rolling

150-500

14

Die casting or molding, rubber molding

250-1000

15

Stamping

400-1400

16

Sand casting, flame cutting

500-2000

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