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# 1

## Prepared by: Salih Alan

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sign if they act in the same direction of the surface normal. In this problem, and
y
z
Date: 20/10/2010

TUTORIAL 2
3D Stress State, Thick-Walled Cylinders, Thermal Stresses

## have negative sign. Shear stresses are represented by

x
represents the stress in the plane whose normal is parallel to x-axis, with y-

where

xy

direction in the

## { x, y, z} coordinate system. For this problem xy acts in y direction on

the plane with normal in x direction, so this shear component has minus sign.
Problem 1:

b. For a stress element, there exists a particular orientation in space for which all shear
components are zero. When an element has this particular orientation, the normals to the
faces correspond to principal directions and the normal stresses associated with these
faces are principal stresses.

y
30 MPa

Suppose that, this particular orientation of the element is as shown and can be expressed

25 MPa
35 MPa

## in another coordinate system; { x ', y ', z '} .

40 MPa
20 MPa

50 MPa
z
Consider the cubic stress element taken shown. For this element:
a. Write the stress matrix.
b. Determine the principal stresses for the given stress state.
c. Draw Mohrs circle diagram of the principal stresses.
d. Find the maximum shear stress.

y'

3
z

Solution:
a. The stress matrix will be;

1
x

'

x'

x xy xz 40 25 20

= yx y yz = 25 30 35

35 50
zx zy z 20

According to definition, since the shear stress components will be zero for this orientation,
the stress matrix will be diagonal. This corresponds to an eigenvalue problem where the
magnitudes of the principal stresses will be the eigenvalues and their directions
(directional cosines) will be the eigenvectors. That is:

Note that each stress component which is in the plane with i-surface normal and
which is in the j-direction is represented by ij . Normal stresses are shown by
i
and they are the diagonal elements of the stress matrix. Normal stresses have positive

[ ]{n} = p {n}
which can also be written as:

## METU Mechanical Engineering

I1 = 40 , I2 = 3950 , I 3 = 89250

([ ] [ I ]) {n} = 0
p

Here,

[I ]

## {n} is the eigenvector

([ ] [ I ]) should be
p

zero.

[ ] p [ I ] = 0

Now the roots of the cubic equation can be found from the formula:

i = r cos i +

I1
, where r and i can be found from:
3
1

2 2
r = ( I1 3I 2 ) 2
3
2 I 3 9 I 1 I 2 + 27 I 3
cos 3 = 1
3
2( I 1 2 3 I 2 ) 2

40 p
25
20
xx p
xy
xz
25
30 p
35 = yx
yy p
yz
20
35
50 p
zx
zy
zz p

## Here cosine equation has infinitely many solutions,

( x y z + 2 xy yz zx ) = 0
2
x yz

2
y zx

2
z xy

## p where the three solutions are the principal

stresses 1 , 2 , 3 .Note that, the solutions to p are independent of the coordinate

## This is a cubic equation in the unknown

system chosen. In other words; principle stresses occur only in one particular
orientation and no matter the coordinate system of the stress element chosen, the
solutions to p must be the same. Therefore, the coefficients of p in the cubic
equation are constant:

I1 = x + y + z

I3 = x y z + 2 xy yz zx
I1, I2 and I3 are called as stress invariants.
Calculating the coefficients yields;

2
y zx

cos 1 ( 0.2756) + 2k
, where k = 0,1,2..
3

## Take 3 of the possible solutions as we have 3 principal stresses.

cos 1 ( 0.2756)
3
cos 1 ( 0.2756) + 2
2 =
3
cos 1 ( 0.2756) 2
3 =
3

1 =

## I 2 = x y + x z + y z xy2 yz2 zx2

2
x yz

r = 77.316
cos(3 ) = 0.2756

2
z xy

I1
= 76.39 MPa
3
I
2 = r cos( 2 ) + 1 = 56.93 MPa
3
I
3 = r cos( 3 ) + 1 = 20.50 MPa
3

1 = r cos(1 ) +

## METU Mechanical Engineering

3
The eigenvalues and eigenvectors can also be obtained using the MATHCAD commands
eigenvals and eigenvecs respectively:

## 1 = 76.39 MPa, 2 = 20.50 MPa, 1 = 56.93 MPa

Of course this solution will be much shorter if software was used. For example, the
MATLAB command given below gives the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the stress
matrix.

56.927
eigenvals ( ) = 20.519

76.409
0.884 0.467 8.912 10 3

0.599
0.286 0.526

0.801

## >> %calculating the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the

>> %stress matrix using "eig" command :
>> stress=[-40 25 20; 25 30 35; 20 35 50]
stress =
-40 25 20
25 30 35
20 35 50

Note that the results obtained by the software programs hold with the result calculated.
The columns of the eigenvectors obtained are the direction cosines of the principle
directions. There is a sign difference for elements of the second and third eigenvectors
obtained by Matlab and Mathcad, and they still show the same directions.

>> [eigvec,eigval]=eig(stress)
eigvec =
-0.884
-0.370
0.286

0.467
-0.710
0.526

40 25 20
:= 25 30 35

20 35 50

## Eigenvectors can also be found from the following equation:

-0.009
-0.599
-0.801

([ ] [ I ]){n} = 0
p

eigval =
-56.927
0
0

eigenvalue,
0
20.519
0

## p , there exists a corresponding eigenvector. For example for the first

1 = 76.39 MPa

([ ] [ I ]){n} = 0

0
0
76.409

25
20
n x 0
40 76.39
n y = 0

25
30 76.39
35

20
35
50 76.39 n z 0

>>

The diagonal elements of eigval matrix are the eigenvalues which are the principal
stresses, and the columns of eigvec are the corresponding eigenvectors which are the
direction cosines of the principal stresses.

(1)

(2)

(3)

4
Note

that

this

matrix

equation

has

infinitely

many

solutions,

as

n y = 67.683n x

y
34.72

## From Eq(2) & Eq(3)

n z = 88.787n x
As there are infinitely many solutions say,

n z = 88.787 a

## We know that nx + n y + nz should be equal to 1, to be the directional cosines.

2

ny =
nz =

(a )

+ (67.683a ) + (88.787 a )
67.683a
2

(a )2 + (67.683a )2 + (88.787a )2
88.787 a

(a )

Then

nx =

45.55
z

## Now lets normalize {n} and find the directional cosines,

0.52
x

+ (67.683a ) + (88.787 a )
2

## c. Mohrs circle for the calculated principal stresses will be

= 0.009 = 0.52
= 0.606 = 34.72
= 0.795 = 45.55

The directional cosines of the first principal stresses are shown in figure below.

## METU Mechanical Engineering

1/ 2 =
2/3
1/ 3

1 2

= 27.95 MPa
2
3
= 2
= 38.72 MPa
2
3
= 1
= 66.67 MPa
2

Problem 2:
A horizontal member is supported by two stainless steel members and an aluminum alloy
block is placed between the wall and the horizontal member as shown in Figure 2.1. The
structure is initially unstressed and at a temperature of 25oC. If the temperature of the
structure is raised to 250oC, determine the stresses induced in the steel members and the
aluminum block. The cross sectional areas are 50 mm2 for the steel members and 125
mm2 for the aluminum block.
(al=23.9x10-6 1/oC, st=17.3x10-61/ oC, Eal=71.7 GPa, Est=190GPa)

Aluminum

Steel

## max = 1 / 3 = 66.67 MPa

Steel

Horizontal member

Wall
Figure 2.1
Solution
When the coefficients of expansions of aluminum and steel are compared, it is observed
that aluminum has a larger coefficient of expansion. Therefore, the aluminum block
would expand more if it were free to do so. As the aluminum block expands, it pulls the
steel members, placing them in tension. The steel members pull back on the aluminum,
placing aluminum block in compression. The resulting forces are shown in Figure 2.2.

## METU Mechanical Engineering

6
where l is the initial length and T is the temperature change in Celsius degrees.

Fst =

Steel

Steel

Aluminum

T ( al st )
1
2
+
Est Ast Eal Aal

(5)

## Inserting the numerical values gives:

Fst =
Fal

Fst

Fst

Figure 2.2

(1)

(2)

Due to temperature change, the members and the block will expand. The axial forces
will create expansion in the steel members whereas contraction in the aluminum
member. Then, the total deformations can be written as follows:

F l
al = al l T al
Eal Aal

st = st l T +

Fst l
E st Ast

2
+
9
6
9
(190) 10 (50) 10
(71.7 ) 10 (125) 106

( )

( )

( )

( )

= 4521.7 N

(3)

## Fal = 2 Fst = 9043.4 N

The axial stresses on the steel members and the block are:

From the geometry, it is observed that the length changes of the block and steel
members should be the same:
al=st

## The force acting on the aluminum block is:

From the force equilibrium, the forces in the steel members are equal to each other.
Also;
Fal=2Fst.

## (250 25) (23.9 17.3) (106 )

al =

9043.4 ( N )
Fal
=
= 72.3MPa
Aal
(125) (mm2 )

st =

Fst 4521.7 ( N )
=
= 90.4MPa
Ast ( 50 ) (mm 2 )

The stress acting on the aluminum block is compressive and the stresses acting on the
steel members are tensile.

(4)

## METU Mechanical Engineering

7
Problem 3:
Three cube blocks with identical dimensions are placed into a rigid cavity and there is
no clearance and friction between their surfaces and surface-wall contact regions. A
uniformly distributed stress p is applied on the upper surface of cube 1. The cubes
have equal side lengths. The material properties are the same for cubes 2 and 3.
Determine the stress applied by the side wall to cube 2 (2x) in terms of the material
properties and p.

Note that the stresses on the cubes along y-direction are equal to each other since the
cross-sectional areas of the cubes are equal and the forces along y-direction are the same
for all the cubes
Similarly, the strain in x direction is also equal to zero for the second cube.
1
1
2x
2x 2 2y + 2z
2 1y 0

E2
E 2x
, 2
which gives:

1 y =

2x
2

(2)

## Substituting eqn. (2) into eqn. (1) gives:

top view

1y + 2y + 3y

walls

E1 p

E2

v3

v1

v2

1 y + 2 2 y = 0,

side view
y

1
1
1 y 1 ( p + 1x ) + 2
1 y 2 2 x = 0 (4)

E1
E2
2

The walls are rigid; therefore the strain in x-direction for the cubes is zero.
For the first cube, the strain in x direction is zero. Then;
1
1
1x
1x 1 1y + 1z
1 1y + p 0

E1 1x
E1
,
which gives

1x = 1 1 y + p

Solving eqn. (2), (3) and (4) simultaneously for unknowns 1x , 1 y and 2 x gives:
1x

(3)

Since the material properties and the stresses applied by cube 1 are the same for cubes 2
and 3, it can be written as:

Solution:

2x

2 1

Summation of elongations of cubes in y direction is also equal to zero due to rigid wall.
The total elongation in y direction expression can be written in terms of strains since the
side length of cubes are equal to each other.

E3

1x = p +

1y

2x

1 p

E2 2 E1 + 2 E1 2 E2 1
2

E2 + E2 1 2 E1 + 2 E1 2
1 + 1
E2 1 p
2
2
E2 + E2 1 2 E1 + 2 E1 2

E2 1 p

(1)

## METU Mechanical Engineering

1 + 1
2

E2 + E2 1 2 E1 + 2 E1 2

r (5mm ) = 0

Problem 4:
A gun barrel is assembled by shrinking an outer barrel over an inner barrel so that the
maximum principal stress equals 70 percent of the yield strength of the material. Both
members are steel and have as their properties a yield strength Sy=540MPa,
E=207GPa and =0.292. The nominal radii of the barrels are 5, 10 and 15 mm.
a. Plot the stress distribution for both parts of the barrels.
b. What value of interference should be used in assembly?
c. When the gun is fired, an internal pressure of 280MPa is created. Plot the
resulting stress distributions. What are the maximum radial and tangential
stresses?
d. If the gun barrel were made of a single barrel with the inner and outer radii of
5 and 15 mm, respectively, when the gun is fired, what would be the

Solution:
Material properties are;
E = 207GPa and

r (10mm ) = P

8
*

The same procedure can be followed for the outer barrel. This time there is no outside
pressure on the outer barrel. There will be only inside pressure and this pressure will
be equal to the outside pressure on the inner barrel.

ri = 10mm, ro = 15mm
Po = 0, Pi = P *
Again substituting the values into the equation (1), one can get;

t (10mm ) = 2.6 P *
r (10mm ) = P *

t (15mm ) = 1.6 P *
r (10mm ) = 0

It is clearly seen that the maximum principal stress occurs on the tangential stress of
inner surface on the inner barrel. Pressure can be found as:

## t (5mm ) = 2.67 P * = max

2.67 P * = 0.7 S y

P * = 141.6 MPa

S y = 540MPa

Maximum principal stress on the gun barrel equals 70 percent of the yield strength of
the steel. Hence;

## Minus sign indicates that there is compression on the inner barrel.

Since pressure is found, stress distributions can be drawn as:

max = 0.7 S y

## Stress Distributions across the Barrel

400

Tangential and radial stress formulas for thick-walled cylinders are given
below:

r r (P Pi )
ri Pi ro Po i o 2o
r
=
2
2
ro ri
2

200

( ) for t

and (+ ) for r

MPa

a.

t ( r)
r( r)

(1)
200

For the inner barrel ri=5mm and ro=10mm. Also it is obvious that there is only
outside pressure on the inner barrel. Then;

400

ri = 5mm, ro = 10mm

8.333

11.667
r

mm

Pi = 0, Po = P * = unknown

## b. Interference pressure is found as;

Substituting these values into equation (1) and solve the equation for r=5mm and
r=10mm, it can be found as;

t (5mm) = 2.67 P *

t (10mm ) = 1.67 P *

P * = 141.6 MPa
Then the interference can be found as;

## METU Mechanical Engineering

15

)(

E ro r r ri
2
2
b
2r 2 ro ri
where ri = 5mm, r = 10mm and ro = 15mm
P=

2 P r 3 ro ri

)(

E ro r 2 r 2 ri

9
Stress Distributions due to Firing

(2)

400

200

MPa

t.f ( r)
0

r.f ( r)

= 0.029mm

200

## c. When the gun is fired, an internal pressure of 280MPa is created. Since

outside pressure is 0.1MPa, it can be neglected. Additionally, since the members
are the same. The barrels can be considered as a single body. Hence, again using
equation (1);

r r (P Pi )
ri Pi ro Po i o 2o
r
( ) for t and (+ ) for r
=
2
2
ro ri
where ri = 5mm, ro = 15mm, Po = 0 and Pi = 280MPa
2

400

10

12

14

mm

Note that these stress distributions are due to firing. These stresses should be
superimposed on the stress distributions due to interference fit. Hence, resulting stress
distribution can be drawn as:
Resulting Stress Distributions across the Barrel
600

After substituting values into the equation, t and r can be drawn as a function

MPa

400

t ( r) + t.f ( r) 200
r( r) + r.f ( r)

## of r from r=5mm to r=15mm as:

200

400

8.333

11.667

15

mm

As it is seen clearly from the graph, maximum tangential stress occurs on the interference
fit and has a value of 482MPa. Additionally, maximum radial stress occurs on the inner
surface on the barrel inside and has a value of -280MPa. Hence;

t ,max = 482MPa

## METU Mechanical Engineering

r ,max = 280MPa

10
d. If the gun barrel were made of a single barrel with the inner and outer diameters of
5 and 15 mm, there will be only stresses due to firing. Again from the graph, one can
see that maximum tangential and radial stresses occur on the inner surface of the
barrel and have values 350MPa and -280MPa, respectively.

t ,max = 350MPa

r ,max = 280MPa

Note that, when the pressure values which are found above are compared with the
atmospheric pressure, one can see the outside pressure is negligible. Hence,
assumption is correct.