© All Rights Reserved

12 views

© All Rights Reserved

- Modal Time History Analysis
- Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
- Joseph M. Powers- Review of Multiscale Modeling of Detonation
- (Thefreestudy.com) GATE Quick Refresher Guide by the GATE Academy
- INTLAB Tutorial
- ACE GATE-2017-ME Afternoon Session Feb 4 Analysis
- Advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics
- Stress_concentration_factors.pdf
- S6
- Figure 9.4-5b Conical Shell With Isolated Opening and Reinforcing Ring, With External Blind Flange B en 13445-3_Figure 9.4-5b
- Aircraft Structures-Lecture1.pdf
- Iast.lect06
- Development of an Inventory Model for Two Suppliers With Random Capacity Considering Supply Disruption
- e-values and e-vectors
- NHPC-Placement-Paper-Civil-Engineering-47249.pdf
- BASES & Strap
- ME2013
- 40
- Student Lecture 31 Quadric Surfaces
- Pca

You are on page 1of 10

Room:

Phone:

E-mail:

sign if they act in the same direction of the surface normal. In this problem, and

y

z

Date: 20/10/2010

TUTORIAL 2

3D Stress State, Thick-Walled Cylinders, Thermal Stresses

x

represents the stress in the plane whose normal is parallel to x-axis, with y-

where

xy

direction in the

the plane with normal in x direction, so this shear component has minus sign.

Problem 1:

b. For a stress element, there exists a particular orientation in space for which all shear

components are zero. When an element has this particular orientation, the normals to the

faces correspond to principal directions and the normal stresses associated with these

faces are principal stresses.

y

30 MPa

Suppose that, this particular orientation of the element is as shown and can be expressed

25 MPa

35 MPa

40 MPa

20 MPa

50 MPa

z

Consider the cubic stress element taken shown. For this element:

a. Write the stress matrix.

b. Determine the principal stresses for the given stress state.

c. Draw Mohrs circle diagram of the principal stresses.

d. Find the maximum shear stress.

y'

3

z

Solution:

a. The stress matrix will be;

1

x

'

x'

x xy xz 40 25 20

= yx y yz = 25 30 35

35 50

zx zy z 20

According to definition, since the shear stress components will be zero for this orientation,

the stress matrix will be diagonal. This corresponds to an eigenvalue problem where the

magnitudes of the principal stresses will be the eigenvalues and their directions

(directional cosines) will be the eigenvectors. That is:

Note that each stress component which is in the plane with i-surface normal and

which is in the j-direction is represented by ij . Normal stresses are shown by

i

and they are the diagonal elements of the stress matrix. Normal stresses have positive

[ ]{n} = p {n}

which can also be written as:

I1 = 40 , I2 = 3950 , I 3 = 89250

([ ] [ I ]) {n} = 0

p

Here,

[I ]

([ ] [ I ]) should be

p

zero.

[ ] p [ I ] = 0

Now the roots of the cubic equation can be found from the formula:

i = r cos i +

I1

, where r and i can be found from:

3

1

2 2

r = ( I1 3I 2 ) 2

3

2 I 3 9 I 1 I 2 + 27 I 3

cos 3 = 1

3

2( I 1 2 3 I 2 ) 2

40 p

25

20

xx p

xy

xz

25

30 p

35 = yx

yy p

yz

20

35

50 p

zx

zy

zz p

( x y z + 2 xy yz zx ) = 0

2

x yz

2

y zx

2

z xy

stresses 1 , 2 , 3 .Note that, the solutions to p are independent of the coordinate

system chosen. In other words; principle stresses occur only in one particular

orientation and no matter the coordinate system of the stress element chosen, the

solutions to p must be the same. Therefore, the coefficients of p in the cubic

equation are constant:

I1 = x + y + z

I3 = x y z + 2 xy yz zx

I1, I2 and I3 are called as stress invariants.

Calculating the coefficients yields;

2

y zx

cos 1 ( 0.2756) + 2k

, where k = 0,1,2..

3

cos 1 ( 0.2756)

= 0.617 rad

3

cos 1 ( 0.2756) + 2

2 =

= 2.711 rad

3

cos 1 ( 0.2756) 2

3 =

= 1.478 rad

3

1 =

2

x yz

r = 77.316

cos(3 ) = 0.2756

2

z xy

I1

= 76.39 MPa

3

I

2 = r cos( 2 ) + 1 = 56.93 MPa

3

I

3 = r cos( 3 ) + 1 = 20.50 MPa

3

1 = r cos(1 ) +

3

The eigenvalues and eigenvectors can also be obtained using the MATHCAD commands

eigenvals and eigenvecs respectively:

Of course this solution will be much shorter if software was used. For example, the

MATLAB command given below gives the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the stress

matrix.

56.927

eigenvals ( ) = 20.519

76.409

0.884 0.467 8.912 10 3

0.599

0.286 0.526

0.801

>> %stress matrix using "eig" command :

>> stress=[-40 25 20; 25 30 35; 20 35 50]

stress =

-40 25 20

25 30 35

20 35 50

Note that the results obtained by the software programs hold with the result calculated.

The columns of the eigenvectors obtained are the direction cosines of the principle

directions. There is a sign difference for elements of the second and third eigenvectors

obtained by Matlab and Mathcad, and they still show the same directions.

>> [eigvec,eigval]=eig(stress)

eigvec =

-0.884

-0.370

0.286

0.467

-0.710

0.526

40 25 20

:= 25 30 35

20 35 50

-0.009

-0.599

-0.801

([ ] [ I ]){n} = 0

p

eigval =

-56.927

0

0

eigenvalue,

0

20.519

0

1 = 76.39 MPa

([ ] [ I ]){n} = 0

0

0

76.409

25

20

n x 0

40 76.39

n y = 0

25

30 76.39

35

20

35

50 76.39 n z 0

>>

The diagonal elements of eigval matrix are the eigenvalues which are the principal

stresses, and the columns of eigvec are the corresponding eigenvectors which are the

direction cosines of the principal stresses.

(1)

(2)

(3)

4

Note

that

this

matrix

equation

has

infinitely

many

solutions,

as

n y = 67.683n x

y

34.72

n z = 88.787n x

As there are infinitely many solutions say,

n z = 88.787 a

2

ny =

nz =

(a )

+ (67.683a ) + (88.787 a )

67.683a

2

(a )2 + (67.683a )2 + (88.787a )2

88.787 a

(a )

Then

nx =

45.55

z

0.52

x

+ (67.683a ) + (88.787 a )

2

= 0.009 = 0.52

= 0.606 = 34.72

= 0.795 = 45.55

The directional cosines of the first principal stresses are shown in figure below.

1/ 2 =

2/3

1/ 3

1 2

= 27.95 MPa

2

3

= 2

= 38.72 MPa

2

3

= 1

= 66.67 MPa

2

Problem 2:

A horizontal member is supported by two stainless steel members and an aluminum alloy

block is placed between the wall and the horizontal member as shown in Figure 2.1. The

structure is initially unstressed and at a temperature of 25oC. If the temperature of the

structure is raised to 250oC, determine the stresses induced in the steel members and the

aluminum block. The cross sectional areas are 50 mm2 for the steel members and 125

mm2 for the aluminum block.

(al=23.9x10-6 1/oC, st=17.3x10-61/ oC, Eal=71.7 GPa, Est=190GPa)

Aluminum

Steel

Steel

Horizontal member

Wall

Figure 2.1

Solution

When the coefficients of expansions of aluminum and steel are compared, it is observed

that aluminum has a larger coefficient of expansion. Therefore, the aluminum block

would expand more if it were free to do so. As the aluminum block expands, it pulls the

steel members, placing them in tension. The steel members pull back on the aluminum,

placing aluminum block in compression. The resulting forces are shown in Figure 2.2.

6

where l is the initial length and T is the temperature change in Celsius degrees.

Fst =

Steel

Steel

Aluminum

T ( al st )

1

2

+

Est Ast Eal Aal

(5)

Fst =

Fal

Fst

Fst

Figure 2.2

(1)

(2)

Due to temperature change, the members and the block will expand. The axial forces

will create expansion in the steel members whereas contraction in the aluminum

member. Then, the total deformations can be written as follows:

F l

al = al l T al

Eal Aal

st = st l T +

Fst l

E st Ast

2

+

9

6

9

(190) 10 (50) 10

(71.7 ) 10 (125) 106

( )

( )

( )

( )

= 4521.7 N

(3)

The axial stresses on the steel members and the block are:

From the geometry, it is observed that the length changes of the block and steel

members should be the same:

al=st

From the force equilibrium, the forces in the steel members are equal to each other.

Also;

Fal=2Fst.

al =

9043.4 ( N )

Fal

=

= 72.3MPa

Aal

(125) (mm2 )

st =

Fst 4521.7 ( N )

=

= 90.4MPa

Ast ( 50 ) (mm 2 )

The stress acting on the aluminum block is compressive and the stresses acting on the

steel members are tensile.

(4)

7

Problem 3:

Three cube blocks with identical dimensions are placed into a rigid cavity and there is

no clearance and friction between their surfaces and surface-wall contact regions. A

uniformly distributed stress p is applied on the upper surface of cube 1. The cubes

have equal side lengths. The material properties are the same for cubes 2 and 3.

Determine the stress applied by the side wall to cube 2 (2x) in terms of the material

properties and p.

Note that the stresses on the cubes along y-direction are equal to each other since the

cross-sectional areas of the cubes are equal and the forces along y-direction are the same

for all the cubes

Similarly, the strain in x direction is also equal to zero for the second cube.

1

1

2x

2x 2 2y + 2z

2 1y 0

E2

E 2x

, 2

which gives:

1 y =

2x

2

(2)

top view

1y + 2y + 3y

walls

E1 p

E2

v3

v1

v2

1 y + 2 2 y = 0,

side view

y

1

1

1 y 1 ( p + 1x ) + 2

1 y 2 2 x = 0 (4)

E1

E2

2

The walls are rigid; therefore the strain in x-direction for the cubes is zero.

For the first cube, the strain in x direction is zero. Then;

1

1

1x

1x 1 1y + 1z

1 1y + p 0

E1 1x

E1

,

which gives

1x = 1 1 y + p

Solving eqn. (2), (3) and (4) simultaneously for unknowns 1x , 1 y and 2 x gives:

1x

(3)

Since the material properties and the stresses applied by cube 1 are the same for cubes 2

and 3, it can be written as:

Solution:

2x

2 1

Summation of elongations of cubes in y direction is also equal to zero due to rigid wall.

The total elongation in y direction expression can be written in terms of strains since the

side length of cubes are equal to each other.

E3

1x = p +

1y

2x

1 p

E2 2 E1 + 2 E1 2 E2 1

2

E2 + E2 1 2 E1 + 2 E1 2

1 + 1

E2 1 p

2

2

E2 + E2 1 2 E1 + 2 E1 2

E2 1 p

(1)

1 + 1

2

E2 + E2 1 2 E1 + 2 E1 2

r (5mm ) = 0

Problem 4:

A gun barrel is assembled by shrinking an outer barrel over an inner barrel so that the

maximum principal stress equals 70 percent of the yield strength of the material. Both

members are steel and have as their properties a yield strength Sy=540MPa,

E=207GPa and =0.292. The nominal radii of the barrels are 5, 10 and 15 mm.

a. Plot the stress distribution for both parts of the barrels.

b. What value of interference should be used in assembly?

c. When the gun is fired, an internal pressure of 280MPa is created. Plot the

resulting stress distributions. What are the maximum radial and tangential

stresses?

d. If the gun barrel were made of a single barrel with the inner and outer radii of

5 and 15 mm, respectively, when the gun is fired, what would be the

maximum radial and tangential stresses?

Solution:

Material properties are;

E = 207GPa and

r (10mm ) = P

8

*

The same procedure can be followed for the outer barrel. This time there is no outside

pressure on the outer barrel. There will be only inside pressure and this pressure will

be equal to the outside pressure on the inner barrel.

ri = 10mm, ro = 15mm

Po = 0, Pi = P *

Again substituting the values into the equation (1), one can get;

t (10mm ) = 2.6 P *

r (10mm ) = P *

t (15mm ) = 1.6 P *

r (10mm ) = 0

It is clearly seen that the maximum principal stress occurs on the tangential stress of

inner surface on the inner barrel. Pressure can be found as:

2.67 P * = 0.7 S y

P * = 141.6 MPa

S y = 540MPa

Maximum principal stress on the gun barrel equals 70 percent of the yield strength of

the steel. Hence;

Since pressure is found, stress distributions can be drawn as:

max = 0.7 S y

400

Tangential and radial stress formulas for thick-walled cylinders are given

below:

r r (P Pi )

ri Pi ro Po i o 2o

r

=

2

2

ro ri

2

200

( ) for t

and (+ ) for r

MPa

a.

t ( r)

r( r)

(1)

200

For the inner barrel ri=5mm and ro=10mm. Also it is obvious that there is only

outside pressure on the inner barrel. Then;

400

ri = 5mm, ro = 10mm

8.333

11.667

r

mm

Pi = 0, Po = P * = unknown

Substituting these values into equation (1) and solve the equation for r=5mm and

r=10mm, it can be found as;

t (5mm) = 2.67 P *

t (10mm ) = 1.67 P *

P * = 141.6 MPa

Then the interference can be found as;

15

)(

E ro r r ri

2

2

b

2r 2 ro ri

where ri = 5mm, r = 10mm and ro = 15mm

P=

2 P r 3 ro ri

)(

E ro r 2 r 2 ri

9

Stress Distributions due to Firing

(2)

400

200

MPa

t.f ( r)

0

r.f ( r)

= 0.029mm

200

outside pressure is 0.1MPa, it can be neglected. Additionally, since the members

are the same. The barrels can be considered as a single body. Hence, again using

equation (1);

r r (P Pi )

ri Pi ro Po i o 2o

r

( ) for t and (+ ) for r

=

2

2

ro ri

where ri = 5mm, ro = 15mm, Po = 0 and Pi = 280MPa

2

400

10

12

14

mm

Note that these stress distributions are due to firing. These stresses should be

superimposed on the stress distributions due to interference fit. Hence, resulting stress

distribution can be drawn as:

Resulting Stress Distributions across the Barrel

600

After substituting values into the equation, t and r can be drawn as a function

MPa

400

t ( r) + t.f ( r) 200

r( r) + r.f ( r)

200

400

8.333

11.667

15

mm

As it is seen clearly from the graph, maximum tangential stress occurs on the interference

fit and has a value of 482MPa. Additionally, maximum radial stress occurs on the inner

surface on the barrel inside and has a value of -280MPa. Hence;

t ,max = 482MPa

r ,max = 280MPa

10

d. If the gun barrel were made of a single barrel with the inner and outer diameters of

5 and 15 mm, there will be only stresses due to firing. Again from the graph, one can

see that maximum tangential and radial stresses occur on the inner surface of the

barrel and have values 350MPa and -280MPa, respectively.

t ,max = 350MPa

r ,max = 280MPa

Note that, when the pressure values which are found above are compared with the

atmospheric pressure, one can see the outside pressure is negligible. Hence,

assumption is correct.

- Modal Time History AnalysisUploaded byGraham Roberts
- Eigenvalues and EigenvectorsUploaded byanon_351812634
- Joseph M. Powers- Review of Multiscale Modeling of DetonationUploaded byNikeShoxxx
- (Thefreestudy.com) GATE Quick Refresher Guide by the GATE AcademyUploaded byRashmi Sahoo
- INTLAB TutorialUploaded byHeitor Junior
- ACE GATE-2017-ME Afternoon Session Feb 4 AnalysisUploaded byalagar krishna kumar
- Advanced Computational Fluid DynamicsUploaded bycmaestrofdez
- Stress_concentration_factors.pdfUploaded byDaniel Sierra
- S6Uploaded byHarshit Agrahari
- Figure 9.4-5b Conical Shell With Isolated Opening and Reinforcing Ring, With External Blind Flange B en 13445-3_Figure 9.4-5bUploaded bymet-calc
- Aircraft Structures-Lecture1.pdfUploaded byflorian villain
- Iast.lect06Uploaded byPanchoMiyamoto
- Development of an Inventory Model for Two Suppliers With Random Capacity Considering Supply DisruptionUploaded byHadi P.
- e-values and e-vectorsUploaded bykatherinenk
- NHPC-Placement-Paper-Civil-Engineering-47249.pdfUploaded byShuja Mehdi
- BASES & StrapUploaded by3ces
- ME2013Uploaded byالعلم نور
- 40Uploaded byTausif Iqbal
- Student Lecture 31 Quadric SurfacesUploaded byuploadingperson
- PcaUploaded byYahussein Yamazloom
- 00051969Uploaded byGiuseppe
- physics137A-sp2012-mt2-Haxton-soln.pdfUploaded byHawtShawt
- Lecture 1Uploaded byLope Lh
- laUploaded byChris Moody
- rosetasUploaded byHéctor Revelo
- Kevin G. Hare- More variations on the Sierpinski sieveUploaded byIrokk
- C.H. Otto Chui, Christian Mercat, William P. Orrick and Paul A. Pearce- Integrable Lattice Realizations of Conformal Twisted Boundary ConditionsUploaded bySteam29
- 1.Linear Algebra Previous Year Questions From 2017 to 1992Uploaded byPankaj Kumar
- iscis02Uploaded byPriyanka Chowdary
- T11 Tartan Fracture Field Stress Analysis REV A.pdfUploaded bygalvigarcia

- renewable1.pdfUploaded byYazan Harb
- nabcepstudyguidev4-2april2009 - CopyUploaded byhewett101
- 2015 Solar PV Status Report for Lebanon.pdfUploaded byYazan Harb
- Lecture 5-6Uploaded byYazan Harb
- 07865991Uploaded byYazan Harb
- introcfdUploaded byYazan Harb
- SCAHACC-Understanding-MJ8-Luis-Escobar.pdfUploaded byingrid
- MECH466_s2017_hw2Uploaded byYazan Harb
- NREL_51603.pdfUploaded bymlamour
- Manual-J-Brochure.pdfUploaded bySunil DL
- Guzelyurt TMY ExtractedUploaded byYazan Harb
- Mech307 - 2015-16 Spring - Project - Larger FiguresUploaded byYazan Harb
- White_6th ed_3.123Uploaded byYazan Harb
- ME405f16h2Uploaded byYazan Harb
- Dorm 2 B Block Leader December 2015 ReportUploaded byYazan Harb
- MECH206 - 2014-15 SPRING - L05 - Shearing Stresses in Beams.pdfUploaded byYazan Harb
- Mech206 - 2014-15 Spring - l04 - Pure BendingUploaded byYazan Harb
- Mech206 - 2014-15 Spring - l03 - TorsionUploaded byYazan Harb
- MECH206 - 2015-16 SUMMER - L14 - Static Design CriteriaUploaded byYazan Harb
- MECH206 - 2015-16 SUMMER - L15 - Fatigue Design CriteriaUploaded byYazan Harb
- MECH206 - 2015-16 SUMMER - L01- Introduction - Stress.pdfUploaded byYazan Harb
- Mech Eng Design - Tutorial01Uploaded byYazan Harb
- CH03Uploaded byYazan Harb
- MECH206 - 2014-15 SPRING - HW2Uploaded byYazan Harb
- MECH206 - 2014-15 SPRING - L05 - Shearing Stresses in BeamsUploaded byYazan Harb

- ANSYS Mechanical APDL Multibody Analysis Guide.pdfUploaded bypedro
- P & C11Uploaded byVikas
- Ultraviolet Light in Water and Waste Water SanitationUploaded byarzach8885
- Mat Dipsy LlUploaded bybharathgk
- Tutorial 4 SolutionsUploaded byїэasħaŗ ēŗ.ďuηĭyą
- 25 Ohms Ground Resistance HistoryUploaded byBen E
- 351Uploaded byBhavani Prasad
- Major and Minor Losses in PipesUploaded byanjalid91
- I Value CalcUploaded bysharanmit2039
- Primitive Virtual Negative Charge (WWW.OLOSCIENCE.COM)Uploaded byFausto Intilla
- Dehumidifcation and CoolingUploaded byWaleed A. Shreim
- StrainGauges_E1007AUploaded byChristian Milenius Tambunan
- Phys253B Spring14 FinalUploaded byMichael Fralaide
- HOW TO USE THE STEAM TABLES.docUploaded byRaju Sk
- Report 2506Uploaded byAri Wibowo Nugroho
- Fracture Mechanics Conf09!09!10 14Uploaded byCarlos Serrano Perez
- IMU_Wk8Uploaded byAnh Là Bi
- NONLINEAR ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FRAMES.pdfUploaded bycatalinx2014
- VOR and Forced PrecessionUploaded byAlejandra Balderas
- Sliding Mode ControlUploaded byJournalNX - a Multidisciplinary Peer Reviewed Journal
- Lab 2 Report thermodynamicsUploaded byOse Colix Jr.
- How to Determine Correct Number of Earthing ElectrodesUploaded byJeya Kannan
- NCode Practical FatigueUploaded byrk6482
- Transformer open and short circuitUploaded bybosco
- points out of envelopUploaded byVenkat Subbu
- Full Text 01Uploaded byLina Lina Loulou
- Atomic Structure- IB book by Lana DerryUploaded byWafa Zahid Malik
- Mr. T PatentsUploaded bybarbosi
- Capitulo 27Uploaded bysindynovaperez
- E401.docxUploaded byFroileth Pulido