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Torsion

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You are on page 1of 21

Lectured by:

Dr Volkan Esat

Based on:

Mechanics of Materials

Beer, Johnston, DeWolf, Mazurek

McGraw Hill

Contents

Introduction

Example 12

Shaft Deformations

Example 13

Shearing Strain

Example 14

Normal Stresses

Example 15

Example 16

Introduction: Where?

on a train carriage

in a gearbox

Drive shaft

in an automobile

Adapted from img.weiku.com

Interested in stresses and strains

of circular shafts subjected to

twisting couples or torques

Turbine exerts torque T on the

shaft

Shaft transmits the torque to the

generator

shaft subjected to

twisting couple

opposite torque T

Net of the internal shearing stresses is an

internal torque, equal and opposite to the

applied torque,

Although the net torque due to the shearing

stresses is known, the distribution of the

stresses is not.

Distribution of shearing stresses is

statically indeterminate must consider

shaft deformations.

Unlike the normal stress due to axial loads,

the distribution of shearing stresses due to

torsional loads cannot be assumed uniform.

5

Torque applied to shaft produces

shearing stresses on the faces

perpendicular to the axis.

Conditions of equilibrium require the

existence of equal stresses on the faces

of the two planes containing the axis of

the shaft.

The existence of the axial shear

components is demonstrated by

considering a shaft made up of axial slats.

The slats slide with respect to each other

when equal and opposite torques are

applied to the ends of the shaft.

6

Shaft Deformations

From observation, the angle of twist of the

shaft is proportional to the applied torque

and to the shaft length.

T

L

and undistorted.

Cross-sections for hollow and solid

circular shafts remain plain and

undistorted because a circular shaft is

axisymmetric.

Cross-sections of noncircular (nonaxisymmetric) shafts are distorted when

subjected to torsion.

Shearing Strain

As a torsional load is applied, an element

on the interior cylinder deforms into a

rhombus.

Since the ends of the element remain

planar, the shear strain is proportional to

angle of twist.

J=

1 c4

2

J = 12 c24 c14

)

9

Normal Stresses

Elements with faces parallel and

perpendicular to the shaft axis are

subjected to shear stresses only. Normal

stresses, shearing stresses or a

combination of both may be found for

other orientations.

Consider an element at 45o to the

shaft axis

Element a is in pure shear.

Element c is subjected to a tensile stress

on two faces and compressive stress on

the other two.

Note that all stresses for elements a and c

have the same magnitude

10

Ductile materials generally fail in

shear. Brittle materials are

weaker in tension than shear.

ductile specimen breaks along a

plane of maximum shear, i.e., a

plane perpendicular to the shaft

axis.

When subjected to torsion, a

brittle specimen breaks along

planes perpendicular to the

direction in which tension is a

maximum, i.e., along surfaces at

45o to the shaft axis.

11

Example 12

Shaft BC is hollow with inner and

outer diameters of 90 mm and

120 mm, respectively. Shafts AB

and CD are solid of diameter d.

For the loading shown,

determine (a) the minimum and

maximum shearing stress in

shaft BC, (b) the required

diameter d of shafts AB and CD

if the allowable shearing stress

in these shafts is 65 MPa.

12

Example 12

Shaft BC is hollow with inner and outer

diameters of 90 mm and 120 mm,

respectively. Shafts AB and CD are

solid of diameter d. For the loading

shown, determine (a) the minimum

and maximum shearing stress in shaft

BC, (b) the required diameter d of

shafts AB and CD if the allowable

shearing stress in these shafts is 65

MPa.

SOLUTION:

Cut sections through shafts AB

and BC and perform static

equilibrium analyses to find

torque loadings.

Apply elastic torsion formulas

to find minimum and maximum

stress on shaft BC.

Given allowable shearing stress

and applied torque, invert the

elastic torsion formula to find

the required diameter.

13

Example 12

SOLUTION:

Cut sections through shafts AB and

BC and perform static equilibrium

analysis to find torque loadings.

to find minimum and maximum

stress on shaft BC.

applied torque, invert the elastic

torsion formula to find the required

diameter.

14

15

125 mm

125 mm

120 Nm

120 Nm

do = 22 mm

di = 16 mm

16

Example 13

A shaft is subjected to a torque T. Compare the effectiveness of using

the tube shown in the figure below with that of a solid section of radius

c. To do this, compute the percent increase in torsional stress and

angle of twist per unit length for the tube versus the solid section.

17

Example 14

The drive shaft AB of an automobile is made of a steel having an

allowable shear stress of all= 56 MPa. If the outer diameter of the shaft

is 62.5 mm and the engine delivers 165 kW to the shaft when is turning

at 1140 rev/min, determine the minimum required thickness of the

shaft's wall.

18

Principal transmission shaft performance specifications

are:

power

speed

Designer must select shaft material and cross-section to meet

performance specifications without exceeding allowable shearing

stress.

PROCEDURE:

Determine torque applied to shaft at specified power and speed.

Find shaft cross-section which will not exceed the maximum allowable

shearing stress.

19

Example 15

The motor A develops a power of 300 W and turns its connected pulley

at 90 rev/min. Determine the required diameters of the steel shafts on

the pulleys at A and B if the allowable shear stress is all = 85 MPa.

20

Example 16

The two shafts shown in the figure are made of A-36 (G = 75 GPa) steel.

Each has a diameter of 25 mm, and they are supported by bearings at A,

B, and C, which allow free rotation. If the support at D is fixed,

determine the angle of twist of end A when the torques are applied to

the assembly as shown.

21

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