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LUCIAN STRAT

CEZAR AANICAI

ISBN 973 9178 24 3

STRUCTURAL
STATICS

*
Ed. Gh. Asachi
IASI - 1995

CONTENTS

Foreword
1. Introduction to Structural Mechanics
1.1 The Object and Scope of Structural Mechanics. Constituent
Branches of Knowledge. Connections with other Branches
1.2 Short Review of Achievements in Structural Mechanics
2. Building Elements, States of Loading, Types of Structures
2.1 Types of Elements
2.2 Types of Structures
3. Supports and Reactions in Plane and Space Structures
4. Static Analysis of Structural Systems
4.1 Stable and Unstable Systems
4.2 Internal Force Distribution, General Case and Case of Plane
Beams
5. Beams with Cantilevers and Hinges (Gerber Systems)
5.1 Generalities
5.2 Analysis of Gerber Beams
5.3 Applications
5.4 Indirect Transmission
6. Statically Determinate Frames and Polygonal Bars
6.1 Generalities. Terminology
6.2 Internal Force Distribution Diagrams. Examples
7. Trusses
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Force Distribution in a Truss
7.3 The Method of Joints Isolation
7.3.1 The Analytical Method
7.3.2 The Graphical Variant in the Pins Isolation Method
7.4 The Method of Sections
7.5 The Combined Method for Truss Solution
7.6 Shortcuts and Rigidity. Determinacy Results
7.7 Compound Truss Systems
8. The Use of the Virtual Work Principle in Structural Analysis
8.1 Virtual Displacements
8.2 The Expression of Virtual Work
8.3 The Condition of Static Equilibrium
8.4 Instantaneous Rotation Centers
8.5 Displacement Diagrams

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8.6 The Use of the Virtual Displacement Principle for Reaction and
Effort Determination
9. Influence Lines
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Influence Lines Definition
9.3 Influence Lines for Beams
9.4 Applications
9.4.1 Simply Supported Beam. Analytical Procedure
9.4.2 Simply Supported Beam. Virtual Work Procedure
9.4.3 Cantilever Beam. Analytical Procedure
9.4.4 Cantilever Beam. Virtual Work Procedure
9.4.5 Overhanging Beam. Analytical Procedure
9.4.6 Influence Lines for Gerber Systems
9.5 Influence Lines for Truss Elements
9.5.1 Analytical Method
9.5.2 Virtual Work Method
10.Statically Determinate Arches
10.1 Generalities. Conformation, Classification, Terminology
10.2 Differential Relationship Between Internal Forces and
External Forces at Curved Bars
10.3 Three-Hinged Arch. Analytical Procedure
10.3.1 General Case of Loading and Inclined Springing Line
10.3.2 Inclined Springing Line and Vertical Loading
10.3.3 Vertical Loads and Horizontal Springing Line
10.3.4 Moment Distribution for a Vertically Loaded Arch with
Horizontal Springing Line
10.4 The Arch of Coincidence
10.5 The Graphical Solution of the Three-Hinged Arch
10.6 The Tie-Rod Arch
10.7 Truss Arches
10.8 Applications
10.9 Three-Hinged Arches. Influence Lines
11.Theorems of Reciprocity, Virtual Work Method and Maxwell-Mohr
Expression
11.1 The Theorem of Mechanical Work Reciprocity
11.2 Particular Cases of the Theorem of Work Reciprocity
11.3 The Computation of Elastic Displacements. Maxwell-Mohr
Formula
11.4 Practical Procedure For Solving Integral in Mohr-Maxwell
Expression. Mohr-Vereshtchagyn Procedure
12. Force Method
12.1 Principle of the Force Method

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12.2 Types of Primary Structures


12.3 Equations of Conditions
12.4 Computation of Coefficients and Free Terms
12.5 Plotting of Internal Force Diagrams
12.6 Matrix Analysis in Force Method
12.7 Account of Temperature Effects and Support Settlements
12.8 Steps in the Structural Analysis by Force Method
12.8.1 Determination of the Degree of Static Indeterminacy
12.8.2 The Choice of the Primary Structure
12.8.3 Plotting of Moment Diagrams on the Primary Systems
12.8.4 Computation of Lateral and Main Coefficients and of
Free Term
12.8.5 Checking of Coefficients by Means of Superimposed
Diagrams
12.8.6 Solution of the Equations System
12.8.7 Plotting of Final Diagrams of Internal Forces
12.8.8 Checking the Final Diagrams
12.9 Simplification Procedures in Solving Structures by Means of
the Force Method
12.9.1 The Use of Symmetry and Antisymmetry
12.9.2 The Procedure of Half-Structures
12.9.3 The Grouping of Unknowns
12.9.4 The Transfer of the Unknowns in the Elastic Center
12.9.5 Unstable Primary Systems in Equilibrium
12.10 The Analysis of Deflections at the Straight Beam
12.10.1 The Flexibility Matrix in Bending
12.11 Continuous Beams. The Relation of the Three Moments
12.11.1 General Case
12.11.2 Support Settlements
12.11.3 The Effect of Temperature Variation
12.11.4 Continuous Girder on Elastic Supports
Appendix (Tables Relating to Units)

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Foreword

The present handbook covers the academical syllabus of the


lectures given to students of the Civil Engineering Department in the
discipline Structural Statics. The first volume deals with the statical
analysis of determinate structures and also with the analysis of some
statically indeterminate systems using the force method. The main
concern of the whole book is to review the fundamental principles and
procedures for the solution of elements and bar-shaped structures when
are subjected to static actions in the elastic range of behavior. The book
intends to become a useful tool, first for students attending the civil
engineering classes with teaching in English, especially in the second and
third years of training in the frame of structural mechanics. Secondly, the
content is also devoted to a large number of specialists involved in higher
education, research, design and execution activities not only in Romania,
also in other regions of the world, where Romanian engineers develop
jobs. The authors dare to believe that the book will be welcome by
foreign people too. Together with other works edited in English for the
use of people attending the Civil Engineering Department, this handbook
enables the students to get accustomed to specific glossary terms and
expressions in the field of the analysis of elements and structures in use
throughout the world.
The interest of producing such a work written in the most
widespread international language is obvious. Nevertheless, the book
may contain some errors and also the expressions worth to be refined.
Any suggestions and proposals for improving the text are welcome and
the authors would be grateful for this.

The authors

INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL
MECHANICS
1.1 The Object and Scope of Structural Mechanics.
Constituent Branches of Knowledge. Connections with
other Branches
MECHANICS - called frequently Engineering Mechanics is one of
the oldest and most important branches of knowledge and of science
mankind ever created. Mechanics developed as a result of experience
acquired by people in the process of daily life, struggle and continuous
endeavour to face the effects and sometimes hostile forces of the
surrounding environmental elements. In order to build a more comfortable
shelter, to produce weapons for fighting enemies and wild beasts, to work
land for getting food, the primary man and his descendants created and
improved a large variety of tools, devices, machines, buildings, according
to his needs and possibilities, changing in this way the face of the earth. All
this increased in time, isolated dwellings became towns, boroughs,
strongholds, more sophisticated engines and technologies emerged,
civilization developed in geometrical progression. In almost every field of
civilization, the knowledge of mechanics was essential.
We can state, without exaggeration, that the entire development of
mechanics throughout the world was always mingled with the evolution of
mankind in History, with the wonderful development of civilization.

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Structural Mechanics is a science with a large area of problems,


both theoretical and practical, comprising those branches (disciplines)
dealing with the principles and methods of analysis of stress and strain
distribution in structural members and constructions as a whole (like
buildings, plants, bridges, dams a.s.o.) in the purpose of the efficient
dimensioning and proportioning of the systems both in what concerns the
safety in service, for a given time of life, a also regarding their economical
design with low costs. Structural Mechanics is similar at a higher level of
understanding to a Theory or a Philosophy of structures, and must be
studied not only by civil and structural engineers, but also by architects
involved in the activity of structural design. Always in these intertwining
processes, a balance must be kept between safety and adequate savings of
material and manpower costs.

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The component branches of the science dealing with the


computation and design of the constructions are closely intertwisted and
influence mutually; they are based on the mathematical and physical
approaches; in the same time, they are strongly supported by many
experimental investigations carried out on small-size; models or on full
scale structures and subassemblages (5, 7, 8, 9). Both theoretical and
experimental research works validate or reject made assumptions
underlying structural mechanics developments, defining the design
formulas applied in structural design.
The Statics of Constructions is one of the most important fields of
Structural Mechanics. It deals with the study of the static equilibrium
conditions of structural elements and systems, aiming at determining the
internal forces due to statical loads, also the determination of deformations
and deflections appearing as a result of these static actions, assumed
independent of time. Briefly, Statics is concerned with the equilibrium of
forces and moments in plane and space systems.
The Dynamics of Constructions or better the Structural Dynamics
is concerned with the analysis of dynamic equilibrium conditions of
elements and structures, when inertial forces develop. In this way
Structural Dynamics is interested in the distribution of efforts and
deformations in elements and structuring under dynamic loads, when large
variations in time are existent.
Earthquake Engineering deals with related items as before, but
under the conditions of random excitations, produced by seismic waves,
generated by earthquakes. Since our country has a large part of its territory
(about 2/3 of the whole country) submitted to seismic shocks exceeding
four degree of intensity, the behavior of structures situated in seismic zones
must be carefully analyzed. The strength of materials deals with the
dimensioning and checking of structural elements in different loading
situations, in other words with the stress and strain analysis of deformable
bodies. The strength of materials is based on the specific behavior of
members and structures under different states of loading and also on the
data provided by previous mentioned disciplines, namely Structural Statics
and Structural Dynamics. We have in mind the distribution of internal
forces and deformations along the component elements.
A more profound and general analysis of stress-strain distribution
within the elastic limits, available mostly for bidimensional and space
structures (like diaphragms, slabs, shear-walls, buttress systems) is given
by the Theory of Elasticity. A similar target, treating the stress and strain
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distribution in structures beyond the elastic limits, in the plastic range of


behavior, is achieved by the Theory of Plasticity.

Fig. 1.1
Soil Mechanics, Model Analysis, Numerical Methods and
Computer Aided Design are also of great importance in the design of any
type of construction. These branches of knowledge belong without doubt
to the group of discipline closely connected to Structural Mechanics.
The Theory of Stability makes a checking of local and general
conditions of member and structure stability, including the so-called
buckling, warping, etc.

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The sequence of mechanical conditions encountered in structural


analysis and design can be written as follows:
Interaction with environment (Loading) Internal Forces
(Bending moments, Shear forces, Axial forces) Stress-Strain
distribution (, , ) Structural Design.
The choice of the structural layout, the arrangement of structural
members in order to take over in good conditions the external actions (or
loading), depending on the serviceability and destination of the
construction, on the available materials and on local site conditions, is
based upon the results provided by the above mentioned sections of the
Structural Mechanics.
The block diagram of the design process including the normal steps
involved is summarized in Figure 1.1.
As it can be seen, structural design is followed, especially in the
implementation of new types of systems, by a very important step called
Testing and Checking of Structures, intended to check and scale on a
realistic base by means of experimental investigations the theoretical
assumptions and. results obtained in previous steps. Analytical models
must be submitted to an experimental control, such analysis was
successfully undertaken for instance in Earthquake Engineering, where
studies made on shaking tables simulating seismic shocks permitted the
qualification of many types of structures located in seismic areas.
In this respect, the significance of physical models designed and
achieved under the control of similitude laws is relevant.
Experimental model investigations afford reliability in the
analytical computations, very often obtained with sophisticated alternative
computer aided design.

1.2 Short Review of Achievements in Structural Mechanics


As it was shown, achievements in Structural Mechanics are closely
connected with the level of mankind's civilization during its past history. In
all societies, starting with the primitive age, constructions and civil
engineering knowledge acquired an essential role in the social-economic
development passing from empirical design and execution methods in
most cases transmitted through many generations to modern and efficient
and sophisticated technologies and procedures based on a better

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understanding of the mechanical behavior of structural elements submitted


to various types of loading. Undoubtedly, a review of the achievements in
structural mechanics across history would require a much extended space
which is beyond the authors intention. Therefore we dare only emphasize
some scientists and forerunners whose contributions in structural
mechanics especially in Statics have been essential.
At the beginning, in Antiquity, and later in the Middle Ages, civil
and military engineering produced constructions like pyramids, fortresses,
boroughs, all kinds of bridges, aqueducts, cathedrals, roads for light and
heavy traffic, and so forth which were conceived with large dimensions
using local materials like earth, clay, stones, timber. These materials have a
good strength in compression, but behave not well under tension. Slender
structures and elements were not possible in that time when reinforced
concrete and mild steel profiles were unknown. Only with the advent of
new building materials like plain concrete, reinforced concrete, rolled steel
profiles, together with up-to-date technologies like prestressing, prefabs,
etc, became possible to design construct large-span elements, multistory
buildings and frames, bridges and daring space systems most of them
belonging to the twentieth century.
A few of the ancient constructions which resisted in time up to
present days were the Egyptian pyramids. They were built five thousands
years ago, with a tremendous human effort in order to shelter the bodies of
deceased pharaohs, one of them, the Keops's
pyramid, reaches 147 m in height is made
from two millions of heavy lime stone
blocks. The large area of the base warranted
a great stability and strength in time. We say
pyramids are solids of equal stress
distribution for gravific loads.
Natural stone was the main building
material in that time. Among different types
of stones, marble is one of the most longtime resistant and beautiful building
materials, and, therefore, in Antiquity,
Fig. 1.2
columns, arches, architraves, beams and
slabs were made front. Pericle's Age is the most striking example of
marvelous constructions ever created in the history of mankind. The
Romans who are considered great builders of roads, bridges, thermae and a

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lot of utilitary constructions, used also stone bricks but also a sort of
concrete called puzzolana. Until the present time there are many bridges,
roads, aqueducts, two thousand years old, and stilt able to perform their
function.
We must mention the famous bridge at Drobeta-Turnu Severin over
Danube belonging to Appolodor from Damascus (60-125 A.D.).
Witnessing about advanced building knowledge and technology even in
those times, Appolodor was a Roman architect and a military engineer in
the epoch of the reign of Traian and Hadrianus. He built this bridge resting
upon 20 stone piers connected by arches in a very inspired manner. He also
built the magnificent Forum Traiani, the Thermae from Rome and many
other monuments, including Traian's Column. It is easy to ascertain that,
even in those times, principles of Mechanics were known, of course in an
embryonic way, but based on the knowledge of mathematics developed by
Archimedes, Pythagora, and so forth.
Massive constructions with vaults and buttresses or abutments were
typical in Antiquity and in the Middle Ages. On the contrary, the modern
man has learnt to design and construct a plethora of slender and tall
buildings able to withstand wind gusts, tornadoes, earthquake shocks and
other types of loading due to the interaction of the structure with the
surrounding medium. In Chicago there is a very tall building called Sears
Tower, having a height of 443 m. It
has 110 stories and has a great
safety.
The first rules based on
practical investigations concerning
the behaviour of beams, load
transmission the mechanism of
failure,
issued
during
the
Renaissance: Leonardo da Vinci
(1452-1519) made investigations in
this field. He was a forerunner of
modern experimental analyses in
Fig. 1.3
many fields of mechanics. Leonardo
investigated friction, falling of bodies, centroids, strength of different
materials. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) dealt with the distribution of
internal forces up to failure of bodies, including cantilever beams, carrying
out experimental tests, although some conclusions concerning stress

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distribution proved later to be wrong.


Development of Mathematics, Physics and related sciences in the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries gave rise to theoretical and
experimental investigations concerning the strength of materials, elements
and structures at different types of actions, both static and dynamic.
The famous scientist Robert Hooke (1635-1703) expressed the law
of stress and strain proportionality (or elasticity law) - ut tensio sic vis.
Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705) studied the deformations of beams,
developing the statement of plane sections before and after the
deformation.
Structural Mechanics, in
particular Structural Statics is
based on the three fundamental
principles of the elastical
mechanics established by Isaac
Newton (1642-1727), prominent
English mathematician, physicist
and astronomer, in 1687. His
capital work is Mathematical
Principles of the Natural
Philosophy. The conditions of static and dynamic equilibrium are a result
of these particular Structural Statics is based of internal force distribution
in any type of principles and enable the study structure.
Leonard Euler (1707-1783) developed the mathematical basis for
the member stability (buckling). His deductions became relevant and of
great practical interest only later, during the design and execution of
slender structures like truss systems for bridges and industrial halls. Let us
consider only two examples: St. Laurent Bridges in U.S.A. and Tay
Bridge in Scotland. In the first case, a collapse took place at the deck of
bridge under construction during the execution of the Gerber system. This
was due to the slenderness of some compressed elements which were not
checked for buckling effect. In the second case, the collapse of the railway
bridge (Tay Bridge) occurred on 28 December 1879 just when the train
moved over the bridge, the accident being a worldwide event. It seems
that the collapse was due to the effect of the superposition of gravity loads
with the wind gusts of a snow-storm action of the increased front area
created by the moving train on the deck. The overturning moment
produced extraordinary stress concentration leading to a major damage of
the structure.
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C. A. Coulomb, K. Culmann, I. Cremona, A. Ritter, 0. Mohr and


others have made major contributions in the field of analytical and
graphical statics. The methods elaborated by these authors will be
discussed later.
The introduction of the reinforced concrete construction in
structural design enabled the achievement of modern shapes like shells,
cupolas, industrial frameworks, tall buildings with various utilities,
combined structures for bridges, etc. Statically indeterminate structures
have been conceived in the twentieth century satisfying ever increasing
technological requirements. In this sense we recall scientists like B.
Freyssinet, A. Vierendeel, Muller-Breslau, S. Timoshenko, professor
Hardy Cross, and many others. Romanian researchers like Ion lonescu, Gh.
Filipescu, Anton Sesan, and of course, Anghel Saligny, represent only a
few examples of famous civil engineers and specialists whose
contributions are of paramount importance in this field.
One of the most remarkable among Romanian scientists in Civil
Engineering was undoubtedly Anghel Saligny (1854-1925). He was a
designer, consulting engineer with great experience in many fields of civil
engineering, professor at the Scoala Nationala de Poduri si Sosele in
Bucharest, also president of the Romanian Academy. In 1882 Anghel
Saligny designed and built the railway system of bridges on Adjud-Tg.
Ocna line and the combined traffic-railway bridge over Siret River at
Costinesti. In 1884-1889 he was responsible for the construction of docks,
silos and warehouses in Galati and Braila, using a great many original
solutions. He introduced for the first time in our country prefabs and castin-place elements. His most important achievement was the designing in
May 1 888 and after that, the execution in 1890-1855, after a tough
worldwide competition with the highest specialists in this field, of the
bridge system over Danube, near Cernavoda, an original and reliable
achievement - the biggest in Europe at that time, the bridge has the largest
span reached on the continent at that time and represents an balanced
efficient solution reflecting the distribution of internal forces in the system
(this will be discussed in the respective section).
The deck structure consists of metallic truss beams (Fig. 1.4)
provided with cantilevers and overhanging beams and having a central
span with the length of 190m; the main part of the bridge system has a
length of 750m, ail the bridge summing a total of 4 km in length. Apart
from the original structural solution, the railroad bridge from Cernavoda
represents a novelty for using mild steel instead of puddling iron, as it was
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used in the construction of other truss systems, for instance the Firth-ofForth Bridge in Scotland.

Fig. 1.4
The list of scientists involved in the progress of structural
mechanics is not exhausted. We tried to review in a few pages only
some of them in order to point out the significance of the object. A
special discipline deals with the evolution of buildings and other
constructions throughout the history.

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BUILDING ELEMENTS, STATES OF


LOADING, TYPES OF STRUCTURES
2.1 Types of Elements
Depending on the place of the building elements in a structure, load
transmission and configuration, states of loading developing in the
structural members can be classified as: compression and stretching,
bending, shearing and torsion. Most of the cross-sections are stressed in
combined states of loading. For example a beam or a girder are stressed
rarely in pure torsion, or bending, in most cases in bending and shearing. A
column is submitted to compression, which is an axial force, but in most
cases to compression with bending a.s.o.
Taking into account the proportion between dimensions (length,
width and depth), also the mechanical behavior as it was stated before, we
can mention the following types of elements:
axial long members (bar-shaped) having usually the ratio 1/5;
bidimensional members (plates and slabs);
tridimensional elements (blocks) as abutments, dams, retaining
walls, foundations.
In the case of bars, one of the dimensions, the length, prevails over
the other two. The length magnitude is greater than the cross-sectional
dimensions, usually 1/h > 5. Beam-gaped elements, frame girders, vertical
and inclined columns, truss elements, tie-rods, arches belong to this

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category. Very thin elements, having negligible transverse rigidity are


called threads, ropes or cables and are able to take only stretching forces.
Characteristic elements of the bar-shaped members are: the longitudinal
axis, the shape and dimensions of the cross-section (Fig. 2.1).

Fig. 2.1
Plates and slabs have two dimensions (length and of the same range
width) of magnitude, greater than the third dimension (depth). The locus of
all depth midpoints of a plate (may be flat or curved shaped) is called the
average surface (Fig. 2.2) depending on the shape of the median (average)
surface, plates can be plane, usually called slabs, or shells (with simple or
double curvature). The depth is measured normally to the average surface
of the plate. Structures or elements like diaphragms, shear-walls, greatpanel buildings or cellular systems belong to this category.
Many structures made out of elements with longitudinal straight
axis and are assembled by means of joints, hinges as it is seen in Figures
2.5 and 2.6. The load transmission to the surrounding medium is made
means of plane or space support which can be rollers, hinges or pins,
clamping systems and other type of restraints or supports.

Fig. 2.2
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As it will be explained in more detail later, in civil engineering,


these structures are stable systems.
A part of thin space structures, conceived according to the natural
stress distribution laws, having a very small depth as compared with
overall dimensions whose stiffness in bending is negligible, are denoted
shells. Bending moments in shells do not appear for a certain design
loading corresponding to the shell configuration and to a given support
positioning. Cupolas, geodesic domes, aerial and underground
containments, cable-stayed roofs, cooling towers belong mostly to the shell
type (Fig. 2.3 and 2.4).

Fig. 2.3

Fig. 2.4

Blocks are characterized by a three-dimensional behavior; the three


dimensions are of the same order of magnitude. To this class belong
foundation blocks for isolated columns, abutments, earth and reinforced
concrete dams, a.s.o.

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2.2 Types of Structures


By assembling in different ways bars, plates and blocks, one
obtains a wide range of structural types. A very accurate and precise
classification of structures is not possible and obviously not necessary. In
what follows we try very briefly to review some structural types frequently
used in buildings and other constructions.
Straight beams - stressed mostly in bending, with one bay or
multi-spanned, employed in floors, roofs, bridges systems (in connection
with plates), foundation elements, a.s.o. These beams may be (Fig. 2.5):
simply supported with one span (a) with or without
cantilever; (b) cantilevers; (c) double hinged; (d) fixed
at both ends; (e) fixed-hinged beams;

Fig. 2.5

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Fig. 2.6

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multi-spanned beams which may be: (a) Gerber


systems (with cantilevers and hinges) designed to form
a statically determinate structure; (b) continuous girders
which are statically indeterminate;
space girders submitted to normal actions (h) to the
plane containing the longitudinal axis;
network girders disposed after two directions (i) and
acted normal to their plane;
Broken shaped systems frames are structures made of two or
more straight or curvilinear bars, rigidly connected or hinged in joints.
These structures can be statically determinate systems or redundant ones.
Several such systems are displayed in Figure 2.6. The frame shown in
Figure 2.6 is called one-bay portal frame, the structure drawn in Figure
2.6.d is a multi-bay framework; in Figure 2.6.e is represented a multi-story
one-bay frame; further are given examples of structures with curved axis
and tie-rods (g), a beam-frame called Vierendeel (h).

Fig. 2.7
Arches are structures with curved axis, loaded with forces
contained in their plane and characterized by the developing in supports of
horizontal components of the reactive forces (thrusts), independent of the
size of loading. They are applied as frameworks for social-cultural
constructions, roofs, bridges, arch-dams, etc. In Figure 2.7 are presented
examples of plane arches with different type of supporting.
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Fig.2.8

Combined structures made from interconnected beams and


arches with vertical posts having three distinct set-ups indicated in Figure
2.8: with lower roads-way (a);
with upper road-way (b) and
middle road-way (c).
Cable-stayed structures
roofs having systems of highstrength cables which allow the
achievement of constructions with
very large spans, up to hundred
meters (Fig. 2.9 and 2.10).
Truss systems are
geometrically
indeformable
structures with elements pinned at
joints and taking over only axial
forces; several types of truss
systems are shown in Figure 2.11.
Shear wall and mixed
structures form a distinct class of
structural
systems
including
frame-diaphragms; one of them is
shown in Figure 2.12.

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Fig. 2.9

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Fig. 2.10

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Fig. 2.11

Fig. 2.12

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(in Romanian they are called cedari de reazem) the system of equations
becomes:
n

k 1

ik

X k ip 1 i Rki k

(12.33)

where i are the settlements on the direction of the unknowns Xi., are the
same calculated settlements on the direction of the reaction components (if
any), Rki are the fictitious reaction components given by the virtual forces
acting in i.
Following applications will make clear the practical use of the
above given expressions.

12.8 Steps in the Structural Analysis by Force Method


These steps are the following:
1 The determination of the degree of static indeterminacy
(redundancy).
2 The choice of the primary system.
3 Plotting of moment diagrams on the primary system.
4 Computation of the lateral and main coefficients and of free
terms.
5 Checking of coefficients by means of superimposed diagrams.
6 Solution of the equations system, expressed in algebraic form or
in matrix formulation.
7 Superposition of the effects or the use of wellknown expressions
for drawing the final diagrams of the internal forces.
8 Checking of these diagrams by means of mechanical equilibrium
equations, and/or of the conditions of deformation (geometrical)
compatibility.

12.8.1 Determination of the Degree of Static Indeterminacy


This can be done either by means of the open tree procedure by
removing the supplementary restraints, or by applying the expression
(12.3). We recall that if ns < 0, the system is statically indeterminate.
Another formula is:

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n s 3k s

(12.34)

where k is the number of closed outlines and s the number of the missing
restraints.

12.8.2 The Choice of the Primary Structure


The primary system in most cases is a statically determinate
structure or set of structures. Some examples in this respect are relevant.
For instance, the structure shown in Figure 12.12.a can be subdivided (or
separated) in two substructures (I and II), having three internal restraints
according to the deflection continuity in D and a number of 3 x 2 = 6
external restraints corresponding, to the pins A, B and C. Therefore, using
the open tree procedure, we get:
ns = 3x2 - (3 + 6) = -3

Fig. 12.12
The system is statically indeterminate to the third degree. One of
the possible primary systems is represented in Figure 12.12.a. The
redundant unknowns are the horizontal reaction X1 in A, and the moments
X2, X3 in the respective sections.
The continuous beam in Figure 12.13.a, having five external links
(simple restraints) is statically indeterminate to the second degree, since
ns = 3x1 - (0 + 5) = -2
A frequently adopted primary system for this beam is illustrated in
Figure 12.13.b, represented by a chain of simply supported beams (with or
195

without cantilevers) at which bending moments X1, X2 at the supports are


the redundant unknowns.
Another example of selecting primary systems is represented by
the two stories and one bay frame, shown in Figure 12.14.a. The system
has two closed outlines (without inner hinges), therefore it is 3k times
statically indeterminate, where k is the number of the closed outlines.
3xk = 3x2 = 6

Fig. 12.13
In the force method the frame in Figure 12.14 is statically
indeterminate to the sixth degree. A corresponding primary system to this
frame is presented in Figure 12.14.b. In this case, the original frame is
separated by a cut in the axis of symmetry yielding to two open trees.

Fig. 12.14
As it will be shown later, the choice of the primary system must be
made in a convenient way, in order to obtain as many as possible

196

simplifications in the computation of lateral coefficients in the system of


equations.

12.8.3 Plotting of Moment Diagrams on the Primary Systems


The primary system is successively subjected to the unitary actions
of the unknowns and the moment diagrams M i are plotted, using the
already known sign conventions. An example is given in Figures 12.16.
cf. The diagram Mp due to external forces is also drawn.

12.8.4 Computation of Lateral and Main Coefficients and of Free


Terms
The coefficients of the flexibility matrix ik, and the free terms ip
are usually computed for the structures made from straight bars by means
of Mohr-Maxwell's relation. The available diagrams are M i and Mp
previously

Fig. 12.15

197

plotted. Excepting the loading given by temperature effect, only the


contribution of bending moments is taken into account. This is valid for
frames made from bars with a ratio /h> 5.

12.8.5 Checking of Coefficients by Means of Superimposed Diagrams


Before solving the system of equations, a checking of the
coefficient computation is advisable. To this aim the diagram Ms produced
by the simultaneous action of all unknowns Xi = 1 will be constructed. The
checking of lateral and main coefficients is made as follows:
on a row:
n
M i M 1 M 2 M n
M M
dx i s dx (12.35.a)
EI
EI
k 1
k 1

is ik
k 1

must be equal:
n

k 1

ik

i1 i 2 in

(12.35.b)

For example,
first row (i = 1):

1s 11 12 1n

(12.35.c)

second row (i = 2):

2 s 21 22 2 n

(12.35.d)

and so forth.
on a column:
n

MkMs
dx
EI
k 1

(12.36.a)

1k 2 k nkn

(12.36.b)

sk
must be equal to
n

i 1

ik

198

For example,
first column (k = 1):

s1 11 21 n1

(12.36.c)

second column (k = 2):

s 2 12 22 n 2

(12.36.d)

and so forth.
A general checking of these coefficients is done by means of the
n

summation of all the coefficients

i 1

is

M sM s
dx
EI
k 1

is ss
i 1

(12.37)

Checking of free terms is accomplished also by superimposing the


effects of unitary actions:
n

i 1

is

sp

MsMs
dx
EI

(12.38)

These checking warrant the accuracy of the determination of the


coefficients in the system of equations of the force method.

12.8.6 Solution of the Equations System


As it was seen in Section 12.6, a way of determining solutions to
the system of canonical equations is the matrix procedure. The vector {Xi}
is given by the relation (12.28).
Another way of obtaining the redundant unknowns is the wellknown procedure of solving a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. Once
the values of the vector {Xi} are determined, one can proceed to the next
step, the drawing of the final diagrams of internal forces.

199

12.8.7 Plotting of Final Diagrams of Internal Forces


In order to draw the final diagrams of the internal forces (M, T, N)
we can use two ways, leading actually to the same result:
Superimposing the effect of forces, as it has been shown in a
previous section. In the case of the diagram M, this is facilitated by the
existence of the already plotted diagrams Mi and Mp. Multiplying the
values of the ordinates M i by the values of the redundant forces and
adding those given by the diagram Mp we obtain:

M z x M p M 1 X 1 M 2 X 2 M n X n

(12.39)

In the same we have:

T y x T p T1 X 1 T2 X 2 Tn X n

(12.40)

N x x N p N1 X 1 N 2 X 2 N n X n

(12.41)

this requiring the construction of diagrams Ti , N i , Tp, Np.


An alternative way consists in obtaining the values of the shear and
axial forces from the equilibrium equations at joints.
Writing straightly the expressions of internal forces given by
loading and forces Xi, defined in the cross sections of the structure.

12.8.8 Checking the Final Diagrams

By means of the conditions of mechanical equilibrium,


using the equations of force projection:

xi

0,

yi

(12.42.a)

the equation of moment equilibrium


n

M
k 1

ki

(12.42.b)

where i are the neighboring joints and k the joint whose state of
equilibrium is checked.

200

Virtual work conditions in displacements obtained by


converting the structure into an unstable system with one degree of
freedom.
By means of compatibility conditions of strains, computing the
displacements on the direction of the unknowns Xi. Obviously this
magnitude of the displacement must be equal to zero since it is computed
after the direction of a restraint:

X i

M fin M X i
EI

dx

(12.43)

12.9 Simplification Procedures in Solving Structures by


Means of the Force Method
In the aim of simplifying the number of terms in the equation of
condition in the force method, a set of procedures is sometimes used.
These procedures take into account the properties of geometrical, elastical
and restraining symmetry, thus leading to the vanishing of some lateral
coefficients, also to the decrease of the number of the redundant unknowns.
Among the most useful procedures which enable the reduction of the
number of elements in the flexibility matrix [L] of the system, we count:
the use of the symmetry and antisymmetry,
the procedure of half-structures,
the grouping of unknowns,
the transfer of the unknowns in the elastic center,
the use of some unstable primary systems in equilibrium.

201

12.9.1 The Use of Symmetry and Antisymmetry


Due to the symmetry of the structure, some simplifications in the
equations written in the force method will take place. This can be observed
in the next example.

Fig. 12.16

202

Consider the one bay and one story portal frame displayed in
Figure 12.16.a. It is symmetrical in what concerns its geometry, support
distribution and stiffness. At the same time, the loading is symmetrically
distributed over the girder. The primary system is selected as in Figure
12.16.b with redundant unknowns X1, X2, X3 located in the axis of
symmetry.
The unit diagrams are plotted in Figures 12.16.ce and the diagram
given by external loads is drawn in Figure 12.16.f.
The system of equations in the force method is:
11 X 1 12 X 2 13 X 3 1 p 0

21 X 2 22 X 2 23 X 3 2 p 0
X X X 0
32
2
33
3
3p
31 1

(12.44)

We can easily note that all lateral coefficients relating symmetrical


and antisymmetrical unknowns are zero. In this case, X1 and X2 yield also
symmetrical diagrams, whereas X2 yields antisymmetrical diagram. So, we
have:

12 21 23 32 0

(12.45)

At the same time, since the loading is symmetrically distributed, the


free term 2p vanishes too.
In this way, the equations system (12.44) will be:
11 X 1 12 X 2 1 p 0

22 X 2 2 p 0
X X 0
33
3
3p
31 1

(12.46)

which represent actually two subsystems, one contains the symmetrical


unknowns only, while the other - in the case the second equation in (12.46)
containing antisymmetrical unknowns only.

203

In what follows we exemplify this for a statically indeterminate


frame to the sixth degree shown in Figure 12.17. In this case one can
observe that the reduction of the number of coefficients in the force
method is more significant. The system of equations with a 6x6 flexibility
matrix divides in two subsystems with four equations and four unknowns,
respectively with two equations and two unknowns, which can be solved
more rapidly.

204

Fig. 12.17
In this way, the determination of the magnitudes of Xi implies a
small amount of computation:
11 X 1 12 X 2 13 X 3 14 X 4 15 X 5 16 X 6 1 p 0
X X X X X X 0
22
2
23
3
24
4
25
5
26
6
2p
21 1
31 X 1 32 X 2 33 X 3 34 X 4 35 X 5 36 X 6 3 p 0

(12.47)

X X X X X X 0
42
2
43
3
44
4
45
5
46
6
4p
41 1
51 X 1 52 X 2 53 X 3 54 X 4 55 X 5 56 X 6 5 p 0
X X X X X X 0
62
2
63
3
64
4
65
5
66
6
6p
61 1
Symmetrical

X1, X3, X4, X6

Unknowns:

(12.48)

Antysimmetrical X2, X5

12 15 35 32 42 45 62 65 0
also the reciprocal coefficients are zero, since i k = k i .
The subsystem with symmetrical unknowns is:

205

(12.49)

11 X 1 13 X 3 14 X 4
X X X
33
3
34
4
31 1

X X X
43
3
44
4
41 1
61 X 1 63 X 3 64 X 4

16 X 6 1 p 0
36 X 6 3 p 0
(12.50)
46 X 6 4 p 0
66 X 6 6 p 0

The subsystem with antisymmetrical unknowns is:


22 X 2 25 X 5 2 p 0

X X 0
55
5
5p
52 2

(12.51)

12.9.2 The Procedure of Half-Structures


The half-structures are conventional structures based as previously
on the structural and mechanical symmetry and antisymmetry. They are
obtained by cutting the given system in the axis of symmetry and by
inserting in these sections the restraints corresponding to the actual
situation of strain. The supports or restraints introduced in these points for
the two substructures replace the effect of the removed part and are
intended to create an identical situation to the actual structure.
For instance, when along the direction of the axis of symmetry
there is a column, it will be converted into the half-structure - in the case
of antisymmetrical loading - into a member with a halved bending rigidity
EI. In this direction, let us consider four characteristic cases.
CASE No. 1 - A symmetrically loaded structure, at which the
axis of symmetry cuts a bar. This is the case of the one bay portal frame
with one storey in Figure12.18.a. The point A, situated on the axis of
symmetry after the deformation due to external forces reaches the position
A, hence the following displacements appear:
the horizontal displacement u = 0;
the vertical deflection v 0, (v = AA");
the slope of the girder in that point = 0.

206

In this way, the half-structure will


be obtained by replacing the removed
part by a guide support (fixing) in A as it
is shown in Figure 12.18.b, permitting
only a vertical translation.
The corresponding unknowns
will be for this half-structure X1 and X2
that is the axial force and the bending
moment in A (Fig. 12.18.c).
In this way, the half-structure will
be indeterminate to the second degree. If
the internal force diagrams are drawn on
the left subsystem, this will be
transferred symmetrically over to the
right one.

Fig. 12.18
We suggest solving the
frame in Figure 12.18 by means of this
procedure, finally constructing the
diagrams of the internal forces.
CASE No. 2 - A
symmetrically loaded structure at which
the axis of symmetry cuts a column.
Consider the two bay frames with one
story shown in Figure 12.19. Point A has
no deflection in any direction. Therefore
u = v = = 0.
In this way point A behaves like a fixing
restraint, resulting the half-structure
shown in Figure 12.19.b. The primary

207

Fig. 12.19

system in the force method is illustrated in Figure 12.19.c. It corresponds


to a statically indeterminate one to third degree.
Like in the previous case, the results of the statical analysis are
transposed over the other half-structure.

Fig.12.20

Fig. 12.21
CASE No. 3 - An antisymmetrically loaded structure at
which the axis of symmetry cuts a bar.
Consider the one bay frame (Fig.12.20.a) with one storey
loaded with two forces P/2 acting on the horizontal direction.
Constructing the deflection of the structure, we can state that point A
reaches in A', having following elastic displacements (Fig.12.20.a):
u 0, v = 0, 0.
Therefore in A is introduced a roller according to the above
mentioned deflections. The primary system is indeterminate to the first
degree (Figs.12.20.c and 12.20.d).
208

CASE No. 4 - An antisymmetrically loaded structure at which


the axis of symmetry cuts a column. In this situation the moment of inertia
of the column for the half-structure is Is/2. Therefore, the replacing system
shown in Figure 12.21 is a one bay portal frame which can be easily solved.

Fig. 12.22
In the last two cases, the diagrams of internal forces over the halfstructure will be: N and M antisymmetrical diagrams and T symmetrical
diagram.
For the frame shown in Figure 12.22 we meet all the four studied
cases. The loading can be decomposed in a symmetrical set of forces and
in an antisymmetrical one (Figs. 12.22.b and 12.22.c). The equivalent halfstructures are given in Figures 12.22.d and 12.22.e. The final diagrams of
the internal forces are obtained by superimposing the diagrams from the
symmetrically loaded structure to those from the antisymmetrically loaded
one.

209

Fig. 12.23
12.9.3 The Grouping of Unknowns
The procedure using the grouping of the unknowns leads also to the
decrease of the number of elements in the flexibility matrix, consequently
to the simplification of the equation system in the force method. In this
situation we can also obtain the reduction of some lateral coefficients, for
any kind of loading if the structure enjoys geometrical and elastic
symmetry.
The procedure consists in the replacement of the unknowns (which
are located in symmetrical sections) by pairs of symmetrical and
antisymmetrical forces this leading to the possibility of drawing
symmetrical and antisymmetrical unit diagrams. In this way the equations
system will be separated in two independent systems, namely:
one system corresponding to the symmetrical unknowns,
another system corresponding to the antisymmetrical unknowns.
The lateral coefficients linking the replacing (grouped) symmetrical
and antisymmetrical unknowns become zero such as will be seen in the
following application.
Consider the structure in Figure 12.23 which is a symmetric
framework. The original unknowns Xi (i = 1, 2... 6) considered in the
symmetric sections A and B of the primary system (Fig.12.23.b) are grouped
in symmetrical and antisymmetrical forces Yi. (Fig.12.23.c). Therefore,
instead of six simple unknowns Xi six pairs of unknowns Yi are considered.

210

We notice that the unknowns Y1, Y2, Y3 are symmetrical and Y4, Y5,
Y6 are symmetrical.
X1 = Y1+Y4

X2 = Y2 +Y5

X3 = Y3 + Y6

X4 = Y1 - Y4

X5 = Y2 - Y5

X6 = Y3 - Y6

Symmetrical:

(12.52)

Y1 Y2 Y3

Antisymmetrical: Y4 Y5 Y6

(12.53)

In what follows we will write the equations system containing the


new selected unknowns Yi. The flexibility matrix is a symmetrical one.
11Y1 12Y2 13Y3 14Y4 15Y5 16Y6 1 p 0
Y Y Y Y Y Y 0
22 2
23 3
24 4
25 5
26 6
2p
21 1
31Y1 32Y2 33Y3 34Y4 35Y5 36Y6 3 p 0

Y Y Y Y Y Y 0
42 2
43 3
44 4
45 5
46 6
4p
41 1
51Y1 52Y2 53Y3 54Y4 55Y5 56Y6 5 p 0
Y Y Y Y Y Y 0
62 2
63 3
64 4
65 5
66 6
6p
61 1

(12.54)

where

14 25 36 35 24 26 16 15 34 0 (12.55)
One can ascertain that two independent subsystems of equations are
obtained:
11Y1 12Y2 13Y3 1 p 0
Y Y Y 0
22 2
23 3
2p
21 1
31Y1 32Y2 33Y3 3 p 0

Y Y Y 0
45 5
46 6
4p
44 4
54Y4 55Y5 56Y6 5 p 0
Y Y Y 0
65 5
66 6
6p
64 4

211

(12.56)

W i

li
Ii

(12.59)

and the expressions of the coefficients becomes:

Fig. 12.24
M 1M 3
y 1 dx
dx
ydW S ox (12.60)
I
I
where Sox is the static moment of the elastic loads against x axis,
M M
x 1
E 23 2 3 dx
dx xdW S oy
(12.61)
I
I
where Soy is the static moment of the elastic forces against y axis,
M M
yx
E 12 1 2 dx
dx I xy
(12.62)
I
I
where Ixy is the product of inertia of elastic loads,
M 1M 1
y2
E 11
dx
dx y 2 dW I x
(12.63)
I
I
where Ix is the axial moment of inertia of elastic loads against the x axis,
M M
x2
E 22 2 2 dx dx x 2 dW I y
(12.64)
I
I
where Iy is the axial moment of inertia of elastic loads against the y axis,
M M
1
E 33 3 3 dx dx dW W
(12.65)
I
I
where W is the resultant of elastic loads.
E 13

213

We know that the static moments against the main axes of inertia
passing through the centroid are zero.
The coordinates of the centroid are computed with the relations:

xG

Ax
A
i

yG

A y
A
i

(12.66)

The condition of vanishing of coefficients 13 and 23 means the


vanishing of the statical moments Sox, and Soy, respectively, hence the
elastic center is just the centroid of elastic loads. The coordinates of this
elastic center are therefore computed with the expressions of a centroid:

W y
W
W y
d
W

S ox 13

W
33
S oy
W

23
33

(12.67)

By means of the unknown transfer in the elastic center, the


coefficients 13 and 23 vanish, therefore the equations system becomes:
11' X 1 12' X 2 '1 p 0
'
'
'
21 X 1 22 X 2 2 p 0
' X ' 0
3p
33 3

(12.68)

For structures provided with many closed outlines, also for two
fixed end arches, it may be useful to vanish also the coefficient 12' and the
similar ones. In this case, the centrifugal product of inertia I has to become
zero and consequently the axes OX, OY must be main axes of inertia. The
respective directions are determined by means of the relation:
tg 2

2 I xy
Ix Iy

2 12
11 22

(12.69)

In this way the unknowns X1 and X2 will be directed after the main
axes of inertia, such obtaining the vanishing of all lateral coefficients:

214

11' X 1 '1 p 0
'
'
22 X 2 2 p 0
' X ' 0
3p
33 3

(12.70)

Fig. 12.24 (continued)

Fig. 12.25
When the structure has an axis of symmetry, this is a principal
direction too. If not, we give up in vanishing the last lateral coefficient 12
since the computation of the coefficients against the rotated axis implies
cumbersome computation. The practical determination of the elastic center
by means of the elastic loads can be made directly, considering these loads
as external forces and their centroid will be established in a very easy
manner, without resorting to any kind of formula.
215

For instance, for the frame displayed in Figure 12.25 one can
consider two loading situations: first, acted on by the vertical elastic loads,
such resulting the coordinate c, secondly acted on by the same elastic loads
but acting horizontally, such resulting the ordinate d (Figs.12.25.a and
12.25.b).
The rigid bar can be attached by the free ends of the two parts of
the primary system (Figs.12.25.c and 12.25.d):

W c
W

i i
i

W c
W

i i
t

1

0 2 2 3 0
I 2
I
c 2I
1 2 3

2I I
I

W d
W
i

W i

i
Ii


2

3 3 2 1 3
I 2 2I 2
d I
1 2 3

2I I
I

(12.71)

(12.72)

12.9.5 Unstable Primary Systems in Equilibrium


In the case of redundant structures having two or many axes of
symmetry and symmetrically distributed loads, we can consider as a
primary system an unstable, but balanced one. This will be possible for that
situation when the redundant unknowns Xi and the external forces are in
static equilibrium.

Fig. 12.26
The following application will clear this procedure, Figure 12.26.a
shows a rectangular closed outline (without hinges) having two axes of
symmetry end being statically indeterminate to the third degree. A
kinematic (unstable) primary system like that presented in Figure 12.26.b
216

is adopted. In order to fulfill the above mentioned conditions, the system


has pins at the corners and is also symmetrically loaded. In this case the
unknown is the continuity moment X1.
In the same way, the hexagonal structure, forming also a closed
outline, which is symmetrical against the center of the circumscribed circle
(Fig.12.27.a)
and
again
symmetrically loaded, can be
replaced in the force method by an
unstable primary system in
equilibrium (Fig. 12.27.b).
In both cases, we can write
only one compatibility equation
for the deflections, the redundant
unknown being X1.
Fig. 12.27
In this way, the elastic equation of displacements is

11 X 1 1 p 0

(12.73)

In order to calculate the coefficients 11 and 1p we proceed by


drawing diagrams M 1 and MP; we solve then for X1:
X1

1 p

11

(12.74)

The final moments in the indeterminate frame result by


superimposing the effects - equation (12.39).
In the case of the rectangular closed shown in Figure 12.26 the
coefficients are computed by means of the Mohr-Vereshtchagyn procedure
as follows:

11
1 p

M 1M 1
2

1 1 1 2 1 6 2
EI
EI
EI

M 1M p
EI

3 p 32
2 2 p 12
2 p 22

1 1
2 1
EI 3 8
3 8
2 EI

217

Fig. 12.28
In this way the magnitude of X1 will result:
X1

1 p

11

3 p 32 EI
p 2

2
2 EI 6 2
4

The diagrams of the internal forces are drawn in Figure 12.28.


In the case of hexagonal closed frame shown in Figure 12.27,
the static analysis is made in similar manner:

11
1 p

M 1M 1
6
6R

1 R 1
EI
EI
EI

M 1M p
EI

6
PR R 1
3PR 2

2
1
EI
4 2 2
4 EI

hence:
X1

1 p

11

218

PR
8

X1

1 p

11

PR
8

The moment at the middle of the hexagon sides is:


M2

PR PR PR

4
8
8

The diagrams of internal forces are drawn in Figure 12.29.

Fig. 12.29

12.10 The Analysis of Deflections at the Straight Beam


12.10.1 The Flexibility Matrix in Bending
In order to write elastic conditions for solving indeterminate simple
beams, let us express the end rotations of the deflected shape of a simple
straight beam, that is, let us establish the elements of the flexibility matrix
in bending.
We proceed by expressing separately these elements at the unit
actions M' = 1 and M" = 1, and at the action of the external loads (Fig.
12.30). The corresponding rotations (slopes) , , , , , are the
elements of the flexibility matrix and of the vector of rotations produced by
external loading at the ends of the simple beam. These parameters can be
computed by means of any method available in Structural Mechanics.
Afterwards we can use the superposition of effects. The vector of
end rotations {, }T can be expressed in terms of the flexibility
coefficients , , , and of the vector of slopes {, }T due to external
loads:

219

'
M ' '
'



''

'
'
'
'


M ''

(12.75.a)
or
' ' M ' M '' '

'' '' M '' M '' ''

(12.75.b)

In the general case, when the


moment of inertia is variable, we must
use the general expressions of the end
rotations:

Fig. 12.30
'
'
'
M x x
1
dx 2
0
EI x

EI 0

''
''
M x x
1

dx 2

0
EI x
EI 0

' ''

'

I0 x'

dx
Ix

(12.76.a)

I0 2
x dx
Ix

M x x '
1
dx 2
EI x
EI 0

M p x x '
dx
EI x

''

220

I0
xx ' dx
Ix

M p x x
dx
EI x

(12.76b)

(12.76.c)

For a constant stiffness (without haunches or other type of variation


of the cross section) we have:

' ''

,
, '
m ' , ''
m ''
3EI 0
6 EI 0
6 EI 0
6 EI 0
'

''
6 EI 0

2 1 M ' m '

'' ''
1 2 M m

(12.77)

(12.78)

For instance, for a double fixed


beam acted on by a uniformly
distributed force the loading factors,
will be:
6 EI 0 p 3
p 2
m m

24 EI 0
4
(12.79)
'

''

Efficient structural design supposes the


adoption of component elements at
which the material distribution follows
as such as possible much the variation
of the internal forces in the structure. In
order to satisfy this goal, also to avoid
the El concentration of the internal
forces in the neighborhood of joints,
bars with variable cross section on
certain parts or over the whole length
are used. The thickenings of the
elements over these parts are called
haunches. The elements of reinforced
concrete structures, but sometimes also
of the steel ones, are provided with
haunches. When the height of the cross
Fig. 12.31
section varies linearly, straight haunches
are obtained. When the height varies as a
parabola, the haunches are parabolic. The haunches are provided either at both
beam ends, or at one extremity only. The variation of the cross section height
can be also carried out on the whole length of the bar. The variation of the

221

cross section of metallic girders is accomplished through the number of


steel strips according to the distribution of the internal force. The column
of the industrial halls provided with overhead-traveling cranes is designed
with tapered section.
Due to the variation of the cross section height, the moment of
inertia varies along the bar; in such a way the computation of the terms
(12.76) becomes more complicated. The displacements at elements with
variable moment of inertia are expressed in terms of the displacements of
the bar with constant section, by means of certain correcting coefficients.
The expressions of the correcting coefficients are derived considering the
tapered (hunched) beam and the moment diagrams produced by the action
of the end unit moments. In this way the displacements are:

'

''

c ' , ''
c ,
c
3EI 0
3EI 0
6 EI 0

c'

3
3

k'

I0 ' 2
3
x dx, c '' 3
Ix

I0
M p x ' dx
Ix

k ''

M p x ' dx

I0 2
x dx
Ix

I0
M p xdx
Ix

(12.80.a)

(12.80.b)

(12.80.c)

M p xdx

The above given expressions of correcting factors are computed


taking into account the shape and relative length of the haunch and for k'
and k" the type of loading too and are to be taken from the nomogram or
tables for continuous beams [1, 8], computed for different types of
haunches and loads in terms of Iv / I (Iv, is the length of the haunch - vut,
in Romanian - and I is the span length) and I0 / I (I0 is the reference
moment of inertia, usually the minimum one, and is the moment of inertia
at the support).
For symmetrical haunches the coefficients c, c" are equal. If the
loading is symmetrical, the coefficients k' and k" are also the same.
In what follows the magnitudes of the end rotations using the
method of conjugate beam (El=const.) (Fig. 12.31) will be derived.

222

0 ''

1
1

0 ''
EI
2 3
6 EI

0 ''

1
1 2


0 ''
EI
2 3
3EI

0 '

1
1

0 '
EI
2 3
6 EI

'

1 M p x '
x dx,
0 EI x

''

1 M p x
xdx
0 EI x

Application no. 1
Let us consider a fixed-end beam (Fig. 12.32), that is a beam whose
ends are completely fixed against rotation. Determine, by means of the
expressions yielding the slopes at the ends of a beam with a constant cross
section, the distribution of the internal forces.

' ' M ' M '' ''


''
''
''
''
''
M M
' '' M ' '' M '' '' ' 0
2 '
''
''
''
M M 0

' '' M ' '' '' ' 0 M '

' ' M ' M ''


''
'
''
''
''
''
M M

223

'' ' ''


2 ' ''

' M ' 2 M '' ' 0


'
'
' ''
''
''
M M 0

' '' M ' ' ' '' 0 M '

Fig. 12.32

' '' '


2 ' ''

Fig. 12.33

For a constant product of EI, replacing in the above relationships


the coefficients (12.77) and (12.79), the end-fixing moments will be
obtained, as follows:

224

M ' M ''

p 2
12

and the bending moment at the mid-span section is:

p p p 2

'
'
'' 1
M C M M M



2 2 2 2 4
24
2
The shape of the moment diagram is parabolic. Since M' < M", the
shear force results similar with the diagram at the simple beam.
Application no. 2
Let us consider a fixed-end and pinned beam (Fig. 12.33), with a
constant moment of inertia. Solve the beam and let draw the diagrams of
internal forces, using the general expressions of the end slopes.

' ' M ' ' 0


''
'
''
M 0
M'

'
'

'

,
3EI

'

M'
V1

M'

or

T1 V1

V2
3
,
8

5 p
,
8

M max

p 3
24 EI

p 2
8

p p 5 p

,
2
8
8

T x0 V1 px0 0 x0

''

p p 3 p

2
8
8

V2

p p 3 p

2
8
8

T2 V2

px02 9 p 2
V1 x0

2
128

225

3 p
8

The same analysis carried out by means of the force method leads
to the same results.

Fig. 12.34

12.11 Continuous Beams. The Relation of the Three


Moments
12.11.1 General Case
Continuous beams are encountered frequently in many practical
situations. They are statically indeterminate systems, the degree of
redundancy is given by the number of the intermediary supports (if the end
support is a fixing restraint this number becomes greater with one). The
statical analysis of these structures can be made either by means of the

226

force method, or by means of the slope-deflection method. In what follows


the main steps involved in the analysis of continuous beams in the force
method will be given.

Fig. 12.35
A part of such a system is drawn in Figure 12.35. The primary
system consists of a chain or a set of simple beams with continuity
moments acting at end sections. The compatibility conditions refer to the
continuity of the deflected shape of the beam axis:

irel 0 i' i'' 0

(12.81)

M i 1 i 1,i M i i'' i'',i M i 1 i 1,i M i i' i',i 1 0

M i 1 i 1,i M i i' i'' M i 1 i 1,i i'',i i',i 1 0

(12.82)

M i 1 i i 1 M i i 1 M i 1 i'',i i',i 1 0 (12.83)


6 EI i
6 EI i 1
3EI i 3EI i 1
If I i 1 I i I i 1 , we select a reference moment of inertia /0, such
obtaining:

I0
I
I
M i 1 2 i 0 i i 1 0 M i 1 6 EI 0 i'',i i',i 1 0 (12.84)
Ii
I i 3EI i
I i 1

or

'i M i 1 2 'i 'i 1 M i 'i 1 M i 1 mi'' 'i mi' 1 'i 1 0

227

(12.85)

where:

'i i

I0
,
Ii

'i' i 1

I0
I i 1

(12.86)

are called reduced lengths and


6 EI 0 ''
6 Ai''
m ' i ,i ' ,
i
i
''
i

'
i 1

6 EI 0 '
6 Ai''
' i ,i 1 '
i 1
i 1

(12.87)

have the significance of loading factors for the simple supported beam.
They depend upon the type of loading and are tabulated in handbooks
dealing with the analysis of continuous beams [1, 6, 10]. A', and A", are
the reactions of the conjugate beam at the support i in the primary system.
The equation (12.85) is the relationship of the three moments, also
called the Clapeyron's equations.
For a continuous beam with a constant moment of inertia
(Ik = I0 = constant, I ' I i ) the Clapeyron's relationship becomes:

i M i 1 2 i i 1 M i i 1 M i 1 6 Ai'' Ai' 0

(12.88)

In the case of tapered continuous beams, with haunches like in


Figure 12.36 the above derived set of equations becomes:

'i ci M i 1 2 'i ci'' 'i 1 ci' 1 M i 'i 1 ci 1 M i 1


mi'' k i' 'i mi' 1 k i'1 'i 1 0

(12.89)

where ci, ci", c i+1, ci+1, ki, ki+1 are correction factors for tapered beams
(in romanian grinzi cu vute), depending on the relative length of the
haunch and on the ratio Ii = I0.

Fig. 12.36

228

12.11.2 Support Settlements


In the case of support settlements - cedri de reazeme -(Fig.
12.37), the condition (12.81) becomes:

Fig. 12.37

i' i'' i'' i'1 0

(12.90)

For the general case of beams having a constant cross section, we


obtain:

M
i

i 1

2 i i 1 M i i 1 M i 1 mi'' i mi''1 i 1

y i 1 y i y i 1 y i

0
i
i 1

(12.91)

If the only action is the support settlements, the Clapeyron's relation


becomes:

i M i 1 2 i i 1 M i i 1 M i1 yi 1 yi
i

y i 1 y i
0 (12.92)
i 1

In the statical solution for a continuous beam we apply the equation


of Clapeyron for every internal support. If a terminal end is a fixed one, we
must add an extra equation, that is, as many times as the degree of
indeterminacy.
229

i M i 1 2 i i 1 M i i 1 M i1 yi 1 yi
i

y i 1 y i
0
i 1

(12.92)

In the statical solution for a continuous beam we apply the equation


of Clapeyron for every internal support. If a terminal end is a fixed one, we
must add an extra equation, that is, as many times as the degree of
indeterminacy.

12.11.3 The Effect of Temperature Variation


The effect of temperature variation (gradient) occurs for an increase
or decrease of the temperature between the two sides of the element At
since the uniform free variation leads to no internal forces, the expansion
being possible not hindered by any restraint.
We observe that:
it M i i
230

t 0
dx
h

and the relation of Clapeyron becomes:

t i0 t i01
0 (12.93)
i M i 1 2 i i1 M i i1 M i 1 6 EI 0 t
h
h
i 1
i

231

232

12.11.4 Continuous Girder on Elastic Supports


There are many situations in which the intermediary supports
(rollers) lie on a deformable soil or on the water - pontoane - therefore the
vertical displacements have to be taken into account.

Fig. 12.38
The Figure 12.38 presents such a case. Depending on the
supporting medium, the proportionality between the applied forces and the
corresponding deflections is specified by a spring constant or an
embedment coefficient like in Winkler's assumption. In this case we have
for the three neighboring supports:
yi 1 k i 1 Vi 1 , y i k i Vi , y i 1 k i 1 Vi 1

(12.94)

The displacements are proportional to the reactions:


M i 2 M i 1 M i M i 1

i 1
i
M M i M i 1 M i
Vi Vi 0 i 1

i
i 1
M M i 1 M i 2 M i 1
Vi 1 Vi 01 i

i 1
i2
Vy i 1 Vi 01

233

(12.95)

From the above expressions we see that, in this case, a series of five
moments ( M i 2 , M i 1 , M i , M i 1 , M i 2 ) is involved.
Writing the relationship of the three moments with the center in i,
for the case of supports settlements - equation (12.92) - replacing the
deflections y i 1 , y i , y i 1 by the expressions (12.94) and taking into
account the relations (12.95) we obtain a relationship relating the
neighboring five moments M i 2 , M i 1 , M i , M i 1 , M i 2 :
K 1 M i 2 K 2 M i 1 K 3 M i K 4 M i 1 K 5 M i 2 K 6 0

(12.96)

This is the equation of five moments and will be written for all the
intermediary rollers of the continuous beam on elastic supports.
y i 1 f i 1 M i 2 , M i 1 , M i
y i f i M i 1 , M i , M i 1
y i 1 f i 1 M i , M i 1 , M i 2

(12.97)

Application no. 1
Draw the diagrams of internal forces for the continuous beam
shown in Figure 12.39. The stiffness El is constant.
The system is statically indeterminate to the first degree, having
one intermediary simple support. The equation of the three moments is
applied once with the center at 2. Hence it results:
M 1 2 M 2 M 3 6 A2 0 4 M 2 6 A2 0
and
1 2 p 2
p 3
A2 2

2 3 8
12
M2 6
V1 V3

A2
p 2

4
8

p p 2 3 p

2
8
8

234

Fig. 12.39
T x0 V1 px0 0 x0

3
8

The maximum bending moment in the span is:


M max V1 x0
T2left

5 p
,
8

T2right

5 p
8

px02 9 p 2

2
128

V2

5 p 5 p

1.25 p
8
8

Application no. 2
Draw the diagrams of the internal forces for the continuous beam
shown in Figure 12.40. The stiffness El is constant.
The structure is indeterminate to the first degree. We can use for
solving the system either the equation of the three moments with the center
in the intermediary support or the compatibility condition in the same
point, expressed by means of the force method.

235

Fig. 12.40

236

APPENDIX

Tables Relating to Units


The tables in this appendix are useful in identifying and converting units
between the SI and U.S. systems
Table I - Units Commonly Used in Engineering Mechanics

Quantity
force
mass
length
time
moment of force
work or energy
pressure or stress
velocity
angular velocity
acceleration
angular acceleration
mass moment of inertia
moment of inertia of area
momentum
moment of momentum
impulse
angular impulse
mass density
specific weight
power
frequency

SI (Standard International
or 'Metric') Unit
newton (N)
kilogram (kg)
meter (m)
second (s)
Nm
joule (J)(= N m)
pascal (Pa)(= N/m2)
m/s
rad/s
m/s2
rad/s2
kg m2
m4
kg m/s
kg m2/s
Ns
Nms
kg/m3
N/m3
watt (W)(= J/s)
hertz (Hz)(= 1 cycle/s)

237

U.S. Unit
pound (lb)
slug
foot (ft)
second (sec)
lb-ft
ft-lb
lb/ft2
ft/sec
rad/sec
ft/sec2
rad/sec1
slug-ft2
ft"
slug-ft/sec
slug-ft2/sec
lb-sec
lb-ft-sec
slug/f t3
lb/ft3
ft-lb/sec
Hz (same)

Table II - Conversion Factors for SI Units

To Convert From

To

Length, area, volume


meter (m)
m
m
meter' (m2)
m2
meter3 (m3)
m3
Velocity
meter/second (m/s)
feet/second (ft/sec)
feet/minute (ft/min)
m/s
knot (nautical mi/hr)
m/s
mile/hour (mi/hr)
m/s
mile/hour (mi/hr)
kilometer/hour (km/h)
Acceleration
feet/second' (ft/sec)
meter/second' (m/s2)
inch/second' (in./sec)
m/s2
Mass
2
slug (1b-sec /ft)
kg
Force
pound (lb) or
pound-force (lbf)
newton (N)
Density
slug/foot3 (slug/ft3)
kg/m3
Energy, work, or
joule (J)
moment of force footpound or pound-foot
(ft-lb)
(1b-ft)
or newton meter (Nm)
foot (ft)
inch (in.)
statute mile (mi)
foot2 (ft2)
inch' (in.3)
foot3 (ft3)
inch' (in.3)

238

Multiply
By
0.30480
0.025400
1609.3
0.092903
6.4516x10-4
0.028317
1.6387x10-5
0.30480
0.0050800
0.51444
0.44704
1.6093
0.30480
0.025400
14.594

4.4482
515.38

1.3558

Table II (continued)

To Convert From

To

Power
foot-pound/second (ft-lb/sec)
watt (W)
horsepower (hp) (550 ft-lb/sec)
W
Stress, pressure
N/m2 (or Pa)
pound/inch'(1b/in.2 or psi)
pound/foot2(lb/ft2)
N/m2 (or Pa)
Mass moment of inertia
2
slug-foot'(slug-ft or lb-ft-sec2)
kg m2
Momentum (or linear momentum)
slug-foot/second(slug-ft/sec)
kg m/s
Impulse (or linear impulse)
pound-second(lb-sec)
N s (or kg m/s)
Moment of momentum (or angular momentum)
slug-foot2/second(slug-ft2/sec) kg m2s
Angular impulse
pound-foot-second(lb-ft-sec)
N m s (or kg m2/s)

239

Multiply
By
1.3558
745.70
6894.8
47.880
1.3558
4.4482
4.4482
1.3558
1.3558

240

REFERENCES

1.
2.

Amariei, C. I.
a. o.
Strat, Lucian

3.

McGill, King
W.

4.
5.

Strat, Lucian
Chajes,
Alexander
Golden, L.
D.

6.

7.

Torroja,
Eduardo

8.

Posea, N. a. o

9.

Theocaris,
P.S. a. o
Hibbeler, C.
R.
L eet, M. K

10.
11.

12.

14.

Petcu,
Valeriu
Hanganu, S.
a. o.
Ilie, Gh. a. o.

15.

Banut, Valeriu

13.

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-Mecanica si proiectarea structurilor simple,
Iasi, I.P. "Gh. Asachi" 1980
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Technology PWS Publishers, U.S.A. 1985
- Structuri, Iasi, I. P. "Gh. Asachi" 1980
- Structural Analysis, Univ. of Massachussets,
Prentice-Hall 1982
- Static and Strength of Materials, Columbus,
Ohio, Univ. of Dayton, Ch. E. Merrill
Publishing Company 1970
- L e s s t r u c t u r e s a r h i t e c t u r al e s . L e ur
conception. Leur ralisation, Paris, Ed. Eyrolles
1969
- Mecanic aplicat pentru ingineri,
Bucuresti, Ed. Tehnica 1984
-Analiza experimental a tensiunilor,
Bucuresti, Ed. Tehnica 1976
- Structural Analysis, New York,
MacMillan Publishing Company 1988
-Fundamentals of Structural Analysis, New
York, MacMillan Publishing Company
1988
- Structural Analysis. Lecture Notes I,
Bucuresti, Civ. Engng. Div. 1992
-Mecanica constructiilor, Bucuresti, Ed.
Didactics si Pedagogic6 1975
- Mecanica constructiilor, Bucuresti,
Ed. Tehnica 1987
- Calculul neliniar al structurilor, Bucuresti,
Ed. Tehnic 1981

241

- Structural Mechanics. Statics. Handbook


for Students, Iasi, "Gh.Asachi" Technical
Univ. of Iasi 1994
- Statica constructiilor. Structuri
17. Amariei, C. I.
static determinate. Lucrari. Vol. I.1, Iasi, I.
a. o.
P. "Gh. Asachi" 1986
- Statica constructiilor. Lucrari practice
18. Amariei, C. I.
pentru studenti, Iasi, I. P. "Gh. Asachi" 1986
a. o.
19. Amariei, C. I.
- Statica constructiilor. Structuri static
a. o.
nedeterminate. Lucrari. Vol. 11.1, Iasi, I. P.
"Gh. Asachi" 1987
20. Dumitras, Al. a. - Probleme de statica constructiilor. Partea I,
Iasi, I. P. "Gh. Asachi" 1975
o.
21. Dumitras, Al. a. - Probleme de statica constructiilor. Partea
o.
II, Iasi, I. P. "Gh. Asachi" 1976
22. Amariei, C. I.
- Statica constructiilor. Vol. I, Iasi, I. P.
a. o.
"Gh.Asachi" 1973
23. Amariei, C. I.
- Statica constructiilor. Structuri static
a. o.
nedeterminate, Iasi, I. P. "Gh. Asachi" 1981
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electronice, Bucuresti, Ed. Tehnic6 1974
a.o
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25. Wang, Ping
mecanica constructiilor, Bucuresti, Ed.
Chun
Tehnica 1970
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26. Rautu, S.
Didactica si Pedagogica 1972
Banut, V
16. Strat,
Lucian

242

Rezumat

Lucrarea de fats se adreseaza in primul rand studentilor


facultatilor de constructii de la sectiile de studiu in limba engleza, dar
ne place s speram ca utilitatea celor prezentate aici vor fi apreciate si
de specialistii din proiectare, cercetare si chiar din executie.
Scopul volumului de fats s-a dorit a fi, in primul rand, o
prezentare sintetica a principiilor si procedurilor de analiza a
structurilor din bare supuse actiunilor statice in domeniul liniar de
comportare. Din motive independente de vointa autorilor in volumul
de fats sunt prezentate metodele de analiza a structurilor static
determinate curent intalnite, iar din domeniul structurilor static
nedeterminate, numai metoda fortelor, celelalte aspecte necuprinse in
carte urmand a face obiectul celui de-al doilea volum. Explicatiile
teoretice au ca suport aproape intotdeauna aplicatii semnificative,
credem noi, scopului urmarit, mentionand ca suntem deschisi
eventualelor sugestii, propuneri si critici in vederea perfectionarii
manualului.
Interesul elaborarii unei astfel de lucrari intr-o limn de
circulatie internationals este evident. Ca vorbitori ai unei limbi latine,
suntem constienti de prezenta inerentelor erori si de faptul Ca unele
exprimari ar fi putut fi mai rafinate, de aceea indraznim s apelarn la
clementa cititorilor.
Dupa cum am mentionat, domeniul de adresabilitate a lucrarii
nu se limiteaza strict la studentii anilor II si Ill de studiu, ci se doreste
a fi un instrument util si cadrelor didactice care predau aceasta
discipline, dar si celor interesati in cunoasterea terminologiei de
specialitate din domeniul Mecanicii constructiilor, acoperind in acest
sens, in Romania, un domeniu de studiu in care exists carente
bibliografice de acest gen.

243