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You are on page 1of 237

CEZAR AANICAI

STRUCTURAL

STATICS

*

Ed. Gh. Asachi

IASI - 1995

CONTENTS

Foreword

1. Introduction to Structural Mechanics

1.1 The Object and Scope of Structural Mechanics. Constituent

Branches of Knowledge. Connections with other Branches

1.2 Short Review of Achievements in Structural Mechanics

2. Building Elements, States of Loading, Types of Structures

2.1 Types of Elements

2.2 Types of Structures

3. Supports and Reactions in Plane and Space Structures

4. Static Analysis of Structural Systems

4.1 Stable and Unstable Systems

4.2 Internal Force Distribution, General Case and Case of Plane

Beams

5. Beams with Cantilevers and Hinges (Gerber Systems)

5.1 Generalities

5.2 Analysis of Gerber Beams

5.3 Applications

5.4 Indirect Transmission

6. Statically Determinate Frames and Polygonal Bars

6.1 Generalities. Terminology

6.2 Internal Force Distribution Diagrams. Examples

7. Trusses

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Force Distribution in a Truss

7.3 The Method of Joints Isolation

7.3.1 The Analytical Method

7.3.2 The Graphical Variant in the Pins Isolation Method

7.4 The Method of Sections

7.5 The Combined Method for Truss Solution

7.6 Shortcuts and Rigidity. Determinacy Results

7.7 Compound Truss Systems

8. The Use of the Virtual Work Principle in Structural Analysis

8.1 Virtual Displacements

8.2 The Expression of Virtual Work

8.3 The Condition of Static Equilibrium

8.4 Instantaneous Rotation Centers

8.5 Displacement Diagrams

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8.6 The Use of the Virtual Displacement Principle for Reaction and

Effort Determination

9. Influence Lines

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Influence Lines Definition

9.3 Influence Lines for Beams

9.4 Applications

9.4.1 Simply Supported Beam. Analytical Procedure

9.4.2 Simply Supported Beam. Virtual Work Procedure

9.4.3 Cantilever Beam. Analytical Procedure

9.4.4 Cantilever Beam. Virtual Work Procedure

9.4.5 Overhanging Beam. Analytical Procedure

9.4.6 Influence Lines for Gerber Systems

9.5 Influence Lines for Truss Elements

9.5.1 Analytical Method

9.5.2 Virtual Work Method

10.Statically Determinate Arches

10.1 Generalities. Conformation, Classification, Terminology

10.2 Differential Relationship Between Internal Forces and

External Forces at Curved Bars

10.3 Three-Hinged Arch. Analytical Procedure

10.3.1 General Case of Loading and Inclined Springing Line

10.3.2 Inclined Springing Line and Vertical Loading

10.3.3 Vertical Loads and Horizontal Springing Line

10.3.4 Moment Distribution for a Vertically Loaded Arch with

Horizontal Springing Line

10.4 The Arch of Coincidence

10.5 The Graphical Solution of the Three-Hinged Arch

10.6 The Tie-Rod Arch

10.7 Truss Arches

10.8 Applications

10.9 Three-Hinged Arches. Influence Lines

11.Theorems of Reciprocity, Virtual Work Method and Maxwell-Mohr

Expression

11.1 The Theorem of Mechanical Work Reciprocity

11.2 Particular Cases of the Theorem of Work Reciprocity

11.3 The Computation of Elastic Displacements. Maxwell-Mohr

Formula

11.4 Practical Procedure For Solving Integral in Mohr-Maxwell

Expression. Mohr-Vereshtchagyn Procedure

12. Force Method

12.1 Principle of the Force Method

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12.3 Equations of Conditions

12.4 Computation of Coefficients and Free Terms

12.5 Plotting of Internal Force Diagrams

12.6 Matrix Analysis in Force Method

12.7 Account of Temperature Effects and Support Settlements

12.8 Steps in the Structural Analysis by Force Method

12.8.1 Determination of the Degree of Static Indeterminacy

12.8.2 The Choice of the Primary Structure

12.8.3 Plotting of Moment Diagrams on the Primary Systems

12.8.4 Computation of Lateral and Main Coefficients and of

Free Term

12.8.5 Checking of Coefficients by Means of Superimposed

Diagrams

12.8.6 Solution of the Equations System

12.8.7 Plotting of Final Diagrams of Internal Forces

12.8.8 Checking the Final Diagrams

12.9 Simplification Procedures in Solving Structures by Means of

the Force Method

12.9.1 The Use of Symmetry and Antisymmetry

12.9.2 The Procedure of Half-Structures

12.9.3 The Grouping of Unknowns

12.9.4 The Transfer of the Unknowns in the Elastic Center

12.9.5 Unstable Primary Systems in Equilibrium

12.10 The Analysis of Deflections at the Straight Beam

12.10.1 The Flexibility Matrix in Bending

12.11 Continuous Beams. The Relation of the Three Moments

12.11.1 General Case

12.11.2 Support Settlements

12.11.3 The Effect of Temperature Variation

12.11.4 Continuous Girder on Elastic Supports

Appendix (Tables Relating to Units)

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237

Foreword

lectures given to students of the Civil Engineering Department in the

discipline Structural Statics. The first volume deals with the statical

analysis of determinate structures and also with the analysis of some

statically indeterminate systems using the force method. The main

concern of the whole book is to review the fundamental principles and

procedures for the solution of elements and bar-shaped structures when

are subjected to static actions in the elastic range of behavior. The book

intends to become a useful tool, first for students attending the civil

engineering classes with teaching in English, especially in the second and

third years of training in the frame of structural mechanics. Secondly, the

content is also devoted to a large number of specialists involved in higher

education, research, design and execution activities not only in Romania,

also in other regions of the world, where Romanian engineers develop

jobs. The authors dare to believe that the book will be welcome by

foreign people too. Together with other works edited in English for the

use of people attending the Civil Engineering Department, this handbook

enables the students to get accustomed to specific glossary terms and

expressions in the field of the analysis of elements and structures in use

throughout the world.

The interest of producing such a work written in the most

widespread international language is obvious. Nevertheless, the book

may contain some errors and also the expressions worth to be refined.

Any suggestions and proposals for improving the text are welcome and

the authors would be grateful for this.

The authors

INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL

MECHANICS

1.1 The Object and Scope of Structural Mechanics.

Constituent Branches of Knowledge. Connections with

other Branches

MECHANICS - called frequently Engineering Mechanics is one of

the oldest and most important branches of knowledge and of science

mankind ever created. Mechanics developed as a result of experience

acquired by people in the process of daily life, struggle and continuous

endeavour to face the effects and sometimes hostile forces of the

surrounding environmental elements. In order to build a more comfortable

shelter, to produce weapons for fighting enemies and wild beasts, to work

land for getting food, the primary man and his descendants created and

improved a large variety of tools, devices, machines, buildings, according

to his needs and possibilities, changing in this way the face of the earth. All

this increased in time, isolated dwellings became towns, boroughs,

strongholds, more sophisticated engines and technologies emerged,

civilization developed in geometrical progression. In almost every field of

civilization, the knowledge of mechanics was essential.

We can state, without exaggeration, that the entire development of

mechanics throughout the world was always mingled with the evolution of

mankind in History, with the wonderful development of civilization.

11

both theoretical and practical, comprising those branches (disciplines)

dealing with the principles and methods of analysis of stress and strain

distribution in structural members and constructions as a whole (like

buildings, plants, bridges, dams a.s.o.) in the purpose of the efficient

dimensioning and proportioning of the systems both in what concerns the

safety in service, for a given time of life, a also regarding their economical

design with low costs. Structural Mechanics is similar at a higher level of

understanding to a Theory or a Philosophy of structures, and must be

studied not only by civil and structural engineers, but also by architects

involved in the activity of structural design. Always in these intertwining

processes, a balance must be kept between safety and adequate savings of

material and manpower costs.

12

computation and design of the constructions are closely intertwisted and

influence mutually; they are based on the mathematical and physical

approaches; in the same time, they are strongly supported by many

experimental investigations carried out on small-size; models or on full

scale structures and subassemblages (5, 7, 8, 9). Both theoretical and

experimental research works validate or reject made assumptions

underlying structural mechanics developments, defining the design

formulas applied in structural design.

The Statics of Constructions is one of the most important fields of

Structural Mechanics. It deals with the study of the static equilibrium

conditions of structural elements and systems, aiming at determining the

internal forces due to statical loads, also the determination of deformations

and deflections appearing as a result of these static actions, assumed

independent of time. Briefly, Statics is concerned with the equilibrium of

forces and moments in plane and space systems.

The Dynamics of Constructions or better the Structural Dynamics

is concerned with the analysis of dynamic equilibrium conditions of

elements and structures, when inertial forces develop. In this way

Structural Dynamics is interested in the distribution of efforts and

deformations in elements and structuring under dynamic loads, when large

variations in time are existent.

Earthquake Engineering deals with related items as before, but

under the conditions of random excitations, produced by seismic waves,

generated by earthquakes. Since our country has a large part of its territory

(about 2/3 of the whole country) submitted to seismic shocks exceeding

four degree of intensity, the behavior of structures situated in seismic zones

must be carefully analyzed. The strength of materials deals with the

dimensioning and checking of structural elements in different loading

situations, in other words with the stress and strain analysis of deformable

bodies. The strength of materials is based on the specific behavior of

members and structures under different states of loading and also on the

data provided by previous mentioned disciplines, namely Structural Statics

and Structural Dynamics. We have in mind the distribution of internal

forces and deformations along the component elements.

A more profound and general analysis of stress-strain distribution

within the elastic limits, available mostly for bidimensional and space

structures (like diaphragms, slabs, shear-walls, buttress systems) is given

by the Theory of Elasticity. A similar target, treating the stress and strain

13

behavior, is achieved by the Theory of Plasticity.

Fig. 1.1

Soil Mechanics, Model Analysis, Numerical Methods and

Computer Aided Design are also of great importance in the design of any

type of construction. These branches of knowledge belong without doubt

to the group of discipline closely connected to Structural Mechanics.

The Theory of Stability makes a checking of local and general

conditions of member and structure stability, including the so-called

buckling, warping, etc.

14

analysis and design can be written as follows:

Interaction with environment (Loading) Internal Forces

(Bending moments, Shear forces, Axial forces) Stress-Strain

distribution (, , ) Structural Design.

The choice of the structural layout, the arrangement of structural

members in order to take over in good conditions the external actions (or

loading), depending on the serviceability and destination of the

construction, on the available materials and on local site conditions, is

based upon the results provided by the above mentioned sections of the

Structural Mechanics.

The block diagram of the design process including the normal steps

involved is summarized in Figure 1.1.

As it can be seen, structural design is followed, especially in the

implementation of new types of systems, by a very important step called

Testing and Checking of Structures, intended to check and scale on a

realistic base by means of experimental investigations the theoretical

assumptions and. results obtained in previous steps. Analytical models

must be submitted to an experimental control, such analysis was

successfully undertaken for instance in Earthquake Engineering, where

studies made on shaking tables simulating seismic shocks permitted the

qualification of many types of structures located in seismic areas.

In this respect, the significance of physical models designed and

achieved under the control of similitude laws is relevant.

Experimental model investigations afford reliability in the

analytical computations, very often obtained with sophisticated alternative

computer aided design.

As it was shown, achievements in Structural Mechanics are closely

connected with the level of mankind's civilization during its past history. In

all societies, starting with the primitive age, constructions and civil

engineering knowledge acquired an essential role in the social-economic

development passing from empirical design and execution methods in

most cases transmitted through many generations to modern and efficient

and sophisticated technologies and procedures based on a better

15

to various types of loading. Undoubtedly, a review of the achievements in

structural mechanics across history would require a much extended space

which is beyond the authors intention. Therefore we dare only emphasize

some scientists and forerunners whose contributions in structural

mechanics especially in Statics have been essential.

At the beginning, in Antiquity, and later in the Middle Ages, civil

and military engineering produced constructions like pyramids, fortresses,

boroughs, all kinds of bridges, aqueducts, cathedrals, roads for light and

heavy traffic, and so forth which were conceived with large dimensions

using local materials like earth, clay, stones, timber. These materials have a

good strength in compression, but behave not well under tension. Slender

structures and elements were not possible in that time when reinforced

concrete and mild steel profiles were unknown. Only with the advent of

new building materials like plain concrete, reinforced concrete, rolled steel

profiles, together with up-to-date technologies like prestressing, prefabs,

etc, became possible to design construct large-span elements, multistory

buildings and frames, bridges and daring space systems most of them

belonging to the twentieth century.

A few of the ancient constructions which resisted in time up to

present days were the Egyptian pyramids. They were built five thousands

years ago, with a tremendous human effort in order to shelter the bodies of

deceased pharaohs, one of them, the Keops's

pyramid, reaches 147 m in height is made

from two millions of heavy lime stone

blocks. The large area of the base warranted

a great stability and strength in time. We say

pyramids are solids of equal stress

distribution for gravific loads.

Natural stone was the main building

material in that time. Among different types

of stones, marble is one of the most longtime resistant and beautiful building

materials, and, therefore, in Antiquity,

Fig. 1.2

columns, arches, architraves, beams and

slabs were made front. Pericle's Age is the most striking example of

marvelous constructions ever created in the history of mankind. The

Romans who are considered great builders of roads, bridges, thermae and a

16

lot of utilitary constructions, used also stone bricks but also a sort of

concrete called puzzolana. Until the present time there are many bridges,

roads, aqueducts, two thousand years old, and stilt able to perform their

function.

We must mention the famous bridge at Drobeta-Turnu Severin over

Danube belonging to Appolodor from Damascus (60-125 A.D.).

Witnessing about advanced building knowledge and technology even in

those times, Appolodor was a Roman architect and a military engineer in

the epoch of the reign of Traian and Hadrianus. He built this bridge resting

upon 20 stone piers connected by arches in a very inspired manner. He also

built the magnificent Forum Traiani, the Thermae from Rome and many

other monuments, including Traian's Column. It is easy to ascertain that,

even in those times, principles of Mechanics were known, of course in an

embryonic way, but based on the knowledge of mathematics developed by

Archimedes, Pythagora, and so forth.

Massive constructions with vaults and buttresses or abutments were

typical in Antiquity and in the Middle Ages. On the contrary, the modern

man has learnt to design and construct a plethora of slender and tall

buildings able to withstand wind gusts, tornadoes, earthquake shocks and

other types of loading due to the interaction of the structure with the

surrounding medium. In Chicago there is a very tall building called Sears

Tower, having a height of 443 m. It

has 110 stories and has a great

safety.

The first rules based on

practical investigations concerning

the behaviour of beams, load

transmission the mechanism of

failure,

issued

during

the

Renaissance: Leonardo da Vinci

(1452-1519) made investigations in

this field. He was a forerunner of

modern experimental analyses in

Fig. 1.3

many fields of mechanics. Leonardo

investigated friction, falling of bodies, centroids, strength of different

materials. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) dealt with the distribution of

internal forces up to failure of bodies, including cantilever beams, carrying

out experimental tests, although some conclusions concerning stress

17

Development of Mathematics, Physics and related sciences in the

seventeenth and eighteenth centuries gave rise to theoretical and

experimental investigations concerning the strength of materials, elements

and structures at different types of actions, both static and dynamic.

The famous scientist Robert Hooke (1635-1703) expressed the law

of stress and strain proportionality (or elasticity law) - ut tensio sic vis.

Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705) studied the deformations of beams,

developing the statement of plane sections before and after the

deformation.

Structural Mechanics, in

particular Structural Statics is

based on the three fundamental

principles of the elastical

mechanics established by Isaac

Newton (1642-1727), prominent

English mathematician, physicist

and astronomer, in 1687. His

capital work is Mathematical

Principles of the Natural

Philosophy. The conditions of static and dynamic equilibrium are a result

of these particular Structural Statics is based of internal force distribution

in any type of principles and enable the study structure.

Leonard Euler (1707-1783) developed the mathematical basis for

the member stability (buckling). His deductions became relevant and of

great practical interest only later, during the design and execution of

slender structures like truss systems for bridges and industrial halls. Let us

consider only two examples: St. Laurent Bridges in U.S.A. and Tay

Bridge in Scotland. In the first case, a collapse took place at the deck of

bridge under construction during the execution of the Gerber system. This

was due to the slenderness of some compressed elements which were not

checked for buckling effect. In the second case, the collapse of the railway

bridge (Tay Bridge) occurred on 28 December 1879 just when the train

moved over the bridge, the accident being a worldwide event. It seems

that the collapse was due to the effect of the superposition of gravity loads

with the wind gusts of a snow-storm action of the increased front area

created by the moving train on the deck. The overturning moment

produced extraordinary stress concentration leading to a major damage of

the structure.

18

others have made major contributions in the field of analytical and

graphical statics. The methods elaborated by these authors will be

discussed later.

The introduction of the reinforced concrete construction in

structural design enabled the achievement of modern shapes like shells,

cupolas, industrial frameworks, tall buildings with various utilities,

combined structures for bridges, etc. Statically indeterminate structures

have been conceived in the twentieth century satisfying ever increasing

technological requirements. In this sense we recall scientists like B.

Freyssinet, A. Vierendeel, Muller-Breslau, S. Timoshenko, professor

Hardy Cross, and many others. Romanian researchers like Ion lonescu, Gh.

Filipescu, Anton Sesan, and of course, Anghel Saligny, represent only a

few examples of famous civil engineers and specialists whose

contributions are of paramount importance in this field.

One of the most remarkable among Romanian scientists in Civil

Engineering was undoubtedly Anghel Saligny (1854-1925). He was a

designer, consulting engineer with great experience in many fields of civil

engineering, professor at the Scoala Nationala de Poduri si Sosele in

Bucharest, also president of the Romanian Academy. In 1882 Anghel

Saligny designed and built the railway system of bridges on Adjud-Tg.

Ocna line and the combined traffic-railway bridge over Siret River at

Costinesti. In 1884-1889 he was responsible for the construction of docks,

silos and warehouses in Galati and Braila, using a great many original

solutions. He introduced for the first time in our country prefabs and castin-place elements. His most important achievement was the designing in

May 1 888 and after that, the execution in 1890-1855, after a tough

worldwide competition with the highest specialists in this field, of the

bridge system over Danube, near Cernavoda, an original and reliable

achievement - the biggest in Europe at that time, the bridge has the largest

span reached on the continent at that time and represents an balanced

efficient solution reflecting the distribution of internal forces in the system

(this will be discussed in the respective section).

The deck structure consists of metallic truss beams (Fig. 1.4)

provided with cantilevers and overhanging beams and having a central

span with the length of 190m; the main part of the bridge system has a

length of 750m, ail the bridge summing a total of 4 km in length. Apart

from the original structural solution, the railroad bridge from Cernavoda

represents a novelty for using mild steel instead of puddling iron, as it was

19

used in the construction of other truss systems, for instance the Firth-ofForth Bridge in Scotland.

Fig. 1.4

The list of scientists involved in the progress of structural

mechanics is not exhausted. We tried to review in a few pages only

some of them in order to point out the significance of the object. A

special discipline deals with the evolution of buildings and other

constructions throughout the history.

20

LOADING, TYPES OF STRUCTURES

2.1 Types of Elements

Depending on the place of the building elements in a structure, load

transmission and configuration, states of loading developing in the

structural members can be classified as: compression and stretching,

bending, shearing and torsion. Most of the cross-sections are stressed in

combined states of loading. For example a beam or a girder are stressed

rarely in pure torsion, or bending, in most cases in bending and shearing. A

column is submitted to compression, which is an axial force, but in most

cases to compression with bending a.s.o.

Taking into account the proportion between dimensions (length,

width and depth), also the mechanical behavior as it was stated before, we

can mention the following types of elements:

axial long members (bar-shaped) having usually the ratio 1/5;

bidimensional members (plates and slabs);

tridimensional elements (blocks) as abutments, dams, retaining

walls, foundations.

In the case of bars, one of the dimensions, the length, prevails over

the other two. The length magnitude is greater than the cross-sectional

dimensions, usually 1/h > 5. Beam-gaped elements, frame girders, vertical

and inclined columns, truss elements, tie-rods, arches belong to this

21

called threads, ropes or cables and are able to take only stretching forces.

Characteristic elements of the bar-shaped members are: the longitudinal

axis, the shape and dimensions of the cross-section (Fig. 2.1).

Fig. 2.1

Plates and slabs have two dimensions (length and of the same range

width) of magnitude, greater than the third dimension (depth). The locus of

all depth midpoints of a plate (may be flat or curved shaped) is called the

average surface (Fig. 2.2) depending on the shape of the median (average)

surface, plates can be plane, usually called slabs, or shells (with simple or

double curvature). The depth is measured normally to the average surface

of the plate. Structures or elements like diaphragms, shear-walls, greatpanel buildings or cellular systems belong to this category.

Many structures made out of elements with longitudinal straight

axis and are assembled by means of joints, hinges as it is seen in Figures

2.5 and 2.6. The load transmission to the surrounding medium is made

means of plane or space support which can be rollers, hinges or pins,

clamping systems and other type of restraints or supports.

Fig. 2.2

22

these structures are stable systems.

A part of thin space structures, conceived according to the natural

stress distribution laws, having a very small depth as compared with

overall dimensions whose stiffness in bending is negligible, are denoted

shells. Bending moments in shells do not appear for a certain design

loading corresponding to the shell configuration and to a given support

positioning. Cupolas, geodesic domes, aerial and underground

containments, cable-stayed roofs, cooling towers belong mostly to the shell

type (Fig. 2.3 and 2.4).

Fig. 2.3

Fig. 2.4

dimensions are of the same order of magnitude. To this class belong

foundation blocks for isolated columns, abutments, earth and reinforced

concrete dams, a.s.o.

23

By assembling in different ways bars, plates and blocks, one

obtains a wide range of structural types. A very accurate and precise

classification of structures is not possible and obviously not necessary. In

what follows we try very briefly to review some structural types frequently

used in buildings and other constructions.

Straight beams - stressed mostly in bending, with one bay or

multi-spanned, employed in floors, roofs, bridges systems (in connection

with plates), foundation elements, a.s.o. These beams may be (Fig. 2.5):

simply supported with one span (a) with or without

cantilever; (b) cantilevers; (c) double hinged; (d) fixed

at both ends; (e) fixed-hinged beams;

Fig. 2.5

24

Fig. 2.6

25

systems (with cantilevers and hinges) designed to form

a statically determinate structure; (b) continuous girders

which are statically indeterminate;

space girders submitted to normal actions (h) to the

plane containing the longitudinal axis;

network girders disposed after two directions (i) and

acted normal to their plane;

Broken shaped systems frames are structures made of two or

more straight or curvilinear bars, rigidly connected or hinged in joints.

These structures can be statically determinate systems or redundant ones.

Several such systems are displayed in Figure 2.6. The frame shown in

Figure 2.6 is called one-bay portal frame, the structure drawn in Figure

2.6.d is a multi-bay framework; in Figure 2.6.e is represented a multi-story

one-bay frame; further are given examples of structures with curved axis

and tie-rods (g), a beam-frame called Vierendeel (h).

Fig. 2.7

Arches are structures with curved axis, loaded with forces

contained in their plane and characterized by the developing in supports of

horizontal components of the reactive forces (thrusts), independent of the

size of loading. They are applied as frameworks for social-cultural

constructions, roofs, bridges, arch-dams, etc. In Figure 2.7 are presented

examples of plane arches with different type of supporting.

26

Fig.2.8

arches with vertical posts having three distinct set-ups indicated in Figure

2.8: with lower roads-way (a);

with upper road-way (b) and

middle road-way (c).

Cable-stayed structures

roofs having systems of highstrength cables which allow the

achievement of constructions with

very large spans, up to hundred

meters (Fig. 2.9 and 2.10).

Truss systems are

geometrically

indeformable

structures with elements pinned at

joints and taking over only axial

forces; several types of truss

systems are shown in Figure 2.11.

Shear wall and mixed

structures form a distinct class of

structural

systems

including

frame-diaphragms; one of them is

shown in Figure 2.12.

27

Fig. 2.9

28

Fig. 2.10

29

Fig. 2.11

Fig. 2.12

30

(in Romanian they are called cedari de reazem) the system of equations

becomes:

n

k 1

ik

X k ip 1 i Rki k

(12.33)

where i are the settlements on the direction of the unknowns Xi., are the

same calculated settlements on the direction of the reaction components (if

any), Rki are the fictitious reaction components given by the virtual forces

acting in i.

Following applications will make clear the practical use of the

above given expressions.

These steps are the following:

1 The determination of the degree of static indeterminacy

(redundancy).

2 The choice of the primary system.

3 Plotting of moment diagrams on the primary system.

4 Computation of the lateral and main coefficients and of free

terms.

5 Checking of coefficients by means of superimposed diagrams.

6 Solution of the equations system, expressed in algebraic form or

in matrix formulation.

7 Superposition of the effects or the use of wellknown expressions

for drawing the final diagrams of the internal forces.

8 Checking of these diagrams by means of mechanical equilibrium

equations, and/or of the conditions of deformation (geometrical)

compatibility.

This can be done either by means of the open tree procedure by

removing the supplementary restraints, or by applying the expression

(12.3). We recall that if ns < 0, the system is statically indeterminate.

Another formula is:

194

n s 3k s

(12.34)

where k is the number of closed outlines and s the number of the missing

restraints.

The primary system in most cases is a statically determinate

structure or set of structures. Some examples in this respect are relevant.

For instance, the structure shown in Figure 12.12.a can be subdivided (or

separated) in two substructures (I and II), having three internal restraints

according to the deflection continuity in D and a number of 3 x 2 = 6

external restraints corresponding, to the pins A, B and C. Therefore, using

the open tree procedure, we get:

ns = 3x2 - (3 + 6) = -3

Fig. 12.12

The system is statically indeterminate to the third degree. One of

the possible primary systems is represented in Figure 12.12.a. The

redundant unknowns are the horizontal reaction X1 in A, and the moments

X2, X3 in the respective sections.

The continuous beam in Figure 12.13.a, having five external links

(simple restraints) is statically indeterminate to the second degree, since

ns = 3x1 - (0 + 5) = -2

A frequently adopted primary system for this beam is illustrated in

Figure 12.13.b, represented by a chain of simply supported beams (with or

195

the redundant unknowns.

Another example of selecting primary systems is represented by

the two stories and one bay frame, shown in Figure 12.14.a. The system

has two closed outlines (without inner hinges), therefore it is 3k times

statically indeterminate, where k is the number of the closed outlines.

3xk = 3x2 = 6

Fig. 12.13

In the force method the frame in Figure 12.14 is statically

indeterminate to the sixth degree. A corresponding primary system to this

frame is presented in Figure 12.14.b. In this case, the original frame is

separated by a cut in the axis of symmetry yielding to two open trees.

Fig. 12.14

As it will be shown later, the choice of the primary system must be

made in a convenient way, in order to obtain as many as possible

196

equations.

The primary system is successively subjected to the unitary actions

of the unknowns and the moment diagrams M i are plotted, using the

already known sign conventions. An example is given in Figures 12.16.

cf. The diagram Mp due to external forces is also drawn.

Terms

The coefficients of the flexibility matrix ik, and the free terms ip

are usually computed for the structures made from straight bars by means

of Mohr-Maxwell's relation. The available diagrams are M i and Mp

previously

Fig. 12.15

197

contribution of bending moments is taken into account. This is valid for

frames made from bars with a ratio /h> 5.

Before solving the system of equations, a checking of the

coefficient computation is advisable. To this aim the diagram Ms produced

by the simultaneous action of all unknowns Xi = 1 will be constructed. The

checking of lateral and main coefficients is made as follows:

on a row:

n

M i M 1 M 2 M n

M M

dx i s dx (12.35.a)

EI

EI

k 1

k 1

is ik

k 1

must be equal:

n

k 1

ik

i1 i 2 in

(12.35.b)

For example,

first row (i = 1):

1s 11 12 1n

(12.35.c)

2 s 21 22 2 n

(12.35.d)

and so forth.

on a column:

n

MkMs

dx

EI

k 1

(12.36.a)

1k 2 k nkn

(12.36.b)

sk

must be equal to

n

i 1

ik

198

For example,

first column (k = 1):

s1 11 21 n1

(12.36.c)

s 2 12 22 n 2

(12.36.d)

and so forth.

A general checking of these coefficients is done by means of the

n

i 1

is

M sM s

dx

EI

k 1

is ss

i 1

(12.37)

effects of unitary actions:

n

i 1

is

sp

MsMs

dx

EI

(12.38)

coefficients in the system of equations of the force method.

As it was seen in Section 12.6, a way of determining solutions to

the system of canonical equations is the matrix procedure. The vector {Xi}

is given by the relation (12.28).

Another way of obtaining the redundant unknowns is the wellknown procedure of solving a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. Once

the values of the vector {Xi} are determined, one can proceed to the next

step, the drawing of the final diagrams of internal forces.

199

In order to draw the final diagrams of the internal forces (M, T, N)

we can use two ways, leading actually to the same result:

Superimposing the effect of forces, as it has been shown in a

previous section. In the case of the diagram M, this is facilitated by the

existence of the already plotted diagrams Mi and Mp. Multiplying the

values of the ordinates M i by the values of the redundant forces and

adding those given by the diagram Mp we obtain:

M z x M p M 1 X 1 M 2 X 2 M n X n

(12.39)

T y x T p T1 X 1 T2 X 2 Tn X n

(12.40)

N x x N p N1 X 1 N 2 X 2 N n X n

(12.41)

An alternative way consists in obtaining the values of the shear and

axial forces from the equilibrium equations at joints.

Writing straightly the expressions of internal forces given by

loading and forces Xi, defined in the cross sections of the structure.

using the equations of force projection:

xi

0,

yi

(12.42.a)

n

M

k 1

ki

(12.42.b)

where i are the neighboring joints and k the joint whose state of

equilibrium is checked.

200

converting the structure into an unstable system with one degree of

freedom.

By means of compatibility conditions of strains, computing the

displacements on the direction of the unknowns Xi. Obviously this

magnitude of the displacement must be equal to zero since it is computed

after the direction of a restraint:

X i

M fin M X i

EI

dx

(12.43)

Means of the Force Method

In the aim of simplifying the number of terms in the equation of

condition in the force method, a set of procedures is sometimes used.

These procedures take into account the properties of geometrical, elastical

and restraining symmetry, thus leading to the vanishing of some lateral

coefficients, also to the decrease of the number of the redundant unknowns.

Among the most useful procedures which enable the reduction of the

number of elements in the flexibility matrix [L] of the system, we count:

the use of the symmetry and antisymmetry,

the procedure of half-structures,

the grouping of unknowns,

the transfer of the unknowns in the elastic center,

the use of some unstable primary systems in equilibrium.

201

Due to the symmetry of the structure, some simplifications in the

equations written in the force method will take place. This can be observed

in the next example.

Fig. 12.16

202

Consider the one bay and one story portal frame displayed in

Figure 12.16.a. It is symmetrical in what concerns its geometry, support

distribution and stiffness. At the same time, the loading is symmetrically

distributed over the girder. The primary system is selected as in Figure

12.16.b with redundant unknowns X1, X2, X3 located in the axis of

symmetry.

The unit diagrams are plotted in Figures 12.16.ce and the diagram

given by external loads is drawn in Figure 12.16.f.

The system of equations in the force method is:

11 X 1 12 X 2 13 X 3 1 p 0

21 X 2 22 X 2 23 X 3 2 p 0

X X X 0

32

2

33

3

3p

31 1

(12.44)

and antisymmetrical unknowns are zero. In this case, X1 and X2 yield also

symmetrical diagrams, whereas X2 yields antisymmetrical diagram. So, we

have:

12 21 23 32 0

(12.45)

free term 2p vanishes too.

In this way, the equations system (12.44) will be:

11 X 1 12 X 2 1 p 0

22 X 2 2 p 0

X X 0

33

3

3p

31 1

(12.46)

unknowns only, while the other - in the case the second equation in (12.46)

containing antisymmetrical unknowns only.

203

frame to the sixth degree shown in Figure 12.17. In this case one can

observe that the reduction of the number of coefficients in the force

method is more significant. The system of equations with a 6x6 flexibility

matrix divides in two subsystems with four equations and four unknowns,

respectively with two equations and two unknowns, which can be solved

more rapidly.

204

Fig. 12.17

In this way, the determination of the magnitudes of Xi implies a

small amount of computation:

11 X 1 12 X 2 13 X 3 14 X 4 15 X 5 16 X 6 1 p 0

X X X X X X 0

22

2

23

3

24

4

25

5

26

6

2p

21 1

31 X 1 32 X 2 33 X 3 34 X 4 35 X 5 36 X 6 3 p 0

(12.47)

X X X X X X 0

42

2

43

3

44

4

45

5

46

6

4p

41 1

51 X 1 52 X 2 53 X 3 54 X 4 55 X 5 56 X 6 5 p 0

X X X X X X 0

62

2

63

3

64

4

65

5

66

6

6p

61 1

Symmetrical

Unknowns:

(12.48)

Antysimmetrical X2, X5

12 15 35 32 42 45 62 65 0

also the reciprocal coefficients are zero, since i k = k i .

The subsystem with symmetrical unknowns is:

205

(12.49)

11 X 1 13 X 3 14 X 4

X X X

33

3

34

4

31 1

X X X

43

3

44

4

41 1

61 X 1 63 X 3 64 X 4

16 X 6 1 p 0

36 X 6 3 p 0

(12.50)

46 X 6 4 p 0

66 X 6 6 p 0

22 X 2 25 X 5 2 p 0

X X 0

55

5

5p

52 2

(12.51)

The half-structures are conventional structures based as previously

on the structural and mechanical symmetry and antisymmetry. They are

obtained by cutting the given system in the axis of symmetry and by

inserting in these sections the restraints corresponding to the actual

situation of strain. The supports or restraints introduced in these points for

the two substructures replace the effect of the removed part and are

intended to create an identical situation to the actual structure.

For instance, when along the direction of the axis of symmetry

there is a column, it will be converted into the half-structure - in the case

of antisymmetrical loading - into a member with a halved bending rigidity

EI. In this direction, let us consider four characteristic cases.

CASE No. 1 - A symmetrically loaded structure, at which the

axis of symmetry cuts a bar. This is the case of the one bay portal frame

with one storey in Figure12.18.a. The point A, situated on the axis of

symmetry after the deformation due to external forces reaches the position

A, hence the following displacements appear:

the horizontal displacement u = 0;

the vertical deflection v 0, (v = AA");

the slope of the girder in that point = 0.

206

be obtained by replacing the removed

part by a guide support (fixing) in A as it

is shown in Figure 12.18.b, permitting

only a vertical translation.

The corresponding unknowns

will be for this half-structure X1 and X2

that is the axial force and the bending

moment in A (Fig. 12.18.c).

In this way, the half-structure will

be indeterminate to the second degree. If

the internal force diagrams are drawn on

the left subsystem, this will be

transferred symmetrically over to the

right one.

Fig. 12.18

We suggest solving the

frame in Figure 12.18 by means of this

procedure, finally constructing the

diagrams of the internal forces.

CASE No. 2 - A

symmetrically loaded structure at which

the axis of symmetry cuts a column.

Consider the two bay frames with one

story shown in Figure 12.19. Point A has

no deflection in any direction. Therefore

u = v = = 0.

In this way point A behaves like a fixing

restraint, resulting the half-structure

shown in Figure 12.19.b. The primary

207

Fig. 12.19

to a statically indeterminate one to third degree.

Like in the previous case, the results of the statical analysis are

transposed over the other half-structure.

Fig.12.20

Fig. 12.21

CASE No. 3 - An antisymmetrically loaded structure at

which the axis of symmetry cuts a bar.

Consider the one bay frame (Fig.12.20.a) with one storey

loaded with two forces P/2 acting on the horizontal direction.

Constructing the deflection of the structure, we can state that point A

reaches in A', having following elastic displacements (Fig.12.20.a):

u 0, v = 0, 0.

Therefore in A is introduced a roller according to the above

mentioned deflections. The primary system is indeterminate to the first

degree (Figs.12.20.c and 12.20.d).

208

the axis of symmetry cuts a column. In this situation the moment of inertia

of the column for the half-structure is Is/2. Therefore, the replacing system

shown in Figure 12.21 is a one bay portal frame which can be easily solved.

Fig. 12.22

In the last two cases, the diagrams of internal forces over the halfstructure will be: N and M antisymmetrical diagrams and T symmetrical

diagram.

For the frame shown in Figure 12.22 we meet all the four studied

cases. The loading can be decomposed in a symmetrical set of forces and

in an antisymmetrical one (Figs. 12.22.b and 12.22.c). The equivalent halfstructures are given in Figures 12.22.d and 12.22.e. The final diagrams of

the internal forces are obtained by superimposing the diagrams from the

symmetrically loaded structure to those from the antisymmetrically loaded

one.

209

Fig. 12.23

12.9.3 The Grouping of Unknowns

The procedure using the grouping of the unknowns leads also to the

decrease of the number of elements in the flexibility matrix, consequently

to the simplification of the equation system in the force method. In this

situation we can also obtain the reduction of some lateral coefficients, for

any kind of loading if the structure enjoys geometrical and elastic

symmetry.

The procedure consists in the replacement of the unknowns (which

are located in symmetrical sections) by pairs of symmetrical and

antisymmetrical forces this leading to the possibility of drawing

symmetrical and antisymmetrical unit diagrams. In this way the equations

system will be separated in two independent systems, namely:

one system corresponding to the symmetrical unknowns,

another system corresponding to the antisymmetrical unknowns.

The lateral coefficients linking the replacing (grouped) symmetrical

and antisymmetrical unknowns become zero such as will be seen in the

following application.

Consider the structure in Figure 12.23 which is a symmetric

framework. The original unknowns Xi (i = 1, 2... 6) considered in the

symmetric sections A and B of the primary system (Fig.12.23.b) are grouped

in symmetrical and antisymmetrical forces Yi. (Fig.12.23.c). Therefore,

instead of six simple unknowns Xi six pairs of unknowns Yi are considered.

210

We notice that the unknowns Y1, Y2, Y3 are symmetrical and Y4, Y5,

Y6 are symmetrical.

X1 = Y1+Y4

X2 = Y2 +Y5

X3 = Y3 + Y6

X4 = Y1 - Y4

X5 = Y2 - Y5

X6 = Y3 - Y6

Symmetrical:

(12.52)

Y1 Y2 Y3

Antisymmetrical: Y4 Y5 Y6

(12.53)

new selected unknowns Yi. The flexibility matrix is a symmetrical one.

11Y1 12Y2 13Y3 14Y4 15Y5 16Y6 1 p 0

Y Y Y Y Y Y 0

22 2

23 3

24 4

25 5

26 6

2p

21 1

31Y1 32Y2 33Y3 34Y4 35Y5 36Y6 3 p 0

Y Y Y Y Y Y 0

42 2

43 3

44 4

45 5

46 6

4p

41 1

51Y1 52Y2 53Y3 54Y4 55Y5 56Y6 5 p 0

Y Y Y Y Y Y 0

62 2

63 3

64 4

65 5

66 6

6p

61 1

(12.54)

where

14 25 36 35 24 26 16 15 34 0 (12.55)

One can ascertain that two independent subsystems of equations are

obtained:

11Y1 12Y2 13Y3 1 p 0

Y Y Y 0

22 2

23 3

2p

21 1

31Y1 32Y2 33Y3 3 p 0

Y Y Y 0

45 5

46 6

4p

44 4

54Y4 55Y5 56Y6 5 p 0

Y Y Y 0

65 5

66 6

6p

64 4

211

(12.56)

W i

li

Ii

(12.59)

Fig. 12.24

M 1M 3

y 1 dx

dx

ydW S ox (12.60)

I

I

where Sox is the static moment of the elastic loads against x axis,

M M

x 1

E 23 2 3 dx

dx xdW S oy

(12.61)

I

I

where Soy is the static moment of the elastic forces against y axis,

M M

yx

E 12 1 2 dx

dx I xy

(12.62)

I

I

where Ixy is the product of inertia of elastic loads,

M 1M 1

y2

E 11

dx

dx y 2 dW I x

(12.63)

I

I

where Ix is the axial moment of inertia of elastic loads against the x axis,

M M

x2

E 22 2 2 dx dx x 2 dW I y

(12.64)

I

I

where Iy is the axial moment of inertia of elastic loads against the y axis,

M M

1

E 33 3 3 dx dx dW W

(12.65)

I

I

where W is the resultant of elastic loads.

E 13

213

We know that the static moments against the main axes of inertia

passing through the centroid are zero.

The coordinates of the centroid are computed with the relations:

xG

Ax

A

i

yG

A y

A

i

(12.66)

vanishing of the statical moments Sox, and Soy, respectively, hence the

elastic center is just the centroid of elastic loads. The coordinates of this

elastic center are therefore computed with the expressions of a centroid:

W y

W

W y

d

W

S ox 13

W

33

S oy

W

23

33

(12.67)

coefficients 13 and 23 vanish, therefore the equations system becomes:

11' X 1 12' X 2 '1 p 0

'

'

'

21 X 1 22 X 2 2 p 0

' X ' 0

3p

33 3

(12.68)

For structures provided with many closed outlines, also for two

fixed end arches, it may be useful to vanish also the coefficient 12' and the

similar ones. In this case, the centrifugal product of inertia I has to become

zero and consequently the axes OX, OY must be main axes of inertia. The

respective directions are determined by means of the relation:

tg 2

2 I xy

Ix Iy

2 12

11 22

(12.69)

In this way the unknowns X1 and X2 will be directed after the main

axes of inertia, such obtaining the vanishing of all lateral coefficients:

214

11' X 1 '1 p 0

'

'

22 X 2 2 p 0

' X ' 0

3p

33 3

(12.70)

Fig. 12.25

When the structure has an axis of symmetry, this is a principal

direction too. If not, we give up in vanishing the last lateral coefficient 12

since the computation of the coefficients against the rotated axis implies

cumbersome computation. The practical determination of the elastic center

by means of the elastic loads can be made directly, considering these loads

as external forces and their centroid will be established in a very easy

manner, without resorting to any kind of formula.

215

For instance, for the frame displayed in Figure 12.25 one can

consider two loading situations: first, acted on by the vertical elastic loads,

such resulting the coordinate c, secondly acted on by the same elastic loads

but acting horizontally, such resulting the ordinate d (Figs.12.25.a and

12.25.b).

The rigid bar can be attached by the free ends of the two parts of

the primary system (Figs.12.25.c and 12.25.d):

W c

W

i i

i

W c

W

i i

t

1

0 2 2 3 0

I 2

I

c 2I

1 2 3

2I I

I

W d

W

i

W i

i

Ii

2

3 3 2 1 3

I 2 2I 2

d I

1 2 3

2I I

I

(12.71)

(12.72)

In the case of redundant structures having two or many axes of

symmetry and symmetrically distributed loads, we can consider as a

primary system an unstable, but balanced one. This will be possible for that

situation when the redundant unknowns Xi and the external forces are in

static equilibrium.

Fig. 12.26

The following application will clear this procedure, Figure 12.26.a

shows a rectangular closed outline (without hinges) having two axes of

symmetry end being statically indeterminate to the third degree. A

kinematic (unstable) primary system like that presented in Figure 12.26.b

216

has pins at the corners and is also symmetrically loaded. In this case the

unknown is the continuity moment X1.

In the same way, the hexagonal structure, forming also a closed

outline, which is symmetrical against the center of the circumscribed circle

(Fig.12.27.a)

and

again

symmetrically loaded, can be

replaced in the force method by an

unstable primary system in

equilibrium (Fig. 12.27.b).

In both cases, we can write

only one compatibility equation

for the deflections, the redundant

unknown being X1.

Fig. 12.27

In this way, the elastic equation of displacements is

11 X 1 1 p 0

(12.73)

drawing diagrams M 1 and MP; we solve then for X1:

X1

1 p

11

(12.74)

superimposing the effects - equation (12.39).

In the case of the rectangular closed shown in Figure 12.26 the

coefficients are computed by means of the Mohr-Vereshtchagyn procedure

as follows:

11

1 p

M 1M 1

2

1 1 1 2 1 6 2

EI

EI

EI

M 1M p

EI

3 p 32

2 2 p 12

2 p 22

1 1

2 1

EI 3 8

3 8

2 EI

217

Fig. 12.28

In this way the magnitude of X1 will result:

X1

1 p

11

3 p 32 EI

p 2

2

2 EI 6 2

4

In the case of hexagonal closed frame shown in Figure 12.27,

the static analysis is made in similar manner:

11

1 p

M 1M 1

6

6R

1 R 1

EI

EI

EI

M 1M p

EI

6

PR R 1

3PR 2

2

1

EI

4 2 2

4 EI

hence:

X1

1 p

11

218

PR

8

X1

1 p

11

PR

8

M2

PR PR PR

4

8

8

Fig. 12.29

12.10.1 The Flexibility Matrix in Bending

In order to write elastic conditions for solving indeterminate simple

beams, let us express the end rotations of the deflected shape of a simple

straight beam, that is, let us establish the elements of the flexibility matrix

in bending.

We proceed by expressing separately these elements at the unit

actions M' = 1 and M" = 1, and at the action of the external loads (Fig.

12.30). The corresponding rotations (slopes) , , , , , are the

elements of the flexibility matrix and of the vector of rotations produced by

external loading at the ends of the simple beam. These parameters can be

computed by means of any method available in Structural Mechanics.

Afterwards we can use the superposition of effects. The vector of

end rotations {, }T can be expressed in terms of the flexibility

coefficients , , , and of the vector of slopes {, }T due to external

loads:

219

'

M ' '

'

''

'

'

'

'

M ''

(12.75.a)

or

' ' M ' M '' '

(12.75.b)

moment of inertia is variable, we must

use the general expressions of the end

rotations:

Fig. 12.30

'

'

'

M x x

1

dx 2

0

EI x

EI 0

''

''

M x x

1

dx 2

0

EI x

EI 0

' ''

'

I0 x'

dx

Ix

(12.76.a)

I0 2

x dx

Ix

M x x '

1

dx 2

EI x

EI 0

M p x x '

dx

EI x

''

220

I0

xx ' dx

Ix

M p x x

dx

EI x

(12.76b)

(12.76.c)

of the cross section) we have:

' ''

,

, '

m ' , ''

m ''

3EI 0

6 EI 0

6 EI 0

6 EI 0

'

''

6 EI 0

2 1 M ' m '

'' ''

1 2 M m

(12.77)

(12.78)

beam acted on by a uniformly

distributed force the loading factors,

will be:

6 EI 0 p 3

p 2

m m

24 EI 0

4

(12.79)

'

''

adoption of component elements at

which the material distribution follows

as such as possible much the variation

of the internal forces in the structure. In

order to satisfy this goal, also to avoid

the El concentration of the internal

forces in the neighborhood of joints,

bars with variable cross section on

certain parts or over the whole length

are used. The thickenings of the

elements over these parts are called

haunches. The elements of reinforced

concrete structures, but sometimes also

of the steel ones, are provided with

haunches. When the height of the cross

Fig. 12.31

section varies linearly, straight haunches

are obtained. When the height varies as a

parabola, the haunches are parabolic. The haunches are provided either at both

beam ends, or at one extremity only. The variation of the cross section height

can be also carried out on the whole length of the bar. The variation of the

221

steel strips according to the distribution of the internal force. The column

of the industrial halls provided with overhead-traveling cranes is designed

with tapered section.

Due to the variation of the cross section height, the moment of

inertia varies along the bar; in such a way the computation of the terms

(12.76) becomes more complicated. The displacements at elements with

variable moment of inertia are expressed in terms of the displacements of

the bar with constant section, by means of certain correcting coefficients.

The expressions of the correcting coefficients are derived considering the

tapered (hunched) beam and the moment diagrams produced by the action

of the end unit moments. In this way the displacements are:

'

''

c ' , ''

c ,

c

3EI 0

3EI 0

6 EI 0

c'

3

3

k'

I0 ' 2

3

x dx, c '' 3

Ix

I0

M p x ' dx

Ix

k ''

M p x ' dx

I0 2

x dx

Ix

I0

M p xdx

Ix

(12.80.a)

(12.80.b)

(12.80.c)

M p xdx

taking into account the shape and relative length of the haunch and for k'

and k" the type of loading too and are to be taken from the nomogram or

tables for continuous beams [1, 8], computed for different types of

haunches and loads in terms of Iv / I (Iv, is the length of the haunch - vut,

in Romanian - and I is the span length) and I0 / I (I0 is the reference

moment of inertia, usually the minimum one, and is the moment of inertia

at the support).

For symmetrical haunches the coefficients c, c" are equal. If the

loading is symmetrical, the coefficients k' and k" are also the same.

In what follows the magnitudes of the end rotations using the

method of conjugate beam (El=const.) (Fig. 12.31) will be derived.

222

0 ''

1

1

0 ''

EI

2 3

6 EI

0 ''

1

1 2

0 ''

EI

2 3

3EI

0 '

1

1

0 '

EI

2 3

6 EI

'

1 M p x '

x dx,

0 EI x

''

1 M p x

xdx

0 EI x

Application no. 1

Let us consider a fixed-end beam (Fig. 12.32), that is a beam whose

ends are completely fixed against rotation. Determine, by means of the

expressions yielding the slopes at the ends of a beam with a constant cross

section, the distribution of the internal forces.

''

''

''

''

''

M M

' '' M ' '' M '' '' ' 0

2 '

''

''

''

M M 0

''

'

''

''

''

''

M M

223

2 ' ''

'

'

' ''

''

''

M M 0

Fig. 12.32

2 ' ''

Fig. 12.33

the coefficients (12.77) and (12.79), the end-fixing moments will be

obtained, as follows:

224

M ' M ''

p 2

12

p p p 2

'

'

'' 1

M C M M M

2 2 2 2 4

24

2

The shape of the moment diagram is parabolic. Since M' < M", the

shear force results similar with the diagram at the simple beam.

Application no. 2

Let us consider a fixed-end and pinned beam (Fig. 12.33), with a

constant moment of inertia. Solve the beam and let draw the diagrams of

internal forces, using the general expressions of the end slopes.

''

'

''

M 0

M'

'

'

'

,

3EI

'

M'

V1

M'

or

T1 V1

V2

3

,

8

5 p

,

8

M max

p 3

24 EI

p 2

8

p p 5 p

,

2

8

8

T x0 V1 px0 0 x0

''

p p 3 p

2

8

8

V2

p p 3 p

2

8

8

T2 V2

px02 9 p 2

V1 x0

2

128

225

3 p

8

The same analysis carried out by means of the force method leads

to the same results.

Fig. 12.34

Moments

12.11.1 General Case

Continuous beams are encountered frequently in many practical

situations. They are statically indeterminate systems, the degree of

redundancy is given by the number of the intermediary supports (if the end

support is a fixing restraint this number becomes greater with one). The

statical analysis of these structures can be made either by means of the

226

the main steps involved in the analysis of continuous beams in the force

method will be given.

Fig. 12.35

A part of such a system is drawn in Figure 12.35. The primary

system consists of a chain or a set of simple beams with continuity

moments acting at end sections. The compatibility conditions refer to the

continuity of the deflected shape of the beam axis:

(12.81)

(12.82)

6 EI i

6 EI i 1

3EI i 3EI i 1

If I i 1 I i I i 1 , we select a reference moment of inertia /0, such

obtaining:

I0

I

I

M i 1 2 i 0 i i 1 0 M i 1 6 EI 0 i'',i i',i 1 0 (12.84)

Ii

I i 3EI i

I i 1

or

227

(12.85)

where:

'i i

I0

,

Ii

'i' i 1

I0

I i 1

(12.86)

6 EI 0 ''

6 Ai''

m ' i ,i ' ,

i

i

''

i

'

i 1

6 EI 0 '

6 Ai''

' i ,i 1 '

i 1

i 1

(12.87)

have the significance of loading factors for the simple supported beam.

They depend upon the type of loading and are tabulated in handbooks

dealing with the analysis of continuous beams [1, 6, 10]. A', and A", are

the reactions of the conjugate beam at the support i in the primary system.

The equation (12.85) is the relationship of the three moments, also

called the Clapeyron's equations.

For a continuous beam with a constant moment of inertia

(Ik = I0 = constant, I ' I i ) the Clapeyron's relationship becomes:

i M i 1 2 i i 1 M i i 1 M i 1 6 Ai'' Ai' 0

(12.88)

Figure 12.36 the above derived set of equations becomes:

mi'' k i' 'i mi' 1 k i'1 'i 1 0

(12.89)

where ci, ci", c i+1, ci+1, ki, ki+1 are correction factors for tapered beams

(in romanian grinzi cu vute), depending on the relative length of the

haunch and on the ratio Ii = I0.

Fig. 12.36

228

In the case of support settlements - cedri de reazeme -(Fig.

12.37), the condition (12.81) becomes:

Fig. 12.37

(12.90)

obtain:

M

i

i 1

2 i i 1 M i i 1 M i 1 mi'' i mi''1 i 1

y i 1 y i y i 1 y i

0

i

i 1

(12.91)

becomes:

i M i 1 2 i i 1 M i i 1 M i1 yi 1 yi

i

y i 1 y i

0 (12.92)

i 1

of Clapeyron for every internal support. If a terminal end is a fixed one, we

must add an extra equation, that is, as many times as the degree of

indeterminacy.

229

i M i 1 2 i i 1 M i i 1 M i1 yi 1 yi

i

y i 1 y i

0

i 1

(12.92)

of Clapeyron for every internal support. If a terminal end is a fixed one, we

must add an extra equation, that is, as many times as the degree of

indeterminacy.

The effect of temperature variation (gradient) occurs for an increase

or decrease of the temperature between the two sides of the element At

since the uniform free variation leads to no internal forces, the expansion

being possible not hindered by any restraint.

We observe that:

it M i i

230

t 0

dx

h

t i0 t i01

0 (12.93)

i M i 1 2 i i1 M i i1 M i 1 6 EI 0 t

h

h

i 1

i

231

232

There are many situations in which the intermediary supports

(rollers) lie on a deformable soil or on the water - pontoane - therefore the

vertical displacements have to be taken into account.

Fig. 12.38

The Figure 12.38 presents such a case. Depending on the

supporting medium, the proportionality between the applied forces and the

corresponding deflections is specified by a spring constant or an

embedment coefficient like in Winkler's assumption. In this case we have

for the three neighboring supports:

yi 1 k i 1 Vi 1 , y i k i Vi , y i 1 k i 1 Vi 1

(12.94)

M i 2 M i 1 M i M i 1

i 1

i

M M i M i 1 M i

Vi Vi 0 i 1

i

i 1

M M i 1 M i 2 M i 1

Vi 1 Vi 01 i

i 1

i2

Vy i 1 Vi 01

233

(12.95)

From the above expressions we see that, in this case, a series of five

moments ( M i 2 , M i 1 , M i , M i 1 , M i 2 ) is involved.

Writing the relationship of the three moments with the center in i,

for the case of supports settlements - equation (12.92) - replacing the

deflections y i 1 , y i , y i 1 by the expressions (12.94) and taking into

account the relations (12.95) we obtain a relationship relating the

neighboring five moments M i 2 , M i 1 , M i , M i 1 , M i 2 :

K 1 M i 2 K 2 M i 1 K 3 M i K 4 M i 1 K 5 M i 2 K 6 0

(12.96)

This is the equation of five moments and will be written for all the

intermediary rollers of the continuous beam on elastic supports.

y i 1 f i 1 M i 2 , M i 1 , M i

y i f i M i 1 , M i , M i 1

y i 1 f i 1 M i , M i 1 , M i 2

(12.97)

Application no. 1

Draw the diagrams of internal forces for the continuous beam

shown in Figure 12.39. The stiffness El is constant.

The system is statically indeterminate to the first degree, having

one intermediary simple support. The equation of the three moments is

applied once with the center at 2. Hence it results:

M 1 2 M 2 M 3 6 A2 0 4 M 2 6 A2 0

and

1 2 p 2

p 3

A2 2

2 3 8

12

M2 6

V1 V3

A2

p 2

4

8

p p 2 3 p

2

8

8

234

Fig. 12.39

T x0 V1 px0 0 x0

3

8

M max V1 x0

T2left

5 p

,

8

T2right

5 p

8

px02 9 p 2

2

128

V2

5 p 5 p

1.25 p

8

8

Application no. 2

Draw the diagrams of the internal forces for the continuous beam

shown in Figure 12.40. The stiffness El is constant.

The structure is indeterminate to the first degree. We can use for

solving the system either the equation of the three moments with the center

in the intermediary support or the compatibility condition in the same

point, expressed by means of the force method.

235

Fig. 12.40

236

APPENDIX

The tables in this appendix are useful in identifying and converting units

between the SI and U.S. systems

Table I - Units Commonly Used in Engineering Mechanics

Quantity

force

mass

length

time

moment of force

work or energy

pressure or stress

velocity

angular velocity

acceleration

angular acceleration

mass moment of inertia

moment of inertia of area

momentum

moment of momentum

impulse

angular impulse

mass density

specific weight

power

frequency

SI (Standard International

or 'Metric') Unit

newton (N)

kilogram (kg)

meter (m)

second (s)

Nm

joule (J)(= N m)

pascal (Pa)(= N/m2)

m/s

rad/s

m/s2

rad/s2

kg m2

m4

kg m/s

kg m2/s

Ns

Nms

kg/m3

N/m3

watt (W)(= J/s)

hertz (Hz)(= 1 cycle/s)

237

U.S. Unit

pound (lb)

slug

foot (ft)

second (sec)

lb-ft

ft-lb

lb/ft2

ft/sec

rad/sec

ft/sec2

rad/sec1

slug-ft2

ft"

slug-ft/sec

slug-ft2/sec

lb-sec

lb-ft-sec

slug/f t3

lb/ft3

ft-lb/sec

Hz (same)

To Convert From

To

meter (m)

m

m

meter' (m2)

m2

meter3 (m3)

m3

Velocity

meter/second (m/s)

feet/second (ft/sec)

feet/minute (ft/min)

m/s

knot (nautical mi/hr)

m/s

mile/hour (mi/hr)

m/s

mile/hour (mi/hr)

kilometer/hour (km/h)

Acceleration

feet/second' (ft/sec)

meter/second' (m/s2)

inch/second' (in./sec)

m/s2

Mass

2

slug (1b-sec /ft)

kg

Force

pound (lb) or

pound-force (lbf)

newton (N)

Density

slug/foot3 (slug/ft3)

kg/m3

Energy, work, or

joule (J)

moment of force footpound or pound-foot

(ft-lb)

(1b-ft)

or newton meter (Nm)

foot (ft)

inch (in.)

statute mile (mi)

foot2 (ft2)

inch' (in.3)

foot3 (ft3)

inch' (in.3)

238

Multiply

By

0.30480

0.025400

1609.3

0.092903

6.4516x10-4

0.028317

1.6387x10-5

0.30480

0.0050800

0.51444

0.44704

1.6093

0.30480

0.025400

14.594

4.4482

515.38

1.3558

Table II (continued)

To Convert From

To

Power

foot-pound/second (ft-lb/sec)

watt (W)

horsepower (hp) (550 ft-lb/sec)

W

Stress, pressure

N/m2 (or Pa)

pound/inch'(1b/in.2 or psi)

pound/foot2(lb/ft2)

N/m2 (or Pa)

Mass moment of inertia

2

slug-foot'(slug-ft or lb-ft-sec2)

kg m2

Momentum (or linear momentum)

slug-foot/second(slug-ft/sec)

kg m/s

Impulse (or linear impulse)

pound-second(lb-sec)

N s (or kg m/s)

Moment of momentum (or angular momentum)

slug-foot2/second(slug-ft2/sec) kg m2s

Angular impulse

pound-foot-second(lb-ft-sec)

N m s (or kg m2/s)

239

Multiply

By

1.3558

745.70

6894.8

47.880

1.3558

4.4482

4.4482

1.3558

1.3558

240

REFERENCES

1.

2.

Amariei, C. I.

a. o.

Strat, Lucian

3.

McGill, King

W.

4.

5.

Strat, Lucian

Chajes,

Alexander

Golden, L.

D.

6.

7.

Torroja,

Eduardo

8.

Posea, N. a. o

9.

Theocaris,

P.S. a. o

Hibbeler, C.

R.

L eet, M. K

10.

11.

12.

14.

Petcu,

Valeriu

Hanganu, S.

a. o.

Ilie, Gh. a. o.

15.

Banut, Valeriu

13.

I, Iasi, I.P. "Gh. Asachi" 1990

-Mecanica si proiectarea structurilor simple,

Iasi, I.P. "Gh. Asachi" 1980

- Engineering Mechanics: Statics and an

Introduction to Dynamics, Georgia Institute of

Technology PWS Publishers, U.S.A. 1985

- Structuri, Iasi, I. P. "Gh. Asachi" 1980

- Structural Analysis, Univ. of Massachussets,

Prentice-Hall 1982

- Static and Strength of Materials, Columbus,

Ohio, Univ. of Dayton, Ch. E. Merrill

Publishing Company 1970

- L e s s t r u c t u r e s a r h i t e c t u r al e s . L e ur

conception. Leur ralisation, Paris, Ed. Eyrolles

1969

- Mecanic aplicat pentru ingineri,

Bucuresti, Ed. Tehnica 1984

-Analiza experimental a tensiunilor,

Bucuresti, Ed. Tehnica 1976

- Structural Analysis, New York,

MacMillan Publishing Company 1988

-Fundamentals of Structural Analysis, New

York, MacMillan Publishing Company

1988

- Structural Analysis. Lecture Notes I,

Bucuresti, Civ. Engng. Div. 1992

-Mecanica constructiilor, Bucuresti, Ed.

Didactics si Pedagogic6 1975

- Mecanica constructiilor, Bucuresti,

Ed. Tehnica 1987

- Calculul neliniar al structurilor, Bucuresti,

Ed. Tehnic 1981

241

for Students, Iasi, "Gh.Asachi" Technical

Univ. of Iasi 1994

- Statica constructiilor. Structuri

17. Amariei, C. I.

static determinate. Lucrari. Vol. I.1, Iasi, I.

a. o.

P. "Gh. Asachi" 1986

- Statica constructiilor. Lucrari practice

18. Amariei, C. I.

pentru studenti, Iasi, I. P. "Gh. Asachi" 1986

a. o.

19. Amariei, C. I.

- Statica constructiilor. Structuri static

a. o.

nedeterminate. Lucrari. Vol. 11.1, Iasi, I. P.

"Gh. Asachi" 1987

20. Dumitras, Al. a. - Probleme de statica constructiilor. Partea I,

Iasi, I. P. "Gh. Asachi" 1975

o.

21. Dumitras, Al. a. - Probleme de statica constructiilor. Partea

o.

II, Iasi, I. P. "Gh. Asachi" 1976

22. Amariei, C. I.

- Statica constructiilor. Vol. I, Iasi, I. P.

a. o.

"Gh.Asachi" 1973

23. Amariei, C. I.

- Statica constructiilor. Structuri static

a. o.

nedeterminate, Iasi, I. P. "Gh. Asachi" 1981

24. Massonnet, Ch. - Calculul structurilor la calculatoare

electronice, Bucuresti, Ed. Tehnic6 1974

a.o

- Metode numerice si matriceale in

25. Wang, Ping

mecanica constructiilor, Bucuresti, Ed.

Chun

Tehnica 1970

- Statica constructiilor, Bucuresti, Ed.

26. Rautu, S.

Didactica si Pedagogica 1972

Banut, V

16. Strat,

Lucian

242

Rezumat

facultatilor de constructii de la sectiile de studiu in limba engleza, dar

ne place s speram ca utilitatea celor prezentate aici vor fi apreciate si

de specialistii din proiectare, cercetare si chiar din executie.

Scopul volumului de fats s-a dorit a fi, in primul rand, o

prezentare sintetica a principiilor si procedurilor de analiza a

structurilor din bare supuse actiunilor statice in domeniul liniar de

comportare. Din motive independente de vointa autorilor in volumul

de fats sunt prezentate metodele de analiza a structurilor static

determinate curent intalnite, iar din domeniul structurilor static

nedeterminate, numai metoda fortelor, celelalte aspecte necuprinse in

carte urmand a face obiectul celui de-al doilea volum. Explicatiile

teoretice au ca suport aproape intotdeauna aplicatii semnificative,

credem noi, scopului urmarit, mentionand ca suntem deschisi

eventualelor sugestii, propuneri si critici in vederea perfectionarii

manualului.

Interesul elaborarii unei astfel de lucrari intr-o limn de

circulatie internationals este evident. Ca vorbitori ai unei limbi latine,

suntem constienti de prezenta inerentelor erori si de faptul Ca unele

exprimari ar fi putut fi mai rafinate, de aceea indraznim s apelarn la

clementa cititorilor.

Dupa cum am mentionat, domeniul de adresabilitate a lucrarii

nu se limiteaza strict la studentii anilor II si Ill de studiu, ci se doreste

a fi un instrument util si cadrelor didactice care predau aceasta

discipline, dar si celor interesati in cunoasterea terminologiei de

specialitate din domeniul Mecanicii constructiilor, acoperind in acest

sens, in Romania, un domeniu de studiu in care exists carente

bibliografice de acest gen.

243

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